Yuya je bio moćni egipatski dvorjanin tijekom XVIII dinastije u Egiptu (oko 1390 pne). Bio je oženjen Tjuyu, egipatskom plemkinjom povezanom sa kraljevskom obitelji, koji su obnašali visoke dužnosti u državnim i vjerskim poslovima. Vjeruje se da je umro oko 1374 BC u srednjim pedesetim godinama.


Akhmim was known in Ancient Egypt as Ipu, Apu or Khent-min. It was the capital of the ninth (Chemmite) nome of Upper Egypt. The city is a suggested hometown for Yuya, the official of Tuthmosis IV and Amenhotep III. The ithyphallic Min (whom the Greeks identified with Pan) was worshipped here as "the strong Horus." Herodotus mentions the temple dedicated to Perseus and asserts that Chemmis was remarkable for the celebration of games in honor of that hero, after the manner of the Greeks, at which prizes were given; as a matter of fact some representations are known of Nubians and people of Punt (southern coastal Sudan and the Eritrean coast) clambering up poles before the god Min. Herodotus perhaps confused Coptos with Chemmis. Strabo mentions linen-weaving and stone-cutting as ancient industries of Panopolis, and it is not altogether a coincidence that the cemetery of Akhmim is one of the chief sources of the beautiful textiles of Roman and Christian age, that are brought from Egypt.

Min (Egyptian mnw) is an ancient Egyptian god whose cult originated in the predynastic period (4th millennium BCE). He was represented in many different forms, but was most often represented in male human form, shown with an erect penis which he holds in his left hand and an upheld right arm holding a flail.


Min's cult began and was centered around Coptos (Koptos) and Akhmim (Panopolis) of upper Egypt, where in his honour great festivals were held celebrating his "coming forth" with a public procession and presentation of offerings. His other associations include the eastern desert and links to the god Horus.

Min's shrine was crowned with a pair of bull horns.

Pan - Silvan

As the central deity of fertility and possibly orgiastic rites Min became identified by the Greeks with the god Pan. One feature of Min worship was the wild prickly lettuce Lactuca virosa and Lactuca serriola of which is the domestic version Lactuca sativa (lettuce) which has aphrodisiac and opiate qualities and produce latex when cut, possibly identified with semen. He also had connections with Nubia. However, his main centers of worship remained at Coptos and Akhmim (Khemmis).


Min's wives were Iabet and Repyt (Repit).


Berlin Relief

Berlin Relief - Israel

The topographical relief that is the subject of this article is found on a grey granite slab measuring 46 cm in height and 39.5 cm in width (no. 21687). According to the Egyptian Museum’s warehouse archival notes, the fragment, most likely part of a statue pedestal, was acquired in 1913 by Ludwig Borchardt from a merchant named M. Nachman, along with several other objects. One of these is an additional pedestal relief of about the same size (50 × 38 cm) that is likewise made of grey granite. Although its presentation of prisoners and name rings is not exactly the same as on no. 21687, its overall size and layout does suggest it could have had a similar provenance. While no. 21687 in its present state of preservation contains three name rings superimposed on Western Asiatic prisoners, no. 21688 has three name rings superimposed on two Western Asiatic prisoners (outer left and right) and one Nubian prisoner in the center.

In 2001, Manfred Gorg published a new reading of a fragmentary name ring on a topographical pedestal relief in the Berlin Museum (no. 21687). Although the inscription had previously been listed in topographical studies, the reading of the fragmentary third name ring had not received adequate attention. Gorg suggested reading the broken name as an archaic form for “Israel” and argued that it could have been copied during the Nineteenth Dynasty from an earlier list. As his publication was in German, his proposal has so far been unavailable to a wider English- speaking readership. Two scholars, Bryant Wood and James Hoffmeier, have briefly discussed Gorg's proposal; while Wood welcomed it, the latter rejected it on linguistic grounds. The present authors republish the relief fragment here in English and include new evidence that appears to support Gorg's original reading." (Israel in Canaan Long Before Pharaoh Merenptah?, Peter van der Veen, Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections, Vol. 2:4, p15-25, 2010 AD)

The topographical sequence of the name IA-Sr-il/YA-Sr-il on the Berlin pedestal relief occurs together with Ashkelon and Canaan and therefore closely resembles the topographical names listed in close proximity to Israel on the Israel Stele (i.e., Pa-Canaan, Ashkelon, Gezer, Yenoam, Israel). The proximity of the names in both documents seems to suggest that both texts are related in some way and that both could date to the Nineteenth Dynasty (Görg tentatively suggested the reign of Ramesses II for the Berlin relief) and that their geographical nearness suggests the identification with the same topographical entity within central Palestine. For what other name in the same general region would be so strikingly reminiscent of that of biblical Israel? As a matter of fact, no linguistically feasible name is attested in any of the extant texts, so “Israel” remains the most logical candidate." (Israel in Canaan Long Before Pharaoh Merenptah?, Peter van der Veen, Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections, Vol. 2:4, p15-25, 2010 AD)

The Berlin relief has been dated in a range as early as Amenhotep II (1400 BC) or Amenhotep III 1360 BC and as late as Ramesses II (1213 BC)

Although the reference to “Israel” in association with Ashkelon and Canaan recalls the reference from the reign of Merenptah, a Ramesside date is by no means certain. Gorg originally ascribed the block to the reign of Amenhotep II due to the archaic renderings of the names “Ashkelon” and “Canaan.” Giveon preferred a date during the reign of Amenhotep III, which was tentatively accepted by Shmuel Ahituv. A date later than Ramesses II (for instance, during the reigns of Merenptah or Ramesses III) seems unlikely, however, as suggested by the short renderings (i.e., largely void of group writings) and the earlier form of the theophoric element 'El. These clearly deviate from the longer versions during the late Nineteenth and Twentieth Dynasties. (Israel in Canaan Long Before Pharaoh Merenptah?, Peter van der Veen, Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections, Vol. 2:4, p15-25, 2010 AD)

3-D laser scanning was undertaken in July 2011 by TrigonArt/Bauer-Praus GmbH, Berlin, which produced important additional information on the third name ring, as well as on the very damaged left name ring of AM 21688. It proved positively that the "beak-like" feature in the top row of AM 21687 was indeed engraved and hence was part of an original hieroglyph, either (most preferably so) of the 3-vulture (G I), or alternatively of an M 23 sw-plant, or a U 33 t-pestle. This was also confirmed by plasticine impressions taken in November 2011. Moreover, depth and height images of the stone, as well as casts produced after scanning, suggested that the fracture line at the top right follows the outer contours of a neck and belly, most likely those of the G I vulture. Similar breakages can also be seen in the band of hieroglyphs above the three prisoners. The "claw"-like feature vaguely visible to the lower right of the flowering reed (M 17), could now also be recognized more easily. Its shallowness may be due to the fact that the surface is very worn in this area." (Berlin Statue Pedistal Reliefs 21687 & 21688: ongoing research, Peter van der Veen, Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections, Vol. 4:4, p41-42, 2012 AD)

Topographic base of statue relief depicting three Canaan names of places covered by Asian prisoners

  1. Peter van der Veen used the clearly visible vulture at the bottom of the middle ring of slab no. 21688 and copied it.
  2. He then took and used it as a template for his new drawing in no. 21687.
  3. We created our own drawings, following  Peter van der Veen's example as seen below.
  4. There is an indentation where the beak and foot talon would go in slab no 21687 and the bird matches exactly!!!
  5. Here is Berlin Relief slab no. 21688 from which the vulture was copied:

Despite any remaining questions, the reading i[3]-s3-ir (=I/e-sa-EL or I/c-sar-EL = Yasar-EL/Israel) still seems to be the most conclusive reconstruction by far of what can be seen on the relief." (Berlin Statue Pedistal Reliefs 21687& 21688: ongoing research, Peter van der Veen, Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections, Vol. 4:4, p41-42, 2012 AD)


Thutmose III - Amenhotep II

1479 - 1401 BC

Thutmose III - Amenhotep II

Thutmose III

Nakon što su Kanaanski gradovi otkazali poslušnost Thutmose ih je napao 1457 godine prije Krista. Nakon pobjede u bitci Kanaanci su uspjeli pobjeći u Megido, na kraju nakon opsade od sedam ili osam mjeseci Thutmose ga je osvojio.

Mezopotamija i Egipat 1450 BC

Uzimanjem Megida, Thutmose je stekao kontrolu nad cijelim sjevernom Kanaanu, a Kanaanski knezovi bili su dužni poslati svoje sinove kao taoce u Egipat. - Bitka kod Megida

Belligerents: Egipat & Canaanites, Kadesh, Megiddo, Mitanni

Braća izvuku Josipa iz čatrnje i prodaju ga za dvadeset srebrnika Jišmaelcima, a oni Josipa dovedu u Egipat. - Izlazak

The Mitanni were closely associated with horses. The name of the country of Ishuwa, which might have had a substantial Hurrian population, meant "horse-land". A text discovered at Hattusa deals with the training of horses. The man who was responsible for the horse-training was a Hurrian called Kikkuli. The terminology used in connection with horses contains many Indo-Aryan loan-words (Mayrhofer, 1974).


Amenhotep II

U travnju njegove sedme godine, Amenhotep II je suočen s velikim pobune u Kanaanu od vazalnih država Naharin i šalju svoju vojsku na Levanat da uguši pobunu. Ova pobuna je vjerojatno potaknut egipatskog glavni blizini istočne suparnika, Mitani. Njegovo stela pobjede isklesan nakon ova kampanja bilježi nema većih bitke, koji je pročitao brojne načine. Može biti da je ova kampanja je više slična jednom od izleta Levantu koje je njegov otac su se borili, a on se samo bavi manje namjesnike u borbi i prisiljen gradova zakleti na vjernost da ga-zakletvi odmah slomljena nakon njegova odlaska.


Sfinga na Peristilu

Sfinga na Peristilu

Sfinga s Peristila isklesana je u amfuboličnom crnom granitu (afrički crni granit). Dužine je 2,46 m, visine s glavom 1 m, a širine na prsima 0,65 m.  Radi se općenito o najvećoj sačuvanoj sfingi takve ikonografije uopće; slične su obično manjih dimenzija, jer su bile smještene unutar hramova.

Sudeći prema dimenzijama, naša je sfinga izvorno najvjerojatnije stajala pred pročeljem nekog hrama ili unutar neke svete aleje poput one najpoznatije u Karnaku. Radi se o sfingi lavljeg tijela s ljudskom glavom i prednjim udovima, koji su također ljudski, a ne životinjski. Ruke su joj pružene, a među njima drži posudu za prinose žrtvovanja (tip porta-vaso), a ne razbijeni stup kako se prije mislilo. Sfinge s posudom rijetke su, tako da je to još jedna od osobitosti sfinge s Peristila. Uokolo plinta teče (još jedna od posebitosti među sfingama) friz zarobljenih vojnika, koji su užetom vezani oko vrata. Predvode ih prikazi poprsja jednog bradatog Azijata i jednog crnca, između kojih se nalazi znak pruća - motiv dviju simboličkih biljaka Gornjeg i Donjeg Egipta.

Biljke su prepletene oko znaka koji izražava ideju jedinstvenog duha faraonskog kraljevstva kojemu su podčinjene susjedne zemlje. Svaki vojnik drži štit, a na njima su urezani hijeroglifi gradova Palestine npr. Anahareta u dolini Jizraël (Jošua knj. XIX. 19), Ofrah (s teritorija Benjamina ili Manaše), Hezbon, glavni grad Amorejaca, Šalzatsim, grad koljena Isahar (Jošua knj. XIX. 22), Ronama, tj. Nimrah ili Bet-Nimrah kod Mrtvog mora (Jošua knj. XIII. 27) i niz drugih gradova.

Svaka povorka pojedinačno sadrži 41 ime. U povorci na lijevoj strani je 11 čitljivih imena, a sva odgovaraju velikom popisu Tutmozisa III. u Dvorani anala u Karnaku, osim što redoslijed nije isti.

Pobjede koje se nalaze se upisane u Karnaku na velikom zapisu Tutmozisa III. Upravo na tom zapisu su uz prave pobjede opisane i one fiktivne. To je 6 ili 7 od 17 velikih pohoda u Aziju, koji su zapravo bili inspekcije već osvojenih područja.


Yuya, Iouiya, Yaa, Ya, Yiya, Yayi, Yu, Yuyu, Yaya, Yiay, Yia, Yuy

c. 1429 - 1374 BC


Postavljam te, evo," reče faraon Josipu, "nad svom zemljom egipatskom." Poslije toga skine faraon sa svoje ruke pečatni prsten i stavi ga Josipu na ruku. Zatim zaodjene Josipa odjećom od najljepše tkanine, a o vrat mu objesi zlatan lanac. Vozio se on u kolima kao njegov zamjenik, a pred njim klicahu: "Abrek! Na koljena!" Tako ga postavi nad svu zemlju egipatsku. Još faraon reče Josipu: "Premda sam ja faraon, neće nitko dići svoje ruke ni noge bez tvog odobrenja u svoj zemlji egipatskoj." Faraon nazva Josipa "Safenat Paneah", a za ženu mu dade Asenatu, kćer Poti-Fere, svećenika u Onu. I Josip postade poznat po zemlji egipatskoj. - Postanak



Pharaoh riding a chariot

Stranac u Dolini kraljeva

Uzimajući u obzir njegovo neobično ime i značajki, neki egiptolozi vjeruju da je Yuya je stranog podrijetla, Ime Yuya mogu biti napisane na nekoliko različitih načina. Nije to bilo tipično za egipatski osoba ima toliko različitih načina da pisati njegovo ime; to može sugerirati da je Yuya preci imali stranog podrijetla.
Studija njegove mumije su pokazali da Yuya bio čovjek viši od prosječnog stasa. Grafton Elliot Smith je smatrao da je njegova pojava nije tipično egipćanska, saznato je da je imao plavu kosu, a vjerovatno i oći.
Yuya je jedina egipatska mumija s rukama ispod brade, a ne preko prsa, što su semitske značajke, a stil brade sličan je semitskom, dok su egipatski dužnosnici poznati po obrijanom bradom na licu.

"...The name of her father is Yuya. The name of her mother is Tuyu..." Commemorative scarab announcing the marriage of Tiye to Neb-Maat-Re
Amenhotep III, which emphatically proclaims the names of her parents.

Yuya and his wife Tuyu were no mere "commoners," elevated to a lofty social position solely by their daughter's royal marriage, as earlier commentators believed, but were probably individuals who had exerted immense political influence during the reigns of Amenhotep III and his father, Tuthmosis IV. The scarabs issued to commemorate the marriage of Amenhotep III to Tiye name her parents prominently in an unprecedented fashion, as though intentionally stressing the royal alliance with this Akhmim-based family. C. N. Reeves argues that the naming of Yuya and Tuyu on the marriage scarabs, which were most likely issued during Amenhotep III'rds second reignal year (when he was still a boy) indicates that the royal in-laws already exerted considerable political clout prior to their daughter's marriage, and may even have functioned as "powers behind the throne" during their youthful son-in-law's early years of rule. The many impressive titles of Yuya and Tuyu (including “God’s Father," “His Majesty’s Lieutenant Commander of Chariotry," “Master of the Horse," “Priest of Min," "Overseer of the cattle of Min, Lord of Akhmim" for Yuya and “King’s Mother of the Great Royal Wife, “Chief of the Harem of Min," “Priestess of Amen," “Chief of the Harem of Amen," and “Chantress of Hathor," for Tuyu) as well as their sumptuous burial in the Royal Valley, support this opinion.


Osim dijeljenja jedinstveni naslov "Otac faraonu:" i Josip i Yuya bili stranci u Egiptu. Mnogi su znanstvenici komentirali Yuya vanjske pojave. Na primjer, Arthur Weigall, jedan od arheologa koji su uključeni u otkrivanju Yuya grobu piše:... "On je bio osoba sa zapovjednog prisutnost On ima lice jednog crkvenog, a tu je i nešto o svojim ustima koja podsjeća na papa, Lav III. " Henri Naville, švicarski egiptolog, zauzeo stajalište da Yuya je "vrlo orlovski lice moglo biti semitski".

Poteškoće pismoznanci imali sa svojim imenom i ukazati na Yuya je stranog podrijetla. Jedanaest različitih načina pisanja pronađeni su na njegovu sarkofagu, tri lijesova i druge nadgrobnim namještaj. Egipatski imena obično naznačeno ime boga pod čiju zaštitu osoba je Ra-mos, Ptah-hotep, Tutankh-Amun i tako dalje.

Način Yuya pokopan također ukazuje na njegove nisu bile Egipćanin. Njegove uši nisu one većine kraljevskih mumija iz 18. dinastije, u vrijeme kada Yuya vidio uslugu pod oba Tuthmosis IV i njegov sin Amenhotep III and Položaj njegovih ruku, okrenut vrat ispod brade, razlikuje se od uobičajenog Ozirisa oblik u kojem je mrtvac ruke su prelazile preko njegovih prsa.

Grafton Elliot Smith, britanski anatom koji je pregledao Yuya je mumiju 1905., postavio pitanje njegove ne-egipatskog izgled. Smith je napisao u svom izvješću; "Njegova (Yuya a) lice je relativno kratka i eliptični, Nos mu je istaknuti, orlovski i visoka mosta;...... Usne čini se pomalo puni Vilica je umjereno kvadrat Kad smo došli raspitati.... u rasnog karaktera tijela Yuya, postoji vrlo malo mi svakako može iskoristiti na što je jasan pokazatelj njegovog podrijetla i sklonostima... oblik lica (a pogotovo nos) je, kao što smo pronašli češće u Europa nego u Egiptu. "

Kralj je također dao je Josip egipatski ženu i egipatski ime, od kojih je prvi element je "sef". Maneton, egipatski povjesničar koji je napisao povijest svoje zemlje na Ptolomeja I. u 3. stoljeću prije Krista, spominje da je Amenhotep III imali ministra zove Sef, čini se da je ime "Jo-sef" ili "Yo-SEF"

U biblijskom račun Josipa patrijarh, na imenovanju ministra, primio tri objekta od faraona kao insignije ured, prsten, zlatni lanac i kolima. Ove tri objekti su također naći u Yuya grobnici.

Iako je kraljevski prsten nije pronađen u Yuya grobnici, pisani dokaz pronađen je pokazati da Yuya je nositelj kraljevim prstenom. To je jasno iz Yuya je naslova ", nositelj pečatom kralja Donjeg Egipta", kao i "nositelj prstena kralja Donjeg Egipta." Značajan nalaz u grobu također je bio zlatni lanac koji je pao u Yuya lijes, a dolaze na odmor pod glavu kad je grobnica pljačkaši cut nit koja ga drži na mjestu. Mala kola je također otkriven u grobnici.

Kao što ime faraona koji je imenovao Josipa kao njegov pomoćnik nije dano u svetim knjigama, znanstvenici su tražili neke druge detalje u priči o Josipu, da im pomogne u utvrđivanju svoje vrijeme. Oni su primijetili da su "kola", spominju se tri puta u Knjizi Postanka:

1 - Kada je imenovan za ministra, Faraon dade Josipu kola,

2 - Josip koristio kola izlaze pozdraviti svog oca Jakova i ostatak plemena Izraela, kada su stigli u Egipat,

3 - Kad su Izraelci išli pokopati oca Jakova u Kanaanu, Josip uze sa sobom ", oba kola i konjanike."

Priča Biblija povišenja Josipa visokih uredskih navodi da mu je faraon koji pokazuju druga kola za vožnju. To ukazuje na njegovu odgovornost za chariotry, pogled prilog govori i činjenica da je kočija bila pronađena u Yuya grobnici. To je bio običaj u starom Egiptu staviti u grob objekata koji su imali poseban značaj u životu jedne mrtve osobe.

Smatralo se da kraljevi Hiksa, koji su vladali Egiptom oko stoljeće i pol prije 18. dinastije izbačen, bili su prvi uveli kola u Egipat. Kao što su Hiksi sami bili kanaanskoga podrijetla, bilo je lako postaviti Josipa hebrejskog za vrijeme njihove vladavine u Egiptu. Međutim, sve Hiksi mjesta na istočnoj delte Nila sada su iskopani, a ne ostaci kola pronađeni su u jednoj od njih, niti bilo napisano, niti nacrtana pozivanje na kolima. Danas je opće prihvaćeno da su egipatski kraljevi 18. dinastije bili su prvi uvesti kola.

Također je utvrđeno da je tek u kasnijoj 18. dinastije, u vrijeme kada Yuya živio, da chariotry postao odvojen od pješadije kao vojni ruku, a to Yuya, kao glavni služi Amenhotepa III, prvi je osoba koju znam, da nose naslove zamjenika Njegovog Veličanstva u Chariotry kao časnik konja.

  • Yuya, Iouiya, Yaa, Ya, Yiya, Yayi, Yu, Yuyu, Yaya, Yiay, Yia, Yuy
  • Jo + Sep = Josip


Yuya i Tjuyu imalli su kćer po imenu Tiye, supruga faraona Amenhotep III, baka Akhenaten i prabaka Tutankhamona.

Tiye je postala "Velika kraljeva supruga" faraona Amenhotepa III. "Velika kraljevska supruga" je bila najveća egipatska religijska pozicija, posluživanje faraona u službenim ceremonijama i ritualima.

Imali su sina po imenu Anen, koji su nosili naslove kancelar Donjeg Egipta, drugi prorok Amona, sm-svećenik Heliopolisa i Božanskog Oca.
Anen je bio egipatski dužnosnik tijekom kasne osamnaese dinastije. Sin Yuya i Tjuyu i brat kraljice Tiye, supruge faraona Amenhotepa III. Postao je kancelar Donjeg Egipta, drugi Poslanik Amona, svećenika u Heliopolisu, stekao je titulu Božanskog Oca. Vrlo je vjerojatno je umro koju godinu prije tridesete godine vladavine Amenhotepa III.

Yuya i Tjuyu također su bili roditelji Ay, egipatskog dvorjanina aktivanog tijekom vladavine faraona Akhenatena, a koji je na kraju postao faraon Ay.

  • Anen Amanmašša = Manaše Manasseh
  • Pharaoh Ay = Faro-Aj = Efr-Ajim, Efrajim, Ephraim
  • Tiye = (djeca što su ti se rodila poslije)
Efrajim i Manaše neka budu moji kao i Ruben i Šimun! A djeca što su ti se rodila poslije njih neka ostanu tvoja; a u svom nasljedstvu neka se zovu po imenu svoje braće. - Postanak


Resheph je usvojen kao službeni božanstvo u Egiptu pod Amenhotepa II za vrijeme osamnaeste dinastije Egipta kao bog konja i kola.
U biblijskom hebrejskom , resheph  רֶשֶׁף znači „plamen, firebolt”, izvedene iz שָׂרַף „snimanja”.   Resheph kao osobno ime, unuk Efrajima, javlja se u 1 Ljetopisa 7:25.
Efrajimovi sinovi: .. Sin mu je bio Refah i Rešef...

Josipove kosti

DODATAK - Josipove kosti
Kosti Josipove, koje su sinovi Izraelovi sa sobom donijeli iz Egipta, pokopali su u Šekemu, na zemljištu koje Jakov bijaše kupio od sinova Hamora. - Jošua

Dodatak o Josipovim kostima je naknadno umetanje svećeičke verzije (Dokumentarna hipoteza).

Pi-Ramesses - Dolina kraljeva 766 km

Josip umrije kad mu bijaše sto i deset godina; balzamiraše ga i u Egiptu položiše u lijes. - Postanak

Yuya, veliki vanjski lijes

Yuya, drugi i unutarnji lijes


Who Were Yuya and Tuya?

Exploring the facts about the ancient Egyptian nobles who were the grandparents of the Pharaoh Akhenaten.

The Tomb of Yuya and Tuya

In 1905 the discovery of a new tomb in the Valley of the Kings demonstrated just how important the parents of Queen Tiye must have been. Although the tomb was not finished with the painted and carved reliefs found elsewhere in the royal necropolis it was a relatively intact burial replete with a wide variety of funerary items as well as gifts from the relatives of the deceased.

The titles of Yuya and Tuya are prominently displayed on eighteen funerary statues found in the tomb. Yuya is Divine Father of the Lord of the Two Lands, Favorite of the Good God and Favorite of the King. Tuya is Favored of the Good God, Royal Ornament and Great One of the Harem of Amun.

The mummies of Yuya and Tuya

On his coffin Yuya’s other titles include Master of Horse, Deputy of the Kings Chariotry and Chief of the Cattle of Min. This last title connects Yuya to the city of Ahkmin which lay a few days north of Thebes. On her Inner Coffin Tuya is also given the title Chantress of Amun.

The tomb gifts are particularly notable in that many come from the Pharaoh Amenhotep III and his Great Wife Tiye. Along with these gifts were also a number from the princess Sitamun who would have been Yuya and Tuya’s granddaughter.

The Funerary Papyrus

One of the tombs greatest treasures is Yuya’s Funerary Papyrus. This document is a classic example of what modern scholars refer to as a Book of the Dead. The original text left places open so the name of the deceased could be added in. This type of mass produced magical texts testifies to the standardization of burials at the time and indicates that Yuya and Tuya enjoyed a typical Egyptian burial of the period.

Foreign Origins

There has been a good deal of speculation among modern scholars about the possible foreign origin of Yuya. The mummies of both Yuya and Tuya were found in excellent condition. While Tuya shows features that could be seen as typically Egyptian, Yuyas appearance is atypical with an aquiline nose that has been described as Semitic.

Another reason to suggest that Yuya was of foreign origin is due to the variety of spellings given to his name. In fact the name Yuya has merely been adopted as a convention. In the tomb the name has eleven different versions including Ya, Ya-a, Yi-ya, Yu-Yu and Yi-Ay.

The Pharaoh Ay

This spelling confusion has linked Yuya to the Pharaoh Ay who would reign a generation after Yuya’s death. It is generally believed that Ay was Yuya’s son. Both Yuya and Ay have their names spelled a variety of ways some of which are identical. Yuya and Ay also share the enigmatic title God’s Father which may indicate a role of father-in-law to the king. During Ay’s reign as Pharaoh he built a temple in Ahkmin which may show that this was the family’s hometown.

If Ay was Yuya’s son this is not evidenced in the funerary goods from the tomb. In the tomb only one son, Annen, is mentioned. Annen was however an important individual in his own right holding the titles of High Priest of the sun god Re and Second Prophet of Amun.

Family Legacy

After the death of Amenhotep III Tiye would continue to rule as Queen Mother and held influence at home and abroad. As the parents of Queen Tiye, Yuya and Tuya would have been the grandparents of the Pharaoh Akhenaten, who created an extreme version of the solar cult in Egypt known as Atenism.

If Ay and Annen were indeed both the brothers of Queen Tiye then these siblings and their parents would represent one of the most powerful families in ancient Egyptian history.

Was Yuya Joseph?

The first thing that can be clearly said about Yuya was that he was buried in the Valley of the Kings during the reign of the Pharaoh Amenhotep III somewhere around the year 1360 BCE. His wife was Tuya an important lady at the royal court and his daughter was Tiye the Great Wife of Amenhotep III. Beyond these few basic facts the most striking thing about this individual are the various renditions of his name found in his tomb. The many variations suggest that scribes were struggling to render a foreign name for which there was no established spelling. The physical appearance of Yuya’s mummy has been described as possibly Semitic and not typically Egyptian. Given these facts it is generally agreed upon that Yuya was indeed a foreigner who rose to power in Egypt.

Foreigner At The Royal Court

Joseph was of course also a foreigner who rose to power in Egypt. This phenomena was likely not uncommon as we know of several foreign dynasties that came to rule in Egypt, and so it is easy to imagine many foreigners finding employment in the vast imperial administration. What was unique in the case of Joseph was that he was sold into slavery by his brothers and then rose from slave to co-ruler. However slavery in ancient Egypt was based primarily on prisoners of war who were relocated to become vassals and there was not a slave trade as existed later in antiquity. In fact the entire story of Hebrew slavery in Egypt is a distortion of what we know about ancient Egypt and appears to have been largely anachronistic. Since the pharaoh could call upon thousands of laborers to serve as loyal subjects there was simply no need for large scale slavery therefore the bond of slavery can be seen as a symbol of the distasteful memory of vassal servitude. Of course for a laborer being forced to work by a sovereign the difference between his lot and that of a true slave might just be a matter of perspective.

This leaves us looking for a deeper meaning than just the simple idea of Joseph’s brothers selling him into slavery out of jealousy. The entire narrative of Joseph’s interaction with his brother’s is of course meant as a morality tale with the righteous Joseph surviving in turn to place judgment on his brother’s. Now while it is impossible to know how the historical Yuya entered Egypt there was a program in place during the 18th Dynasty wherein children of the rulers of vassal states were taken into Egypt partially as hostages but also to be educated as Egyptians. These young boys were known as Children of Kap, so named after the military school which they attended in Memphis.

It is worth noting that when Joseph entered servitude it was to a military man, the Captain of the Guard named Potiphar. Although much has been made of the identity of Potiphar the simple translation of his name to He whom Ra gave places it in context with other allusions to the Solar Cult that connects with the record of Yuya. The story of a son being sold to slavery could then be seen as a euphemism for a more complicated tradition of vassalage that was out of date when the Biblical narrative was written but nevertheless had forever left its mark on the region.

The Dreamer

Perhaps the most striking detail of the entire Joseph narrative is the account of dream interpretation. The only other place in the Bible which compares is the Book of Daniel. The Joseph account in Genesis 41:1-32 makes it clear that these abilities are not only rare but are actually just what the current pharaoh is in need of as he has been troubled by mysterious dreams.

In Egypt there is a well known stele near the Sphinx which dates to the reign of Tuthmoses IV (1479-1424 BCE) the predecessor of Amenhotep III. The inscription on this stele recounts how the pharaoh had slept under the Sphinx and had a prophetic dream. The stele tells that the god behind the inspiration was an aspect of the Heliopolitan sun-god, Horemakhet. It is widely accepted that Yuya was of an advanced age when he died so it is  reasonable to assume that he was in his prime around the time when the Dream Stele was erected around the year 1400 BCE.

A replica of the Tuthmoses IV Sphinx Stele

High Priest of On

Once Joseph had established his worth to the pharaoh he was given an Egyptian name and bride. His wife was the daughter of the High Priest of On. Now know by its Greek name as Heliopolis or the “City of the Sun” this cultic center was called Yunu in Ancient Egypt and it was the long established center of the Solar Cult.

Yuya is believed to have had two sons, the eldest son Annen was also high priest of the sun god and may have even been based in Yunu. Given the possible tradition of the eldest son following in the professional footsteps of his matriarchal grandfather this places Annen in the same job we might expect from Joseph’s oldest son. Additionally Yuya is believed to have had another son named Ay who would rule briefly as pharaoh, this matches with the two sons attributed to Joseph in the Bible. Furthermore there is a recurring theme in the Bible of the younger son inheriting more directly from the father’s estate and it has been established that Ay followed Yuya into service in the chariotry and he also assumed other titles identical to Yuya.

The Titles of Yuya

In Yuya’s tomb the list of his titles are extensive. He is identified as having enjoyed a particularly favored status among the court nobility. He was a lt. general of the chariotry and master of horse. Both of these titles demonstrate the presence of a chariot corps within the Egyptian Army. This development of a separate branch of the army devoted to chariots was a relatively new occurrence in Egypt and is usually believed to have begun during the 18th Dynasty. Emphasizing the importance of these military titles was the discovery a war chariot amongst Yuya’s grave goods.

Yuya’s Chariot

Joseph for his part was said to have ridden in the pharaoh’s second chariot (Genesis 41:43) which places the stories inspiration at no earlier than the 18th Dynasty. However it is another title of Yuya’s that is even more striking, that being “God’s Father”. Although it is impossible to know for certain what this title meant it is generally regarded as denoting a close relationship, possibly father-in-law, to the pharaoh. When Joseph explains to his brothers how he became second only to pharaoh in Egypt he says that “[God] has made me a father to pharaoh.” Yuya’s title appears to have been inherited by his son Ay who would demonstrate the title’s importance by using it as his throne name when he became pharaoh. Interestingly the title was also used by an obscure individual named Yey (Jacob?) who preceded Yuya and was passed on to yet another relative by Ay when he ascended the to the throne.

The Golden Chain

Another detail of the Joseph narrative explains that Joseph was arrayed with the robes and devices of his office. He was given the pharaoh’s ring, presumably bearing a royal seal and he had a golden chain placed around his neck. (Genesis 41:42) Yuya was found with a chain of golden and lapis lazuli beads that had fallen behind his head in his coffin when the thread was broken by tomb robbers. If it was such a golden beaded necklace that inspired Joseph’s legendary chain of office then it is not surprising that the lapis lazuli beads have been forgotten. The Bible only makes a handful of references to the blue stone and that is only if one expands the meaning of the ancient Hebrew word Cappiyr to mean lapis lazuli along with its usual translation as Sapphire.

The Solar Cult

In modern times many historians have associated Yuya with the Aten Religion that rose to prominence under his grandson the pharaoh Akhenaton. The Aten cult’s rise can likely be traced to the reign of Tuthmoses IV, the pharaoh of the Dream Stele. Yuya was himself a priest of the fertility god Min he was also the administrator of the god’s cattle. As bovine cattle was primarily used as a source for leather and leather was one of the key components of chariot manufacture Yuya’s temple duties should be seen as part of his duties as an administrator and not a religious job. In fact the priests in Egypt’s temples carried out a variety of necessary functions for the state and did not serve as ministers of a liturgy as priests do in a modern sense.

The mummy of Yuya

Nevertheless the fact that Yuya’s mummy appears with its hands together under the chin pointing upwards as if in prayer has sparked speculation that this man may have somehow been behind the rise of the Aten. No other Egyptian mummy has been found in a similar pose. As for the burial of Joseph the biblical account clearly states that he was embalmed and placed in a coffin in Egypt. Whereas some pains where taken to bury Jacob, Joseph’s father, back in the land of Canaan, Joseph was initially laid to rest in Egypt. (Genesis 50:26)

The momentous event of Joseph’s death brings to a close the Book of Genesis. Joseph enacts a pledge from his family to rebury his bones in Canaan when the family returns there. (Genesis 50:26) In the Exodus 13:19 Moses is said to have taken the bones of Joseph into exile with him and this would seem to contradict any evidence that points to the discovery of Joseph in Egypt. However the accounts involving the retrieval of bones could possibly be a later redaction to the narrative. Nevertheless it is clear that there was a tradition of relocating ancestral bones. In fact the relocation of these relics was a common part of the burial practices of ancient Syria while embalming and coffins with the remains staying in place was part of the Egyptian tradition.

So What is Going On Here?

In addition to the Joseph legend some additional details point to a broad connection between the Old Testament Patriarchs and Egypt’s 18th Dynasty. For example when Amenhotep III published scarabs engraved with political pronouncements not only did he mention Tiye and her parents Yuya and Tuya.

These people who left Akhetaten had just been part of a religious experience that stands out amongst all of ancient history. The pharaoh had attempted to turn Egypt from a land of many gods into a land of just one, the Aten, the solar god of the royal cult. The “Great Hymn to the Aten,” found carved on the wall of Ay’s tomb at Akhetaten has been compared by C.S. Lewis and others to the Biblical Book of Psalms. Given the nature of Ay’s connection to Yuya this comparison might now be seen as more than just a modeling of literary style and we can pause to wonder just what it was that happened at Akhetaten over 3330 years ago.

An excerpt from the hymn clearly shows the aspired universalism;

O sole god, like whom there is no other! Thou didst create the world according to thy desire, Whilst thou wert alone: All men, cattle, and wild beasts, Whatever is on earth, going upon (its) feet, And what is on high, flying with its wings.

The countries of Syria and Nubia, the land of Egypt, Thou settest every man in his place, Thou suppliest their necessities: Everyone has his food, and his time of life is reckoned.

A drawing of the Great Hymn of the Aten as found in Ay’s tomb at Amarna


Yuya and Tuya tomb

Gilded figures of gods and goddesses appear on a wooden chest coated with black pitch. Inside stood four calcite containers, called canopic jars, that held Tuyu's internal organs-lungs, liver, stomach, and intestines.

Yuya and Tuyu's granddaughter Sitamun gave them this gilded wooden chair. Two similar scenes on the back show servants presenting gold necklaces to a seated Sitamun. The hieroglyphic text says these gifts came from "the lands of the south."

A wooden box decorated in gold, ebony, ivory, and blue ceramic tiles may once have held jewelry. Pink linen lined the inside. "… the object is one of the most striking in the tomb," wrote archaeologist James Quibell in 1908.

A rare type of shabti lies on an embalming table painted on limestone. A human-headed bird representing the figure's ba, or soul, lies on top. The knob at the foot of the model likely represents the basin that collected fluids during mummification.

Limestone vases with fancy lids rest on a wooden base that's painted red. Two lids take the shape of a bull's head, one represents a wild goat, and the fourth is a frog. Each vessel stands almost 10 inches tall.


Argives tribe c. 1430 BC

Safenat Paneah

Yuya - Safenat Paneah

Faraon nazva Josipa "Safenat Paneah", a za ženu mu dade Asenatu, kćer Poti-Fere, svećenika u Onu. I Josip postade poznat po zemlji egipatskoj. (46) Josipu je bilo trideset godina kad je stupio u službu faraona, kralja egipatskog. A otišavši Josip ispred faraona, putovao je po svoj zemlji egipatskoj. (47) Za sedam rodnih godina zemlja je rađala u obilju;

  • Jo-sip "Saf-enat Pane-ah"; Pane = PO, Saf = SE
  • PO-SE + DA-WO-NE = Poseidon); DA-WO = WO-DA = Voda


Argive genealogy in Greek mythology

Io & Poseidon

Inachus Melia
Zeus Io Phoroneus
Epaphus Memphis
Libya Poseidon
Belus Achiroë Agenor Telephassa



Poseidon was god of the Sea and other waters; of earthquakes; and of horses. In pre-Olympian Bronze Age Greece, he was venerated as a chief deity at Pylos and Thebes.

The early importance of Poseidon can still be glimpsed in Homer's Odyssey, where Poseidon rather than Zeus is the major mover of events. In Homer, Poseidon is the master of the sea.

In Homer's Iliad, Poseidon supports the Greeks against the Trojans during the Trojan War.

The earliest attested occurrence of the name, written in Linear B, is Po-se-da-o or Po-se-da-wo-ne.

  • Pane-ah Saf-enat, Pane Saf, skraćeno po-se + da-wo-ne (water) = Poseidon

At least a few sources deem Poseidon as a "prehellenic" (i.e. Pelasgian) word, considering an Indo-European etymology "quite pointless".

Another theory interprets the second element as related to the word *δᾶϝον dâwon, "water"; this would make *Posei-dawōn into the master of waters. There is also the possibility that the word has Pre-Greek origin.

In the heavily sea-dependent Mycenaean culture, there is not sufficient evidence that Poseidon was connected with the sea. We do not know if "Posedeia" was a sea-goddess. Homer and Hesiod suggest that Poseidon became lord of the sea following the defeat of his father Kronos, when the world was divided by lot among his three sons; Zeus was given the sky, Hades the underworld, and Poseidon the sea, with the Earth and Mount Olympus belonging to all three. Given Poseidon's connection with horses as well as the sea, and the landlocked situation of the likely Indo-European homeland, Nobuo Komita has proposed that Poseidon was originally an aristocratic Indo-European horse-god who was then assimilated to Near Eastern aquatic deities when the basis of the Greek livelihood shifted from the land to the sea, or a god of fresh waters who was assigned a secondary role as god of the sea, where he overwhelmed the original Aegean sea deities such as Proteus and Nereus.

It is almost sure that once Poseidon was worshiped as a horse, and this is evident by his cult in Peloponnesos. However he was originally a god of the waters, and therefore he became the "earth-shaker", because the Greeks believed that the cause of the earthquakes was the erosion of the rocks by the waters, by the rivers who they saw to disappear into the earth and then to burst out again. This is what the natural philosophers Thales, Anaximenes and Aristotle believed, which could not be different from the folklore belief. Later, when the Myceneans travelled along the sea, he was assigned a role as god of the sea.

It seems that the Arcadian myth is related with the first Greek speaking people who entered the region during the Bronze Age. (Linear B represents an archaic Greek dialect). Their religious beliefs were mixed with the beliefs of the indigenous population. It is possible that the Greeks did not bring with them other gods except Zeus, Eos, and the Dioskouroi. The horse (numina) was related with the liquid element, and with the underworld. Poseidon appears as a beast (horse), which is the river spirit of the underworld, as it usually happens in northern-European folklore, and not unusually in Greece.

A feminine variant, po-se-de-ia, is also found, indicating a lost consort goddess, in effect the precursor of Amphitrite.

Poseidon “Wanax”, is the male companion (paredros) of the goddess of nature. In the relative Minoan myth, Pasiphaë is mating with the white bull, and she bears the hybrid creature Minotaur. The Bull was the old pre-Olympian Poseidon. The goddess of nature and her paredros survived in the Eleusinian cult, where the following words were uttered : " Mighty Potnia bore a strong son"

Enki/Ea - Poseidon/Neptune

Ea, "House of the water," with his divine word was creator of mankind from clay with the help of the Sumerian goddess Aruru (see the Akkadian version of the Epic of Gilgamesh and the wild man Enkidu). Ea was also patron of all arts, and the chief god of the Mesopotamian city of Eridu. In ancient times the year began with the entrance of the Sun into the constellation of Aries, March 21, and ended in February, the name "Anno" (Medieval Latin: anno, in the year) was given in honor of Oannes, identified with Janus (Roman god of gates and doorways, depicted with two faces looking in opposite directions or past wisdom and future knowledge). In Palestine Oannes was under the name Dagon.

Nanshe (symbol was a vase in which swam a fish) was the goddess of springs and waterways who was worshipped in Eridu and Lagash.

The Greek Naiads are nymphs of river and springs.

Ea - El

Ea and West Semitic deities

In 1964, a team of Italian archaeologists under the direction of Paolo Matthiae of the University of Rome La Sapienza performed a series of excavations of material from the third-millennium BCE city of Ebla. Much of the written material found in these digs was later translated by Giovanni Pettinato.

Among other conclusions, he found a tendency among the inhabitants of Ebla, after the reign of Sargon of Akkad, to replace the name of El, king of the gods of the Canaanite pantheon (found in names such as Mikael and Ishmael), with Ia (Mikaia, Ishmaia).

Poseidon - Neptune

A bilingual inscription from Palmyra dated to the 1st century equates Ēl-Creator-of-the-Earth with the Greek god Poseidon. Going back to the 8th century BCE, the bilingual inscription at Karatepe in the Taurus Mountains equates Ēl-Creator-of-the-Earth to Luwian hieroglyphs read as da-a-ś, this being the Luwian form of the name of the Babylonian water god Ea, lord of the abyss of water under the earth. (This inscription lists Ēl in second place in the local pantheon, following Ba‘al Shamîm and preceding the Eternal Sun.)


Poseidon is known to have been worshipped in Beirut, his image appearing on coins from that city. Poseidon of Beirut was also worshipped at Delos where there was an association of merchants, shipmasters, and warehousemen called the Poseidoniastae of Berytus founded in 110 or 109 BCE. Three of the four chapels at its headquarters on the hill northwest of the Sacred Lake were dedicated to Poseidon, the Tyche of the city equated with Astarte (that is ‘Ashtart), and to Eshmun.

Also at Delos, that association of Tyrians, though mostly devoted to Heracles-Melqart, elected a member to bear a crown every year when sacrifices to Poseidon took place. A banker named Philostratus donated two altars, one to Palaistine Aphrodite Urania (‘Ashtart) and one to Poseidon "of Ascalon".


Trident Cross

A trident is the main feature on the flag of Barbados. It's not a cross; it's not even intended to be a religious symbol.


As an island nation, the Barbadian trident might be associated with the symbol of Neptune, the Roman god of the sea. But in fact it's the top part of Britannia's trident, snapped off from the shaft, representing the country's independence from Britain in 1966. The barbed tines are appropriate for a country named Barbados.


Perhaps the closest we can get to a real Trident Cross is based on the Tryzub. This is an ancient Ukrainian symbol with a fascinating history.

Trident Cross

Trident is similar to the Fleur-de-Lis Cross.


Another religious Trident Cross is the Double Vajra. This is a symbolic weapon commonly seen in Asian art, wielded by gods of dharmic religions such as Buddhism (in various forms), Jainism (the symbol or mark of Dharmanatha) and Hinduism (the weapon of the Vedic god Indra). The word vajra is Sanskrit for 'thunderbolt'.


Some claim the trident is (or was) a Pagan symbol and this may be so.


Tridents are seen in art depicting gods of the sea, which most people now refer to as mythical gods.

Poseidon (Greek)

The planet Neptune named after the Roman god of the sea. This god likes fishing but whilst there's lots of icy water on Neptune, as far as we know there are no fish. Nor worms. But at least he's got his trident ready, and presumably lots of patience.

Neptune (Roman)

As well as a fishing spear, the trident was also a gladiator's weapon in Ancient Rome.

Gladiator (Roman)

The trident is occasionally seen in Christian art, and reconciling this warrior symbol with the love of Christ causes confusion.

Cross with Tridents

The Roman goddess Britannia, often shown with a trident, was adopted by Great Britain and now seen in several churches of national importance.

Britannia (Roman)

Before Constantine, Christians tended to conceal their religious identity for fear of persecution. They revealed themselves to each other through symbols such as the fish, the dolphin, the anchor and later, the trident; hence the alternative name; Disguised Cross.

Just as the three teeth of the Hindu Shiva trident represent the three-in-one world, the three in a Christian context represent the Holy Trinity.


The mammal famed for saving men is the dolphin. If a dolphin is seen riding the wake of a ship that is considered a good omen for a safe and successful voyage.

It comes as no surprise therefore that Jesus Christ has been depicted in Christian art as a dolphin; the friend and preserver of man. In the Catacomb of Callixtus, is a fresco representing a dolphin twisted around a trident. Another shows the dolphin impaled on a trident to form a Tau Cross. These are interpreted as symbolic of the Crucifixion of Christ. (See also Dolphin Cross)

Anchor Cross seen in Provence Gardian in south-eastern France, which Sean Wright identifies as "a symbol of the Three Theological Virtues: Faith, Hope and Love (cross, anchor, heart)." Tridents can be seen at the top and arm ends, made from crescent shaped fleuries.

The three cross arms each with three points are clear and strong references to those three virtues, and of course, the Holy Trinity. Sean goes on to point out another three-three and dolphin in the Old Testament story of the prophet Jonah:

Sean writes:

"The dolphin, known by the ancients as a friendly 'fish', was used by the Early Church as a symbol of Christ carrying the souls of Christians to the safety of heaven, as well as a symbol of Jonah and the 'great fish' and therefore a symbol of the Resurrection, since Jesus compared it to Jonah being in the belly of the 'fish' for three days and three nights."

Neptune / Anu symbols

Neptune symbols

Plodna junica Io

Hermes, Io (as cow) and Argus, black-figure amphora, 540–530 BC

Io - beautiful white heifer

Io, who is one of the Three Main Ancestors, was turned into a cow after having been seduced by Zeus, and forced to wander over the whole world until she settled in Egypt.

Io as Isis. Isis. Early 2C AD. Künsthistorische Museum, Wien.

"Tell me: to what region of the earth I have wandered in my wretchedness?" (Io. Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 565).

"This god (Zeus), desirous of union with this mortal maid, has imposed upon her these wanderings. Maiden, you have gained a cruel suitor for your hand." (Prometheus to Io. Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 565).

Inscribed plaque depicting the goddess Isis. Dion Museum (Macedonia, Greece), 2C BC.

End of Argus

When Zeus had thus disguised Io under the shape of a cow, Hera, suspecting mischief, requested the cow for herself and set Argus, the All-seeing, to guard the animal. That was the end of the All-seeing; for Zeus, who wished to set the cow free, ordered Hermes to steal it, and this god, following instructions, killed Argus by the cast of a stone.

First wanderings

This is how the cow went free. But Hera sent a gadfly to infest and torture it, and so Io, tormented by the gadfly's sting, began her wanderings, coming first to the Ionian sea, which is called after her. Then she journeyed through Illyria, which is the region north of Epirus in the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, and came to Mont Haemus in Thrace, and thence she crossed the Bosphorus, which separates Europe and Asia. Io continued her wanderings through Scythia and Cimmeria (to the north of the Black Sea), met in Caucasus the bound Prometheus, and finally she came to Egypt.

Dreams behind everything

If Io is to be believed, all these things were caused by dreams. For when she met Prometheus, Io told him that her afflictions began with those dreams she had had by night, in which visions told her to leave her maidenhood behind her and yield to Zeus, who loved her. She also said that, having told these dreams to his father Inachus, he consulted the oracle, and the god speaking through it commanded him to banish his daughter from home and land to roam over the whole world, adding that, if he disobeyed, a thunderbolt from Zeus would destroy his race.

What Inachus did to find her

This Inachus did, says Io. And yet Inachus acted as if he were ignorant of what had happened to his daughter. For he sent Cyrnus 1 to look for her, and this man came as far as Caria, the southwestern region of Asia Minor, and not finding her, settled there. Also Lyrcus is said to have been sent by Io's father to search for her, and after having covered a great deal of land and sea without finding the girl, he finally renounced the quest; but being too afraid of Inachus to return to Argos, he went instead to King Caunus of Caria, where he married the king's daughter.

Isis receiving Io in Egypt. Temple of Isis, Pompeii. National Archaeological Museum, Naples.


In Egypt, the wandering girl recovered her human form and gave birth to Zeus' son Epaphus beside the river Nile. Hera then bade the CURETES to steal the child; and having obeyed the goddess, they were killed by Zeus for having carried out his wife's orders. It was then that Io started her new wanderings, this time in search of her son. And after roaming all over Syria, she found Epaphus, who had been nursed by the wife-called by some Astarte and by others Saosis-of King Malcander of Byblus. Together with her son she returned to Egypt, and married Telegonus, who at the time reigned over the Egyptians. This is why Epaphus, from whom sprang the Libyans and the Ethiopians, became later king of Egypt, and the founder of the city of Memphis.


Having thus settled in Egypt, Io made a statue of Demeter, and this goddess was then called Isis. And after that, the Egyptians also gave Io the name Isis, and Io-Isis, they say, was made a goddess by Zeus. Isis is known for having mourned the god Osiris, worshipped by the Egyptians, who affirm that Isis discovered many drugs, and was versed in healing, giving aid during sleep while standing above the sick. They say that many who had lost the use of their eyes, or other part of their body, were restored to their previous condition whenever they turned for help to Isis. They call Apollo her son, and they say that it was Isis who instructed him in healing and divination. The Drug of Immortality, which achieves the highest form of healing, was discovered by Isis, but the formula remains unknown for the majority of men, as anyone can notice by himself.


As reported, Isis appeared in the dreams of the Cretan woman Telethusa, whose husband Lidgus wished to have their child killed, would Telethusa give birth to a girl. But when the child was about to be born, Telethusa had a vision in her dreams in which Isis, in the company of other gods (Anubis, Bubastis, Apis, Harpocrates and Osiris), told her not to obey her husband's orders. Doing as the vision ordained, she then disguised her daughter as a boy, thus deluding her husband. Later, this girl, when she was about to marry, became a boy.

Priestess of isis. Stående Isis praest, restaureret som praestinde med krukke. Fra Hadrians villa i Tivoli. Romersk, 2. årh e. Kr. Hovedet graesk? 2. årh f. Kr. Rom, Museo Capitolino (Royal Cast Collection, Copenhagen).

Fish saves Isis

Isis is said to have been once saved by a fish, and for this reason the fish was put among the constellations, being the one Fish that is called southern, which seems to drink from the constellation of Aquarius. This is the reason why, some say, the Syrians do not eat fish; but others assert that it is because the goddess Derceto (whom some call Astarte) threw herself in a lake near the city of Ascalon, and was changed, as to the form of her body, into a fish. Since that day then, the Syrians do not eat fish, and honour their fishes as gods.

Invocation of Lucius Apuleius

Isis came to be worshipped in a large part of the world as a great goddess, and her manifold nature becomes apparent in Apuleius' invocation, when he says:

"Blessed Queen of Heaven,, whether you are pleased to be known as Ceres (Demeter). … who in joy at the finding of your lost daughter Proserpine (Persephone). … gave our forefathers bread raised from the fertile soil of Eleusis; or whether as celestial Venus (Aphrodite). … who at the time of the first Creation coupled the sexes in mutual love … or whether as Artemis, the physician sister of Apollo, reliever of the birth pangs of women, and now adored in the ancient shrine at Ephesus; or whether as dread Proserpine (Persephone). to whom the owl cries at night, whose triple face is potent against the malice of ghosts … you who wander through many sacred groves, and are propitiated with many different rites … I beseech you (etc.)." (Apuleius, The Golden Ass).

And the goddess answers him in similar way:

"The Phrygians call me … Mother of the Gods; the Athenians, call me Cecropian Artemis; for the islanders of Cyprus I am Paphian Aphrodite; for the archers of Crete I am Dictynna; for the Sicilians Proserpine (Persephone).; and for the Eleusinians their ancient Mother of the Corn (Demeter). Some know me as Juno (Hera), some as Bellona of the Battles, others as Hecate … and the Egyptians … call me by my true name, namely, Queen Isis." (Apuleius, The Golden Ass).

Io is one of the Three Main Ancestors

Ancestors and founders of important cities like Mycenae, Thebes, and Argos were descendants of Io (or the river god Inachus). These dominated also Crete, Laconia, and perhaps Arcadia. The HERACLIDES were descendants of Io. So were, among others, Cadmus, Perseus, and Heracles.

  • Io = Isis, name Io come from Iusaaset



Iusaaset (/juːˈsæsɛt/; "the great one who comes forth") or Iusaas (/aɪˈjuːsəs/) is a primordial goddess in Ancient Egyptian religion. In Egyptian texts, she is described as "the grandmother of all of the deities". This allusion is without any reference to a grandfather, so there might have been a very early, but now lost, myth with parthenogenesis as the means of the birth of the deities from the region where her cult arose near the delta of the Nile. There are many alternative spellings of her name, including Iusaaset, Iusaas, Juesaes, Ausaas, and Jusas.

In Ancient Egyptian art, Iusaaset appears as a woman wearing the vulture crown of Mut, another mother goddess, topped with the solar disk between cow horns, the headdress of Hathor. She carries an ankh in one hand and a was sceptre in the other, and sometimes her crown bore a uraeus (Egyptian cobra), representing the goddess Wadjet. The Egyptian vulture that made up her crown symbolised the goddess Nekhbet, the other one of the Two Ladies protecting Egypt, alongside Wadjet. The Egyptian vulture was also thought to reproduce though parthenogenesis, which might be the basis for a similar view about the motherhood of Iusaaset.

The grandmother of the deities, Iusaaset, shown with her Egyptian vulture crown with horns, the solar disk and the uraeus

Although her origins are unclear, Iusaaset seems to be attested quite early in the Egyptian pantheon, being associated with creation in general and the creation of the deities in particular. Many myths relate that she was seen as the mother of the first deities and the grandmother of the following deities, having watched over the birth of the ones that were her grandchildren. She remained a primary deity in the pantheon throughout all eras of the culture, even through the Persian, Hykso, Greek, and Roman occupations, and regardless of changes in the specific myths.

Association with acacia tree

Iusaaset was associated with the acacia tree, considered the tree of life by the Egyptians. The oldest known acacia tree was situated just north of Heliopolis, which therefore became identified as the birthplace of the deities. Iusaaset was said to own this tree, just as Osiris owned the sacred willow. The acacia tree was renowned for its strength, hardiness, medical properties, and edibility. Many useful applications gave it a central importance in Egyptian culture.

Changes in myths

One belief, particularly prominent in Heliopolis, held that Iusaaset and Atum were the parents of Shu and Tefnut, the first deities. In this myth she was often described as the shadow, sister, or wife of Atum.

During the Old Kingdom, the Egyptians believed that Atum lifted the dead pharaoh's soul from the tomb to the starry heavens, associating him with the heavens, and in particular the greatest heavenly object in Egyptian thought: the Sun. By the time of the New Kingdom, the myth of Atum had merged with that of Ra, who was likewise described as a creator deity and a solar deity as his cult arose. Their two identities were joined together to form Atum-Ra. After they were combined, Ra came to be seen as the sun at midday and Atum as the sun when it sets in the west (depicted as an old man leaning on his staff), while Khepri was seen as the sun when it was rising.

In these later times Iusaaset was sometimes described as the Eye of Ra, associating her with other so-called Eye goddesses such as Hathor, Sekhmet and Bast.

Atum - Iusaaset

Atum (alternatively spelled Tem, Temu, Tum, and Atem) is an important deity in Egyptian mythology, whose cult centred on the city of Heliopolis (On). His name is thought to be derived from the word 'tem' which means to complete or finish. Thus he has been interpreted as being the 'complete one' and also the finisher of the world, which he returns to watery chaos at the end of the creative cycle. As creator he was seen as the underlying substance of the world, the deities and all things being made of his flesh or alternatively being his ka.

Atum is one of the most important and frequently mentioned deities from earliest times, as evidenced by his prominence in the Pyramid Texts, where he is portrayed as both a creator and father to the king. He is usually depicted as a man wearing either the royal head-cloth or the dual white and red crown of Upper Egypt, and Lower Egypt, reinforcing his connection with kingship. Sometimes he also is shown as a serpent, the form which he returns to at the end of the creative cycle and also occasionally as a mongoose, lion, bull, lizard, or ape.

In the Heliopolitan creation myth established in the sixth dynasty, he was considered to be the first god, having created himself, sitting on a mound (benben) (or identified with the mound itself), from the primordial waters (Nu). Early myths state that Atum created the god Shu and goddess Tefnut from spitting or from his semen by masturbation in the city of Annu (the Egyptian name for Heliopolis), a belief strongly associated with Atum's nature as a hermaphrodite (hence his name meaning completeness).

Iusaaset, the Grandmother of Deities

Another belief held that Shu and Tefnut were created by Atum having sexual intercourse with a goddess, referred to as Iusaaset (also spelt Juesaes, Ausaas, Iusas, and Jusas, and in Greek as Saosis), meaning the great one who comes forth. She was described as his shadow or his hand. Consequently, Iusaaset was seen as the mother and grandmother of the gods. The strength, hardiness, medical properties, and edibility, led the acacia tree to be considered the tree of life, and thus the oldest, which was situated close to, and north of, Heliopolis, was said to be the birthplace of the deities. Thus, as the mother and grandmother, of the deities, Iusaaset was said to own this tree.


Yuya & Tjuyu

Ehyeh Asher ehyeh - Ja sam koji jesam

Yahweh and his Asherah

Ehyeh Asher ehyeh ( hebrejski : אהיה אשר אהיה ) je prvi od tri odgovora danih Mojsiju kad je pita za ime Božje, u Knjizi Izlaska . King James verzija Biblije prevodi hebrejski kao " Ja sam koji jesam " i koristi ga kao vlastito ime za Boga.

  • Io (Greek: Ἰώ, eng; I am)

Ehyeh Asher ehyeh ( hebrejski : אהיה אשר אהיה ) je prvi od tri odgovora danih Mojsiju kad je pita za ime Božje, u Knjizi Izlaska . King James verzija Biblije prevodi hebrejski kao " Ja sam koji jesam " i koristi ga kao vlastito ime za Boga.

  • Yuya & Thuya = Yu & Yu = Io Io, I Am that I Am or I am Who I am [ehˈje aˈʃer ehˈje] YHWH
  • Yuya, Tjuyu = Julius, Tullius;


Yuya & Tjuyu - Aquiline nose


Tipo Racial Armenoide-dinaric


Yuya & Tjuyu

The Dinaric-Mediterranean type F1 is the higher more Mediterranean version found in Lower Egypt or Anatolia; F2 is the broader bigger-faced more Dinaroid version, rarely with less curved occiput; and F3 is the low-headed East Balkan version with some Iranian face features. Type F4, with its more Iranian face and short vault and with little occipital bulge diverges toward the Armenoid of Bunak and others. Note that type F never has the "flat" occiput of Dinaric and Armenoid types; this occiput is probably artificial (head-bounding) in any case.

Dinaric-Mediterraneans (Type F: Chalcidian, Corinthian, and E. Thessalian in Plate XL, j, k, and l) are the least Alpine of two intermediate, hybrid, Alpinoid forms. Their short (high mesocrane) and relatively high byrsoid heads have pinched and flatly sloping foreheads and non-projecting occiputs. They have big and drooping, hound-like, faces with an elongated hexagonal outline, stemming from striking (though variable) flare of the cheek region. Face height is emphasized in their long and thin noses pulled down almost parallel with their foreheads, in high palates, and in long deep jaws. Dinaric-Mediterraneans are medium tall, long-necked, and presumably mainly brunet. They resemble both dinaricised Mediterraneans from Lower Egypt in the third and second millennia BC and dinaricised Alpines including inhabitants of the Roman Troad, modern Greeks from Anatolia and European Turkey, Serbs and Croats, and Slovenes. Type F is homogeneous but shows divergences toward linearity on the one hand and toward true brachycrane Dinaric makeup on the other.

The peculiar facial and cranial features of the Dinarics seem to be the results of differential inheritance in hybridization; the primary mixture which brings them about is apparently an Alpine-Mediterranean cross, with Mediterranean used in the widest sense of the word. The Asiatic Dinarics, who appeared early in the Metal Age, were apparently Alpine-Cappadocian hybrids; many of those went to Europe and settled in widely separated places, including sections of the Dinaric Alps. The exaggerated Dinaric type of Albania, with its tendency to light brown eye color may conceivably be derived from this source.It is also to be found in considerable numbers in the Tyrol.


Yo - Yu

  • Iusaaset - the Grandmother of Deities
    • Io - beautiful white heifer
      • Io (Yu) & Pt-ah = Jupiter (Iūpiter, Jove); Jove = YHWH


Juraj (Jarilo)

“JURAJ: Юркий, Yurkiy (ruski), Jairus, Jaric, Jarick, Jarik, Jarrek, Jarric, Jarrick, Jereck, Jerick, Jeric, Jerik, Jerric, Jerrik, Jerychko, Jerycho, Jeryco, Juras (engleski), Jeorg (njemački).

Sanskrit: JURNI = UŽAREN;

JUG je jedna od strana svijeta. Zašto se zove JUG? Zato jer tom stranom Sunce HODA, KREĆE SE. S JUGA dolazi topal vjetar JUGO, JUGOVINA. U rijeci JUG korijen je sanskritsko ili protosrbsko JU:
- ime planine JUŽNO od Jagodine je JUHOR.
- ime mjeseca godine u kojem je Sunce na najvišoj JUŽNOJ stranije JUNI, dakle je ime mjeseca JUNI srbsko koliko i latinsko. Od riječi JUNI nastala srbska riječ JUNOŠA i to je mladić u najvećoj ljudskoj snazi (mladost je bila JUNOTA). Od riječi JUNOŠA nastala je riječ JUNAK.

Mlado muško goveče je JUNE, JUNAC, a žensko JUNICA.

U našoj staroj književnosti zabilježena je riječ JUR: “jur (1475, zapadni krajevi, ŽK, Vodice) = jure (čakavci, 15. v. —18. v., Poljički statut) = jurve (16. v., Vuk) = jura (Ranjina) »sinonimi: već, jamačno, doista«,…).” (P. Skok, Etimologijski rječnik hrvatskoga ili srpskoga jezika, JAZU, Zagreb, 1971) Riječ JUR kod Engleza primila je smisao riječi ZAKLETVA: JURY (JUREE, starofrancuski; JURATA, latinski).

Od 11. pa sve do 17. vijeka u ruskom hrišćanstvu postojali su vjernici JURODIVI koji su HODALI, KRETALI SE od mjesta do mjesta. Često su hodali goli, jer su pod maskom bezumnika i bestidnika ismijavali ljudske zakone i običaje stremeći DIVSKOM, tj. božanskom. Otuda im i ime: JURO (hodajući) i DIVI (božanski).

  • Erra (sometimes called Irra) is an Akkadian plague god known from an 'epos' of the eighth century BCE.
  • Iyarri ili Yarri bio je luvijski i hetitski bog kuge i rata.


Plominski natpis (Istra)

Glagoljaški natpis u desnom gornjem kutu

U crkvenom je zidu kamena ploča, a u njoj je grubo, rudimentarno uklesan muški golobradi lik, odjeven u kratku antiknu tuniku, kakvu su nosili radnici, težaci i robovi. Muškarac na tom reljefu nosi u ruci neki predmet u kojemu prepoznajemo stiliziranu granu s tri lista. Prolistala grana, znak je raslinja (vegetacije).

Kako je reljef ugrađen u zid crkve sv. Jurja, što bi bilo lakše nego pomisliti da je na reljefu prikazan sv. Juraj, kršćanski proljetni svetac koji u pučkoj predodžbi donosi svake godine proljetno zelenilo. Slavimo ga 23. travnja.

Ipak, to ne može biti svetac, jer oko glave nema aureole, svetačke oznake. Ako nije svetac, tko je to? Ta, na crkvi je, i to na istaknutom mjestu. Odgovor nije tako brz i jednostavan. O tome smo vodili i raspravu. Najprije se moramo pitati iz kojeg je vremena taj reljef, kojem razdoblju on pripada.

Koliko god bio zaostao, pa u tom smislu i bezvremen, taj reljef ipak ima zamjetne značajke antike. Zapažamo ih u nošnji (u kostimeriji), u lubanjastom tipu glave, u rudimentiranim naznakama ušne školjke, u naborima haljine. To je, ukratko, prikaz ilirsko-rimskog božanstva zvanoga Silvan, koji je bio poganski zaštitnik šuma, žita, voćaka, trava, svekolikog raslinja i svekolike faune. U ruci nosi prolistalu granu kao svoj znak, atrubut, posjetnicu, kao da govori gledaocu: >>To sam ja, Silvan<<.

S raslinjem u rukama Silvan je prikazan i na jednom rimskom, antiknom žrtveniku, ari buzetskoga muzeja u Istri. Prema tome, to je u Istri bila njegova redovita ikonografija, redovit način njegova prikazivanja.

Odakle se, kako i zašto našlo ovo antikno, pogansko božanstvo na zidu jedne kršćanske crkve, bit je prave kulturnopovijesne teme na ovom reljefu iz Plomina.

Kad su se naši pradjedovi u Plominu pokrstili i kad su nakon nekog vremena počeli slaviti svetoga Jurja, oni su u kršćanskom mučeniku sv. Jurju, točnije u svom folklornom objašnjenju toga proljetnoga sveca, nastavili častiti onoga nadzemaljskoga zaštitnika svojih životnih potreba – a to su biljni i životinjski svijet, ljetina i stika – onoga zaštitnika kojega su i kao stari Iliri slavili u liku Silvanja, a i kao Slaveni u likovima svojih pradavnih proljetnih poganskih božanstava. Na leđa kršćanskog svetoga Jurja oni su jednostavno prekrcali svu staru kultnu prtljagu.

Tko zna tko je i kada i gdje iz neke ruševine ili iz zemlje u Plominu iskopao i pronašao ovaj antikni reljef s likom poganskoga Silvana pa u njemu prepoznao lik svetoga Jurja – onoga Jurja koji nam također donosi proljetno zelenilo i tako nam pomaže živjeti.

Takvom kontaminacijom, poganski je Silvan bio prekršten u svetoga Jurja, pa je tako i dospio u zid njegove crkve u Plominu.
A zašto taj reljef zovemo Plominskim natpisom i pridajemo mu toliku važnost? Pogledajte dobro gornji desni ugao reljefa. Tamo su naknadno bila uklesana slova. Pročitali smo ih i ustanovili da je to glagoljica, ona stara, još obla, starija od pisma Bašćanske ploče. To je glagoljski natpis iz XI. stoljeća.

Nije toliko važno što na njemu piše, važnija je njegova starina. Na Plominskom natpisu netko je uklesao zapis: SE E PIS’ L S (=ovo je pisao s...)

Čudno mi je da ga talijanski iredentisti iz Labina nisu čekićem rastukli kako su učinili s jednim glagoljskim natpisom u plominskoj župnoj crkvi. Mislim da su nam ovaj natpis spasile od iredentista ose ili stršeni. Ja sam ga godine 1946. otkrivao skidajući s reljefa osinjake.

Iz knjige TERRA INCOGNITA od Branka Fučića

Uvečanje desnog gornjeg ruba, od gornje slike



An amphictyonic league (“league of neighbors”) was an association of neighboring states formed around a religious center. The most important was the Delphic Amphictyony. Originally composed of 12 tribes dwelling around Thermopylae, including Phocis, the league was centered first on the shrine of Demeter and later became associated with the Temple of Apollo at Delphi. The League doctrine required that no member would be entirely wiped out in war and no water supply of any member would be cut even in wartime. It did not prevent members from fighting about the dominance over the temples.

In 356 BC Phocians captured and sacked Delphi, and sacred war was declared against them. After a ten-year war the Phocians were expelled from the League in 346 BC and their two votes were given to Macedonians who had helped to defeat them. Philip II of Macedonia used its power to further his expansionist conquests in Greece. The coin above was struck in the year of or the year after Philip II’s son Alexander (the Great) became King of Macedon.

On the coin is Demeter wreathed with ears of wheat and veiled. On the reverse is Apollo Pythios, laureate and wearing a chiton, seated on omphalos draped with himation; his elbow rests on a lyre and his hand supports his chin; a long laurel branch rests diagonally across him; in the field is tripod: ΑΜΦI - KTIO - NΩN inscription in exergue.

Macedonians (Makedónes) and Magnetes

  • Macedonians - They lived in Ancient Macedonia and they spoke a version of the Doric dialect.
  • Magnetes - They lived in Magnesia (most of Thessaly's coastal region). They were seen by ancient Greeks as a people that shared a common ancestor with the Macedonians.


Argead dynasty

The Argead dynasty (Greek: Ἀργεάδαι, Argeádai) was an ancient Greek royal house. They were the founders and the ruling dynasty of Macedon from about 700 to 310 BC.

Their tradition, as described in ancient Greek historiography, traced their origins to Argos, in southern Greece, hence the name Argeads or Argives. Initially the rulers of the homonymous tribe, by the time of Philip II they had expanded their reign further, to include under the rule of Macedonia all Upper Macedonian states. The family's most celebrated members were Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great, under whose leadership the kingdom of Macedonia gradually gained predominance throughout Greece, defeated the Achaemenid Empire and expanded as far as Egypt and India. The mythical founder of the Argead dynasty is King Caranus.


The words "Argead" and "Argive" derive (via Latin Argīvus) from the Greek Ἀργεῖος (Argeios), "of or from Argos", which is first attested in Homer, where it was also used as a collective designation for the Greeks ("Ἀργείων Δαναῶν", Argive Danaans). The Argead dynasty claimed descent from the Temenids of Argos, in the Peloponnese, whose legendary ancestor was Temenus, the great-great-grandson of Heracles.

In the excavations of the royal Palace at Aegae Manolis Andronikos discovered in the "tholos" room (according to some scholars "tholos" was the throne room) an inscription relating to that belief. This is testified by Herodotus, in The Histories, where he mentions that three brothers of the lineage of Temenus, Gauanes, Aeropus and Perdiccas, fled from Argos to the Illyrians and then to Upper Macedonia, to a town called Lebaea, where they served the king. The latter asked them to leave his territory, believing in an omen that something great would happen to Perdiccas. The boys went to another part of Macedonia, near the garden of Midas, above which mount Bermio stands. There they made their abode and slowly formed their own kingdom.

Herodotus also relates the incident of the participation of Alexander I of Macedon in the Olympic Games in 504 or 500 BC where the participation of the Macedonian king was contested by participants on the grounds that he was not Greek. The Hellanodikai, however, after examining his Argead claim confirmed that the Macedonians were Greeks and allowed him to participate.


Argead dynasty genealogy

Deucalion Pyrrha Zeus
Thyia Pandora Protogeneia


Dorus Xuthus Aeolus Magnes Macedon Graecus Aethlius
Aegimius Achaeus Ion Endymion
Dymas Pamphylus Aetolus


Thyia - Thuia


Tjuyu is believed to be a descendant of Queen Ahmose-Nefertari, and she held many official roles in the interwoven religion and government of Ancient Egypt. She was involved in many religious cults; her titles included 'Singer of Hathor' and 'Chief of the Entertainers' of both Amun and Min. She also held the influential offices of Superintendent of the Harem of the god Min of Akhmin and of Amun of Thebes.

Thyia (Ancient Greek: Θυία Thuia); In the Delphic tradition, Thyia was the naiad of a spring on Mount Parnassos in Phocis, daughter of the river god Cephissus. Her shrine was the site for the gathering of the Thyiades. She was said to have been the first to sacrifice to Dionysus, and to celebrate orgies in his honour. Hence, the Attic women, who every year went to Mount Parnassus to celebrate the Dionysiac orgies with the Delphian Thyiades, received themselves the name of Thyades or Thyiades (synonymous with Maenads).

The Maenad of Tetovo (Macedonia) - Coat of arms of Tetovo

Maenads were the female followers of Dionysus and the most significant members of the Thiasus. Maenads were known as Bassarids, Bacchae /ˈbækiː/, or Bacchantes, after the penchant of the equivalent Roman god, Bacchus.

Thyia was also reported to have had an affair with Poseidon.

Thyia was the daughter of Deucalion and Pyrrha and mother of Magnes and Makednos (the ancestor of the Macedonians) by Zeus, according to a quotation from Hesiod's lost work the Catalogue of Women, preserved in the De Thematibus of Constantine Porphyrogenitus and in Stephanus of Byzantium's Ethnika.

  • Yuya was the king's 'Master of the Horse'


Alexander - Philippos

Alexander the Great wearing a Horn of Ammon - Philip II of Macedon on horseback

Alexander = Ἀλεξ + ἀνήρ (anēr) "man" (GEN ἀνδρός andros)

Ἀλεξ = Les, Lesnik predstavlja šumskog duha starih Slavena. Lesnik se zamišljao kao antropomorfno biće, ali sa glavom neke rogate životinje, obično obučen u krzno. Nerijetko je zamišljan sa kopitima. Da je povezan sa šumama može se zaključiti iz njegovog imena, jer les na staroslovenskom (a i u mnogim živim slovenskim jezicima) znači šuma.. U Rusiji su ga zvali lješi, a poznata su i imena ljesovik, lešak, lesnoj i lisun. (Les Veles)

  • Les = Lesander, Alexander; Diocles - Diocletian (244–311), Roman emperor formerly named Diocles. (Div-cl-les)

Veles is a city in the central part of the Republic of North Macedonia on the Vardar river. Bylazora or Vilazora was a Paeonian city from the period of early classic antiquity. The city's name was Βελισσός Velissos in Ancient Greek.

  • Byla-zora, Vila-zora = Veles + Zora or Gora
  • Gora = Gora, Gorana, Goran...
  • Zora = zvijezda Danica (Kako pade sa nebesa, Svjetlonošo, sine Zorin? - Izaija ... "Ja sam korijen i izdanak Davidov, sjajna zvijezda Danica." - Otkrivenje); Zora, Zorica, Zoran..

Philippos (Philippos, lit. "horse-loving" or "fond of horses"), from a compound of φίλος (phílos, "dear", "loved", "loving", "friend") and ἵππος (hippos, "horse").

Phílos (φίλος) = Bilos (bilo, bijelo, svijetlo..) = Bilha (vlha, Vlachs, Veles) = vila, volim.. (vile, vol, vlna (vuna)..)

  • Philippos = Bili-konj, Svijetli konj (Sabazios, Svetovid..)




Pegasus (Greek: Πήγασος, Pḗgasos; Latin: Pegasus, Pegasos) is a mythical winged divine horse, and one of the most recognized creatures in Greek mythology. Usually depicted as pure white, Pegasus is the offspring of the Olympian god Poseidon. He was foaled by the Gorgon Medusa upon her death, when the hero Perseus decapitated her.



Alexander the Great wearing a Horn of Ammon

Amun-Ra retained chief importance in the Egyptian pantheon throughout the New Kingdom (with the exception of the "Atenist heresy" under Akhenaten). Amun-Ra in this period (16th to 11th centuries BC) held the position of transcendental, self-created creator deity "par excellence", he was the champion of the poor or troubled and central to personal piety. His position as King of Gods developed to the point of virtual monotheism where other gods became manifestations of him. With Osiris, Amun-Ra is the most widely recorded of the Egyptian gods.


As the chief deity of the Egyptian Empire, Amun-Ra also came to be worshipped outside Egypt, according to the testimony of ancient Greek historiographers in Libya and Nubia. As Zeus Ammon he came to be identified with Zeus in Greece.

Amun and Amaunet are mentioned in the Old Egyptian Pyramid Texts. The name Amun (written imn) meant something like "the hidden one" or "invisible".

Amun rose to the position of tutelary deity of Thebes after the end of the First Intermediate Period, under the 11th dynasty. As the patron of Thebes, his spouse was Mut. In Thebes, Amun as father, Mut as mother and the Moon god Khonsu formed a divine family or "Theban Triad".

Subsequently, when Egypt conquered Kush, they identified the chief deity of the Kushites as Amun. This Kush deity was depicted as ram-headed, more specifically a woolly ram with curved horns. Amun thus became associated with the ram arising from the aged appearance of the Kush ram deity. A solar deity in the form of a ram can be traced to the pre-literate Kerma culture in Nubia, contemporary to the Old Kingdom of Egypt.

Amun also adopted the aspect of the ram from the Nubian solar god, besides numerous other titles and aspects.

In Libya there remained a solitary oracle of Amun in the Libyan Desert at the oasis of Siwa. The worship of Ammon was introduced into Greece at an early period. A mythological king of Libya, was also considered a son of Hammon.

According to the 6th century author Corippus, a Libyan people known as the Laguatan carried an effigy of their god Gurzil, whom they believed to be the son of Ammon, into battle against the Byzantine Empire in the 540s AD.

Amun, worshipped by the Greeks as Ammon, had a temple and a statue, the gift of Pindar, at Thebes, and another at Sparta, the inhabitants of which, as Pausanias says, consulted the oracle of Ammon in Libya from early times more than the other Greeks. At Aphytis, Chalcidice, Amun was worshipped, from the time of Lysander (d. 395 BC), as zealously as in Ammonium. Pindar the poet honoured the god with a hymn. At Megalopolis the god was represented with the head of a ram (Paus. viii.32 § 1), and the Greeks of Cyrenaica dedicated at Delphi a chariot with a statue of Ammon.

Such was its reputation among the Classical Greeks that Alexander the Great journeyed there after the battle of Issus and during his occupation of Egypt, where he was declared "the son of Amun" by the oracle. Alexander thereafter considered himself divine. Even during this occupation, Amun, identified by these Greeks as a form of Zeus, continued to be the principal local deity of Thebes.

Several words derive from Amun via the Greek form, Ammon, such as ammonia and ammonite. The Romans called the ammonium chloride they collected from deposits near the Temple of Jupiter-Amun in ancient Libya sal ammoniacus (salt of Amun) because of proximity to the nearby temple. - Amun-Ra, Ammonoidea


Illyrian & roman helmets

Zeus Ammon

Illyrian & roman helmets

Melanthius, the son of Dolius, plays the minor, yet important character of Odysseus's disloyal goatherd in Homer's Odyssey. Upon his return to Ithaca, Odysseus is cruelly mocked by Melanthius, the "goatish goatherd".


As the chief deity of the Egyptian Empire, Amun-Ra also came to be worshipped outside Egypt, according to the testimony of ancient Greek historiographers in Libya and Nubia. As Zeus Ammon he came to be identified with Zeus in Greece.

Illyrian helmets, Zeus Ammon - Eye of Horus

Moses with horns - Zeus Ammon

Kameni blokovi s protomom glave Jupitera Amona - Zadar (Iader)

Amen - Amon (â'men, ä'-) ili Amon (à'men) ili Amen (ä'mèn), drevno egipatsko božanstvo. Izvorno glavni bog Tebe, Amon je rastao i bio sve važniji u Egiptu, i na kraju, kao Amon Ra, identificiran je s RA kao vrhovno božanstvo.

I anđelu Crkve u Laodiceji napiši: "Ovo govori Amen, Svjedok vjerni i istiniti, Početak Božjeg stvorenja: - Otkrivenje 3,14


Ovnujski rogovi - Hipokampus


Kundalini energija se diže oko kralježnice i dolazi u lubanju do amonovih rogova ili hipokampusa, između njih je pinealna žlijezda, tj. on spaja pinealnu i pituitarnu žlijezdu. Preko pingale, muške energije ide prvo u pinealnu žlijezdu, onda ona preko hipokampusa izlučuje mliječ u pituitarnu žlijezdu.

Hipokampus je u obliku morskog konjića, latinski naziv za morskog konjića je hipokampus. Hipokampusa su štovali i Grci i Feničani. Zato su faraoni pokazivani sa hipokampusom, zato je na grbu Kohana hipokampus (uz golubicu i qajin tj. koplje). On je označavan ovnovim rogom, u Bibliji se puše iz njega stalno. Preciznije, amonovi rogovi ili ovnovi su dio hipokampusa, hipokampus se označava bijelim konjem jer je bijele boje. U makrokosmosu, bijeli krilati konj je sazviježđe Pegasus, na njemu treba doći Isus i deseti avatar Višnua, Kalki. Kako gore, tako dolje. S tim konjem se prikazuju i Buda/Votan.  Zašto baš na njemu? Zato jer sunce na proljetni ekvinocij (kada se slavi uskrs sina božjeg) sazviježđe Pegasus pridružuje suncu.

Pegasus je prema legendi nastao od krvi Gorgone Meduse, koja je imala zmijsku kosu. Zato se često prikazivao konj koji se propinje sa ribljim repom u umjetnosti, isto znači i jednorog (hipokampus u glavi sa trećim okom). Hipokampus i rogovi tvore cjelinu, konj i bik/ovan.


Sedam truba od ovnujskih rogova.. Sedmoga dana.. I srušit će se gradski bedemi


Ammon = zmija + ovnovi rogovi

Svi vi ratnici obiđite oko grada jedanput na dan. Tako činite šest dana. (4) A sedam svećenika neka nose pred Kovčegom sedam truba od ovnujskih rogova. Sedmoga dana obiđite sedam puta oko grada, a svećenici neka trube u trublje. (5) Pa kad otežući zatrube u rog ovnujski, neka sav narod, čim čuje glas trube, podigne silnu bojnu viku. I srušit će se gradski bedemi, a narod neka tada ulazi svaki odande gdje se nađe." - Jošua


Sabazios (Hypsistarians) = Tzevaot = Svetovid

Philip II of Macedon on horseback

The first Jews who settled in Rome were expelled in 139 BCE, along with Chaldaean astrologers by Cornelius Hispalus under a law which proscribed the propagation of the "corrupting" cult of "Jupiter Sabazius", according to the epitome of a lost book of Valerius Maximus:

Gnaeus Cornelius Hispalus, praetor peregrinus in the year of the consulate of Marcus Popilius Laenas and Lucius Calpurnius, ordered the astrologers by an edict to leave Rome and Italy within ten days, since by a fallacious interpretation of the stars they perturbed fickle and silly minds, thereby making profit out of their lies. The same praetor compelled the Jews, who attempted to infect the Roman custom with the cult of Jupiter Sabazius, to return to their homes.

The Romans identified the Jewish YHVH Tzevaot ("sa-ba-oth", "of the Hosts") as Jove Sabazius.

Sabazios = Svetovid

Hypsistarians, i.e. worshippers of the Hypsistos (Greek: Ὕψιστος, the "Most High" God), is a term that appears in documents that date from around 200 BC to around AD 400, referring to various groups mainly in Asia Minor (Cappadocia, Bithynia and Pontus) and the Black Sea coasts that are today part of Russia.

In the Septuagint the root word "hypsisto-" occurs more than fifty times as a substitution for the Tetragrammaton (the name of God) or in direct relation to Him (most often in the Psalms, Daniel, and Sirach).

It is possible that the native Cappadocian cult of Zeus Sabazios slowly integrated into the cult of Jahve Sabaoth practiced by the numerous and intellectually predominant Jewish colonies.

Tzevaot, Tsebaoth or Sabaoth in reference to armies or armed hosts of men in Exodus but is not used as a divine epithet in the Torah, Joshua, or Judges. In the First Book of Samuel, David uses the name YHWH Tzavaot and immediately glosses it as "the God of the armies of Israel". The same name appears in the prophets along with YHWH Elohe Tzevaot, Elohey Tzevaot, and Adonai YHWH Tzevaot.

Sabazios - Iliri

Svetovit (Svetovid, Swiatowit, Sutvid, Vid) povezivan s ratovima i proricanjem. Opisivan je kao četveroglavi bog čije su glave gledale na četiri strane. Ovako udruženih glava, on može obuhvatiti pogledom sve strane svijeta (Svevid). Njegov konj bijele boje čuvan je u njegovom hramu i o njemu su se brinuli svećenici. Vjerovalo se da Svetovit ratuje protiv neprijatelja jašući na ovom konju. Isti konj služio je i za gatanje. O Svetovitu su ovisili uspjesi ratnih pohoda, trgovačkih putovanja, bogatstvo žetve. U isto vrijeme on je držao jedan luk ili mač, kao simbol rata, i rog za piće. Baltički Slaveni su ga prihvaćali kao prvog ili najvišeg boga. Vjeruje se da je dolaskom kršćanstva Svetovit i dalje ostao u slavenskom narodu kroz lik svetoga Vida.




Silvanus, Sabazios = Shiva

Shiva bhasma

Head of Silvanus crowned with pine   Sabazios with pine  
Head of Silvanus crowned with pine - Sabazios with pine (Third Eye) - Shiva bhasma


Saba-Zios - Shiva-Dios

Sabazios   Sabazios  
Sabazios - Shiva

Shiva Attributes

Crescent moon: Shiva bears on his head the crescent moon. The epithet Candraśekhara (Sanskrit: चन्द्रशेखर "Having the moon as his crest" – candra = "moon"; śekhara = "crest, crown") refers to this feature. The placement of the moon on his head as a standard iconographic feature dates to the period when Rudra rose to prominence and became the major deity Rudra-Shiva. The origin of this linkage may be due to the identification of the moon with Soma, and there is a hymn in the Rig Veda where Soma and Rudra are jointly implored, and in later literature, Soma and Rudra came to be identified with one another, as were Soma and the moon.

Crescent moon - Nandī

Nandī, also known as "Nandin", is the name of the bull that serves as Shiva's mount (Sanskrit: vāhana). Shiva's association with cattle is reflected in his name Paśupati, or Pashupati (Sanskrit: पशुपति), translated by Sharma as "lord of cattle" and by Kramrisch as "lord of animals", who notes that it is particularly used as an epithet of Rudra.


Silvan - Nataraja

Silvan je prikazan u profilu, kao da pleše, s lijevom nogom naprijed zakoračenom, desna mu je ruka podignuta na razini ramena. (Danilo Gornje) - Shiva as Nataraja, god of dance.


Itifaličnost, odnosno falus u eregiranom položaju kod prikazivanja Silvana, zastupljena je na čitavom delmatskom području, kao jedna od značajki takozvanoga delmatskog tipa Silvana, Rendić-Miočević D. 1955, str. 16.

  • Silvanus = Sivan, Shiva
  • Sabazios = Shiva Zios = Shiva Dios
  • Sveti Sava se smatrao zaštitnikom pastira i stoke



Triskelion of Sicily

Srebrni novac plemena Deroni koji je pronadjen u Vranju.

Novac antičkog plemena Deroni, prikazan je čovjek na kolima koja vuče vol.
Na aversu svakog novčića prikazan je triskelion.



Makedon, also Macedon was the ancestor of the ancient Macedonians according to various ancient Greek fragmentary narratives. In most versions, he appears as a native or immigrant leader from Epirus, who gave his name to Macedonia, previously called Emathia according to Strabo, which according to Marsyas of Pella was until then a part of Thrace.

The seventh fragment of the Hesiodic Catalogue of Women, quoted by Constantine Porphyrogenitus,  states: "Macedonia the country was named after Makedon, the son of Zeus and Thyia, daughter of Deucalion, as the poet Hesiod relates; and she became pregnant and bore to thunder-loving Zeus, two sons, Magnes and Macedon, the horse lover, those who dwelt in mansions around Pieria and Olympus". The poetic epithet "hippiocharmes" can alternatively be translated as "fighting on horseback" or "chariot-fighter" and has also been attributed to Aeolus son of Hellen, Troilus and Amythaon. A fragment of the Macedonian historian Marsyas of Pella (4th century BC), through a scholiast of Iliad xiv 226 confirms the genealogy as found in the Catalogue of Women: "Makedon son of Zeus and Thyia, conquered the land then belonging to Thrace and he called it Macedonia after his name. He married a local woman and got two sons, Pierus and Amathus; two cities, Pieria and Amathia in Macedonia were founded or named after them ". The rare name of his mother Thyia, has been corrupted in transmission to Aithria or Aithyia through the phrase "kai Thyias, and Thyia". Thyia in the Delphic tradition was an eponym naiad of the Thyiades, alternative name of the Maenads in the cult of Dionysus, certainly practiced also in Macedonia.



Hermes lyre


Frigijska kapa - Tračani, Iliri, Frigijci

Orpheus mother was the muse Calliope; or, a daughter of Pierus, son of Makedon. His birthplace and place of residence was in Pimpleia, Olympus. In Argonautica the location of Oeagrus and Calliope's wedding is close to Pimpleia,near Olympus. While living with his mother and her eight beautiful sisters in Parnassus, he met Apollo, who was courting the laughing muse Thalia. Apollo, as the god of music, gave Orpheus a golden lyre and taught him to play it. Orpheus' mother taught him to make verses for singing. Strabo mentions that he lived in Pimpleia. He is also said to have studied in Egypt.

  • Tribe of Dan = Makedons



Muses are the inspirational goddesses of literature, science, and the arts. They are considered the source of the knowledge embodied in the poetry, lyric songs, and myths that were related orally for centuries in these ancient cultures.

Some ancient authorities thought that the Nine Muses were of Thracian origin. There, a tradition persisted that the Muses had once been three in number.

Diodorus states (Book I.18) that Osiris first recruited the nine Muses, along with the satyrs, while passing through Ethiopia, before embarking on a tour of all Asia and Europe, teaching the arts of cultivation wherever he went.

According to a myth from Ovid's Metamorphoses-alluding to the connection of Pieria with the Muses-Pierus, king of Macedon, had nine daughters he named after the nine Muses, believing that their skills were a great match to the Muses. He thus challenged the Muses to a match, resulting in his daughters, the Pierides, being turned into chattering magpies for their presumption.

Pierides (Emathides)


Magnes & muse Clio (Kleio)

Magnes was the son of Zeus and Thyia, daughter of Deucalion and brother of Makednos.

Pierus was the son of Magnes. He was the lover of muse Clio and father of Hyacinth in some accounts and Rhagus.

Muse Clio, also spelled Kleio.

According to Tzetzes, Linus of Thrace was a son of Magnes by muse Clio.

Linus of Thrace was a reputed musician and master of eloquent speech. He was regarded as the first leader of lyric song.

"...when Cadmus brought from Phoenicia the letters, as they are called, Linus was again the first to transfer them into the Greek language, to give a name to each character, and to fix its shape. Now the letters, as a group, are called "Phoenician" because they were brought to the Greeks from the Phoenicians, but as single letters the Pelasgians were the first to make use of the transferred characters and so they were called." - Diodorus Siculus

  • Clio (Kleio) = Clea (Dioclea)

Docleatae or Dokleatai (Greek: Δοκλεάται) were an Illyrian tribe that lived in what is now Montenegro. Their capital was Doclea (or Dioclea), and they are called after the town. They had settled west of the Morača river, up to Montenegro's present-day borders with Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Docleatae were prominent for their cheese, which was exported to various Roman provinces within the Roman Empire.


Mycenaean Greece - Chariot

Eberzahnhelm - Chariot

Maryannu is an ancient word for the caste of chariot-mounted hereditary warrior nobility which existed in many of the societies of the Middle East during the Bronze Age.

The term is attested in the Amarna letters written by Haapi. Robert Drews writes that the name 'maryannu' although plural takes the singular 'marya', which in Sanskrit means "young warrior", and attaches a Hurrian suffix. (Drews:p. 59) He suggests that at the beginning of the Late Bronze Age most would have spoken either Hurrian or Indo-Aryan but by the end of the 14th

  • Eber > Aper > Vepar


Triballia - Aper


Diocletian & Aper

According to SHA , ie the author of the Augustan History, that, when the future emperor Diocletian was still known as Diocles and making his way as a professional soldier serving in Gaul, tavern-woman who was also a druidess prophesied that he would accede to the empire '... once he had killed his boar ...' - ie Diocletiani manu esset Aper occisus ;.

At the outset of the reign of the Emperor Numerian (284) a man named Aper was already en poste as Praetorian Prefect. Aper is considered likely to have been the unnamed prefect who is said in the Vita Cari to have urged Carus to make war on Persia, hoping that Carus and Numerian would perish and he himself obtain the Purple.

When Numerian (who was by that time the Emperor following the death of his father) died as the Imperial comitatus returned from its victorious campaign in Persia. The traditional story is that Aper hid the body in a closed litter, told everyone that the emperor was irritated by the dust and light during the retreat, and issued orders in the emperor's name until the scent of the rotting corpse exposed his scheme.

Aper was accused of his murder by the army and put on trial at Nicomedia (Izmit, Turkey). The suspicion of murder evidently arose because Aper had attempted to conceal the fact of Numerian's death, perhaps while he prepared the ground for his own accession to the Purple. Diocles, commander of the Domestici, then gave early proof of the capacity for decisive action that was to distinguish him as the Emperor Diocletian by pronouncing Aper the murderer and executing him on the spot by plunging his sword into his breast.

Flavius Vopiscus relates that Diocletian did this to fulfill a prophecy which had been delivered to him by a female druid, "Imperator eris, cum Aprum occideris."

  • Triballia - Trebinje



Stećak iz Bakića na kojem je prikazana glava vepra.

Anglosaksonski spomenik iz 11. vijeka, Stapleford, Engleska i obelisk iz Bakića.

New Kingdom Index Amarna Period