Ur of the Chaldeans

Ur III period, c. 2047 - 1940 BC


Veliki polet obrta, trgovine i kulturni procvat


Ur Chaldean

Sumer rose up again with the Third Dynasty of Ur in the late 22nd century BC, and ejected the Gutians from southern Mesopotamia. They also seem to have gained ascendancy over most of the territory of the Akkadian kings of Assyria in northern Mesopotamia for a time.

Following the collapse of the Sumerian "Ur-III" dynasty at the hands of the Elamites in 2002 BC, the Amorites, a foreign Northwest Semitic-speaking people, began to migrate into southern Mesopotamia from the northern Levant, gradually gaining control over most of southern Mesopotamia, where they formed a series of small kingdoms, while the Assyrians reasserted their independence in the north. The states of the south were unable to stem the Amorite advance.

Kodeks Ur-Nammu

Kodeks Ur-Nammu je najstariji poznati zakon koji je preživjeo danas. Zakon je iz Mezopotamije i napisan je na tabletama u sumerskom jeziku c. 2100-2050 prije Krista.

Kodeks Ur-Nammu je tri stoljeća stariji od zakona Hamurabija. Za najstarije sačuvano zakonodavstvo kod poznate povijesti, smatra se da je izuzetno napredan, jer je predviđao novčane naknade za tjelesna oštećenja, za razliku od kasnijih lex talionis ('Oko za oko') načelo babilonskog zakona; Međutim, ubojstva, pljačke, preljubi i ​​silovanja bila su teška djela.


Ur-Nammu


Ur-Nammu

Ur-Nammu - Ziggurat Builder

After expanding his control Ur-Nammu set about one of the most momentous building programs of all time when he erected ziggurats in Ur, Eridu, Uruk and Nippur. The massive stepped buildings made of mud bricks where built on the foundations of temple platforms that dated back to Ubaid times over 3,000 years earlier. These monuments are among the first known examples of the iconic structures and they have left marks on the landscapes of these sites to this day. Each of the magnificent tiered structures was topped by a shrine to the local god and Ur-Nammu as benefactor could assume the role of representative of them all.

In addition to the monumental construction Ur-Nammu rebuilt the canal networks that had fallen to ruin during the Gutian period. He also saw several cities refortified with new walls and defenses. Overall he sought to undo the damage of decades of neglect to a empire that he would claim as his own. Now, thousands of years later, sites all across southern Iraq contain bricks with the name of Ur-Nammu stamped on them commemorating the work of this enterprising dynastic founder.

 
Ur - Ziggurat of Ur

The Stele of Ur-Nammu

Although a large trove of administrative documents does exist from this period there is little evidence of the actual details of Ur-Nammu’s reign. One notable exception is the Stele of Ur-Nammu. The stele was discovered in 1925 by a joint expedition of the University of Pennsylvania and the British Museum. The stele which had originally been ten feet high had been reduced to fragments. The largest fragments were later restored in Philadelphia with plaster being used to fill in the gaps. Dozens of smaller pieces were left in boxes but the visible relief provides several revealing scenes.


Stele of Ur-Nammu

The top register shows Ur-Nammu offering libations to Nanna the Moon god of Ur on the right and to Nanna’s consort Ningal on the left. The second register shows Ur-Nammu on the right carrying tools over his shoulder as he prepares to rebuild a temple. On the left of the second register there are partial images of workmen and below them on the third register is a ladder presumably to scale the unfinished building. Although sparse, these images allow the earliest known glimpse into the dedication of a temple and give some idea of the rituals observed.

Pad grada-države Ur-a oko 1940 pne. naznačio je i kraj sumerske civilizacije, dok je osnutak amorejske dinastije u gradu Isin, nešto sjevernije od Ura, označio početak babilonske. Osnivač isinske dinastije, Išbi-Era bio je vazal posljednjeg urskog vladara Ibi-Sina, no ubrzo se osamostalio.

Ibbi-Sin - 1963-1940 BC

The Amorites were considered a backward people by Mesopotamian standards; Ibbi-Sin's 17th year was officially named "Year the Amorites, the powerful south wind who, from the remote past, have not known cities, submitted to Ibbi-Sin the king of Ur." However, despite his father Shu-Sin having built a "wall of Martu" across Mesopotamia against Amorite incursions, these were penetrated early in Ibbi-Sin's reign.

Ur-Nammu - Ibbi-Sin - Ishbi-ERRA


Ibbi-Sin


Virtualna rekonstrukcija grada Ura 3D rekonstrukcija Luis Amoros & Miguel Orellana
(404 arhitekata, Barcelona i Vancouver) - Ur Kaldejski

 

Ur of the Chaldeans

Ur was first found and excavated in 1853 and 1854 by British consul J. E. Taylor, who uncovered the then sand-covered remains of the famed ziggurat.

This city, which is mentioned several times in the Bible as Ur of the Chaldees (referring to the Chaldeans, whom settled in the area about 900 BC) as the birthplace of Prophet Abraham "Ibrahim Al-Khalil" (pbuh), was one of the most important cities of the Sumerians in the 4th and the 1st half of the 3rd millennium BC. It was also considered as one of the most active and full of life cities in southern Mesopotamia during the following centuries. In former days it stood on the banks of the Euphrates, until the river changed its course.

Evidence suggests that Ur had three classes of people. The richer, government officials, priests and soldiers, were at the top. The second level was for merchants, teachers, labourers, farmers and craft-makers. The bottom were for slaves captured in battle. Burials at Ur give insight into people's social standing. Kings and queens were buried with treasure as realised by Wooly's discovery of the 'Royal' burial site. Wealthy people were buried with less. Since irrigation gave Ur abundant crops, not everybody needed to work on farms. People learned other skills. Sir Leonard Wooly made a tablet that listed Ur's special workers. The chisel workers made sculptures, the gem cutters made gems, and the fuller stomped on woven wools to make them soft. The metal workers made weapons. (6)

The use of Bitumen in construction:

'Baked bricks were used for the lowest courses of walls, for drains, where bitumen was employed to make them watertight, and for paved courtyards and other exposed architecture such as the facades of buildings; important buildings, such as the ziggurat at Ur, might be encased in baked bricks as a protection against the elements. The use of bitumen as a mortar, particularly in the construction of large structures such as city walls, also provided an effective protection against damp. courses of reed matting and layers of bitumen were interspersed between those of brick in the construction of ziggurats to counteract rising damp from the foundations, and weep-holes also assisted drainage and prevented damp decay. Bitumen was also employed as a water-proofing material for bathrooms and constructional timber such as doors. Brick walls were often plastered to protect them against the rain. Mud could ne used as a plaster but a stronger and more attractive plaster was made of gypsum or lime, made by burning limestone.' (7)

Chronology of Ur.

Ur was an ancient Sumerian city that was settled in the late sixth millennium, during the Ubaid period until about 3000 B.C., the area of Ur was about 37 acres. During the Early Dynastic Period, Ur reached its maximum area of 124 acres and was one of the richest Sumerian cities because it was a harbour, and therefore trading, town on the Persian Gulf. (2)

The earliest occupations at Ur date to the Ubaid period of the late 6th millennium BC. By about 3000 BC, Ur covered a total area of 37 acres including early temple sites. Ur reached its maximum size of 54 acres during the Early Dynastic Period of the early 3rd millennium, when Ur was one of the most important capitals of the Sumerian civilization. Ur continued as a minor capital for Sumer and succeeding civilizations, but during the 4th century BC, the Euphrates changed course, and the site was abandoned. (3)

According to ancient records, Ur had 3 main dynasties of rulers who at various times, extended their control over all of Sumeria.

2,670 BC - The founder of the First Dynasty of Ur was the conqueror and temple builder Mesanepada , the earliest Mesopotamian ruler described in extant contemporary documents. His son Aanepadda (reigned about 2650 BC) built the temple of the goddess Ninhursag, which was excavated in modern times at Tell Al-Obeid, about 8 km north east of the site of Ur.

2,340 BC - Ur was captured  by King Sargon of Agade, and this era, called the Akkadian period, marks an important step in the blending of Sumerian and Semitic cultures. After this dynasty came a long period of which practically nothing is known except that a 2nd dynasty rose and fell.

2113 - 2095 BC - Ur-Nammu, the first king of the 3rd Dynasty of Ur, who revived the empire of Sumer and Akkad, won control of the outlet to the sea about 2100 BC and made Ur the wealthiest city in Mesopotamia. His reign marked the beginning of the so-called renaissance of Sumerian art and literature at Ur. The descendants of Ur-Nammu continued in power for more than a century, or until shortly before 2000 BC, when the Elamites captured Ibbi-Sin (reigned 2029-2004 BC), king of Ur, and destroyed the city.

The Ziggurat of Ur...

The Great Ziggurat of Ur was a temple of Nanna, the moon deity in Sumerian mythology, and has two stages constructed from brick: in the lower stage the bricks are joined together with bitumen, in the upper stage they are joined with mortar. The temple was built in 2,100 B.C. during the reign of Ur-Nammu and stands 70 feet (21 m) high).


An early image of the Ziggurat from the 1920's


An image of the building after restoration


Artistic reconstruction of the original complete structure

The ziggurat is believed to have been the precursor to the Egyptian pyramids, which began with the Djosers 1st Dynasty Step-pyramid at Saqqara.

Excavations

The city was first excavated in 1853 and 1854 by British consul J. E. Taylor, who uncovered the then sand-covered remains of the famed ziggurat of Ur which was dedicated to the moon god Nanna in Sumerian mythology and the Babylonian equivalent Sin in Babylonian mythology.  However, the excavation of the actual city did not happen until 1918 when the British Museum funded an excavation under the leadership of British archaeologists Reginald C. Thompson and H. R. H. Hall.  Though excavation ceased in 1919, it was restarted in 1922 in a joint expedition by the British Museum and the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania under the direction of British archaeologist Sir Leonard Woolley.  Ending in 1934, this last expedition was the one that provided the most information on this mighty city of over 200 000 residents at its peak.

In addition to excavating the ziggurat completely, the expedition unearthed the entire temple area at Ur and parts of the residential and commercial quarters of the city. The most spectacular discovery was that of the Royal Cemetery, dating from about 2600BC and containing art treasures of gold, silver, bronze, and precious stones. The findings left little doubt that the deaths of the king and queen of Ur were followed by the voluntary death of their courtiers and personal attendants and of the court soldiers and musicians. Within the city itself were discovered thousands of cuneiform tablets comprising administrative and literary documents dating from about 2700 to the 4th century BC. The deepest levels of the city contained traces of a flood, alleged to be the deluge of Sumerian, Babylonian, and Hebrew legend.

Most of the treasures excavated at Ur are in the British Museum and the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.

Discoveries at Ur:


The Sumerian Gold Lyre, c. 2650 BC (B17694)

Among the estimated 170,000 valuable antiquities that filled Iraq's Baghdad Museum prior to its tragic looting in April 2003, some of civilization's oldest musical instruments were proudly exhibited. The Gold Lyre (replica, right) was one of more than a dozen Sumerian stringed instruments discovered at the ancient site of Ur in 1927.


In 1927 Leonard Woolley identified Ur Kaśdim with the Sumerian city of Ur (founded c. 3800 BCE), in southern Mesopotamia, where the Chaldeans settled much later (around the 9th century BCE); Ur lay on the boundary of the region later called Kaldu (Chaldea, corresponding to Hebrew Kaśdim) in the first millennium BCE. It was the sacred city of the moon god and the name "Camarina" is thought to be related to the much later appearing Arabic word for "moon": qamar. The identification of Sumerian Ur with Ur Kaśdim accords with the view that Abraham's ancestors may have been moon-worshippers, an idea based on the possibility that the name of Abraham's father Terah is related to the Hebrew root for moon (y-r-h).


Kutik-Inshushinak - Elam


A God putting a foundation nail in the ground, protected by a Lama goddess, in front of a roaring lion. Coiled snake on top. Inscriptions in Linear Elamite and Akkadian. Time of Kutik-Inshushinak, circa 2100 BC, Louvre Museum

Kutik-Inshushinak (also known as Puzur-Inshushinak) was king of Elam around 2100 BC, and the last from the Awan dynasty according to the Susa kinglist.


Elam
was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq. The modern name Elam stems from the Sumerian transliteration elam(a), along with the later Akkadian elamtu, and the Elamite haltamti. Elamite states were among the leading political forces of the Ancient Near East. In classical literature Elam was also known as Susiana, a name derived from its capital Susa.

The Awan Dynasty was the first dynasty of Elam of which anything is known today, appearing at the dawn of historical record. The Dynasty corresponds to the early part of the Old Elamite period, it was succeeded by the Shimashki Dynasty and later the Sukkalmah Dynasty. The Elamites were likely major rivals of neighboring Sumer from remotest antiquity; they were said to have been defeated by Enmebaragesi of Kish, who is the earliest archaeologically attested Sumerian king, as well as by a later monarch, Eannatum I of Lagash.

Susa
was an ancient city of the Proto-Elamite, Elamite, First Persian Empire, Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian empires of Iran, and one of the most important cities of the Ancient Near East. It is located in the lower Zagros Mountains about 250 km (160 mi) east of the Tigris River, between the Karkheh and Dez Rivers. The site now "consists of three gigantic mounds, occupying an area of about one square kilometer, known as the Apadana mound, the Acropolis mound, and the Ville Royale mound."

Rule

His father was Shinpi-khish-khuk, the crown prince, and most likely a brother of king Khita. Kutik-Inshushinak's first position was as governor of Susa, which he may have held from a young age. About 2110 BC, his father died, and he became crown prince in his stead.
Elam had been under the domination of Akkad since the time of Sargon, and Kutik-Inshushinak accordingly campaigned in the Zagros mountains on their behalf. He was greatly successful as his conquests seem to have gone beyond the initial mission.


The Akkadian Empire was the first ancient empire of Mesopotamia, centered in the city of Akkad and its surrounding region, which the Bible also called Akkad. The empire united Akkadian and Sumerian speakers under one rule. The Akkadian Empire exercised influence across Mesopotamia, the Levant, and Anatolia, sending military expeditions as far south as Dilmun and Magan in the Arabian Peninsula.

Sargon of Akkad
, also known as Sargon the Great, was the first ruler of the Akkadian Empire, known for his conquests of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th to 23rd centuries BC.

The Zagros Mountains are a long mountain range in Iran, Kurdistan and southeastern Turkey. This mountain range has a total length of 1,600 km (990 mi). The Zagros mountain range begins in northwestern Iran and roughly follows Iran's western border, while covering much of southeastern Turkey and northeastern Iraq. From this border region, the range roughly follows Iran's coast on the Persian Gulf. It spans the whole length of the western and southwestern Iranian plateau, ending at the Strait of Hormuz. The highest point is Mount Dena, at 4,409 metres (14,465 ft).

In 2090 BC, he asserted his independence from Akkad, which had been weakening ever since the death of Naram-Sin, thus making himself king of Elam. He conquered Anshan and managed to unite most of Elam into one kingdom. He built extensively on the citadel at Susa, and encouraged the use of the Linear Elamite script to write the Elamite language. This may be seen as a reaction against Sargon's attempt to force the use of Akkadian. Most inscriptions in Linear Elamite date from the reign of Kutik-Inshushinak.

Naram-Sin also transcribed Narām-Sîn or Naram-Suen, was a ruler of the Akkadian Empire, who reigned c. 2254–2218 BC, and was the third successor and grandson of King Sargon of Akkad. Under Naram-Sin the empire reached its maximum strength. He was the first Mesopotamian king known to have claimed divinity for himself, taking the title "God of Akkad", and the first to claim the title "King of the Four Quarters, King of the Universe".
Anshan
, modern Tall-i Malyan/Tal-I Malyun/Tal-e Malyan, was an ancient city in Persia. It was located in the Zagros Mountains in southwestern Iran, approximately 46 kilometres (29 mi) north of Shiraz and 43 kilometres (27 mi) west of Persepolis in the Beyza/Ramjerd plain, in the province of Fars. Its location serves as a landmark for Elamite studies.

Linear Elamite
is an undeciphered Bronze Age writing system used in Elam, known from a few monumental inscriptions only. It was used contemporaneously with Elamite Cuneiform and possibly records the Elamite language.

His achievements were not long-lasting, for after his death the linear script fell into disuse, and Susa was overrun by the Third dynasty of Ur, while Elam fell under control of the Shimashki dynasty (also Elamite of origin).

It is now known that his reign in Elam overlapped with that of Ur-Nammu of Ur-III, although the previous lengthy estimates of the duration of the intervening Gutian dynasty and rule of Utu-hengal of Uruk had not allowed for that synchronism.


Ur-Nammu founded the Sumerian Third Dynasty of Ur, in southern Mesopotamia, following several centuries of Akkadian and Gutian rule. His main achievement was state-building, and Ur-Nammu is chiefly remembered today for his legal code, the Code of Ur-Nammu, the oldest known surviving example in the world.

The Gutian dynasty, also Kuti or Kutians was a dynasty that came to power in Mesopotamia c. 2135—2055 BC [ short ] after displacing the Akkadian Empire. It ruled for roughly one century; however, some copies of the Sumerian King List (SKL) vary between 4 and 25 years. The end of the Gutian dynasty is marked by the accession of Ur-Nammu.

Utu-hengal was one of the first native kings of Sumer after centuries of Akkadian and Gutian rule, and was at the origin of the foundation of the Third Dynasty of Ur by his son-in-law Ur-Nammu.

Inscriptions


Perforated stone, with Linear Elamite text. Louvre Museum Sb6 Sb177

Bilingual Linear Elamite-Akkadian inscription of king Kutik-Inshushinak, Table of the Lion, Louvre Museum Sb 17

Linear Elamite inscription of king Kutik-Inshushinak, "Table du Lion", Louvre Museum Sb 17.
Statue of goddess Narundi dedicated by Kutik-Inshushinak, with inscriptions in Linear Elamite and in Akkadian, Louvre Museum

Dedication by Puzu-Inshunishak in the Akkadian language. Louvre Museum, reference Sb 160.

Akkadian is an extinct East Semitic language that was spoken in ancient Mesopotamia from the 30th century BC until its gradual replacement by Akkadian-influenced Old Aramaic among Mesopotamians by the eighth century BC.

 

Nanna Sin / Nannar


Nannar's bull on his alter in Ur


Alter to Nannar, & Utu's Sun symbols

Sin /ˈsiːn/ (Akkadian: Su'en, Sîn) or Nanna (Sumerian: DŠEŠ.KI, DNANNA) was the god of the moon in the Sumerian mythology. Nanna is a Sumerian deity, the son of Enlil and Ninlil, and became identified with Semitic Sin. The two chief seats of Nanna's/Sin's worship were Ur in the south of Mesopotamia and Harran in the north.

His wife was Ningal ("Great Lady"), who bore him Utu/Shamash ("Sun") and Inanna/Ishtar (the goddess of the planet Venus). The tendency to centralize the powers of the universe leads to the establishment of the doctrine of a triad consisting of Sin/Nanna and his children.

He was also the father of Ishkur.


Nannar's moon crescent, Taurus symbol & Aninnaki symbol flying disc

Sin had a beard made of lapis lazuli and rode on a winged bull. The bull was one of his symbols, through his father, Enlil, "Bull of Heaven", along with the crescent and the tripod (which may be a lamp-stand). On cylinder seals, he is represented as an old man with a flowing beard and the crescent symbol. In the astral-theological system he is represented by the number 30 and the moon. This number probably refers to the average number of days (correctly around 29.53) in a lunar month, as measured between successive new moons.

An important Sumerian text ("Enlil and Ninlil") tells of the descent of Enlil and Ninlil, pregnant with Nanna/Sin, into the underworld. There, three "substitutions" are given to allow the ascent of Nanna/Sin. The story shows some similarities to the text known as "The Descent of Inanna".

 

Nannar-Utu & Inana symbol


Nannar Utu Inana


Nannar, Utu & his twin sister Inanna


Utu and his twin sister Inanna & Nanna Sin

 

Inanna (Ishtar) - Nannar (Sin) - Utu (Shamash)

Venera, Mjesec i Sunce


Venera, Mjesec i Sunce ispod zmije (nebeskog zmaja).


Inanna, (Venera) Nannar (Mjesec) & Utu (Sunce)

Venera, Sunce i Mjesec su najsjajnija nebeska tijela vidljiva golim okom. Prvi zapisi o Veneri pronađeni su u sumerskom gradu Uruku (3000 pr.Kr.) u današnjem južnom Iraku.


Tri nebeska pečata na vrhu Meli-Šipak "vlasničkog lista".

Kralj Babilona, Meli-Šipak, dao je zemljište svom podaniku (Marduk-apla-idinu). "Vlasnički list" ima s jedne strane kudurrua uklesan tekst, a s druge simbole božanstava koja ugovor blagoslivljaju "pečate", ali istovremeno podsjećaju "stranke" na prokletstvo koje će ih stići u slučaju nepoštivanja ugovora.


Meli-Šipak kudurru, 1186–1172. pr. Kr.


Inanna, Utu & Nannar- enjoy beer


Depiction of the emblems of Ishtar (Venus), Sin (Moon), and Shamash (Sun) on a boundary stone of Meli-Shipak II (12th century BCE)

Crescents appearing together with a star or stars are a common feature of Sumerian iconography, the crescent usually being associated with the moon god Sin (Nanna) and the star with Ishtar (Inanna, i.e. Venus), often placed alongside the sun disk of Shamash. In Late Bronze Age Canaan, star and crescent moon motifs are also found on Moabite name seals.

 

Shamash - Sunce


Star of Shamash

Hostija predstavlja sunce (treba  primjetiti da je svećenik drži ispred trećeg oka, kao u trokutu), hostija se odlaže u posudu oblika polumjeseca, monstrancu (moon). Hostija je inače iz grčkih orfijskih misterija, kao i aleluja na početku i na kraju psalma; u Grčkoj se na početku i na kraju himni Apollu pjevalo "eleleule". U Egiptu je sunčev disk sa polumjesecom imala Hathor/Izida, u Mezopotamiji Baal Shamash se označavao tako, baal/bik plus bog sunca Shamash.


Venera, Mjesec i Sunce

 

Ishtar - Venera

Planet Venera se ne može vidjeti u bilo koje doba noći, već samo neko vrijeme nakon zalaska Sunca na zapadnom nebu (Hesperus, Vesper, zvijezda Večernica) ili pred zoru prije izlaska Sunca na istočnom nebu (Eosphorus –Phosphoros, Lucifer, zvijezda Danica). Prvotno se za Veneru mislilo da su to dva nebeska tijela.

Asirski astronomski zapisi napisani oko 1700 -1600. pr. Kr., među kojima je najpoznatija glinena ploča babilonskog kralja Ammizaduga nazvana "Venerina ploča", jasno dokazuju njihovu spoznaju da su "jutarnja" i "večernja" zvijezda zapravo jedno te isto nebesko tijelo - "zvijezda Venera".

 
 Kralj Ashurnalšipar II., Nimrodov hram, 883 pr.Kr., British Museum
Kraljev prst usmjeren k zvijezdi božice Ištar (Venera)

Zašto je osmokraka zvijezda (Octagon) simbol planete Venere?

Položaj Venere na nebu (kalendaru) pojavljuje se na istom mjestu u Zodijaku nakon osam godina (8) - zapravo nakon 8 godina i 2.4 dana – koliko je potrebno za pet (5) kompletnih prolaza ispred i iza Sunca (konjunkcije, Jutarnja/Večernja zvijezda).

Kad Venera prolazi između Sunca i Zemlje (unutrašnja konjunkcija) nevidljiva je osam (8) dana, a zatim se pojavljuje kao Jutarnja zvijezda. Kad se "sakrije" iza Sunca (vanjska konjunkcija) nevidljiva je oko 60 dana, a zatim se pojavljuje kao Večernja zvijezda.

 

Venera / Danica

Inanna


Coin of Juba II of Numidia


Clodius coin


Clodius coin


Roman currency


Roman currency


Roman currency


Roman currency


Coat of arms of Grand Illyria

 

Lament for Sumer and Ur


Sumerian city-state

The lament for Sumer and Urim or the lament for Sumer and Ur is a poem and one of five known Mesopotamian "city laments"-dirges for ruined cities in the voice of the city's tutelary goddess.

The other city laments are:

During the last year of King Ibbi-Sin's reign, Ur fell to an army from the east. The Sumerians decided that such a catastrophic event could only be explained through divine intervention and wrote in the lament that the gods, "An, Enlil, Enki and Ninmah decided [Ur's] fate"

The literary works of the Sumerians were widely translated (e.g. by the Hittites, Hurrians and Canaanites) and the world-renowned expert in Sumerian history, Samuel Noah Kramer, wrote that later Greek as well as Hebrew texts "were profoundly influenced by them." Contemporary scholars have drawn parallels between the lement and passages from the bible (e.g. "the Lord departed from his temple and stood on the mountain east of Jerusalem (Ezekiel 10:18-19)." - Lament for Sumer and Ur

The Lament of Ur:

For the gods have abandoned us
like migrating birds they have gone
Ur is destroyed, bitter is its lament
The country's blood now fills its holes like hot bronze in a mould
Bodies dissolve like fat in the sun. Our temple is destroyed
Smoke lies on our city like a shroud.
blood flows as the river does
the lamenting of men and women
sadness abounds
Ur is no more.

 

Pribavimo sebi ime

Ali kako su se ljudi selili s istoka, naiđu na jednu dolinu u zemlji Šinearu i tu se nastane. (3) Jedan drugome reče: "Hajdemo praviti opeke te ih peći da otvrdnu!" Opeke im bile mjesto kamena, a paklina im služila za žbuku. (4) Onda rekoše: "Hajde da sebi podignemo grad i toranj s vrhom do neba! Pribavimo sebi ime, da se ne raspršimo po svoj zemlji!"

Danovci su "ostavili svoj "potpis" gdje god se se nastanili. To su učinili jedinstvenom metodom imenovanjem rijeka, planina, gradova po Majci božici Danu.

U starim jezicima nema samoglasnika, pa ime Dan je napisano DN, tako su riječi poput Dana, Din, Don, Dun, Den, ili DN, odgovaraju imenu božice Danu.

The term Danu or Danava appears to form the substratum of Indo-European identity at the base of the Hellenic, Illyro-Venetic, Italo-Celtic, Germanic and Balto-Slavic elements. The northern Greeks were also called Danuni. Therefore, the European Aryans could probably all be called Danavas. – Dr David Frawley

 

Who was the Mysterious Dan

 

Dinarics

During the Bronze Age Dinarics spread with the knowledge of metal from an eastern Mediterranean source to the western Mediterranean Countries, to central Europe, and to the British Isles. In this instance Dinarics of a Near Eastern variety did actually invade Europe, and their descendants may be distinguished today in countries like England where, owing to the absence of an Alpine substratum, the process of Dinaricization has not been locally at play.

 

The Mysterious Odin

It would also appear that WODAN, or ODIN, who seems to be identified with those gods WHOM CUSH WAS THE HUMAN ORIGINAL, had a son "BALDER," who was slain by LOKI, the spirit of evil, just as OSIRIS was slain by TYPHON, the spirit of evil. Just also as the deaths of Osiris, Bacchus, Thammuz, etc., are LAMENTED, so is BALDER lamented by his mother, FREYA or FRIGGA, who was told by Hela, the goddess of Hell, that he would be restored to life if everything on earth wept for him. Again, just as the war god MARS or Mergal was another manifestation of the younger BABYLONIAN god, so "THOR," the war god of the Scandinavians, was another son of Odin...Odin, Freya and Thor, in short, are the SCANDINAVIAN TRINITY, CORRESPONDING TO THE EGYPTIAN TRINITY, OSIRIS, ISIS, AND HORUS, and other forms of the same Trinity, and like Horus, Apollo and Chrishna, Thor is represented as bruising the head of the serpent. -- The Worship of the Dead.


Raven banner

The raven banner was a flag, possibly flown by various Viking chieftains and other Scandinavian rulers during the 9th, 10th and 11th centuries. The flag, as depicted in Norse artwork, was roughly triangular, with a rounded outside edge on which there hung a series of tabs or tassels. It bore a resemblance to ornately carved "weather-vanes" used aboard Viking longships.

Scholars conjecture that the raven flag was a symbol of Odin, who was often depicted accompanied by two ravens named Huginn and Muninn. Its intent may have been to strike fear in one's enemies by invoking the power of Odin.

  • ScanDINavia

 

Vikings Denmark - Tribe of Dan

Maritime colonization of Europe


Viking Pirates flag (Thrace)

 
Horned helmets ca 900 BC - found in a northern Zealand bog - Vikinge skibs - DaNes


The Danaans - Tribe of Dan

Maritime colonization of Europe


Argo - DaNaus

The early Greeks were once ruled by Israelites in addition to receiving cultural and ethnic input from the Canaanite Nations. This is reflected in Greek mythology. The Israelite Tribe of Dan had early contacts with Greece and with offshoots of the Greeks in Ionia (present-day western Turkey on the Asian side). In the article below, John R. Salverda, analyses Greek legends and compares them to the Biblical narrative of Ancient Israel. - by John R. Salverda


Sherden - Tribe of Dan


Anu - An


Sherden

 

The Mysterious Tribe of Dan

What happened to the tribe of Dan? Why are they left out of the 144,000 of Revelation? History reveals some fascinating facts about the powerful tribe of Dan and their perambulations and migrations in ancient times, as well as where they are on the earth, today!

 

Maritime colonization of Europe

 
Sardinian warrior figure - Model of Nuragic ship


Macedonians - Tribe of Dan


Vergina Sun


Utu-Shamash

 

Maritime colonization of Europe


Mecedonian Septireme

   
Macedonian shields

 

The Tribe of Dan are the Danes (Denmark) and the Irish

Jutes, Danes - Tribe of Judah, Tribe of Dan

The third batch of Danites left a trail to their final homeland Denmark. As you can see the Serpent's head (Denmark) is the final destination of this tribe.

 

Was There More Than One Exodus Out of Egypt?

The legends of ancient Greece are unanimous in claiming that the people who founded their nation came from Egypt. Furthermore, the time of the arrival of these groups in Greece is also the time of the bondage of the Israelites in Egypt. The ancient writers all agree that these founders of the Greek nation were, without doubt, Israelite refugees from the Egyptian bondage. The migrations out of Egypt led by Danaus and Cadmus, and the Exodus under Moses, are not the only ones recorded. Another important Grecian colony was founded by Cecrops who became the first "legendary" king of Attica. - by John D. Keyser

 

Tuatha de Danaan - Tribe of Dan

Angles - England


Anu - An


Arianrhod - Tuatha de Danaan

 
Anu - An - Angel - Angles

 
Angles

Profesor Totten izjavljuje:

"Ne postoji veličanstvenija tema na svicima iz povijesti od priče o borbi Anglosaksonaca na zapadu. Upravo tokovi Europe obilježavaju njihova odmorišta, te ih nazvali svojim drevnim imenom (Dan, ili Don) što podsjeća na svetu rijeku Jor-DAN, odakle su krenuli kao prognanici. Bila je to kolonija Dan, po svojoj plemenskoj sklonost imenuju sve po svom pra-ocu, isto kao i u (Suci 18 1-29) ili je to samo puko preživljavanje riječi i običaja, a koristi kako bi ušli u trag ovim lutalicama. Stoga je Dan-Ube, Dan-Ieper, Dan-iester, Dan-au, Daci i Davi, Dan, Don, U-Don, Eri-Don, i tisuće drugih Dans i Dons u drevnoj i ranoj geografiji, do Danaca u Dan-emerke, ili 'Danovom posljednjem počivalištu' "(Allen, Judah's Sceptre and Joseph's Birthright, p. 263-64).

  • Angles =Angel = Henok (Anakim or Anunnaki)

London (/ˈlʌndən/ LUN-dən)

"London" is an ancient name, attested already in the first century AD, usually in the Latinised form Londinium; for example, handwritten Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio ("in London").

Richard Coates, in the 1998 article where he published his own theory of the etymology, lists all the known occurrences of the name up to around the year 900, in Greek, Latin, British and Anglo-Saxon. Most of the older sources begin with Londin- (Λονδίνιον, Londino, Londinium etc.), though there are some in Lundin-. Later examples are mostly Lundon- or London-, and all the Anglo-Saxon examples have Lunden- with various terminations.

 

Seven Wonders of the Ancient World

The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World (from left to right, top to bottom): Great Pyramid of Giza, Hanging Gardens of Babylon, Temple of Artemis, Statue of Zeus at Olympia, Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, Colossus of Rhodes, and the Lighthouse of Alexandria

 

 

The Heraldic Emblems of Dan

 

Dan u Bibliji

Mysteries

Zmija bijaše lukavija od sve zvjeradi.. Nek' Dan zmija bude na putu – Postanak

 
Kundalini

Dan je sposoban u svakom poslu i viješt u nacrtima - Math/Geometry

od plemena Danova, udijeli i sposobnost da poučavaju druge. Obdari ih umještvom u svakom poslu rezbarskom, krojačkom, veziljskom i tkalačkom; oni tkaju tkanine od ljubičastog, crvenog i tamnocrvenog prediva i prepredenog lana, sposobni su u svakom poslu i vješti u nacrtima. – Izlazak


ϕ - Golden ratio

Herkules Samson - heros

Dan je lavić što skače iz Bašana. - Ponovljeni zakon


Samson / Herkules

Pomorska kolonizacija Europe

A zašto je Dan na stranim lađama? - Knjiga o sucima

Hathor - Mysteries

od zlatnih telaca u Betelu i Danu.- Druga knjiga o kraljevima

 
Hathor - Thoth / Hathor

Danovci drevni graditelji hramova

Stoga ti šaljem čovjeka mudra, vješta i razumna, Hurama Abija, sina jedne Danovke i oca Tirca. Umije obrađivati zlato, srebro, tuč, željezo, kamen, drvo, grimiz, ljubičasti baršun, bÓez i karmezin, umije rezbariti svakovrsne rezbarije i zamisliti svako djelo koje mu se povjeri. - Druga knjiga Ljetopisa


Ain Dara

The Ain Dara temple, located near the village of Ain Dara, northwest of Aleppo, Syria, is an Iron Age Syro-Hittite temple noted for its similarities to Solomon's Temple, also known as the First Temple, as described in the Hebrew Bible. According to the excavator Ali Abu Assaf, it was in existence from 1300 BC until 740 BC and remained "basically the same" during the period of the Solomonic Temple's construction (1000 - 900 BC) as it had been before, so that it predates the Solomonic Temple. The temples of Emar, Munbaqa, and Ebla are also comparable. The surviving sculptures depict lions and sphinxes (comparable to the cherubim of the First Temple). - Megarons

Dan je mudar i nijedna tajna ne bje skrivena

Bješe, eto, od Daniela mudriji, nijedna ti tajna ne bje skrivena! - Ezekiel

 

Urartu - Mjedeno more - π


A Urartian cauldron

Tada od rastaljene kovine izli more koje je od ruba do ruba mjerilo deset lakata; bilo je okruglo naokolo, pet lakata visoko, a u opsegu, mjereno vrpcom, imalo je trideset lakata. Pod rubom mu bijahu uresi kao cvjetne čaške koje su ga optakale sasvim: po deset na lakat optakale su more unaokolo; cvjetne su čaške bile u dva reda i salivene s njim. Počivalo je na dvanaest volova: tri su gledala na sjever, tri na zapad, tri na jug, a tri na istok; more je stajalo na njima i svi su stražnjim dijelom bili okrenuti unutra. Bilo je debelo pedalj, rub mu kao rub u čaše, kao cvijet, a moglo je primiti tri tisuće bata. - 1. Kraljevima

 

Hurrians


Wall painting Urartu


Bronze Bull Head from Urartu


Urartian Horse Mural Fragment


Urartu Deity & Bull

 

Dan u Rigvedi - Dānu (Asura)


The Great Goddess

Dānu, a Hindu primordial goddess, is mentioned in the Rigveda, mother of the Danavas. The word Danu described the primeval waters which this deity perhaps embodied. In the Rigveda (I.32.9), she is identified as the mother of Vrtra, the demonic serpent slain by Indra. In later Hinduism, she becomes the daughter of Daksha and the consort of Kasyapa.

As a word for "rain" or "liquid", dānu is compared to Avestan dānu "river", and further to river names like Don, Danube, Dneiper, Dniestr, etc. There is also a Danu river in Nepal. The "liquid" word is mostly neuter, but appears as feminine in RV 1.54.

Dunav Danube - Known to the ancient Greeks as the Istros (Ἴστρος), in Latin, the Danube was variously known as Danubius, Danuvius or as Ister. The Dacian/Thracian name was Donaris for the upper Danube and Istros for the lower Danube.

Many ancient European peoples, particularly the Celts and Germans, regarded themselves as children of Danu, with Danu meaning the Mother Goddess, who was also, like Sarasvati in the Rig Veda, a river Goddess. The Celts called themselves “Tuatha De Danaan”, while the Germans had a similar name. Ancient European river names like the Danube and various rivers called Don in Russia, Scotland, England and France reflect this. The Danube which flows to the Black Sea is their most important river and could reflect their origins.

In fact, the term Danu or Danava (the plural of Danu) appears to form the substratum of Indo-European identity at the base of the Hellenic, Illyro-Venetic, Italo-Celtic, Germanic and Balto-Slavic elements. The northern Greeks were also called Danuni.

According to Roman sources, Tacitus in his Annals and Histories, the Germans claimed to be descendants of the Mannus, the son of Tuisto. Tuisto relates to Vedic Tvasthar, the Vedic father-creator Sky God, who is also a name for the father of Manu (RV X.17.1-2). This makes the Rig Vedic people also descendants of Manu, the son of Tvashtar.

In the Rig Veda, Tvashtar appears as the father of Indra, who fashions his thunderbolt (vajra) for him (RV X.48.3). Yet Indra is sometimes at odds with Tvashtar because is compelled to surpass him (RV III.48.3-4). Elsewhere Tvashtar’s son is Vishvarupa or Vritra, whom Indra kills, cutting off his three heads (RV X.8.8-9), (TS II.4.12, II.5.1). Indra slays the dragon, Vritra, who lays at the foot of the mountain withholding the waters, and releases the seven rivers to flow into the sea. In several instances, Vritra is called Danava, the son of the Goddess Danu who is connected to the sea (RV I.32.9; II.11.10; III.30.8; V.30.4; V.32).

In the Brahmanas Vishvarupa/Vritra is the son of Danu and Danayu, the names of his mother and father (SB I.6.3.1, 8, 9). Clearly Vritra is Vishvarupa, the son of the God Tvashtar and the Goddess Danu. Danava also means a serpent or a dragon (RV V.32.1-2), which is not only a symbol of wisdom but of power and both Vedic and ancient European lore have their good and bad dragons or serpents.

In this curious story both Indra and Vritra appear ultimately as brothers because both are sons of Tvashtar. We must also note that Tvashtar fashions the thunderbolt for Indra to slay Vritra (RV I.88.5). Indra and Vritra represent the forces of expansion and contraction or the dualities inherent in each one of us. They are both inherent in Tvashtar and represent the two sides of the Creator or of creation as knowledge and ignorance. As Vritra is also the son of Tvashtar and Danu, Indra must ultimately be a son of Danu as well. Both the Vedic Aryans and the Proto-European Aryans are sons of Tvashtar, who was sometimes not the supreme God but a demiurge that they must go beyond.

In the Rig Veda, Danu like Dasyu refers to inimical people and is generally a term of denigration (RV I.32.9; III.30.8; V.30.4; V.32.1, 4, 7; X.120.6). The Danavas or descendants of Danu are generally enemies of the Vedic people and their Gods. Therefore, just as the Deva-Asura or Arya-Dasyu split is reflected in the split between the Vedic Hindus and the Persians, one can propose that the Deva-Danava split reflects another division in the Vedic people, including that between the Proto-Indian Aryans and the Proto-European Aryans. In this process the term Danu was adopted by the Proto-Europeans and became denigrated by later Vedic people.

We should also remember that in the Puranas (VaP II.7), as in the Vedas the term Danavas refer to a broad group of peoples, many inimical, but others friendly, as well as various mythical demons. In the Rig Veda, the Danavas are called amanusha or unhuman (RV II.11.10) as opposed to human, manusha. The Europeans had similar negative beings like the Greek titans or Celtic formorii who correspond more to the mythical side of the Danavas as powers of darkness, the underworld or the undersea region like the Vedic asuras and rakshasas.

The Celtic scholar Peter Ellis notes, “Irish epic contains many episodes of the struggle between the Children of Domnu, representing darkness and evil, and the Children of Danu, representing light and good. Moreover, the Children of Domnu are never completely overcome or eradicated from the world. Symbolically, they are the world. The conflict is between the ‘waters of heaven’ and the ‘world.’” The same thing could be said of the Vedic wars of Devas and Danavas or the Puranic/Brahmana wars of Devas and Asuras.


As the sons of Rudra, we note various Rudra like figures such as Cernunos among the Celts,
who like Rudra is the lord of the animals and is portrayed in a yoga posture, as on the Gundestrop Cauldron.

We know from both Celtic and Vedic texts that the early Aryans, like other ancient people, were always fighting with each other in various local conflicts, particularly for supremacy in their particular region. This led to various divisions and migrations through the centuries, which we cannot always take in a major way, just as the warring princes of India or Ireland remained part of the same culture and continued to intermarry with one another. Therefore, whatever early conflict might have existed between the Proto-European Aryans and those in the interior of India, was just part of various clashes between the different princely families that occurred within these same groups as well.

The European Aryans had Gods like Zeus, Thor and Jupiter that serve as the counterparts of Indra as the God of heaven, the God of the rains, the thunderbolt and the lightning. Therefore, we cannot read the divide between the Rig Vedic Aryans and the Danavas as a rejection of the God Indra by the Proto-Europeans. In addition, the Proto-European Aryans continue to use the term deva as divine as in Latin deus and Greek theos, unlike the Persians who make asura mean divine and deva mean demon. They also know Manu, which the Persians seem to have forgotten and only mention Yima (Yama). Unlike the Persians, who developed an aniconic (anti-image) and almost monotheistic tradition, the Proto-European Aryans maintained a pluralistic tradition, using images, and worshipping many Gods and Goddesses, like the Vedic.


Ur > Harran

Nanna Sin


Venus, Sun and Moon on the Stele of Nabonidus (r. 556–539 BCE) found at Harran

Andre Parrot (Abraham et son temps) "postoje svi dokazi da je kult Harana bio točna replika onog iz Ura."

Sin /ˈsiːn/ (Akkadian: Su'en, Sîn) ili Nanna (Sumerian: DŠEŠ.KI, DNANNA) bio je bog Mjeseca u mezopotamskoj mitologiji. Nanna je Sumersko božanstvo, sin Enlila i Ninlil, identificiran kao Sin. Dva glavna sjedišta Nanna /Sin obožavanja bili su Ur u južnoj Mezopotamiji i Harran na sjeveru. - Ur, Sin/Nanna, Urkesh

 

Abram


Abram

Terah povede svoga sina Abrama, svog unuka Lota, sina Haranova, svoju snahu Saraju, ženu svoga sina Abrama, pa se zaputi s njima iz Ura Kaldejskoga u zemlju kanaansku. Kad stignu do Harana, ondje se nastane. - Postanak

Ur (Sumerian: Urim, Akkadian: Uru, Arabic: أور‎) bio važan sumerski grad-država u drevnoj Mezopotamiji, koji se nalazi na mjestu današnjeg Tell el-Muqayyar (Arabic: تل المقير‎) u južnom Iraq's Dhi Qar Governorate.

Harran (Turkish: Harran, Ottoman Turkish: حران,) bio veliki antički grad u gornjoj Mezopotamiji, u blizini sela Altınbaşak. Bio je nazvan "free city of Harran".

Canaan (/ˈkeɪnən/; Northwest Semitic knaʿn; biblical Hebrew: כנען / knaʿn; Masoretic: כְּנָעַן / Kənáʿan) područje na Bliskom Istoku, koje je opisano u Bibliji, otprilike odgovara Levantu, odnosno, današnjem Libanonu, Izraelu, Palestini, Jordanu zapadnoj i jugozapadnoj Siriji.

 

El Šadaj - Bog Svesilni


Lord-Shiva on mountain (Mount Kailāsa)

Kad je Abramu bilo devedeset i devet godina, ukaza mu se Jahve pa mu reče: "Ja sam El Šadaj - Bog Svesilni, Mojim hodi putem i neporočan budi. (2) A Savez svoj ja sklapam s tobom i silno ću te razmnožiti."

Bog mu reče: "Ime ti je Jakov, ali se odsad nećeš zvati Jakov nego će Izrael biti tvoje ime." Tako ga prozva Izraelom. (11) Onda mu Bog reče: "Ja sam El Šadaj - Bog Svesilni! Budi rodan i množi se! Od tebe poteći će narod, mnoštvo naroda, i kraljevi iz tvog će izaći krila. (12) Zemlju što je dadoh Abrahamu i Izaku tebi predajem; i potomstvu tvojem poslije tebe zemlju ću ovu dati." (13) A onda Bog ode od njega gore. (14) Na mjestu gdje je Bog s njim govorio Jakov uspravi stup, stup od kamena; na njemu prinese žrtvu i izli ulja. (15) A mjesto gdje mu je Bog govorio Jakov nazva Betel.

Još reče Bog Mojsiju: "Ja sam Jahve. (3) Abrahamu, Izaku i Jakovu objavljivao sam se kao El Šadaj. Ali njima se nisam očitovao pod svojim imenom - Jahve.

 

Shaddai related to wilderness or mountains

According to Ernst Knauf, "El Shaddai" means "God of the Wilderness" and originally would not have had a doubled "d". He argues that it is a loan-word from "Israelian Hebrew, where the word had a "sh", into "Judaen (and hence, Biblical) Hebrew", where it would have been "śaday" with the sound śin. In this theory, the word is related to the word "śadé" meaning "the (uncultivated) field", the area of hunting (as in the distinction between beasts of the field, חיות השדה, and cattle, בהמות). He points out that the name is found in Thamudic inscriptions (as 'lšdy), in a personal name Śaday`ammī used in Egypt from the Late Bronze Age till Achaemenid times, and even in the Punic name `bdšd' (Servant of Shadé or Shada).

Another theory is that Shaddai is a derivation of a Semitic stem that appears in the Akkadian shadû ("mountain") and shaddā`û or shaddû`a ("mountain-dweller"), one of the names of Amurru. According to this theory, God is seen as inhabiting a holy mountain, a concept not unknown in ancient West Asian mythology, and also evident in the Syriac Christian writings of Ephrem the Syrian, who places Eden on an inaccessible mountain-top.

The term "El Shaddai" may mean "god of the mountains", referring to the Mesopotamian divine mountain. This could also refer to the Israelite camp's stay at biblical Mount Sinai where God gave Moses the Ten Commandments. According to Stephen L. Harris, the term was "one of the patriarchal names for the Mesopotamian tribal god", presumably meaning of the tribe of Abram, although there seems to be no evidence for this outside the Bible.

Shaddai meaning destroyer

The root word "shadad" (שדד ) means to plunder, overpower, or make desolate. This would give Shaddai the meaning of "destroyer", representing one of the aspects of God, and in this context it is essentially an epithet. The meaning may go back to an original sense which was "to be strong" as in the Arabic "shadiid" (شديد ) "strong", although normally the Arabic letter pronounced "sh" corresponds to the Hebrew letter sin, not to shin. The termination "ai", typically signifying the first person possessive plural, functions as a pluralis excellentiae like other titles for the Hebrew deity, Elohim ("gods") and Adonai ("my lords"). The possessive quality of the termination had lost its sense and become the lexical form of both Shaddai and Adonai, similar to how the connotation of the French word Monsieur changed from "my lord" to being an honorific title. There are a couple verses in the Bible where there seems to be word play with "Shadday" and this root meaning to destroy (the day of Yhwh will come as destruction from Shadday, כשד משדי יבוא, Is. 13:6 and Joel 1:15), but Knauf maintains that this is re-etymologization.

 

El Shaddai

Planine su bile sjedište bogova, pogotovo vulkani, ljudi su ih se bojali. Vulkan koji bljuje vatru i sliči na uzdizanj kundalini prema vrhu. Vulkan sliči na piramidu koja isijava energiju u centru, Egipćani su ih zvali mer tj. svjetlo, pyramid je na grčki vatra u sredini. Korijen MR na sumerski je svjetlost, blještavost. Meru na jeziku Maya znači centar, tako su zvali planine axis mundi. Kod budista, hinduista i đainista se vjeruje da je planina Meru ili Sumeru centar svijeta. I u indijskim Puranama piše o planini O meru, centru svijeta. Treba znati da se Keopsova piramida nalazi točno na sredini kopnene mase zemlje.

Boga Židovi zazivaju sa shin (kao Kinezi), to je u kabali vatra, Jahve se na Sinaju ukazuje kao stup dima po danu i vatra po noći. Shin je za boga shaddai, slovo w, koje predstavlja tri stupa i trinity. To je znak Kohana, riječ možda dolazi od aramejskog khiva, tu piše da je riječ kivun. Poglavnik Hiksa se zvao chyan/chayana (cyan je plavo na grčkom, boja vrhovnog božanstva).

Židovi su bili poznati kod Rimljana i Grka po štovanju saturna, saturn je bio remphan, chiun, kiyyun, manda, kivun, caivan, caymanu na bliskom istoku. To se vjerojatno odnosi na levite, U Indiji je rijeka Kophen, chohan je na sankrtu gospodar. Preko Egipta se može trag pratiti jer je tamo jedno od zmijskih božanstava bila kneph ili cohen eph.

Abraham je Jahvea zvao Shaddai "uzvišeni s planine". Shaddai je povezan sa hititskim shadu, što znači planina, bio je hititski bog groma i dvije planine (Mojsije je išao se naći sa njim na vulkanskoj planini Horebu i Sinaju). Poveznica sa Vedama i sanskrtom je i Adonai, tako Židovi zazivaju "Gospodine". Čita se Adni, korijen je indijski/arijski bog sunca/vatre Agni. Ai je sufiks koji znači "jedan od" (u bibliji se spominju bogovi Elohim u množini), Adon je isto što i egipatski Aton, fenički Adon/Baal ili sirijski Adonis.

Tibet je sveta planina, tamo je hram Kailash gdje je u planini isklesan hram i to bi i danas bilo nemoguće napraviti. Planine su bile uvijek štovane kao mjesta gdje su se bogovi spuštali i obitavali. Zagros planina npr. Dioniz je bio i Zagreus, i kod nas imamo Zagorje, Zagreb.. O Stražarima/Nefilima tj. sinovima Anunakija koji su čuvali rajski vrt priča i Biblija, njih 200 se spustilo na planinu Hermon da bi općili sa ljudski kćerima. Vrh ima oblik ovna/bika, kao i na planini Taurus u Turskoj gdje izviru Eufrat i Tigris. U Turskoj je je i Goebekli Tepe, najstarija megalitska civilizacija, kao i Catalhoyuk.

 

Abraham - Beer Šeba

Potom Abraham razluči napose sedam janjaca od stada. (29) Nato Abimelek zapita Abrahama: "Što znači ovih sedam janjaca koje si na stranu stavio?" (30) A on odgovori: "Primi ovih sedam janjaca iz moje ruke da mi bude dokazom da sam ja iskopao ovaj zdenac." (31) Zato se ono mjesto nazvalo Beer Šeba; jer se njih dvojica ondje zakleše.

Izak - Šiba

Odande se popne u Beer Šebu. (24) Iste mu se noći ukaže Jahve i reče: "Ja sam Bog oca tvoga Abrahama. Ne boj se, ja sam s tobom! Blagoslovit ću te, potomke ti umnožit, zbog Abrahama, sluge svojega." (25) Izak tu podigne žrtvenik i zazove Jahvu po imenu; postavi ondje svoj šator, a njegove sluge počnu kopati bunar.

Toga istog dana dođu Izakove sluge i obavijeste ga o bunaru što su ga iskopali te mu reknu: "Našli smo vodu." (33) On ga prozva Šiba. Zato je ime onom gradu do danas - Beer Šeba.

Beer Sheba

There are several etymologies for the origin of the name "Beer Sheba". The oath of Abraham and Abimelech (well of the oath) is the one stated in Genesis 21:31. Others include the seven wells dug by Isaac (seven wells) though only three or four have been identified; the oath of Isaac and Abimelech (well of the oath in Genesis 26:33); the seven lambs that sealed Abraham and Abimelech's oath (well of the seven).
Be'er is the Hebrew word for well; sheva could mean "seven" or "oath" (from the Hebrew word shvu'a). In this case the meaning is probably "oath", as the ancient Hebrews believed seven to be a lucky number, and the Hebrew "shvu'a" (to take an oath) literally means "to seven oneself".

Tel Be'er Sheva

Tel Be'er Sheva The name is derived from the Hebrew be'er, meaning a well, and sheva, meaning "seven".

 
Beer Sheba - Tel Be'er Sheva


Jišmaelovi potomci i Keturini sinovi

Abraham je sebi uzeo još jednu ženu; zvala se Ketura. Ona mu je rodila Zimrana, Jokšana, Medana, Midjana, Jišbaka i Šuaha. A od Jokšana rodili se Šeba i Dedan. Dedanovi su potomci: Ašurci, Letušci i Leumci. Sinovi su Midjanovi: Efa, Efer, Hanok, Abida i Eldaa. Sve su to potomci Keturini.

Ovo je povijest Abrahamova sina Jišmaela, koga je Abrahamu rodila Sarina sluškinja, Egipćanka Hagara. A ovo su sinovi Jišmaelovi, svaki po svom imenu i po svom rođenju: Jišmaelov prvenac Nebajot, Kedar, Adbeel, Mibsam, Mišma, Duma, Masa, Hadad, Tema, Jetur, Nafiš i Kedma. To su Jišmaelovi sinovi i to su njihova imena prema njihovim naseljima i taborištima: dvanaest poglavica od isto toliko plemena.

  • Ham - Kuš - Kuševi su: Seba, Havila, Sabta, Rama i Sabteka. Ramini su: Šeba i Dedan. - Oasis of Siwa & Dodona in Epirus
  • Abraham - od Jokšana rodili se Šeba i Dedan - Sheba
  • Jišmaelov prvenac Nebajot - Nabataeans

 

Hagar - Egipćanka Hagara

To the Ancient Greeks, eastern Arabia (the present-day al-Hasa province) was known as Gerrha after its capital city. Gerrha was a Greek alteration of the Arabic Hajar (present-day Hofuf), the name of the largest city of ancient Bahrayn (Bahrayn was also known as Hagar or Gerrha in Hellenistic times).

Glas G prvi je glas u riječima GER, GERA što na tračkom i rasenskom (etrurskom) jeziku znači TOPLOTA, VRELINA. Toplotu i vrelinu ima samo VATRA, što znači da su prvobitno riječi GER i GERA imenovale VATRU (imenice GERMA, GERMAN i GEROVIT). Od riječi GER vremenom je nastala riječ ŽER, a od riječi GERA nastala je riječ ŽERA.

Abram postaje AbraHam

Abramova žena Saraja nije mu rađala djece. A imaše ona sluškinju Egipćanku - zvala se Hagara. ... Rodi Hagara Abramu sina, a Abram sinu što mu ga rodi Hagara nadjene ime Jišmael... ukaza mu se Jahve pa mu reče: "Ja sam El Šadaj - Bog Svesilni, ... i nećeš se više zvati Abram - već Abraham - Postanak

 

Nabateans Shivta

Jišmaelov prvenac Nebajot

Shivta (Hebrew: שבטה‎), is an ancient city in the Negev Desert of Israel located 43 kilometers southwest of Beersheba. Shivta was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in June 2005.

The Nabateans built a few other cities in the desert, one of which is the archaeological site of ‘Shivta’ built in the 1st century BC on the ‘Perfume Road’ between Petra to Gaza. Like Petra, Shivta too was abandoned by the 8th – 9th century CE, after the ascendancy of Islam. A few kilometers from Shivta is located the ancient, biblical city of ‘Tel Sheva’, an archaeological site in southern Israel, which derives its name from a nearby ‘well’ or ‘water source’. The phonetic and symbolic similarities between these cities and ‘Shiva’ are obvious. In fact, the cult of Shiva-Shakti was widespread across the entire Middle East and West Asia, and penetrated deep into the farthest corners of Europe in the centuries before Christ. The biblical kingdom of ‘Sheba’ (Hebrew: Sh’va) believed to be in present day Yemen, as well as the archaeological site of ‘Shibham’ (Sanskrit: Shivam) located in Yemen, hint at the fact that entire kingdoms and cities were named after this deity.


Shivta

 

Shiva Temple Complex in Petra


The Khasneh or Treasury

While the architectural grandeur of Petra continues to captivate us, the mysterious religious beliefs of the Nabataeans have puzzled historians. Within the temple of Al Deir, the largest and most imposing rock-cut temple in Petra, is present an unworked, black, block of stone, like an obelisk, representing the most important deity of the Nabataeans – Dushara. The term Dushara means ‘Lord of the Shara’, which refers to the Shara mountains to the north of Petra. The symbolic animal of Dushara was a bull. All over Petra, Dushara was represented symbolically by stone blocks. At the entrance of Petra there are three massive standing blocks of stone, known as Djin blocks, which were sacred to the inhabitants. There are nearly 40 such Djin blocks present throughout Petra. In addition, at religious sites throughout the city, the Nabataeans carved a standing stone block called a baetyl, literally meaning ‘house of god’. A baetyl physically marked a deity’s presence. It could be a square or rounded like a dome. Some baetyls’ were depicted with a lunar crescent on the top. The Nabataeans also appear to be snake worshippers. One of the most prominent structures in Petra is the snake monument, which shows a gigantic coiled-up snake on a block of stone.


A dome-shaped baetyl


A baetyl with a lunar crescent on top


Snake monument at Petra

This unusual array of symbolic elements associated with the chief god of the Nabataeans, Dushara, may have confounded historians, but to anyone familiar with the symbolism of the Vedic deity Shiva, the similarities between Dushara and Shiva will be palpable. Shiva is still worshipped all over India in the form of a black block of stone known as a Shiva Linga. A Shiva Linga, which is essentially a ‘mark’ or ‘symbol’ of Shiva, sometimes appears as an unworked block of stone, much like the idol of Dushara in the temple of Al Deir; but typically it is represented by a smooth, rounded stone which resembles some of the rounded ,dome-shaped, baetyls that we find in Petra. Shiva is also associated with the mountains; his residence is supposed to be in the Kailash Mountain in the Himalayas, to the north of India, where he spends most of his time engaged in rigorous asceticism. His symbolic animal is a bull, named Nandi, which is commonly depicted kneeling in front of the Shiva Linga. Pictorial depictions of Shiva always show a crescent-shaped moon in his matted locks, much like the lunar crescent that appears on top of certain baetyls in Petra; and on top of the Shiva Linga is present a coiled-up serpent, bearing a strong resemblance to the serpent monument of Petra. It is evident that Shiva and Dushara are symbolically identical, leaving little scope for doubt that Dushara must indeed be a representation of the Vedic deity Shiva.


Black stone Shiva Linga in the coils of a seven hooded serpent. Lepakshi, Andhra Pradesh, India, 16th century.


The 123 feet high statue of Shiva in Bhatkal, India, with snakes coiled around his neck and the crescent shaped Moon on his matted locks. At the foot of the statue is Shiva’s vahana (carrier), Nandi the bull.

The similarities, however, do not end here. The consort of Dushara was known to the Nabataeans as Al-Uzza or Al-lat. She was a goddess of power and a goddess of the people, and was symbolized by a lion. Lions are present at many sites in Petra. At the Lion Triclinium in Petra there are two massive lions protecting the doorway. Lions are also seen at the Lion Monument in Petra, a public fountain, where refreshing water for the perspiring pilgrims would have sprouted from the water outlet at the mouth of the lion. At the Temple of the Winged Lions, a considerable amount of material has been found, including feline statuette fragments, which emphasize the ‘feline’ association of the mother goddess. The supreme mother goddess was also symbolically associated with vegetation, grains and prosperity, and was frequently depicted holding cereal stalks and fruits.

Not surprisingly, the lion is also associated with the consort of Shiva, known as Parvati, Durga or Shakti. As per the Puranic legends, when the entire humanity was threatened by the evil Mahisasura, the goddess Durga, invested with the combined spiritual energies of the Hindu Trinity – Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva – and adorned with celestial weapons granted by the divine company of gods, rode her lion to battle this asura. The terrible battle raged over nine days, and on the tenth day Durga defeated and killed Mahisasura. Even now, the victory of Durga over the forces of darkness represented by Mahisasura, is one of the most widely celebrated religious festivals in India, known as Dussehra (or Dasha-Hara, Navratri, Vijaydashami) which is celebrated over a period of ten days.


Idol of Al-Uzza, found in the Temple of the Winged Lions.


One of the two reliefs of lion of the Lion Triclinium in Petra, Jordan.


Durga on a Lion, slaying Mahisarura who has taken the form of a bull. Aihole temple complex, Karnataka,

There are indications that the Nabataeans, too, may have celebrated this ancient festival. At Petra, an elaborate processional way leads from the center of the city to the temple of Al Deir. In front of the temple there is a massive, flat, courtyard, capable of accommodating thousands of people. This has led historians to suggest that the Al Deir temple may have been the site of large-scale ceremonies. It is possible that this was a celebration of Dussehra, since Al-Uzza was the ‘goddess of the people’ and Dussehra is the celebration of the victory of the goddess over the forces of evil. It is not unlikely that the presiding god of the Nabataeans, Dushara, may have obtained his name from the festival Dussehra. The cult of Shiva-Shakti represented the sacred masculine and feminine principles, and the worship of Shiva has always been inextricably linked with the celebrations of the divine feminine. Even now in rural Bengal in India, the final day of celebration of Dussehra (Basanti Puja) is followed by an exuberant worship of Shiva. For these people, it remains the most important festival of their annual religious calendar.

It is unclear to historians whether all the representations of the female goddess found in Petra refer to Al-Uzza or to the Nabataean goddess triad of Al-Uzza, Al-lat and Manat. Although it is has been supposed that the consort of Dushara may be Al-Uzza, the depictions of Al-Uzza in other places of Arabia do not support such an association. Al-Uzza (the ‘Strong One’) was the goddess of the morning and evening star. Isaac of Antioch referred to her as Kaukabta, ‘the Star’. She was sometimes depicted riding a ‘dolphin’ and showing the way to sea-farers. She is, thus, the counterpart of the Indo-European goddess of dawn, Ostara, and the Vedic ‘Usas’. In the Rig Veda, there are around 20 hymns dedicated to the Usas, the goddess of dawn, who appears in the east every morning, resplendent in her golden light, riding a chariot drawn by glorious horses, dispelling the darkness, awakening men to action, and bestowing her bounty and riches on all and sundry. The phonetic and symbolic associations between ‘Uzza’ and ‘Usa’ indicate that they are derived from the same source. Al-lat, on the other hand, was widely regarded as ‘the Mother of the Gods’, or ‘Greatest of All’. She was the goddess of fertility and prosperity and was known from Arabia to Iran. It is more likely, therefore, that the consort of Dushara at Petra, symbolized by the lion, was Al-lat and not Al-Uzza. However, it has been observed by historians that Al-Uzza and Al-lat were used quite interchangeably by the Arabs, and sometimes one gained prominence over the other. It is worth mentioning in this context, that the Hindu goddess of death and destruction – Kali – bears stark resemblances to the third goddess of the Nabataean triad – Manat – who is generally represented as the terrible, black goddess of death.

Certain rituals associated with Shiva-Durga worship can also be found reflected in the religious practices of the Nabataeans. The Nabataeans ritually made animal sacrifices to Dushara and Al-Uzza, at the ‘High Place of Sacrifice’ in Petra. The Suda Lexicon, which was compiled at the end of the 10th century, refers to older sources which have since been lost. It states: ‘Theus Ares (Dushrara); this is the god Ares in Arabic Petra. They worship the god Ares and venerate him above all. His statue is an unworked square black stone. It is four foot high and two feet wide. It rests on a golden base. They make sacrifices to him and before him they anoint the blood of the sacrifice that is their anointment.’ The practice of anointing the Shiva Linga with red vermilion powder (Kumkum) continues to this date in India. It has also been noticed that most of the Djin blocks at Petra are located close to sources of running water, a fact which has left historians in a dilemma. However, such a peculiar alignment of Djin blocks can be easily explained once we remember that one of the most common practices of Shiva worship is to pour a kettle of water (or milk, curd, ghee, honey etc.) over the Shiva-Linga. This act is symbolic of the sacred river Ganges, which, after emanating from the toe of Vishnu, flows down the matted locks of Shiva. This is the reason why nearly every Shiva temple is also associated with a natural well or spring or a source of running water.


Shiva Linga in Petra

The worship of Shiva-Durga, the sacred masculine and feminine principles, is as old as time itself. The presence of sacred pillars and dolmens, the ancient snake cults, the symbolism of the trisula / trident, the crescent moon etc. found at various archaeological sites across the world suggests that the worship of Shiva-Shakti was one of the most deeply entrenched belief systems of the ancient wisdom traditions. Among the ancient Semites, a pillar of stone was a sacred representation of a deity. In many texts, the ancient Hebrews are recorded setting up stones as monuments. Jacob set up a pillar and anointed it, in a manner starkly reminiscent of the Shiva worship rituals:

"And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had set up for his pillows, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it. (Genesis 28; 18-19). 

"And Jacob set up a pillar in the place where he talked with him, even a pillar of stone: and he poured a drink offering thereon, and he poured oil thereon (Genesis 35; 14).

Pillars and Dolmens (stones arranged one on top of another) also constituted an essential part of Druidical worship, among the Celts of ancient Britain and France. In the Irish Druids and Old Irish Religions (1894), James Bonwick mentions that the Irish venerated their lithic temples. They not only anointed them with oil or milk, but, down to a late period, they poured water on their sacred surface so that the draught might cure their diseases. Molly Grime, a rude stone figure, kept in Glentham church, was annually washed with water from Newell well. The ‘cup symbol’—observed on stones at Fermanagh, and in the west of Kerry—may have confused scholars, but to anyone familiar with the symbolism of Shiva, it can be immediately recognized as the ‘crescent moon’ present on the matted locks of Shiva.

The geographical distribution of stone monuments extends from the extreme west of Europe to the extreme east of Asia, and from Scandinavia to Central Africa. In spite of centuries of destruction, stone monuments of every type abound in the British and Irish Islands, and some of the most remarkable structures in Europe are found there. In France some 4000 dolmens are present. In Northern and Central Europe they occur in Belgium, Holland and in the northern plains of Germany. They have been found in large numbers in Denmark and the Danish Islands, and also in Sweden. ‘Meteoric stones mounted on carved pedestals’ have been found in the farthest reaches of the Roman Empire, and one such piece is, at present, on view at the Etruscan Museum in Vatican, Rome.

Although this ancient cult was worshipped in large parts of the world since time immemorial, there appears to have been a renewed westward thrust of this faith, soon after the conquests of Alexander, which invigorated the ancient land and maritime trade routes, popularly known as the Silk Route, which connected India and China with the western world.


Silk Route

 

Shiva Linga


Shiva Linga in Göbekli Tepe


Shiva Linga


Shiva Linga in Petra

 

Shekinah - Shakti

Shekhinah is the presence or manifestation of God which has descended to "dwell" among humanity. The term never appears in the Hebrew Bible; later rabbis used the word when speaking of God dwelling either in the Tabernacle or amongst the people of Israel. The root of the word means "dwelling". Of the principal names of God, it is the only one that is of the feminine gender in Hebrew grammar.

Kršćanstvo je recikliralo ženski princip, u islamu su potisli pogansku boginju Alat, ženu boga mjeseca Alaha. Isto kao i Židovi Asheru, kojoj su dali manju ulogu Ester, po njoj se zove ženski hormon estrogen (ostala je samo u Kabali kao Šekina). Ester je Venera, isto kao Easter/Ostara/Astarte po njoj se slavi Purim u isto vrijeme kao Ostara, kada je u Perziji zavela kralja Ahasvera tj. Ahashuerosa (primjetimo da je ovo anagram od Ashera).

Duh sveti (Ruach) je pretvoren u muško, iako Isus o njemu govori kao o ženskome, on je kršćanska Šekina. Iako je logičnije da je žensko, onda imamo uobičajenu formulu, M, Ž i neutralnu (Bog je otac, duh sveti i sin).

U kršćanstvu važnu ulogu imaju dvije Marije. Marija je često pokazivana kako nogama gazi zmiju/zmaja, puno vedskih božanstava sjedi ili stoji na zmiji. Marija Magdalena je negativni aspekt ženstvenosti, crna boginja Kali u Indiji ili u Egiptu Neftis, poslije će se pretopiti ovo u štovanje crne Madone. To bi bila večernja zvijezda, nekad i boginja mjeseca. Venera/Isis se predstavljala golubicom, ta ženska energija je u kršćanstvu prešla u duh sveti koji se označava golubicom.

Ženska boginje su imale više aspekata, zemlju, jutarnju/večernju zvijezdu Veneru i Mjesec. U Sumeru je Venera bila Inana, a boginja Mjeseca Nanna. Inana je na sanskrtu Jnana što znači znanje, znači opet prosvjetljenost. Rađanje sunca ujutro je najavljivala jutarnja zvijezda, zato je ženska boginja vezivana za zemlju i Veneru/Mjesec. Zemlja, Venera i Mjesec primaju sunčevu svjetlost, zato su boginje, npr. Afrodita i Hera su dijelile Veneru. Hera je imala aspekte Zemlje, Mjeseca i Venere jutarnje/večernje (Titanis Rheia, Titanis selene, Titanis eos i Nyx).

Ženska boginja je slavljena zajedno sa sinom božjim u proljeće i zajedno sa njima kao Venera i Zemlja, dnevni aspekt. zato je uvijek isti korijen, Ester/Ištar/Ashera ili istočna zvijezda, east star, pojavljuje se na istoku kad sunce izlazi. I istok i zvijezda je isti korijen, zvijezda je astra na lat, aster na grčki. Ostara je npr. germanska božica proljeća, a Aušra je jutarnja boginja (usra je na sanskrtu zora).

Venera se osim osmokračnog križa prikazuje i pentagramom. Uskrs je isto tako dobio ime, Easter (običaj bojenja Ištarinih jaja). tada je slavljena zajedno sa bogom vegetacije/suncem Tamuzom u mitu o sedam prolaza kad ga oslobađa iz podzemlja od boginje Ereškigal (danas je ostala tradicija plesa sedam velova). I proljetni mjeseci su dobili ime po božicama, april je po Afroditi/Veneri.

 

Shaktism

The phonetic and symbolic similarities between these cities and ‘Shiva’ are obvious. In fact, the cult of Shiva-Shakti was widespread across the entire Middle East and West Asia, and penetrated deep into the farthest corners of Europe in the centuries before Christ.

Some Westerners believe that many central concepts of Shaktism – including aspects of kundalini yoga as well as goddess worship – were once "common to the Hindu, Chaldean, Greek and Roman civilizations," but were largely superseded in the West, as well as the Near and Middle East, with the rise of the "Abrahamic religions":

Of these four great ancient civilizations, working knowledge of the inner forces of enlightenment has survived on a mass scale only in India. Only in India has the inner tradition of the Goddess endured. This is the reason the teachings of India are so precious. They offer us a glimpse of what our own ancient wisdom must have been. The Indians have preserved our lost heritage. [...] Today it is up to us to locate and restore the tradition of the living Goddess. We would do well to begin our search in India, where for not one moment in all of human history have the children of the living Goddess forgotten their Divine Mother. -  Linda Johnsen

 

Dedan

Abraham - od Jokšana rodili se Šeba i Dedan

Dedan, in the latter meaning, is first mentioned in the Book of Ezekiel, (Chapters 27 and 38). Chapter 27 is a roster of the trading partners of the city of Tyre (today in modern Lebanon), where Dedan is noted as a nation or kingdom which traded in saddle blankets (Ezekiel 27:20).

The oasis kingdom is also mentioned in the prophetic vision of the war of Gog and Magog (Ezekiel 38; see also, Revelation 20:8), and appears to be a nation of significance in this end-times prophecy of Ezekiel.

In Ezekiel 38:13, Dedan is joined with Sheba, and "Tarshish and all her strong lions", all these nations joining together to inquire of the advancing armies of Gog: "Have you come to plunder? Have you gathered your hordes to loot, to carry off silver and gold, to take away livestock and goods and to seize much plunder?"

Now known as Al Ula in northern Saudi Arabia, known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Hijra, Hegra or Egra, the former is about the same distance, about 250 miles north from Medina as Medina is north of Mecca. The location where the extinct tribe of Thamud used to dwell.

In the ruins of the old city there are inscriptions that indicate the Dedanites were preceded by a Minean settlement. The Mineans established a center at this desert oasis in order to protect the incense trade.

Lihyan

Lihyan (Arabic: لحيان‎) (Greek: Lechienoi) or Dadan or Dedan was a powerful and highly organized ancient Arabian kingdom that played a vital cultural and economic role in the north-western region of the Arabian Peninsula. The Lihyanites ruled over large domain from Yathrib in the south and parts of the Levant in the north. In antiquity, Gulf of Aqaba used to be called Gulf of Lihyan. A testimony to the extensive influence that Lihyan acquired. Dedanite is used for the older phase of the history of this kingdom since their capital name was Dedan (see Biblical Dedan), which is now called Al-`Ula oasis located in northwestern Arabia, some 110 km southwest of Teima.

The Lihyanites later became the enemies of the Nabataeans. The Romans invaded the Nabataeans and destroyed their kingdom in 106 AD. This encouraged the Lihyanites to establish an independent kingdom to manage their country. This was headed by the King Han'as, one of the former royal family, which governed Al-Hijr before the Nabataean invasion.

The Arab genealogies consider the Banu Lihyan to be descended from the Ishmaelite Arabs from Ishmael. The descendants of Lihyan founded the Arab kingdom of Lihyan, and presently live in the desert between Mecca and Jeddah.

 

Sabaeans


Sabaeans

Abraham - od Jokšana rodili se Šeba i Dedan

A late Arabic writer wrote of the Sabaeans that they had seven temples dedicated to the seven planets, which they considered as intermediaries employed in their relation to God. Each of these temples had a characteristic geometric shape, a characteristic color, and an image made of one of the seven metals. They had two sects, star and idol worshippers, and the former doctrine was similar to one that come from Hermes Trismegistus.


A Sabaean priestess, who intercedes with the sun goddess on behalf of the donor

Sheba

The biblical kingdom of ‘Sheba’ (Hebrew: Sh’va) believed to be in present day Yemen, as well as the archaeological site of ‘Shibham’ (Sanskrit: Shivam) located in Yemen, hint at the fact that entire kingdoms and cities were named after this deity.

Ratari Egipta i trgovci Kuša, i Sebejci, ljudi rasta visoka - Izaija
Sabejcima, daleku narodu - Joel

Kralj Solomon i kraljica Šeba

O Solomonu i njegovoj mudrosti pričaju tri knjige, biblija, kuran i etiopska kebra nagast (kobra zmija?). Etiopska kraljica Sheba kad je čula za veliku mudrost kralja Solomona pohrlila je sa poklonima u Jeruzalem i njih dvoje su se sretno spojili. Opet se radi o šakti i šiva spajanju, ženski princip se označava sa južnom stranom.

 

Origins of Islam: Godess Allat


The three goddesses of Mecca

In Mecca (مكة) before Islam, the Quraish tribe (قريش) worshiped a triad of three female deities, it is Allat (اللآت), al-'Uzza (العزة) and Manat (مناة) They cited their names during their tours (الطواف) around the Ka'ba (الكعبة). According to Ibn al-Kalbi, the Quraysh were wont to do around the Ka'aba saying . "In the name of Allat, of ʿUzza and Manat the third idol, they are actually" al-gharānīq "(Women top condition) which must be sought intercession. "Like today, pilgrims shaved their heads.

Hubal, the new father-god goddesses

While for the Nabateans (Petra, Jordan), Allat was the mother of all gods, the other Arabs, Allat, al-'Uzza and Manat were the daughters of Allah (الله جل جلاله) and were intermediate between God and man for his blessings. Allah ( the god- ) is the title of the moon god Sin-Hubal (Baal) patch late in Mesopotamia in the Arab pantheon, he dominated thereafter to Mecca. This god, little temples, representations, and written records have survived until today. The word Allah predates Islam as the father of Muhammad Abd 'Allah calls himself, ie, "the servant of God."

The Kaaba, temple of the goddess Allat

Kaaba cube mean in Arabic, but the Kaaba itself is the old "Kaabou" , the Greek word for 'girl' , and refers to the goddess Astarte , that is to say Aphrodite in Greek mythology is the Roman Venus and al-'Uzza (العزى) Arabs considered the goddess of fertility. The ancient chroniclers before the advent of Islam ( jahilya the era of ignorance ), there were 24 ka'bas in the Arabian Peninsula, but that of Mecca was worshiped by all tribes. According to the Saudi research, there were many in the region Ka'bas (Tawāghīt) each dedicated to a deity, to which the faithful made specific days to perform rituals including among others a circular stroll and sacrifices. The most important seem to have been ka'abas goddesses Allat Taif, to Nakhlah of Uzza and Manat near Qudayd.

The priestesses Allat

It was celebrated by seven naked priestesses who gravitated seven times around the stone, once for each planet (Sun / Moon / March / Mercury / Venus / Jupiter / Saturn). To date, the men guarding the Kaaba are still known as " son of the Old Woman, " "son of Saba" in Arabic "Beni Shaybah" . The goddess Allat had a nickname, or another title, Saba pronounced Shaybah meaning midwife , or, "The wisdom of the old" . Before Islam, the guardians of the shrine were priestesses called "Bathi Sheba" , "girls of the Old Wise Woman." Bathsheba, "daughter of Sheba" means, ' 'priestess of the house of Sheba " . Muslims kept the cubic shrine and walk around again, as we did at the time when the Goddess was worshiped.

Ramadan, the pregnancy Allat?

The Muslim calendar or Hijri ( Hijri ) is a lunar calendar based on a year of 12 lunar months of 29 to 30 days each (to be precise: 29.53059 solar days). A Hijri year is shorter than a Gregorian year by about eleven days. Pagans often made the connection between lunar cycles and female menstrual cycles of similar duration.

Also spelled Ramadan Ramadan or Ramazan (Arabic: رمضان or Ramaḍān) is the ninth month of the Muslim calendar. During this month, adult Muslims do not eat, do not drink and do not maintain sexual relations until the moon is not visible. The beginning is based on the observation of the first visible crescent after the new moon.

Is it possible that the ninth month of Ramadan corresponds to the ninth month of pregnancy the mother goddess Allat? The end of Ramadan feast then celebrate the birth of the goddess. While fasting, it would then be possible to eat and copulate in the presence of the moon, that is to say Allat.

The worship of stones

Worship a stone is typically pagan. We call these divine stones béthyle (Hebrew Bethel "sacred stone"), and is a classic polytheistic practice of antiquity. The stone of the Kaaba is no exception to this rule. This stone was in fact the subject of pre-Islamic worship. The pre-Islamic worship stones can be compared to lithic betyles cults that were prevalent throughout the Middle East from the remotest antiquity. Indeed this worship a stone is not isolated in antiquity include the black stone of Emesa which Elagabalus was the high priest before becoming Roman Emperor, the black stone Dusares in Petra, and c is in the form of a sacred stone in 204 BC as Cybele, the Phrygian mother goddess Pessinus enters Rome. In many Eastern cities, sacred stones are the object of veneration, like Artemis of Sardis or Astarte Paphos. Saudi was not an exception, because the worship of stones was ubiquitous in pre-Islamic society. For example, "red stone" was the god of the Arab town south of Ghaiman, or "white stone" in the Kaaba of al-Abalat (near the city of Tabala, south of Mecca).

The black stone, vulva Allat?

Many Westerners, especially midwives, found that the setting of the black stone at the corner of the Kaaba, was a form of vulva, with a baby's head coming out. The word Hajj (Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca) is derived from " Hack "which means friction in Arabic because there was a pagan ritual in which women rubbed their genitals on the black stone hoping to increase their fertility. (Dr . Jawad Ali in his book "History of the Arabs before Islam" part 5, page 223). She smeared the stone with the menstrual blood and turned around naked.

A relic of phallic worship in Mecca?

The Stoning of Satan (Arabic: رمي الجمرات, Ramy al-Jamarat meaning "start [Stone] on target [pillars]" ) is practiced by Muslims during their pilgrimage (ceremony Hajj ), in which they throw stones, they have collected during an earlier phase of the pilgrimage on three rocks symbolizing the devil. This ritual takes place on the third day of the pilgrimage at Mina in Saudi Arabia, 5 km east of Mecca. The three pillars of stone (small, medium and large) were replaced by the Saudi authorities in 2006 by three stone walls, to prevent accidents. If the setting of the Black Stone of the Kaaba is irretrievably think of a vagina, the three pillars appear to represent the phallus, which confirms that Mecca was a pagan shrine dedicated to fertility cults.

Sufism pre-Islamic matriarchal cult?

According to some authors, the Sufis have tried to maintain the cult of Fatima, but they were forced to hide behind code words, since Sufism is part of Islam. In fact, worship the sacred feminine is punishable by death, even today in Islamic countries.


Pre-islamic Goddesses in Arabic peninsula : Uzza, Allat, Menat. They are 3 celestial bodies. The moon decrescent one is the wisdom of age (Menat). The first one is Venus, morning star (Uzza). And the strong mother one is the Sun (Allat).

Al-Lāt (Arabic: اللات) is the Meccan mother goddess and the chief deity of the tribe of Banu Thaqif whose major seat of worship was a popular shrine which was located at the west Arabian town of at-Ta’if in the Hijaz region of Arabia. The idol of al-Lāt was a cube of white granite, which was in the custody of the clan of Banu ‘Attab ibn Malik of the tribe of Banu Thaqif; the nearby tribes of Banu Lihyan; Banu Hawazin; Banu Khuza'a, and Banu Quraysh also making regular pilgrimages to Ta'if to offer their worship. The goddess was reputed to enjoy offerings of barley porridge (sawiq) and small cereal cakes: her devotees prepared these dishes especially, as barley and other grains were considered symbolic of her. Animals that were considered sacred to al-Lāt included gazelle; lions, and camels, among others depending on the region and tribe, as the cult of the goddess was found all across Arabia and as far as Palmyra in southern Syria.

In the pantheon of the Hijaz (western Arabia) specifically, al-Lāt was one of the three chief goddesses of Mecca and one of the three daughters of the high god Allāh: her main role being an earth-goddess who was responsible for the fertility and soil quality of Ta'if and elsewhere in the Hijaz region, thus making her highly important among the Arabs. The goddess had many epithets throughout the Hijaz including Umm al-Alihah (Mother of the Gods) and Umm ash-Shams (Mother of the Sun goddess) and was also worshiped in order to gain protection whilst travelling. At the holy sanctuary (haram) of al-Lāt in the town of Ta'if, all life within was considered inviolable: no plant could be gathered; no tree could be felled; no animal could be killed and no human blood could be shed in accordance with sacred law.

The pan-Arabian goddess al-Lāt had her counterparts across the Arabian peninsula under many different names in the Semitic languages and dialects, for example: to the people of Ta'if, she was also known by the name of ar-Rabbat ('The Lady'); to the Himyarites, she was worshiped as 'Athiratan or Ilāt, the mother of Athtar; the Hadramites to the east of the Himyar called her Ilāhatan, and the Aramaeans of Syria knew her as Elat. As al-Lāt was the goddess of the earth, she was worshiped in nearby Syria as 'Arsay and in Canaan as Aretzaya: these names derived from the Aramaean and Hebrew words for 'earth', 'Ars' and 'Aretz' (also cognate to Arabic ardh). The earth goddess in Canaan and Syria was considered to be a protector of the spirits of the dead who dwelt under the earth.


Al Lat

Shams is the Arabian goddess of the Sun and the chief goddess of the Himyar tribal confederation; believed by the inhabitants of the fertile lands of south Arabia to be a preserver of crops and domestic life. The sun goddess had a temple with an idol in the south Arabian city of Sana’a where frankincense was continuously burnt to her; at one point in time, Shams was the most popular goddess in the Himyarite Kingdom, above all others. The cult of Shams was popular among many Arab tribes including the Himyar; Banu Daws; Quraysh; Dhabbah; Uqayl; Tamim and Hamdan although her worship was popular and common across all of the Arabian peninsula.

The worship of the sun goddess was performed by bowing to the east and praying at sunrise, noon and sunset and rituals which could be done in the open air or at one of her temples, the most important of which was located at Sana'a in the Yemen. In addition to being the goddess of Sun, Shams was a goddess of justice as she could see all human actions and bring all injustices to light, with oaths often being sworn by her name.

The Arabian Shams was known to the Hebrews as Shemesh, to the Aramaeans as Shemsha and to the Babylonians in the male form of Shamash. A clan called the Banu Abd-Shams (''Sons of the Servant of Shams'') of the Quraysh tribe were prominent in Mecca during pre-Islamic times and the male theophoric name Abd-Shams was popular with both the Arabs of Himyar and Hijaz. To the Sabaeans of Yemen this goddess was known interchangeably as Shams-'Aliyyat (''Shams the Most High''), Tanuf (''Lofty'') or Dhat-Himyam (''Lady of the Heat''). The Himyarite tribe of Banu Bata' would ritually hunt oryx and ibex in worship of the sun goddess who was believed to in turn grant them bounty and wealth.

Suwā is the west Arabian goddess of the night who had an idol which was the sculpture of a woman that was situated in a temple in an area called Ruhat which was located in Yanbu al-Bahr; a coastal town near Yathrib in the Hijaz. The idol of Suwā was notably attended to by the women of the tribes of Mecca and Yathrib as she was thought to grant beauty and youthfulness to her worshipers, in addition to being a deity that was associated with peace and rest. Suwā was also worshiped as the maintainer of the many natural freshwater springs and fountains that were found across the vicinity of Yanbu, which were crucial in helping the population of the town grow and prosper.

In addition to being popular among the women of the Hijaz, Suwā was the chief goddess of the tribe of Banu Hudhayl, who were the custodians of her temple, and was revered mainly by them in addition to receiving pilgrimage and offerings from the nearby tribes of Banu Quraysh; Banu Khuza’a; Banu Lihyan; Banu Daws and Banu Hamdan. In pre-Islamic mythology, the goddess was the consort of the lunar god Wadd. The idol of Suwā was demolished in 630 AD by the Muslim commander 'Amr ibn al-'As, an act which ended the cult of the goddess in Yanbu.

Dhātu-Ba'dan is the south Arabian goddess of the oasis, nature and the wet season and was worshiped by the people of the tribe of Himyar at tree-circled oases; with Himyarite settlers eventually bringing her worship to the north of Abyssinia and Somalia. This goddess was said to forbid any invocation to her when ''there was not present in her sanctuary, a seeress or a priestess''. In the sanctuary of Dhat-Badan, a female priestess called a khalimah (literally 'Dreamer') would lie down and sleep before the sacred tree(s) of the goddess, with the aim of receiving an oracle in the form of a prophetic dream.

In the language of the Semites of Abyssinia, Dhātu-Ba'dan was called Zat-Badar and was a popular goddess of the polytheists of Axum, an ancient city which was originally founded by early Semitic settlers from the Arabian Peninsula. The wa'la or she-ibex was sacred to this goddess and it was said that an island in the Red Sea was inhabited by ibexes was under her protection.

 

Religious practices

Muslim writer Muhammad Shukri al-Alusi compares their religious practices to Islam in his Bulugh al-'Arab fi Ahwal al-'Arab:

The Arabs during the pre-Islamic period used to practice certain things that were included in the Islamic Sharia. They, for example, did not marry both a mother and her daughter. They considered marrying two sisters simultaneously to be a most heinous crime. They also censured anyone who married his stepmother, and called him dhaizan. They made the major hajj and the minor umra pilgrimage to the Ka'ba, performed the circumlocution around the Ka'ba tawaf, ran seven times between Mounts Safa and Marwa sa'y, threw rocks and washed themselves after sexual intercourse. They also gargled, sniffed water up into their noses, clipped their fingernails, removed all pubic hair and performed ritual circumcision. Likewise, they cut off the right hand of a thief and stoned Adulterers.

 

Vedic Past of Pre-Islamic Arabia

Goddess Durga (Shakthi) and Goddess Al-Uzza


Goddess Durga

The Thaqeef were satisfied with the terms of the treaty and prepared to return home. Muhammad insistedthat one of the traitors of Taif ,Al-Mughira, Abu Sofyan the traitorous leader of Mecca and a sizeable,Muslim army be allowed to follow them. The Thaqeef although suspicious, agreed in good faith. Upon reaching Taif, the Muslims showed their true colors. Al Mughira and his army surrounded the Temple of Allat and started smashing the idols with axes. Abu Sofyan even in his traitorous element was moved tocry out "Alas O Goddess! Alas!" Hundreds were massacred in sight of their families. The women of Taif collected in the streets, dishevelled and bare-headed, beating their breasts and weeping at the loss of theirprotectress, and the the inadequacy of their men who failed to protect her. As the unprepared Thaqeef were slaughtered, the anguished women cried out:

Weep! Weep for our protector!
Poltroons would neglect her
Whose swords need a corrector.

Every scrap of gold, jewellery and gems was plundered. Women and children were enslaved, the only ones who survived were those who were weak enough to bend at the threat of the Muslim sword and convert to Islam.There were many other Temples in the vicinity of Taif , all of which were plundered, then destroyed or converted into mosques. Most of the temple fragments were buried underfoot so that the Prophet could satisfy his constant burning need to vituperate and insult the religion of his own ancestors. Among the temples that fell prey, were most of the shrines of Ruda (Rudra or Lord Shiva), Allat and Al-Uzza (forms of Shakti).

The consistent appearance of Temples dedicated to the divine couple of Shiva-Shakti throws light on the essential spiritual principles that the Hindus of Pre- Islamic Arabia upheld. Numerous instances support the pre-eminence of Shiva-Shakti worship in Arabia. The most obvious example is that of the Kaaba in Mecca.

Temples were dedicated to Al-lat and Al-Uzza both of which are forms of the Mother Goddess Shakti. The structure of the temple attested to the fact that it was based on the Tantric iconography of Devi Durga.


Some thing about Goddess Durga from the puranas..

"The auspicious goddess was born. Projecting an overwhelming omnipotence the three eyed goddess adorned with the crescent moon with her eighteen arms each holding auspicious weapons, emblems, jewels and other gifts offered by individual gods, emerged. With her pulsating body of golden color shining with the splendour of a thousand suns, standing erect on her LION vehicle (vahana) and displaying her triumph over the dark forces (shown in theform of a demon under her feet), she stands as the most spectacular personification of cosmic energy."


Goddess- Leshmidevi, Durgadevi and Saraswatidevi- INDIAN

Among the 360 idols which surrounded the main shrine of the destroyed Kaaba were 16 magnificient onesthat bordered the sanctum sanctorium. We know the names of the gods that inhabited these 16 important shrines.


Lakshmi devi, Durga devi & Saraswati devi - ARABIAN


God Shiva and Goddess Durga (Shakthi)

  • Ayam which stood for Lord Yama
  • Bag which stood for Bhagwan Vishnu
  • Manat which stood for Somnath (Moon)
  • Sakiah which stood for Sakra (another name for Indra)
  • Al-Debaran which stood for Dev-Varun
  • Obodes which stood for Bhoodev (Earth)
  • Awal (first) which stood for Brahma
  • Shems which stood for Surya (Sun)
  • Wajj (pronounced "Vazz") which stood for the Vasus who were the seven sons of Ganga (Corrupted to Zamza (Ganga : G=’Z’ and n=’m’) in the form of the ZamZam spring in the Kaaba)
  • Kaber which stood for Kuber
  • Aja which stood for Prajapati
  • Makha which stood for Agni (fire) (in Sanskrit Makha means a fire-sacrifice (Yagna), the cityof Mecca got its name because of the fact that it was the site of the fire sacrifice)
  • Sunrise and Sunset, called the two Auses which stood for the two Sandhyas (probably taken from Ushas)
  • Ha'uw which stood for Vayu (the wind)
Sargon Index Hyksos