Ur of the Chaldeans

Ur III period, c. 2047 - 1940 BC

Veliki polet obrta, trgovine i kulturni procvat

Ur Chaldean

Sumer rose up again with the Third Dynasty of Ur in the late 22nd century BC, and ejected the Gutians from southern Mesopotamia. They also seem to have gained ascendancy over most of the territory of the Akkadian kings of Assyria in northern Mesopotamia for a time.

Following the collapse of the Sumerian "Ur-III" dynasty at the hands of the Elamites in 2002 BC, the Amorites, a foreign Northwest Semitic-speaking people, began to migrate into southern Mesopotamia from the northern Levant, gradually gaining control over most of southern Mesopotamia, where they formed a series of small kingdoms, while the Assyrians reasserted their independence in the north. The states of the south were unable to stem the Amorite advance.

Kodeks Ur-Nammu

Kodeks Ur-Nammu je najstariji poznati zakon koji je preživjeo danas. Zakon je iz Mezopotamije i napisan je na tabletama u sumerskom jeziku c. 2100-2050 prije Krista.

Kodeks Ur-Nammu je tri stoljeća stariji od zakona Hamurabija. Za najstarije sačuvano zakonodavstvo kod poznate povijesti, smatra se da je izuzetno napredan, jer je predviđao novčane naknade za tjelesna oštećenja, za razliku od kasnijih lex talionis ('Oko za oko') načelo babilonskog zakona; Međutim, ubojstva, pljačke, preljubi i ​​silovanja bila su teška djela.



Ur-Nammu - Ziggurat Builder

After expanding his control Ur-Nammu set about one of the most momentous building programs of all time when he erected ziggurats in Ur, Eridu, Uruk and Nippur. The massive stepped buildings made of mud bricks where built on the foundations of temple platforms that dated back to Ubaid times over 3,000 years earlier. These monuments are among the first known examples of the iconic structures and they have left marks on the landscapes of these sites to this day. Each of the magnificent tiered structures was topped by a shrine to the local god and Ur-Nammu as benefactor could assume the role of representative of them all.

In addition to the monumental construction Ur-Nammu rebuilt the canal networks that had fallen to ruin during the Gutian period. He also saw several cities refortified with new walls and defenses. Overall he sought to undo the damage of decades of neglect to a empire that he would claim as his own. Now, thousands of years later, sites all across southern Iraq contain bricks with the name of Ur-Nammu stamped on them commemorating the work of this enterprising dynastic founder.

Ur - Ziggurat of Ur

The Stele of Ur-Nammu

Although a large trove of administrative documents does exist from this period there is little evidence of the actual details of Ur-Nammu’s reign. One notable exception is the Stele of Ur-Nammu. The stele was discovered in 1925 by a joint expedition of the University of Pennsylvania and the British Museum. The stele which had originally been ten feet high had been reduced to fragments. The largest fragments were later restored in Philadelphia with plaster being used to fill in the gaps. Dozens of smaller pieces were left in boxes but the visible relief provides several revealing scenes.

Stele of Ur-Nammu

The top register shows Ur-Nammu offering libations to Nanna the Moon god of Ur on the right and to Nanna’s consort Ningal on the left. The second register shows Ur-Nammu on the right carrying tools over his shoulder as he prepares to rebuild a temple. On the left of the second register there are partial images of workmen and below them on the third register is a ladder presumably to scale the unfinished building. Although sparse, these images allow the earliest known glimpse into the dedication of a temple and give some idea of the rituals observed.

Pad grada-države Ur-a oko 1940 pne. naznačio je i kraj sumerske civilizacije, dok je osnutak amorejske dinastije u gradu Isin, nešto sjevernije od Ura, označio početak babilonske. Osnivač isinske dinastije, Išbi-Era bio je vazal posljednjeg urskog vladara Ibi-Sina, no ubrzo se osamostalio.

Ibbi-Sin - 1963-1940 BC

The Amorites were considered a backward people by Mesopotamian standards; Ibbi-Sin's 17th year was officially named "Year the Amorites, the powerful south wind who, from the remote past, have not known cities, submitted to Ibbi-Sin the king of Ur." However, despite his father Shu-Sin having built a "wall of Martu" across Mesopotamia against Amorite incursions, these were penetrated early in Ibbi-Sin's reign.

Ur-Nammu - Ibbi-Sin - Ishbi-ERRA


Virtualna rekonstrukcija grada Ura 3D rekonstrukcija Luis Amoros & Miguel Orellana
(404 arhitekata, Barcelona i Vancouver) - Ur Kaldejski


Kutik-Inshushinak - Elam

A God putting a foundation nail in the ground, protected by a Lama goddess, in front of a roaring lion. Coiled snake on top. Inscriptions in Linear Elamite and Akkadian. Time of Kutik-Inshushinak, circa 2100 BC, Louvre Museum

Kutik-Inshushinak (also known as Puzur-Inshushinak) was king of Elam around 2100 BC, and the last from the Awan dynasty according to the Susa kinglist.

was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq. The modern name Elam stems from the Sumerian transliteration elam(a), along with the later Akkadian elamtu, and the Elamite haltamti. Elamite states were among the leading political forces of the Ancient Near East. In classical literature Elam was also known as Susiana, a name derived from its capital Susa.

The Awan Dynasty was the first dynasty of Elam of which anything is known today, appearing at the dawn of historical record. The Dynasty corresponds to the early part of the Old Elamite period, it was succeeded by the Shimashki Dynasty and later the Sukkalmah Dynasty. The Elamites were likely major rivals of neighboring Sumer from remotest antiquity; they were said to have been defeated by Enmebaragesi of Kish, who is the earliest archaeologically attested Sumerian king, as well as by a later monarch, Eannatum I of Lagash.

was an ancient city of the Proto-Elamite, Elamite, First Persian Empire, Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian empires of Iran, and one of the most important cities of the Ancient Near East. It is located in the lower Zagros Mountains about 250 km (160 mi) east of the Tigris River, between the Karkheh and Dez Rivers. The site now "consists of three gigantic mounds, occupying an area of about one square kilometer, known as the Apadana mound, the Acropolis mound, and the Ville Royale mound."


His father was Shinpi-khish-khuk, the crown prince, and most likely a brother of king Khita. Kutik-Inshushinak's first position was as governor of Susa, which he may have held from a young age. About 2110 BC, his father died, and he became crown prince in his stead.
Elam had been under the domination of Akkad since the time of Sargon, and Kutik-Inshushinak accordingly campaigned in the Zagros mountains on their behalf. He was greatly successful as his conquests seem to have gone beyond the initial mission.

The Akkadian Empire was the first ancient empire of Mesopotamia, centered in the city of Akkad and its surrounding region, which the Bible also called Akkad. The empire united Akkadian and Sumerian speakers under one rule. The Akkadian Empire exercised influence across Mesopotamia, the Levant, and Anatolia, sending military expeditions as far south as Dilmun and Magan in the Arabian Peninsula.

Sargon of Akkad
, also known as Sargon the Great, was the first ruler of the Akkadian Empire, known for his conquests of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th to 23rd centuries BC.

The Zagros Mountains are a long mountain range in Iran, Kurdistan and southeastern Turkey. This mountain range has a total length of 1,600 km (990 mi). The Zagros mountain range begins in northwestern Iran and roughly follows Iran's western border, while covering much of southeastern Turkey and northeastern Iraq. From this border region, the range roughly follows Iran's coast on the Persian Gulf. It spans the whole length of the western and southwestern Iranian plateau, ending at the Strait of Hormuz. The highest point is Mount Dena, at 4,409 metres (14,465 ft).

In 2090 BC, he asserted his independence from Akkad, which had been weakening ever since the death of Naram-Sin, thus making himself king of Elam. He conquered Anshan and managed to unite most of Elam into one kingdom. He built extensively on the citadel at Susa, and encouraged the use of the Linear Elamite script to write the Elamite language. This may be seen as a reaction against Sargon's attempt to force the use of Akkadian. Most inscriptions in Linear Elamite date from the reign of Kutik-Inshushinak.

Naram-Sin also transcribed Narām-Sîn or Naram-Suen, was a ruler of the Akkadian Empire, who reigned c. 2254–2218 BC, and was the third successor and grandson of King Sargon of Akkad. Under Naram-Sin the empire reached its maximum strength. He was the first Mesopotamian king known to have claimed divinity for himself, taking the title "God of Akkad", and the first to claim the title "King of the Four Quarters, King of the Universe".
, modern Tall-i Malyan/Tal-I Malyun/Tal-e Malyan, was an ancient city in Persia. It was located in the Zagros Mountains in southwestern Iran, approximately 46 kilometres (29 mi) north of Shiraz and 43 kilometres (27 mi) west of Persepolis in the Beyza/Ramjerd plain, in the province of Fars. Its location serves as a landmark for Elamite studies.

Linear Elamite
is an undeciphered Bronze Age writing system used in Elam, known from a few monumental inscriptions only. It was used contemporaneously with Elamite Cuneiform and possibly records the Elamite language.

His achievements were not long-lasting, for after his death the linear script fell into disuse, and Susa was overrun by the Third dynasty of Ur, while Elam fell under control of the Shimashki dynasty (also Elamite of origin).

It is now known that his reign in Elam overlapped with that of Ur-Nammu of Ur-III, although the previous lengthy estimates of the duration of the intervening Gutian dynasty and rule of Utu-hengal of Uruk had not allowed for that synchronism.

Ur-Nammu founded the Sumerian Third Dynasty of Ur, in southern Mesopotamia, following several centuries of Akkadian and Gutian rule. His main achievement was state-building, and Ur-Nammu is chiefly remembered today for his legal code, the Code of Ur-Nammu, the oldest known surviving example in the world.

The Gutian dynasty, also Kuti or Kutians was a dynasty that came to power in Mesopotamia c. 2135—2055 BC [ short ] after displacing the Akkadian Empire. It ruled for roughly one century; however, some copies of the Sumerian King List (SKL) vary between 4 and 25 years. The end of the Gutian dynasty is marked by the accession of Ur-Nammu.

Utu-hengal was one of the first native kings of Sumer after centuries of Akkadian and Gutian rule, and was at the origin of the foundation of the Third Dynasty of Ur by his son-in-law Ur-Nammu.


Perforated stone, with Linear Elamite text. Louvre Museum Sb6 Sb177

Bilingual Linear Elamite-Akkadian inscription of king Kutik-Inshushinak, Table of the Lion, Louvre Museum Sb 17

Linear Elamite inscription of king Kutik-Inshushinak, "Table du Lion", Louvre Museum Sb 17.
Statue of goddess Narundi dedicated by Kutik-Inshushinak, with inscriptions in Linear Elamite and in Akkadian, Louvre Museum

Dedication by Puzu-Inshunishak in the Akkadian language. Louvre Museum, reference Sb 160.

Akkadian is an extinct East Semitic language that was spoken in ancient Mesopotamia from the 30th century BC until its gradual replacement by Akkadian-influenced Old Aramaic among Mesopotamians by the eighth century BC.


Ur of the Chaldeans

Ur was first found and excavated in 1853 and 1854 by British consul J. E. Taylor, who uncovered the then sand-covered remains of the famed ziggurat.

This city, which is mentioned several times in the Bible as Ur of the Chaldees (referring to the Chaldeans, whom settled in the area about 900 BC) as the birthplace of Prophet Abraham "Ibrahim Al-Khalil" (pbuh), was one of the most important cities of the Sumerians in the 4th and the 1st half of the 3rd millennium BC. It was also considered as one of the most active and full of life cities in southern Mesopotamia during the following centuries. In former days it stood on the banks of the Euphrates, until the river changed its course.

Evidence suggests that Ur had three classes of people. The richer, government officials, priests and soldiers, were at the top. The second level was for merchants, teachers, labourers, farmers and craft-makers. The bottom were for slaves captured in battle. Burials at Ur give insight into people's social standing. Kings and queens were buried with treasure as realised by Wooly's discovery of the 'Royal' burial site. Wealthy people were buried with less. Since irrigation gave Ur abundant crops, not everybody needed to work on farms. People learned other skills. Sir Leonard Wooly made a tablet that listed Ur's special workers. The chisel workers made sculptures, the gem cutters made gems, and the fuller stomped on woven wools to make them soft. The metal workers made weapons. (6)

The use of Bitumen in construction:

'Baked bricks were used for the lowest courses of walls, for drains, where bitumen was employed to make them watertight, and for paved courtyards and other exposed architecture such as the facades of buildings; important buildings, such as the ziggurat at Ur, might be encased in baked bricks as a protection against the elements. The use of bitumen as a mortar, particularly in the construction of large structures such as city walls, also provided an effective protection against damp. courses of reed matting and layers of bitumen were interspersed between those of brick in the construction of ziggurats to counteract rising damp from the foundations, and weep-holes also assisted drainage and prevented damp decay. Bitumen was also employed as a water-proofing material for bathrooms and constructional timber such as doors. Brick walls were often plastered to protect them against the rain. Mud could ne used as a plaster but a stronger and more attractive plaster was made of gypsum or lime, made by burning limestone.' (7)

Chronology of Ur.

Ur was an ancient Sumerian city that was settled in the late sixth millennium, during the Ubaid period until about 3000 B.C., the area of Ur was about 37 acres. During the Early Dynastic Period, Ur reached its maximum area of 124 acres and was one of the richest Sumerian cities because it was a harbour, and therefore trading, town on the Persian Gulf. (2)

The earliest occupations at Ur date to the Ubaid period of the late 6th millennium BC. By about 3000 BC, Ur covered a total area of 37 acres including early temple sites. Ur reached its maximum size of 54 acres during the Early Dynastic Period of the early 3rd millennium, when Ur was one of the most important capitals of the Sumerian civilization. Ur continued as a minor capital for Sumer and succeeding civilizations, but during the 4th century BC, the Euphrates changed course, and the site was abandoned. (3)

According to ancient records, Ur had 3 main dynasties of rulers who at various times, extended their control over all of Sumeria.

2,670 BC - The founder of the First Dynasty of Ur was the conqueror and temple builder Mesanepada , the earliest Mesopotamian ruler described in extant contemporary documents. His son Aanepadda (reigned about 2650 BC) built the temple of the goddess Ninhursag, which was excavated in modern times at Tell Al-Obeid, about 8 km north east of the site of Ur.

2,340 BC - Ur was captured  by King Sargon of Agade, and this era, called the Akkadian period, marks an important step in the blending of Sumerian and Semitic cultures. After this dynasty came a long period of which practically nothing is known except that a 2nd dynasty rose and fell.

2113 - 2095 BC - Ur-Nammu, the first king of the 3rd Dynasty of Ur, who revived the empire of Sumer and Akkad, won control of the outlet to the sea about 2100 BC and made Ur the wealthiest city in Mesopotamia. His reign marked the beginning of the so-called renaissance of Sumerian art and literature at Ur. The descendants of Ur-Nammu continued in power for more than a century, or until shortly before 2000 BC, when the Elamites captured Ibbi-Sin (reigned 2029-2004 BC), king of Ur, and destroyed the city.

The Ziggurat of Ur...

The Great Ziggurat of Ur was a temple of Nanna, the moon deity in Sumerian mythology, and has two stages constructed from brick: in the lower stage the bricks are joined together with bitumen, in the upper stage they are joined with mortar. The temple was built in 2,100 B.C. during the reign of Ur-Nammu and stands 70 feet (21 m) high).

An early image of the Ziggurat from the 1920's

An image of the building after restoration

Artistic reconstruction of the original complete structure

The ziggurat is believed to have been the precursor to the Egyptian pyramids, which began with the Djosers 1st Dynasty Step-pyramid at Saqqara.


The city was first excavated in 1853 and 1854 by British consul J. E. Taylor, who uncovered the then sand-covered remains of the famed ziggurat of Ur which was dedicated to the moon god Nanna in Sumerian mythology and the Babylonian equivalent Sin in Babylonian mythology.  However, the excavation of the actual city did not happen until 1918 when the British Museum funded an excavation under the leadership of British archaeologists Reginald C. Thompson and H. R. H. Hall.  Though excavation ceased in 1919, it was restarted in 1922 in a joint expedition by the British Museum and the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania under the direction of British archaeologist Sir Leonard Woolley.  Ending in 1934, this last expedition was the one that provided the most information on this mighty city of over 200 000 residents at its peak.

In addition to excavating the ziggurat completely, the expedition unearthed the entire temple area at Ur and parts of the residential and commercial quarters of the city. The most spectacular discovery was that of the Royal Cemetery, dating from about 2600BC and containing art treasures of gold, silver, bronze, and precious stones. The findings left little doubt that the deaths of the king and queen of Ur were followed by the voluntary death of their courtiers and personal attendants and of the court soldiers and musicians. Within the city itself were discovered thousands of cuneiform tablets comprising administrative and literary documents dating from about 2700 to the 4th century BC. The deepest levels of the city contained traces of a flood, alleged to be the deluge of Sumerian, Babylonian, and Hebrew legend.

Most of the treasures excavated at Ur are in the British Museum and the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.

Discoveries at Ur:

The Sumerian Gold Lyre, c. 2650 BC (B17694)

Among the estimated 170,000 valuable antiquities that filled Iraq's Baghdad Museum prior to its tragic looting in April 2003, some of civilization's oldest musical instruments were proudly exhibited. The Gold Lyre (replica, right) was one of more than a dozen Sumerian stringed instruments discovered at the ancient site of Ur in 1927.

In 1927 Leonard Woolley identified Ur Kaśdim with the Sumerian city of Ur (founded c. 3800 BCE), in southern Mesopotamia, where the Chaldeans settled much later (around the 9th century BCE); Ur lay on the boundary of the region later called Kaldu (Chaldea, corresponding to Hebrew Kaśdim) in the first millennium BCE. It was the sacred city of the moon god and the name "Camarina" is thought to be related to the much later appearing Arabic word for "moon": qamar. The identification of Sumerian Ur with Ur Kaśdim accords with the view that Abraham's ancestors may have been moon-worshippers, an idea based on the possibility that the name of Abraham's father Terah is related to the Hebrew root for moon (y-r-h).


Nanna Sin / Nannar

Nannar's bull on his alter in Ur

Alter to Nannar, & Utu's Sun symbols

Sin /ˈsiːn/ (Akkadian: Su'en, Sîn) or Nanna (Sumerian: DŠEŠ.KI, DNANNA) was the god of the moon in the Sumerian mythology. Nanna is a Sumerian deity, the son of Enlil and Ninlil, and became identified with Semitic Sin. The two chief seats of Nanna's/Sin's worship were Ur in the south of Mesopotamia and Harran in the north.

His wife was Ningal ("Great Lady"), who bore him Utu/Shamash ("Sun") and Inanna/Ishtar (the goddess of the planet Venus). The tendency to centralize the powers of the universe leads to the establishment of the doctrine of a triad consisting of Sin/Nanna and his children.

He was also the father of Ishkur.

Nannar's moon crescent, Taurus symbol & Aninnaki symbol flying disc

Sin had a beard made of lapis lazuli and rode on a winged bull. The bull was one of his symbols, through his father, Enlil, "Bull of Heaven", along with the crescent and the tripod (which may be a lamp-stand). On cylinder seals, he is represented as an old man with a flowing beard and the crescent symbol. In the astral-theological system he is represented by the number 30 and the moon. This number probably refers to the average number of days (correctly around 29.53) in a lunar month, as measured between successive new moons.

An important Sumerian text ("Enlil and Ninlil") tells of the descent of Enlil and Ninlil, pregnant with Nanna/Sin, into the underworld. There, three "substitutions" are given to allow the ascent of Nanna/Sin. The story shows some similarities to the text known as "The Descent of Inanna".


Coat of arms of Moldova


Nannar Utu Inana symbol

Nannar Utu Inana

Nannar, Utu & his twin sister Inanna

Utu and his twin sister Inanna & Nanna Sin


Zvijezda Danica i polumjesec Ljeljiva

Inanna & Nannar

Danica je istaknuti lik narodnog pjesništva i pretkršćanske mitologije, opažajno vezana za osvit (također i kao Jutrenjica), a koja može biti "jutarnja", "zorna", "prva" ili "večernja" Danica.

U "Hrvatskim narodnim pjesmama", izdanju Matice hrvatske iz 1909., Danica je nastala nakon što su djevojku nakon smrti anđeli odnijeli na nebo (str. 453). Osim s likovima Sunca i Mjeseca (kao nevjesta ili sestra), u narodnim pjesmama zna je se povezivati i s Vlašićima. Daničina najava danjeg svjetla u folkloru i učenosti asocira preporod i razdanjenje. "Danica horvatska, slavonska i dalmatinska" bio je naslov književnog priloga "Novinama horvatskim" (1835.), najvažnijem kontinentalnom časopisu hrvatskog narodnog preporoda.

Prema srednjovjekovnim kovanicama koje su bile u uporabi na području Hrvatske, čini se da je bar od 12. stoljeća (1196.) hrvatski grb bila šestokraka zvijezda Danica iznad polumjeseca. Kao zemaljski simbol on nije smio biti izostavljen s novca.


Venera / Danica


Šestokraka zvijezda (Berlin Vorderasiatische Museum)

"Grifin napada bika" (XIII st. pr. Kr.)

Coin of Juba II of Numidia

Clodius coin

Clodius coin

Roman currency

Roman currency

Roman currency

Roman currency

Coat of arms of Grand Illyria


Lament for Sumer and Ur

Sumerian city-state

The lament for Sumer and Urim or the lament for Sumer and Ur is a poem and one of five known Mesopotamian "city laments"-dirges for ruined cities in the voice of the city's tutelary goddess.

The other city laments are:

During the last year of King Ibbi-Sin's reign, Ur fell to an army from the east. The Sumerians decided that such a catastrophic event could only be explained through divine intervention and wrote in the lament that the gods, "An, Enlil, Enki and Ninmah decided [Ur's] fate"

The literary works of the Sumerians were widely translated (e.g. by the Hittites, Hurrians and Canaanites) and the world-renowned expert in Sumerian history, Samuel Noah Kramer, wrote that later Greek as well as Hebrew texts "were profoundly influenced by them." Contemporary scholars have drawn parallels between the lement and passages from the bible (e.g. "the Lord departed from his temple and stood on the mountain east of Jerusalem (Ezekiel 10:18-19)." - Lament for Sumer and Ur

The Lament of Ur:

For the gods have abandoned us
like migrating birds they have gone
Ur is destroyed, bitter is its lament
The country's blood now fills its holes like hot bronze in a mould
Bodies dissolve like fat in the sun. Our temple is destroyed
Smoke lies on our city like a shroud.
blood flows as the river does
the lamenting of men and women
sadness abounds
Ur is no more.


Pribavimo sebi ime

Ali kako su se ljudi selili s istoka, naiđu na jednu dolinu u zemlji Šinearu i tu se nastane. (3) Jedan drugome reče: "Hajdemo praviti opeke te ih peći da otvrdnu!" Opeke im bile mjesto kamena, a paklina im služila za žbuku. (4) Onda rekoše: "Hajde da sebi podignemo grad i toranj s vrhom do neba! Pribavimo sebi ime, da se ne raspršimo po svoj zemlji!"

Danovci su "ostavili svoj "potpis" gdje god se se nastanili. To su učinili jedinstvenom metodom imenovanjem rijeka, planina, jezera, sela, gradova, uvala po imenu - Dan.

U semitskom nema samoglasnika, pa ime Dan je napisano DN, odnosno njezin semitski ekvivalent. Tako su riječi poput Dana, Din, Don, Dun, Den, ili DN, odgovaraju imenu Dan.


Who was the Mysterious Dan



During the Bronze Age Dinarics spread with the knowledge of metal from an eastern Mediterranean source to the western Mediterranean Countries, to central Europe, and to the British Isles. In this instance Dinarics of a Near Eastern variety did actually invade Europe, and their descendants may be distinguished today in countries like England where, owing to the absence of an Alpine substratum, the process of Dinaricization has not been locally at play.


The Mysterious Odin

It would also appear that WODAN, or ODIN, who seems to be identified with those gods WHOM CUSH WAS THE HUMAN ORIGINAL, had a son "BALDER," who was slain by LOKI, the spirit of evil, just as OSIRIS was slain by TYPHON, the spirit of evil. Just also as the deaths of Osiris, Bacchus, Thammuz, etc., are LAMENTED, so is BALDER lamented by his mother, FREYA or FRIGGA, who was told by Hela, the goddess of Hell, that he would be restored to life if everything on earth wept for him. Again, just as the war god MARS or Mergal was another manifestation of the younger BABYLONIAN god, so "THOR," the war god of the Scandinavians, was another son of Odin...Odin, Freya and Thor, in short, are the SCANDINAVIAN TRINITY, CORRESPONDING TO THE EGYPTIAN TRINITY, OSIRIS, ISIS, AND HORUS, and other forms of the same Trinity, and like Horus, Apollo and Chrishna, Thor is represented as bruising the head of the serpent. -- The Worship of the Dead.

Raven banner

The raven banner was a flag, possibly flown by various Viking chieftains and other Scandinavian rulers during the 9th, 10th and 11th centuries. The flag, as depicted in Norse artwork, was roughly triangular, with a rounded outside edge on which there hung a series of tabs or tassels. It bore a resemblance to ornately carved "weather-vanes" used aboard Viking longships.

Scholars conjecture that the raven flag was a symbol of Odin, who was often depicted accompanied by two ravens named Huginn and Muninn. Its intent may have been to strike fear in one's enemies by invoking the power of Odin.

  • ScanDINavia


Vikings Denmark - Tribe of Dan

Maritime colonization of Europe

Viking Pirates flag (Thrace)

Horned helmets ca 900 BC - found in a northern Zealand bog - Vikinge skibs - DaNes


The Danaans - Tribe of Dan

Maritime colonization of Europe

Argo - DaNaus

The early Greeks were once ruled by Israelites in addition to receiving cultural and ethnic input from the Canaanite Nations. This is reflected in Greek mythology. The Israelite Tribe of Dan had early contacts with Greece and with offshoots of the Greeks in Ionia (present-day western Turkey on the Asian side). In the article below, John R. Salverda, analyses Greek legends and compares them to the Biblical narrative of Ancient Israel. - by John R. Salverda


Sherden - Tribe of Dan

Anu - An



The Mysterious Tribe of Dan

What happened to the tribe of Dan? Why are they left out of the 144,000 of Revelation? History reveals some fascinating facts about the powerful tribe of Dan and their perambulations and migrations in ancient times, as well as where they are on the earth, today!


Maritime colonization of Europe

Sardinian warrior figure - Model of Nuragic ship


Macedonians, Tuatha de Danaan - Tribe of Dan

Vergina Sun


Maritime colonization of Europe

Mecedonian Septireme

Macedonian shields

Arianrhod - Tuatha de Danaan


The Tribe of Dan are the Danes (Denmark) and the Irish

Jutes, Danes - Tribe of Judah, Tribe of Dan

The third batch of Danites left a trail to their final homeland Denmark. As you can see the Serpent's head (Denmark) is the final destination of this tribe.

Was There More Than One Exodus Out of Egypt?

The legends of ancient Greece are unanimous in claiming that the people who founded their nation came from Egypt. Furthermore, the time of the arrival of these groups in Greece is also the time of the bondage of the Israelites in Egypt. The ancient writers all agree that these founders of the Greek nation were, without doubt, Israelite refugees from the Egyptian bondage. The migrations out of Egypt led by Danaus and Cadmus, and the Exodus under Moses, are not the only ones recorded. Another important Grecian colony was founded by Cecrops who became the first "legendary" king of Attica. - by John D. Keyser


Angles - England

Anu - An

Anu - An - Angel - Angles


Profesor Totten izjavljuje:

"Ne postoji veličanstvenija tema na svicima iz povijesti od priče o borbi Anglosaksonaca na zapadu. Upravo tokovi Europe obilježavaju njihova odmorišta, te ih nazvali svojim drevnim imenom (Dan, ili Don) što podsjeća na svetu rijeku Jor-DAN, odakle su krenuli kao prognanici. Bila je to kolonija Dan, po svojoj plemenskoj sklonost imenuju sve po svom pra-ocu, isto kao i u (Suci 18 1-29) ili je to samo puko preživljavanje riječi i običaja, a koristi kako bi ušli u trag ovim lutalicama. Stoga je Dan-Ube, Dan-Ieper, Dan-iester, Dan-au, Daci i Davi, Dan, Don, U-Don, Eri-Don, i tisuće drugih Dans i Dons u drevnoj i ranoj geografiji, do Danaca u Dan-emerke, ili 'Danovom posljednjem počivalištu' "(Allen, Judah's Sceptre and Joseph's Birthright, p. 263-64).

  • Angles =Angel = Henok (Anakim or Anunnaki)

London (/ˈlʌndən/ LUN-dən)

"London" is an ancient name, attested already in the first century AD, usually in the Latinised form Londinium; for example, handwritten Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio ("in London").

Richard Coates, in the 1998 article where he published his own theory of the etymology, lists all the known occurrences of the name up to around the year 900, in Greek, Latin, British and Anglo-Saxon. Most of the older sources begin with Londin- (Λονδίνιον, Londino, Londinium etc.), though there are some in Lundin-. Later examples are mostly Lundon- or London-, and all the Anglo-Saxon examples have Lunden- with various terminations.


Seven Wonders of the Ancient World

The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World (from left to right, top to bottom): Great Pyramid of Giza, Hanging Gardens of Babylon, Temple of Artemis, Statue of Zeus at Olympia, Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, Colossus of Rhodes, and the Lighthouse of Alexandria



The Heraldic Emblems of Dan


Dan u Bibliji


Zmija bijaše lukavija od sve zvjeradi.. Nek' Dan zmija bude na putu – Postanak


Dan je sposoban u svakom poslu i viješt u nacrtima - Math/Geometry

od plemena Danova, udijeli i sposobnost da poučavaju druge. Obdari ih umještvom u svakom poslu rezbarskom, krojačkom, veziljskom i tkalačkom; oni tkaju tkanine od ljubičastog, crvenog i tamnocrvenog prediva i prepredenog lana, sposobni su u svakom poslu i vješti u nacrtima. – Izlazak

ϕ - Golden ratio

Herkules Samson - heros

Dan je lavić što skače iz Bašana. - Ponovljeni zakon

Samson / Herkules

Pomorska kolonizacija Europe - Ijon / Dan

A zašto je Dan na stranim lađama? - Knjiga o sucima

Ben-Hadad posluša kralja Asu i posla svoje vojskovođe na izraelske gradove te oni pokoriše Ijon, Dan, Abel Bet-Maaku, sav Kineret i svu zemlju Naftali. - Prva knjiga o kraljevima

Hathor - Mysteries

od zlatnih telaca u Betelu i Danu.- Druga knjiga o kraljevima

Hathor - Thoth / Hathor

Danovci drevni graditelji hramova

Stoga ti šaljem čovjeka mudra, vješta i razumna, Hurama Abija, sina jedne Danovke i oca Tirca. Umije obrađivati zlato, srebro, tuč, željezo, kamen, drvo, grimiz, ljubičasti baršun, bÓez i karmezin, umije rezbariti svakovrsne rezbarije i zamisliti svako djelo koje mu se povjeri. - Druga knjiga Ljetopisa

Ain Dara

The Ain Dara temple, located near the village of Ain Dara, northwest of Aleppo, Syria, is an Iron Age Syro-Hittite temple noted for its similarities to Solomon's Temple, also known as the First Temple, as described in the Hebrew Bible. According to the excavator Ali Abu Assaf, it was in existence from 1300 BC until 740 BC and remained "basically the same" during the period of the Solomonic Temple's construction (1000 - 900 BC) as it had been before, so that it predates the Solomonic Temple. The temples of Emar, Munbaqa, and Ebla are also comparable. The surviving sculptures depict lions and sphinxes (comparable to the cherubim of the First Temple). - Megarons

Mjedeno more - π

A Urartian cauldron

Tada od rastaljene kovine izli more koje je od ruba do ruba mjerilo deset lakata; bilo je okruglo naokolo, pet lakata visoko, a u opsegu, mjereno vrpcom, imalo je trideset lakata. Pod rubom mu bijahu uresi kao cvjetne čaške koje su ga optakale sasvim: po deset na lakat optakale su more unaokolo; cvjetne su čaške bile u dva reda i salivene s njim. Počivalo je na dvanaest volova: tri su gledala na sjever, tri na zapad, tri na jug, a tri na istok; more je stajalo na njima i svi su stražnjim dijelom bili okrenuti unutra. Bilo je debelo pedalj, rub mu kao rub u čaše, kao cvijet, a moglo je primiti tri tisuće bata. - 1. Kraljevima

Dan je mudar i nijedna tajna ne bje skrivena

Bješe, eto, od Daniela mudriji, nijedna ti tajna ne bje skrivena! - Ezekiel


Dan u Rigvedi - Danu (Asura)

Dānu, a Hindu primordial goddess, is mentioned in the Rigveda, mother of the Danavas. The word Danu described the primeval waters which this deity perhaps embodied. In the Rigveda (I.32.9), she is identified as the mother of Vrtra, the demonic serpent slain by Indra. In later Hinduism, she becomes the daughter of Daksha and the consort of Kasyapa.

As a word for "rain" or "liquid", dānu is compared to Avestan dānu "river", and further to river names like Don, Danube, Dneiper, Dniestr, etc. There is also a Danu river in Nepal. The "liquid" word is mostly neuter, but appears as feminine in RV 1.54.

Dunav Danube - Known to the ancient Greeks as the Istros (Ἴστρος) a borrowing from a Daco-Thracian name meaning "strong, swift" (akin to Sanskrit iṣiras "swift"). In Latin, the Danube was variously known as Danubius, Danuvius or as Ister. The Dacian/Thracian name was Donaris for the upper Danube and Istros for the lower Danube. The Thraco-Phrygian name was Matoas, "the bringer of luck".

Ur - Harran

Nanna Sin

Venus, Sun and Moon on the Stele of Nabonidus (r. 556–539 BCE) found at Harran

Andre Parrot (Abraham et son temps) "postoje svi dokazi da je kult Harana bio točna replika onog iz Ura."

Sin /ˈsiːn/ (Akkadian: Su'en, Sîn) ili Nanna (Sumerian: DŠEŠ.KI, DNANNA) bio je bog Mjeseca u mezopotamskoj mitologiji. Nanna je Sumersko božanstvo, sin Enlila i Ninlil, identificiran kao Sin. Dva glavna sjedišta Nanna /Sin obožavanja bili su Ur u južnoj Mezopotamiji i Harran na sjeveru. - Ur, Sin/Nanna, Urkesh




Terah povede svoga sina Abrama, svog unuka Lota, sina Haranova, svoju snahu Saraju, ženu svoga sina Abrama, pa se zaputi s njima iz Ura Kaldejskoga u zemlju kanaansku. Kad stignu do Harana, ondje se nastane. - Postanak

Ur (Sumerian: Urim, Akkadian: Uru, Arabic: أور‎) bio važan sumerski grad-država u drevnoj Mezopotamiji, koji se nalazi na mjestu današnjeg Tell el-Muqayyar (Arabic: تل المقير‎) u južnom Iraq's Dhi Qar Governorate.

Harran (Turkish: Harran, Ottoman Turkish: حران,) bio veliki antički grad u gornjoj Mezopotamiji, u blizini sela Altınbaşak. Bio je nazvan "free city of Harran".

Canaan (/ˈkeɪnən/; Northwest Semitic knaʿn; biblical Hebrew: כנען / knaʿn; Masoretic: כְּנָעַן / Kənáʿan) područje na Bliskom Istoku, koje je opisano u Bibliji, otprilike odgovara Levantu, odnosno, današnjem Libanonu, Izraelu, Palestini, Jordanu zapadnoj i jugozapadnoj Siriji.


El Šadaj - Bog Svesilni

Kad je Abramu bilo devedeset i devet godina, ukaza mu se Jahve pa mu reče: "Ja sam El Šadaj - Bog Svesilni, Mojim hodi putem i neporočan budi. (2) A Savez svoj ja sklapam s tobom i silno ću te razmnožiti."

Bog mu reče: "Ime ti je Jakov, ali se odsad nećeš zvati Jakov nego će Izrael biti tvoje ime." Tako ga prozva Izraelom. (11) Onda mu Bog reče: "Ja sam El Šadaj - Bog Svesilni! Budi rodan i množi se! Od tebe poteći će narod, mnoštvo naroda, i kraljevi iz tvog će izaći krila. (12) Zemlju što je dadoh Abrahamu i Izaku tebi predajem; i potomstvu tvojem poslije tebe zemlju ću ovu dati." (13) A onda Bog ode od njega gore. (14) Na mjestu gdje je Bog s njim govorio Jakov uspravi stup, stup od kamena; na njemu prinese žrtvu i izli ulja. (15) A mjesto gdje mu je Bog govorio Jakov nazva Betel.

Još reče Bog Mojsiju: "Ja sam Jahve. (3) Abrahamu, Izaku i Jakovu objavljivao sam se kao El Šadaj. Ali njima se nisam očitovao pod svojim imenom - Jahve.


Shaddai related to wilderness or mountains

According to Ernst Knauf, "El Shaddai" means "God of the Wilderness" and originally would not have had a doubled "d". He argues that it is a loan-word from "Israelian Hebrew, where the word had a "sh", into "Judaen (and hence, Biblical) Hebrew", where it would have been "śaday" with the sound śin. In this theory, the word is related to the word "śadé" meaning "the (uncultivated) field", the area of hunting (as in the distinction between beasts of the field, חיות השדה, and cattle, בהמות). He points out that the name is found in Thamudic inscriptions (as 'lšdy), in a personal name Śaday`ammī used in Egypt from the Late Bronze Age till Achaemenid times, and even in the Punic name `bdšd' (Servant of Shadé or Shada).

Another theory is that Shaddai is a derivation of a Semitic stem that appears in the Akkadian shadû ("mountain") and shaddā`û or shaddû`a ("mountain-dweller"), one of the names of Amurru. According to this theory, God is seen as inhabiting a holy mountain, a concept not unknown in ancient West Asian mythology, and also evident in the Syriac Christian writings of Ephrem the Syrian, who places Eden on an inaccessible mountain-top.

The term "El Shaddai" may mean "god of the mountains", referring to the Mesopotamian divine mountain. This could also refer to the Israelite camp's stay at biblical Mount Sinai where God gave Moses the Ten Commandments. According to Stephen L. Harris, the term was "one of the patriarchal names for the Mesopotamian tribal god", presumably meaning of the tribe of Abram, although there seems to be no evidence for this outside the Bible.

Shaddai meaning destroyer

The root word "shadad" (שדד ) means to plunder, overpower, or make desolate. This would give Shaddai the meaning of "destroyer", representing one of the aspects of God, and in this context it is essentially an epithet. The meaning may go back to an original sense which was "to be strong" as in the Arabic "shadiid" (شديد ) "strong", although normally the Arabic letter pronounced "sh" corresponds to the Hebrew letter sin, not to shin. The termination "ai", typically signifying the first person possessive plural, functions as a pluralis excellentiae like other titles for the Hebrew deity, Elohim ("gods") and Adonai ("my lords"). The possessive quality of the termination had lost its sense and become the lexical form of both Shaddai and Adonai, similar to how the connotation of the French word Monsieur changed from "my lord" to being an honorific title. There are a couple verses in the Bible where there seems to be word play with "Shadday" and this root meaning to destroy (the day of Yhwh will come as destruction from Shadday, כשד משדי יבוא, Is. 13:6 and Joel 1:15), but Knauf maintains that this is re-etymologization.


El Shaddai

Planine su bile sjedište bogova, pogotovo vulkani, ljudi su ih se bojali. Vulkan koji bljuje vatru i sliči na uzdizanj kundalini prema vrhu. Vulkan sliči na piramidu koja isijava energiju u centru, Egipćani su ih zvali mer tj. svjetlo, pyramid je na grčki vatra u sredini. Korijen MR na sumerski je svjetlost, blještavost. Meru na jeziku Maya znači centar, tako su zvali planine axis mundi. Kod budista, hinduista i đainista se vjeruje da je planina Meru ili Sumeru centar svijeta. I u indijskim Puranama piše o planini O meru, centru svijeta. Treba znati da se Keopsova piramida nalazi točno na sredini kopnene mase zemlje.

Boga Židovi zazivaju sa shin (kao Kinezi), to je u kabali vatra, Jahve se na Sinaju ukazuje kao stup dima po danu i vatra po noći. Shin je za boga shaddai, slovo w, koje predstavlja tri stupa i trinity. To je znak Kohana, riječ možda dolazi od aramejskog khiva, tu piše da je riječ kivun. Poglavnik Hiksa se zvao chyan/chayana (cyan je plavo na grčkom, boja vrhovnog božanstva).

Židovi su bili poznati kod Rimljana i Grka po štovanju saturna, saturn je bio remphan, chiun, kiyyun, manda, kivun, caivan, caymanu na bliskom istoku. To se vjerojatno odnosi na levite, U Indiji je rijeka Kophen, chohan je na sankrtu gospodar. Preko Egipta se može trag pratiti jer je tamo jedno od zmijskih božanstava bila kneph ili cohen eph.

Abraham je Jahvea zvao Shaddai "uzvišeni s planine". Shaddai je povezan sa hititskim shadu, što znači planina, bio je hititski bog groma i dvije planine (Mojsije je išao se naći sa njim na vulkanskoj planini Horebu i Sinaju). Poveznica sa Vedama i sanskrtom je i Adonai, tako Židovi zazivaju "Gospodine". Čita se Adni, korijen je indijski/arijski bog sunca/vatre Agni. Ai je sufiks koji znači "jedan od" (u bibliji se spominju bogovi Elohim u množini), Adon je isto što i egipatski Aton, fenički Adon/Baal ili sirijski Adonis.

Tibet je sveta planina, tamo je hram Kailash gdje je u planini isklesan hram i to bi i danas bilo nemoguće napraviti. Planine su bile uvijek štovane kao mjesta gdje su se bogovi spuštali i obitavali. Zagros planina npr. Dioniz je bio i Zagreus, i kod nas imamo Zagorje, Zagreb.. O Stražarima/Nefilima tj. sinovima Anunakija koji su čuvali rajski vrt priča i Biblija, njih 200 se spustilo na planinu Hermon da bi općili sa ljudski kćerima. Vrh ima oblik ovna/bika, kao i na planini Taurus u Turskoj gdje izviru Eufrat i Tigris. U Turskoj je je i Goebekli Tepe, najstarija megalitska civilizacija, kao i Catalhoyuk.


Abraham - Beer Šeba

Potom Abraham razluči napose sedam janjaca od stada. (29) Nato Abimelek zapita Abrahama: "Što znači ovih sedam janjaca koje si na stranu stavio?" (30) A on odgovori: "Primi ovih sedam janjaca iz moje ruke da mi bude dokazom da sam ja iskopao ovaj zdenac." (31) Zato se ono mjesto nazvalo Beer Šeba; jer se njih dvojica ondje zakleše.

Izak - Šiba

Odande se popne u Beer Šebu. (24) Iste mu se noći ukaže Jahve i reče: "Ja sam Bog oca tvoga Abrahama. Ne boj se, ja sam s tobom! Blagoslovit ću te, potomke ti umnožit, zbog Abrahama, sluge svojega." (25) Izak tu podigne žrtvenik i zazove Jahvu po imenu; postavi ondje svoj šator, a njegove sluge počnu kopati bunar.

Toga istog dana dođu Izakove sluge i obavijeste ga o bunaru što su ga iskopali te mu reknu: "Našli smo vodu." (33) On ga prozva Šiba. Zato je ime onom gradu do danas - Beer Šeba.

Beer Sheba

There are several etymologies for the origin of the name "Beer Sheba". The oath of Abraham and Abimelech (well of the oath) is the one stated in Genesis 21:31. Others include the seven wells dug by Isaac (seven wells) though only three or four have been identified; the oath of Isaac and Abimelech (well of the oath in Genesis 26:33); the seven lambs that sealed Abraham and Abimelech's oath (well of the seven).
Be'er is the Hebrew word for well; sheva could mean "seven" or "oath" (from the Hebrew word shvu'a). In this case the meaning is probably "oath", as the ancient Hebrews believed seven to be a lucky number, and the Hebrew "shvu'a" (to take an oath) literally means "to seven oneself".

Tel Be'er Sheva

Tel Be'er Sheva The name is derived from the Hebrew be'er, meaning a well, and sheva, meaning "seven".

Beer Sheba - Tel Be'er Sheva

Jišmaelovi potomci i Keturini sinovi

Abraham je sebi uzeo još jednu ženu; zvala se Ketura. Ona mu je rodila Zimrana, Jokšana, Medana, Midjana, Jišbaka i Šuaha. A od Jokšana rodili se Šeba i Dedan. Dedanovi su potomci: Ašurci, Letušci i Leumci. Sinovi su Midjanovi: Efa, Efer, Hanok, Abida i Eldaa. Sve su to potomci Keturini.

Ovo je povijest Abrahamova sina Jišmaela, koga je Abrahamu rodila Sarina sluškinja, Egipćanka Hagara. A ovo su sinovi Jišmaelovi, svaki po svom imenu i po svom rođenju: Jišmaelov prvenac Nebajot, Kedar, Adbeel, Mibsam, Mišma, Duma, Masa, Hadad, Tema, Jetur, Nafiš i Kedma. To su Jišmaelovi sinovi i to su njihova imena prema njihovim naseljima i taborištima: dvanaest poglavica od isto toliko plemena.

  • Ham - Kuš - Kuševi su: Seba, Havila, Sabta, Rama i Sabteka. Ramini su: Šeba i Dedan. - Oasis of Siwa & Dodona in Epirus
  • Abraham - od Jokšana rodili se Šeba i Dedan - Sheba
  • Jišmaelov prvenac Nebajot - Nabataeans



  • Egipćanka Hagara

To the Ancient Greeks, eastern Arabia (the present-day al-Hasa province) was known as Gerrha after its capital city. Gerrha was a Greek alteration of the Arabic Hajar (present-day Hofuf), the name of the largest city of ancient Bahrayn (Bahrayn was also known as Hagar or Gerrha in Hellenistic times).

Glas G prvi je glas u riječima GER, GERA što na tračkom i rasenskom (etrurskom) jeziku znači TOPLOTA, VRELINA. Toplotu i vrelinu ima samo VATRA, što znači da su prvobitno riječi GER i GERA imenovale VATRU (imenice GERMA, GERMAN i GEROVIT). Od riječi GER vremenom je nastala riječ ŽER, a od riječi GERA nastala je riječ ŽERA.

Abram postaje AbraHam

Abramova žena Saraja nije mu rađala djece. A imaše ona sluškinju Egipćanku - zvala se Hagara. ... Rodi Hagara Abramu sina, a Abram sinu što mu ga rodi Hagara nadjene ime Jišmael... ukaza mu se Jahve pa mu reče: "Ja sam El Šadaj - Bog Svesilni, ... i nećeš se više zvati Abram - već Abraham - Postanak


Nabateans Shivta

  • Jišmaelov prvenac Nebajot

Shivta (Hebrew: שבטה‎), is an ancient city in the Negev Desert of Israel located 43 kilometers southwest of Beersheba. Shivta was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in June 2005.

The Nabateans built a few other cities in the desert, one of which is the archaeological site of ‘Shivta’ built in the 1st century BC on the ‘Perfume Road’ between Petra to Gaza. Like Petra, Shivta too was abandoned by the 8th – 9th century CE, after the ascendancy of Islam. A few kilometers from Shivta is located the ancient, biblical city of ‘Tel Sheva’, an archaeological site in southern Israel, which derives its name from a nearby ‘well’ or ‘water source’. The phonetic and symbolic similarities between these cities and ‘Shiva’ are obvious. In fact, the cult of Shiva-Shakti was widespread across the entire Middle East and West Asia, and penetrated deep into the farthest corners of Europe in the centuries before Christ. The biblical kingdom of ‘Sheba’ (Hebrew: Sh’va) believed to be in present day Yemen, as well as the archaeological site of ‘Shibham’ (Sanskrit: Shivam) located in Yemen, hint at the fact that entire kingdoms and cities were named after this deity.



Shiva Temple Complex in Petra

The Khasneh or Treasury

While the architectural grandeur of Petra continues to captivate us, the mysterious religious beliefs of the Nabataeans have puzzled historians. Within the temple of Al Deir, the largest and most imposing rock-cut temple in Petra, is present an unworked, black, block of stone, like an obelisk, representing the most important deity of the Nabataeans – Dushara. The term Dushara means ‘Lord of the Shara’, which refers to the Shara mountains to the north of Petra. The symbolic animal of Dushara was a bull. All over Petra, Dushara was represented symbolically by stone blocks. At the entrance of Petra there are three massive standing blocks of stone, known as Djin blocks, which were sacred to the inhabitants. There are nearly 40 such Djin blocks present throughout Petra. In addition, at religious sites throughout the city, the Nabataeans carved a standing stone block called a baetyl, literally meaning ‘house of god’. A baetyl physically marked a deity’s presence. It could be a square or rounded like a dome. Some baetyls’ were depicted with a lunar crescent on the top. The Nabataeans also appear to be snake worshippers. One of the most prominent structures in Petra is the snake monument, which shows a gigantic coiled-up snake on a block of stone.

A dome-shaped baetyl

A baetyl with a lunar crescent on top

Snake monument at Petra

This unusual array of symbolic elements associated with the chief god of the Nabataeans, Dushara, may have confounded historians, but to anyone familiar with the symbolism of the Vedic deity Shiva, the similarities between Dushara and Shiva will be palpable. Shiva is still worshipped all over India in the form of a black block of stone known as a Shiva Linga. A Shiva Linga, which is essentially a ‘mark’ or ‘symbol’ of Shiva, sometimes appears as an unworked block of stone, much like the idol of Dushara in the temple of Al Deir; but typically it is represented by a smooth, rounded stone which resembles some of the rounded ,dome-shaped, baetyls that we find in Petra. Shiva is also associated with the mountains; his residence is supposed to be in the Kailash Mountain in the Himalayas, to the north of India, where he spends most of his time engaged in rigorous asceticism. His symbolic animal is a bull, named Nandi, which is commonly depicted kneeling in front of the Shiva Linga. Pictorial depictions of Shiva always show a crescent-shaped moon in his matted locks, much like the lunar crescent that appears on top of certain baetyls in Petra; and on top of the Shiva Linga is present a coiled-up serpent, bearing a strong resemblance to the serpent monument of Petra. It is evident that Shiva and Dushara are symbolically identical, leaving little scope for doubt that Dushara must indeed be a representation of the Vedic deity Shiva.

Black stone Shiva Linga in the coils of a seven hooded serpent. Lepakshi, Andhra Pradesh, India, 16th century.

The 123 feet high statue of Shiva in Bhatkal, India, with snakes coiled around his neck and the crescent shaped Moon on his matted locks. At the foot of the statue is Shiva’s vahana (carrier), Nandi the bull.

The similarities, however, do not end here. The consort of Dushara was known to the Nabataeans as Al-Uzza or Al-lat. She was a goddess of power and a goddess of the people, and was symbolized by a lion. Lions are present at many sites in Petra. At the Lion Triclinium in Petra there are two massive lions protecting the doorway. Lions are also seen at the Lion Monument in Petra, a public fountain, where refreshing water for the perspiring pilgrims would have sprouted from the water outlet at the mouth of the lion. At the Temple of the Winged Lions, a considerable amount of material has been found, including feline statuette fragments, which emphasize the ‘feline’ association of the mother goddess. The supreme mother goddess was also symbolically associated with vegetation, grains and prosperity, and was frequently depicted holding cereal stalks and fruits.

Not surprisingly, the lion is also associated with the consort of Shiva, known as Parvati, Durga or Shakti. As per the Puranic legends, when the entire humanity was threatened by the evil Mahisasura, the goddess Durga, invested with the combined spiritual energies of the Hindu Trinity – Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva – and adorned with celestial weapons granted by the divine company of gods, rode her lion to battle this asura. The terrible battle raged over nine days, and on the tenth day Durga defeated and killed Mahisasura. Even now, the victory of Durga over the forces of darkness represented by Mahisasura, is one of the most widely celebrated religious festivals in India, known as Dussehra (or Dasha-Hara, Navratri, Vijaydashami) which is celebrated over a period of ten days.

Idol of Al-Uzza, found in the Temple of the Winged Lions.

One of the two reliefs of lion of the Lion Triclinium in Petra, Jordan.

Durga on a Lion, slaying Mahisarura who has taken the form of a bull. Aihole temple complex, Karnataka,

There are indications that the Nabataeans, too, may have celebrated this ancient festival. At Petra, an elaborate processional way leads from the center of the city to the temple of Al Deir. In front of the temple there is a massive, flat, courtyard, capable of accommodating thousands of people. This has led historians to suggest that the Al Deir temple may have been the site of large-scale ceremonies. It is possible that this was a celebration of Dussehra, since Al-Uzza was the ‘goddess of the people’ and Dussehra is the celebration of the victory of the goddess over the forces of evil. It is not unlikely that the presiding god of the Nabataeans, Dushara, may have obtained his name from the festival Dussehra. The cult of Shiva-Shakti represented the sacred masculine and feminine principles, and the worship of Shiva has always been inextricably linked with the celebrations of the divine feminine. Even now in rural Bengal in India, the final day of celebration of Dussehra (Basanti Puja) is followed by an exuberant worship of Shiva. For these people, it remains the most important festival of their annual religious calendar.

It is unclear to historians whether all the representations of the female goddess found in Petra refer to Al-Uzza or to the Nabataean goddess triad of Al-Uzza, Al-lat and Manat. Although it is has been supposed that the consort of Dushara may be Al-Uzza, the depictions of Al-Uzza in other places of Arabia do not support such an association. Al-Uzza (the ‘Strong One’) was the goddess of the morning and evening star. Isaac of Antioch referred to her as Kaukabta, ‘the Star’. She was sometimes depicted riding a ‘dolphin’ and showing the way to sea-farers. She is, thus, the counterpart of the Indo-European goddess of dawn, Ostara, and the Vedic ‘Usas’. In the Rig Veda, there are around 20 hymns dedicated to the Usas, the goddess of dawn, who appears in the east every morning, resplendent in her golden light, riding a chariot drawn by glorious horses, dispelling the darkness, awakening men to action, and bestowing her bounty and riches on all and sundry. The phonetic and symbolic associations between ‘Uzza’ and ‘Usa’ indicate that they are derived from the same source. Al-lat, on the other hand, was widely regarded as ‘the Mother of the Gods’, or ‘Greatest of All’. She was the goddess of fertility and prosperity and was known from Arabia to Iran. It is more likely, therefore, that the consort of Dushara at Petra, symbolized by the lion, was Al-lat and not Al-Uzza. However, it has been observed by historians that Al-Uzza and Al-lat were used quite interchangeably by the Arabs, and sometimes one gained prominence over the other. It is worth mentioning in this context, that the Hindu goddess of death and destruction – Kali – bears stark resemblances to the third goddess of the Nabataean triad – Manat – who is generally represented as the terrible, black goddess of death.

Certain rituals associated with Shiva-Durga worship can also be found reflected in the religious practices of the Nabataeans. The Nabataeans ritually made animal sacrifices to Dushara and Al-Uzza, at the ‘High Place of Sacrifice’ in Petra. The Suda Lexicon, which was compiled at the end of the 10th century, refers to older sources which have since been lost. It states: ‘Theus Ares (Dushrara); this is the god Ares in Arabic Petra. They worship the god Ares and venerate him above all. His statue is an unworked square black stone. It is four foot high and two feet wide. It rests on a golden base. They make sacrifices to him and before him they anoint the blood of the sacrifice that is their anointment.’ The practice of anointing the Shiva Linga with red vermilion powder (Kumkum) continues to this date in India. It has also been noticed that most of the Djin blocks at Petra are located close to sources of running water, a fact which has left historians in a dilemma. However, such a peculiar alignment of Djin blocks can be easily explained once we remember that one of the most common practices of Shiva worship is to pour a kettle of water (or milk, curd, ghee, honey etc.) over the Shiva-Linga. This act is symbolic of the sacred river Ganges, which, after emanating from the toe of Vishnu, flows down the matted locks of Shiva. This is the reason why nearly every Shiva temple is also associated with a natural well or spring or a source of running water.

Shiva Linga in Petra

The worship of Shiva-Durga, the sacred masculine and feminine principles, is as old as time itself. The presence of sacred pillars and dolmens, the ancient snake cults, the symbolism of the trisula / trident, the crescent moon etc. found at various archaeological sites across the world suggests that the worship of Shiva-Shakti was one of the most deeply entrenched belief systems of the ancient wisdom traditions. Among the ancient Semites, a pillar of stone was a sacred representation of a deity. In many texts, the ancient Hebrews are recorded setting up stones as monuments. Jacob set up a pillar and anointed it, in a manner starkly reminiscent of the Shiva worship rituals:

"And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had set up for his pillows, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it. (Genesis 28; 18-19). 

"And Jacob set up a pillar in the place where he talked with him, even a pillar of stone: and he poured a drink offering thereon, and he poured oil thereon (Genesis 35; 14).

Pillars and Dolmens (stones arranged one on top of another) also constituted an essential part of Druidical worship, among the Celts of ancient Britain and France. In the Irish Druids and Old Irish Religions (1894), James Bonwick mentions that the Irish venerated their lithic temples. They not only anointed them with oil or milk, but, down to a late period, they poured water on their sacred surface so that the draught might cure their diseases. Molly Grime, a rude stone figure, kept in Glentham church, was annually washed with water from Newell well. The ‘cup symbol’—observed on stones at Fermanagh, and in the west of Kerry—may have confused scholars, but to anyone familiar with the symbolism of Shiva, it can be immediately recognized as the ‘crescent moon’ present on the matted locks of Shiva.

The geographical distribution of stone monuments extends from the extreme west of Europe to the extreme east of Asia, and from Scandinavia to Central Africa. In spite of centuries of destruction, stone monuments of every type abound in the British and Irish Islands, and some of the most remarkable structures in Europe are found there. In France some 4000 dolmens are present. In Northern and Central Europe they occur in Belgium, Holland and in the northern plains of Germany. They have been found in large numbers in Denmark and the Danish Islands, and also in Sweden. ‘Meteoric stones mounted on carved pedestals’ have been found in the farthest reaches of the Roman Empire, and one such piece is, at present, on view at the Etruscan Museum in Vatican, Rome.

Although this ancient cult was worshipped in large parts of the world since time immemorial, there appears to have been a renewed westward thrust of this faith, soon after the conquests of Alexander, which invigorated the ancient land and maritime trade routes, popularly known as the Silk Route, which connected India and China with the western world.

Silk Route


Shiva Linga

Shiva Linga in Göbekli Tepe

Shiva Linga

Shiva Linga in Petra


Yoni - Torculum

Maslinovo ulje - Sveto ulje

Ostatci kamenog mlina za masline u romantičnoj kamenoj kući na otoku Hvaru.

Baza tijeska (torculum) odloženog na plaži u Maloj Dubi

Nabavi najboljih mirodija: pet stotina šekela smirne samotoka, pola te težine - dvjesta pedeset - mirisavog cimeta, dvjesta pedeset mirisave trstike, pet stotina - prema hramskom šekelu - lovorike i jedan hin maslinova ulja. Od toga napravi posvećeno ulje za pomazanje; da bude smjesa kao da ju je pravio pomastar. Neka to bude posvećeno ulje za pomazanje. - Izlazak





The phonetic and symbolic similarities between these cities and ‘Shiva’ are obvious. In fact, the cult of Shiva-Shakti was widespread across the entire Middle East and West Asia, and penetrated deep into the farthest corners of Europe in the centuries before Christ.

Some Westerners believe that many central concepts of Shaktism – including aspects of kundalini yoga as well as goddess worship – were once "common to the Hindu, Chaldean, Greek and Roman civilizations," but were largely superseded in the West, as well as the Near and Middle East, with the rise of the "Abrahamic religions":

Of these four great ancient civilizations, working knowledge of the inner forces of enlightenment has survived on a mass scale only in India. Only in India has the inner tradition of the Goddess endured. This is the reason the teachings of India are so precious. They offer us a glimpse of what our own ancient wisdom must have been. The Indians have preserved our lost heritage. [...] Today it is up to us to locate and restore the tradition of the living Goddess. We would do well to begin our search in India, where for not one moment in all of human history have the children of the living Goddess forgotten their Divine Mother. -  Linda Johnsen


Shekinah - Shakti

Shekhinah is the presence or manifestation of God which has descended to "dwell" among humanity. The term never appears in the Hebrew Bible; later rabbis used the word when speaking of God dwelling either in the Tabernacle or amongst the people of Israel. The root of the word means "dwelling". Of the principal names of God, it is the only one that is of the feminine gender in Hebrew grammar.

Kršćanstvo je recikliralo ženski princip, u islamu su potisli pogansku boginju Alat, ženu boga mjeseca Alaha. Isto kao i Židovi Asheru, kojoj su dali manju ulogu Ester, po njoj se zove ženski hormon estrogen (ostala je samo u kabali kao Šekina). Ester je venera, isto kao Easter/Ostara/Astarte po njoj se slavi Purim u isto vrijeme kao Ostara, kada je u Perziji zavela kralja Ahasvera tj. Ahashuerosa (primjetimo da je ovo anagram od ashera).

Duh sveti (ruach) je pretvoren u muško, iako Isus o njemu govori kao o ženskome, on je kršćanska šekina. Iako je logičnije da je žensko, onda imamo uobičajenu formulu, M, Ž i neutralnu (Bog je otac, duh sveti i sin).

U kršćanstvu važnu ulogu imaju dvije Marije. Marija je često pokazivana kako nogama gazi zmiju/zmaja, puno vedskih božanstava sjedi ili stoji na zmiji. Marija Magdalena je negativni aspekt ženstvenosti, crna boginja Kali u Indiji ili u Egiptu Neftis, poslije će se pretopiti ovo u štovanje crne Madone. To bi bila večernja zvijezda, nekad i boginja mjeseca. Venera/Isis se predstavljala golubicom, ta ženska energija je u kršćanstvu prešla u duh sveti koji se označava golubicom.

Ženska boginje su imale više aspekata, zemlju, jutarnju/večernju zvijezdu veneru i mjesec. U Sumeru je venera bila Inana, a boginja mjeseca Nanna. Inana je na sanskrtu Jnana što znači znanje, znači opet prosvjetljenost. Rađanje sunca ujutro je najavljivala jutarnja zvijezda, zato je ženska boginja vezivana za zemlju i veneru/mjesec. zemlja, venera i mjesec primaju sunčevu svjetlost, zato su boginje, npr. Afrodita i Hera su dijelile veneru. Hera je imala aspekte zemlje, mjeseca i venere jutarnje/večernje (Titanis Rheia, Titanis selene, Titanis eos i Nyx).

Ženska boginja je slavljena zajedno sa sinom božjim u proljeće i zajedno sa njima kao venera i zemlja, dnevni aspekt. zato je uvijek isti korijen, Ester/Ištar/Ashera ili istočna zvijezda, east star, pojavljuje se na istoku kad sunce izlazi. I istok i zvijezda je isti korijen, zvijezda je astra na lat, aster na grčki. Ostara je npr. germanska božica proljeća, a Aušra je jutarnja boginja (usra je na sanskrtu zora).

Venera se osim osmokračnog križa prikazuje i pentagramom. Uskrs je isto tako dobio ime, Easter (običaj bojenja Ištarinih jaja). tada je slavljena zajedno sa bogom vegetacije/suncem Tamuzom u mitu o sedam prolaza kad ga oslobađa iz podzemlja od boginje Ereškigal (danas je ostala tradicija plesa sedam velova). I proljetni mjeseci su dobili ime po božicama, april je po Afroditi/veneri.



  • Abraham - od Jokšana rodili se Šeba i Dedan

Dedan, in the latter meaning, is first mentioned in the Book of Ezekiel, (Chapters 27 and 38). Chapter 27 is a roster of the trading partners of the city of Tyre (today in modern Lebanon), where Dedan is noted as a nation or kingdom which traded in saddle blankets (Ezekiel 27:20).

The oasis kingdom is also mentioned in the prophetic vision of the war of Gog and Magog (Ezekiel 38; see also, Revelation 20:8), and appears to be a nation of significance in this end-times prophecy of Ezekiel.

In Ezekiel 38:13, Dedan is joined with Sheba, and "Tarshish and all her strong lions", all these nations joining together to inquire of the advancing armies of Gog: "Have you come to plunder? Have you gathered your hordes to loot, to carry off silver and gold, to take away livestock and goods and to seize much plunder?"

Now known as Al Ula in northern Saudi Arabia, known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Hijra, Hegra or Egra, the former is about the same distance, about 250 miles north from Medina as Medina is north of Mecca. The location where the extinct tribe of Thamud used to dwell.

In the ruins of the old city there are inscriptions that indicate the Dedanites were preceded by a Minean settlement. The Mineans established a center at this desert oasis in order to protect the incense trade.


Lihyan (Arabic: لحيان‎) (Greek: Lechienoi) or Dadan or Dedan was a powerful and highly organized ancient Arabian kingdom that played a vital cultural and economic role in the north-western region of the Arabian Peninsula. The Lihyanites ruled over large domain from Yathrib in the south and parts of the Levant in the north. In antiquity, Gulf of Aqaba used to be called Gulf of Lihyan. A testimony to the extensive influence that Lihyan acquired. Dedanite is used for the older phase of the history of this kingdom since their capital name was Dedan (see Biblical Dedan), which is now called Al-`Ula oasis located in northwestern Arabia, some 110 km southwest of Teima.

The Lihyanites later became the enemies of the Nabataeans. The Romans invaded the Nabataeans and destroyed their kingdom in 106 AD. This encouraged the Lihyanites to establish an independent kingdom to manage their country. This was headed by the King Han'as, one of the former royal family, which governed Al-Hijr before the Nabataean invasion.

The Arab genealogies consider the Banu Lihyan to be descended from the Ishmaelite Arabs from Ishmael. The descendants of Lihyan founded the Arab kingdom of Lihyan, and presently live in the desert between Mecca and Jeddah.




  • Abraham - od Jokšana rodili se Šeba i Dedan

A late Arabic writer wrote of the Sabaeans that they had seven temples dedicated to the seven planets, which they considered as intermediaries employed in their relation to God. Each of these temples had a characteristic geometric shape, a characteristic color, and an image made of one of the seven metals. They had two sects, star and idol worshippers, and the former doctrine was similar to one that come from Hermes Trismegistus.

A Sabaean priestess, who intercedes with the sun goddess on behalf of the donor


The biblical kingdom of ‘Sheba’ (Hebrew: Sh’va) believed to be in present day Yemen, as well as the archaeological site of ‘Shibham’ (Sanskrit: Shivam) located in Yemen, hint at the fact that entire kingdoms and cities were named after this deity.

Ratari Egipta i trgovci Kuša, i Sebejci, ljudi rasta visoka - Izaija
Sabejcima, daleku narodu - Joel

Kralj Solomon i kraljica Šeba

O Solomonu i njegovoj mudrosti pričaju tri knjige, biblija, kuran i etiopska kebra nagast (kobra zmija?). Etiopska kraljica Sheba kad je čula za veliku mudrost kralja Solomona pohrlila je sa poklonima u Jeruzalem i njih dvoje su se sretno spojili. Opet se radi o šakti i šiva spajanju, ženski princip se označava sa južnom stranom.


Origins of Islam: Godess Allat

Regarding semito-egyptian (Khemet) Elah'im - The Allah'umma-(اللَّهُمَّ) >the "Ummu" and "Allah"

So Allahuma is The Mother or God is The Mother Arabic: mother-"Ummu" : أم father - "Abbi": أب

The three goddesses of Mecca

In Mecca (مكة) before Islam, the Quraish tribe (قريش) worshiped a triad of three female deities, it is Allat (اللآت), al-'Uzza (العزة) and Manat (مناة) They cited their names during their tours (الطواف) around the Ka'ba (الكعبة). According to Ibn al-Kalbi, the Quraysh were wont to do around the Ka'aba saying . "In the name of Allat, of ʿ Uzza and Manat the third idol, they are actually" al-gharānīq "( Women top condition) which must be sought intercession. " Like today, pilgrims shaved their heads.

Hubal, the new father-god goddesses

While for the Nabateans (Petra, Jordan), Allat was the mother of all gods, the other Arabs, Allat, al-'Uzza and Manat were the daughters of Allah (الله جل جلاله) and were intermediate between God and man for his blessings. Allah ( the god- ) is the title of the moon god Sin-Hubal (Baal) patch late in Mesopotamia in the Arab pantheon, he dominated thereafter to Mecca. This god, little temples, representations, and written records have survived until today. The word Allah predates Islam as the father of Muhammad Abd 'Allah calls himself, ie, "the servant of God."

The Kaaba, temple of the goddess Allat

Kaaba cube mean in Arabic, but the Kaaba itself is the old "Kaabou" , the Greek word for 'girl' , and refers to the goddess Astarte , that is to say Aphrodite in Greek mythology is the Roman Venus and al-'Uzza (العزى) Arabs considered the goddess of fertility. The ancient chroniclers before the advent of Islam ( jahilya the era of ignorance ), there were 24 ka'bas in the Arabian Peninsula, but that of Mecca was worshiped by all tribes. According to the Saudi research, there were many in the region Ka'bas (Tawāghīt) each dedicated to a deity, to which the faithful made specific days to perform rituals including among others a circular stroll and sacrifices. The most important seem to have been ka'abas goddesses Allat Taif, to Nakhlah of Uzza and Manat near Qudayd.

The priestesses Allat

It was celebrated by seven naked priestesses who gravitated seven times around the stone, once for each planet (Sun / Moon / March / Mercury / Venus / Jupiter / Saturn). To date, the men guarding the Kaaba are still known as " son of the Old Woman, " "son of Saba" in Arabic "Beni Shaybah" . The goddess Allat had a nickname, or another title, Saba pronounced Shaybah meaning midwife , or, "The wisdom of the old" . Before Islam, the guardians of the shrine were priestesses called "Bathi Sheba" , "girls of the Old Wise Woman." Bathsheba, "daughter of Sheba" means, ' 'priestess of the house of Sheba " . Muslims kept the cubic shrine and walk around again, as we did at the time when the Goddess was worshiped.

Ramadan, the pregnancy Allat?

The Muslim calendar or Hijri ( Hijri ) is a lunar calendar based on a year of 12 lunar months of 29 to 30 days each (to be precise: 29.53059 solar days). A Hijri year is shorter than a Gregorian year by about eleven days. Pagans often made the connection between lunar cycles and female menstrual cycles of similar duration.

Also spelled Ramadan Ramadan or Ramazan (Arabic: رمضان or Ramaḍān) is the ninth month of the Muslim calendar. During this month, adult Muslims do not eat, do not drink and do not maintain sexual relations until the moon is not visible. The beginning is based on the observation of the first visible crescent after the new moon.

Is it possible that the ninth month of Ramadan corresponds to the ninth month of pregnancy the mother goddess Allat? The end of Ramadan feast then celebrate the birth of the goddess. While fasting, it would then be possible to eat and copulate in the presence of the moon, that is to say Allat.

The worship of stones

Worship a stone is typically pagan. We call these divine stones béthyle (Hebrew Bethel "sacred stone"), and is a classic polytheistic practice of antiquity. The stone of the Kaaba is no exception to this rule. This stone was in fact the subject of pre-Islamic worship. The pre-Islamic worship stones can be compared to lithic betyles cults that were prevalent throughout the Middle East from the remotest antiquity. Indeed this worship a stone is not isolated in antiquity include the black stone of Emesa which Elagabalus was the high priest before becoming Roman Emperor, the black stone Dusares in Petra, and c is in the form of a sacred stone in 204 BC as Cybele, the Phrygian mother goddess Pessinus enters Rome. In many Eastern cities, sacred stones are the object of veneration, like Artemis of Sardis or Astarte Paphos. Saudi was not an exception, because the worship of stones was ubiquitous in pre-Islamic society. For example, "red stone" was the god of the Arab town south of Ghaiman, or "white stone" in the Kaaba of al-Abalat (near the city of Tabala, south of Mecca).

The black stone, vulva Allat?

Many Westerners, especially midwives, found that the setting of the black stone at the corner of the Kaaba, was a form of vulva, with a baby's head coming out. The word Hajj (Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca) is derived from " Hack "which means friction in Arabic because there was a pagan ritual in which women rubbed their genitals on the black stone hoping to increase their fertility. (Dr . Jawad Ali in his book "History of the Arabs before Islam" part 5, page 223). She smeared the stone with the menstrual blood and turned around naked.

A relic of phallic worship in Mecca?

The Stoning of Satan (Arabic: رمي الجمرات, Ramy al-Jamarat meaning "start [Stone] on target [pillars]" ) is practiced by Muslims during their pilgrimage (ceremony Hajj ), in which they throw stones, they have collected during an earlier phase of the pilgrimage on three rocks symbolizing the devil. This ritual takes place on the third day of the pilgrimage at Mina in Saudi Arabia, 5 km east of Mecca. The three pillars of stone (small, medium and large) were replaced by the Saudi authorities in 2006 by three stone walls, to prevent accidents. If the setting of the Black Stone of the Kaaba is irretrievably think of a vagina, the three pillars appear to represent the phallus, which confirms that Mecca was a pagan shrine dedicated to fertility cults.

Sufism pre-Islamic matriarchal cult?

According to some authors, the Sufis have tried to maintain the cult of Fatima, but they were forced to hide behind code words, since Sufism is part of Islam. In fact, worship the sacred feminine is punishable by death, even today in Islamic countries.

The Jewish roots of Islam

Islamic practices ( halal meat sacrificed, not pork, circumcision, sailing, stoning taboo of menstruation ... ) seem totally incompatible with a semi-matriarchal pagan Arab society worshiping mother goddesses, and seem of Jewish origin.

Pre-islamic Goddesses in Arabic peninsula : Uzza, Allat, Menat. They are 3 celestial bodies. The moon decrescent one is the wisdom of age (Menat). The first one is Venus, morning star (Uzza). And the strong mother one is the Sun (Allat).

Al Lat , Meccan Mother Goddess

" Al-Lāt (Arabic: اللات) is the Meccan mother goddess and the chief deity of the tribe of Banu Thaqif whose major seat of worship was a popular shrine which was located at the west Arabian town of at-Ta’if in the Hijaz region of Arabia. The idol of al-Lāt was a cube of white granite, which was in the custody of the clan of Banu ‘Attab ibn Malik of the tribe of Banu Thaqif; the nearby tribes of Banu Lihyan; Banu Hawazin; Banu Khuza'a, and Banu Quraysh also making regular pilgrimages to Ta'if to offer their worship. The goddess was reputed to enjoy offerings of barley porridge (sawiq) and small cereal cakes: her devotees prepared these dishes especially, as barley and other grains were considered symbolic of her. Animals that were considered sacred to al-Lāt included gazelle; lions, and camels, among others depending on the region and tribe, as the cult of the goddess was found all across Arabia and as far as Palmyra in southern Syria.

"In the pantheon of the Hijaz (western Arabia) specifically, al-Lāt was one of the three chief goddesses of Mecca and one of the three daughters of the high god Allāh: her main role being an earth-goddess who was responsible for the fertility and soil quality of Ta'if and elsewhere in the Hijaz region, thus making her highly important among the Arabs. The goddess had many epithets throughout the Hijaz including Umm al-Alihah (Mother of the Gods) and Umm ash-Shams (Mother of the Sun goddess) and was also worshiped in order to gain protection whilst travelling. At the holy sanctuary (haram) of al-Lāt in the town of Ta'if, all life within was considered inviolable: no plant could be gathered; no tree could be felled; no animal could be killed and no human blood could be shed in accordance with sacred law.

"The pan-Arabian goddess al-Lāt had her counterparts across the Arabian peninsula under many different names in the Semitic languages and dialects, for example: to the people of Ta'if, she was also known by the name of ar-Rabbat ('The Lady'); to the Himyarites, she was worshiped as 'Athiratan or Ilāt, the mother of Athtar; the Hadramites to the east of the Himyar called her Ilāhatan, and the Aramaeans of Syria knew her as Elat. As al-Lāt was the goddess of the earth, she was worshiped in nearby Syria as 'Arsay and in Canaan as Aretzaya: these names derived from the Aramaean and Hebrew words for 'earth', 'Ars' and 'Aretz' (also cognate to Arabic ardh). The earth goddess in Canaan and Syria was considered to be a protector of the spirits of the dead who dwelt under the earth.

"Shams is the Arabian goddess of the Sun and the chief goddess of the Himyar tribal confederation; believed by the inhabitants of the fertile lands of south Arabia to be a preserver of crops and domestic life. The sun goddess had a temple with an idol in the south Arabian city of Sana’a where frankincense was continuously burnt to her; at one point in time, Shams was the most popular goddess in the Himyarite Kingdom, above all others. The cult of Shams was popular among many Arab tribes including the Himyar; Banu Daws; Quraysh; Dhabbah; Uqayl; Tamim and Hamdan although her worship was popular and common across all of the Arabian peninsula.

"The worship of the sun goddess was performed by bowing to the east and praying at sunrise, noon and sunset and rituals which could be done in the open air or at one of her temples, the most important of which was located at Sana'a in the Yemen. In addition to being the goddess of Sun, Shams was a goddess of justice as she could see all human actions and bring all injustices to light, with oaths often being sworn by her name.

"The Arabian Shams was known to the Hebrews as Shemesh, to the Aramaeans as Shemsha and to the Babylonians in the male form of Shamash. A clan called the Banu Abd-Shams (''Sons of the Servant of Shams'') of the Quraysh tribe were prominent in Mecca during pre-Islamic times and the male theophoric name Abd-Shams was popular with both the Arabs of Himyar and Hijaz. To the Sabaeans of Yemen this goddess was known interchangeably as Shams-'Aliyyat (''Shams the Most High''), Tanuf (''Lofty'') or Dhat-Himyam (''Lady of the Heat''). The Himyarite tribe of Banu Bata' would ritually hunt oryx and ibex in worship of the sun goddess who was believed to in turn grant them bounty and wealth.

"Suwā is the west Arabian goddess of the night who had an idol which was the sculpture of a woman that was situated in a temple in an area called Ruhat which was located in Yanbu al-Bahr; a coastal town near Yathrib in the Hijaz. The idol of Suwā was notably attended to by the women of the tribes of Mecca and Yathrib as she was thought to grant beauty and youthfulness to her worshipers, in addition to being a deity that was associated with peace and rest. Suwā was also worshiped as the maintainer of the many natural freshwater springs and fountains that were found across the vicinity of Yanbu, which were crucial in helping the population of the town grow and prosper.

 "In addition to being popular among the women of the Hijaz, Suwā was the chief goddess of the tribe of Banu Hudhayl, who were the custodians of her temple, and was revered mainly by them in addition to receiving pilgrimage and offerings from the nearby tribes of Banu Quraysh; Banu Khuza’a; Banu Lihyan; Banu Daws and Banu Hamdan. In pre-Islamic mythology, the goddess was the consort of the lunar god Wadd. The idol of Suwā was demolished in 630 AD by the Muslim commander 'Amr ibn al-'As, an act which ended the cult of the goddess in Yanbu.

 "Dhātu-Ba'dan is the south Arabian goddess of the oasis, nature and the wet season and was worshiped by the people of the tribe of Himyar at tree-circled oases; with Himyarite settlers eventually bringing her worship to the north of Abyssinia and Somalia. This goddess was said to forbid any invocation to her when ''there was not present in her sanctuary, a seeress or a priestess''. In the sanctuary of Dhat-Badan, a female priestess called a khalimah (literally 'Dreamer') would lie down and sleep before the sacred tree(s) of the goddess, with the aim of receiving an oracle in the form of a prophetic dream.

 "In the language of the Semites of Abyssinia, Dhātu-Ba'dan was called Zat-Badar and was a popular goddess of the polytheists of Axum, an ancient city which was originally founded by early Semitic settlers from the Arabian Peninsula. The wa'la or she-ibex was sacred to this goddess and it was said that an island in the Red Sea was inhabited by ibexes was under her protection."

Al Lat

Dea Alilat an unexpecgted and possibly unintentional aretology of the Goddess under the heading of Astarte in a mythological dictionary compiled in the 1500s by John Selden


Religious practices

Muslim writer Muhammad Shukri al-Alusi compares their religious practices to Islam in his Bulugh al-'Arab fi Ahwal al-'Arab:

The Arabs during the pre-Islamic period used to practice certain things that were included in the Islamic Sharia. They, for example, did not marry both a mother and her daughter. They considered marrying two sisters simultaneously to be a most heinous crime. They also censured anyone who married his stepmother, and called him dhaizan. They made the major hajj and the minor umra pilgrimage to the Ka'ba, performed the circumlocution around the Ka'ba tawaf, ran seven times between Mounts Safa and Marwa sa'y, threw rocks and washed themselves after sexual intercourse. They also gargled, sniffed water up into their noses, clipped their fingernails, removed all pubic hair and performed ritual circumcision. Likewise, they cut off the right hand of a thief and stoned Adulterers.


Vedic Past of Pre-Islamic Arabia

Goddess Durga (Shakthi) and Goddess Al-Uzza

Goddess Durga

The Thaqeef were satisfied with the terms of the treaty and prepared to return home. Muhammad insistedthat one of the traitors of Taif ,Al-Mughira, Abu Sofyan the traitorous leader of Mecca and a sizeable,Muslim army be allowed to follow them. The Thaqeef although suspicious, agreed in good faith. Upon reaching Taif, the Muslims showed their true colors. Al Mughira and his army surrounded the Temple of Allat and started smashing the idols with axes. Abu Sofyan even in his traitorous element was moved tocry out "Alas O Goddess! Alas!" Hundreds were massacred in sight of their families. The women of Taif collected in the streets, dishevelled and bare-headed, beating their breasts and weeping at the loss of theirprotectress, and the the inadequacy of their men who failed to protect her. As the unprepared Thaqeef were slaughtered, the anguished women cried out:

Weep! Weep for our protector!
Poltroons would neglect her
Whose swords need a corrector.

Every scrap of gold, jewellery and gems was plundered. Women and children were enslaved, the only ones who survived were those who were weak enough to bend at the threat of the Muslim sword and convert to Islam.There were many other Temples in the vicinity of Taif , all of which were plundered, then destroyed or converted into mosques. Most of the temple fragments were buried underfoot so that the Prophet could satisfy his constant burning need to vituperate and insult the religion of his own ancestors. Among the temples that fell prey, were most of the shrines of Ruda (Rudra or Lord Shiva), Allat and Al-Uzza (forms of Shakti).

The consistent appearance of Temples dedicated to the divine couple of Shiva-Shakti throws light on the essential spiritual principles that the Hindus of Pre- Islamic Arabia upheld. Numerous instances support the pre-eminence of Shiva-Shakti worship in Arabia. The most obvious example is that of the Kaaba in Mecca.

Temples were dedicated to Al-lat and Al-Uzza both of which are forms of the Mother Goddess Shakti. The structure of the temple attested to the fact that it was based on the Tantric iconography of Devi Durga.

Some thing about Goddess Durga from the puranas..

"The auspicious goddess was born. Projecting an overwhelming omnipotence the three eyed goddess adorned with the crescent moon with her eighteen arms each holding auspicious weapons, emblems, jewels and other gifts offered by individual gods, emerged. With her pulsating body of golden color shining with the splendour of a thousand suns, standing erect on her LION vehicle (vahana) and displaying her triumph over the dark forces (shown in theform of a demon under her feet), she stands as the most spectacular personification of cosmic energy."

Goddess- Leshmidevi, Durgadevi and Saraswatidevi- INDIAN

Among the 360 idols which surrounded the main shrine of the destroyed Kaaba were 16 magnificient onesthat bordered the sanctum sanctorium. We know the names of the gods that inhabited these 16 important shrines.

Lekshmidevi, Durgadevi and Saraswatidevi-ARABIAN

Suwa which apparently stood for Bhagavan Shiva

God Shiva and Goddess Durga (Shakthi)

Ayam which stood for Lord Yama
Bag which stood for Bhagwan Vishnu
Manat which stood for Somnath (Moon)
Sakiah which stood for Sakra (another name for Indra)
Al-Debaran which stood for Dev-Varun
Obodes which stood for Bhoodev (Earth)
Awal (first) which stood for Brahma
Shems which stood for Surya (Sun)
Wajj (pronounced "Vazz") which stood for the Vasus who were the seven sons of Ganga
(Corrupted to Zamza (Ganga : G=’Z’ and n=’m’) in the form of the ZamZam spring in the Kaaba)
Kaber which stood for Kuber
Aja which stood for Prajapati
Makha which stood for Agni (fire) (in Sanskrit Makha means a fire-sacrifice (Yagna), the cityof Mecca got its name because of the fact that it was the site of the fire sacrifice)
Sunrise and Sunset, called the two Auses which stood for the two Sandhyas (probably taken from Ushas)

Ha'uw which stood for Vayu (the wind)

God Shiva and his wife Goddess Durga


Oasis of Siwa & Dodona in Epirus

The Siwa Oasis

  • Ham - Kuš - Kuševi su: Seba, Havila, Sabta, Rama i Sabteka. Ramini su: Šeba i Dedan

The Siwa Oasis is an oasis in Egypt, between the Qattara Depression and the Egyptian Sand Sea in the Western Desert. Ancient Egyptian name was sḫ.t-ỉm3w.

Herodotus (Histories 2:54–57) was told by priests at Egyptian Thebes in the 5th century BCE

"that two priestesses had been carried away from Thebes by Phoenicians; one, they said they had heard was taken away and sold in Libya, the other in Hellas; these women, they said, were the first founders of places of divination in the aforesaid countries."

This mythic element says that the oracles at the oasis of Siwa in Libya and of Dodona in Epirus were equally old, but similarly transmitted by Phoenician culture, and that the seeresses - Herodotus does not say "sibyls" - were women.

Herodotus follows with what he was told by the prophetesses, called peleiades ("doves") at Dodona:

"...that two black doves had come flying from Thebes in Egypt, one to Libya and one to Dodona; the latter settled on an oak tree, and there uttered human speech, declaring that a place of divination from Zeus must be made there; the people of Dodona understood that the message was divine, and therefore established the oracular shrine. The dove which came to Libya told the Libyans (they say) to make an oracle of Ammon; this also is sacred to Zeus. Such was the story told by the Dodonaean priestesses, the eldest of whom was Promeneia and the next Timarete and the youngest Nicandra; and the rest of the servants of the temple at Dodona similarly held it true."


Dodona - Ilium

Ilium or Ilion (Greek: Ίλιον) was an ancient Greek city in the region of Epirus

Dodona (Doric Greek: Δωδώνα, Dōdṓna, Ionic and Attic Greek: Δωδώνη, Dōdṓnē) in Epirus in northwestern Greece was the oldest Hellenic oracle, possibly dating to the second millennium BCE according to Herodotus.

Oracle (especially in ancient Greece) a female priest who gave people wise but often mysterious advice from a god, or the advice given.

Dodona was originally an oracle of the Mother Goddess attended by priestesses. She was identified at other sites as Rhea or Gaia. The oracle also was shared by Dione (whose name simply means "deity").




Epirus has been occupied since at least Neolithic times by seafarers along the coast and by hunters and shepherds in the interior who brought with them the Greek language. These people buried their leaders in large tumuli containing shaft graves, similar to the Mycenaean tombs, indicating an ancestral link between Epirus and the Mycenaean civilization. A number of Mycenaean remains have been found in Epirus, especially at the most important ancient religious sites in the region, the Necromanteion (Oracle of the Dead) on the Acheron river, and the Oracle of Zeus at Dodona.



Phoenicia (fᵻnɪʃə ili fənjaʃə; grčki: Φοινίκη, Phoiníkē; arapski: فينيقية , Fīnīqīyah, , fenički: kn'n / kana'an, mikenski po-ni-ki.

Najstariji potvrđuje oblik riječi je mikenski  po-ni-ki-jo, po-ni-ki, u konačnici posudio od staroegipatski  fnḫw (fenkhu). U Amarna tableta u 14. stoljeću prije Krista, ljudi iz regije se zove Kenaani ili Kinaani. Mnogo kasnije, u 6. stoljeću prije Krista, Hekatej Milećanin piše da Phoenicia nekad zvao χνα (latinizirano: khna), ime da Filon iz Biblosa kasnije usvojen u svojoj mitologiji kao njegov eponim za Feničana. "Khna koji je kasnije nazvan Phoinix"

Većinsko stanovništvo uskog pojasa istočne mediteranske obale bili su Feničani. Kao i Sumerani, Feničani su živjeli u nezavisnim gradovima-državama. Najveći i najvažniji bili su: Arad, Biblos, Sidon i najveći od svih Tir. Svi gradovi su imali svog kralja kojeg je kontroliralo i savjetovalo vijeće starijih, najčešće vodećih gradskih trgovaca.

Bili su poznati veletrgovci, pomorci. Veliki profit feničkim trgovcima donosio je dobar geografski položaj, jer su postali glavni posrednici između Mediterana i Mezopotamije (pa i dalje prema Istoku). Osim posredničke trgovine bili su i poznati obrtnici, posebno u izradi namještaja od kvalitetne cedrovine, a najpoznatiji su bili u proizvodnji purpurno bojane tkanine (boja se dobivala od lokalnih školjaka) koja je bila jako skupa i mogli su je priuštiti samo najbogatiji. Bili su također sjajni izrađivači nakita od raznih metala i pravi umjetnici u izradi ukrasnih predmeta od bjelokosti. Kao sposobni graditelji spominju se i u Bibliji, gdje se navodi da je Hiram kralj Tira osigurao izraelskom kralju Solomonu kvalitetno drvo i graditelje za hram u Jeruzalemu.



The Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) has announced in a press release that 2,000-year-old indigo fabric found near the Dead Sea was dyed using a technique that may have also produced tekhelet, God’s chosen color in the Bible. The research was conducted by Dr. Na’ama Sukenik of the IAA.

Three swatches of fabric discovered in the 1950s in a cave at Wadi Murba’at near the Dead Sea were tested by Dr. Sukenik. Analysis indicated that the swatches were dyed with secretions from the Murex trunculus. Two of the swatches were purple, while the third swatch was indigo—demonstrating that the ancient dyers exposed the latter fabric to sunlight or heat once dyed to achieve this shade of blue. According to the IAA, this dye may have been made by the same process the ancient dyers used to produce tekhelet.


Tipična fenička trirema, najsavršeniji i najbrži brod svog vremena, s kojim su Feničani prelazili velike udaljenosti. Sposobnost orijentacije prema nebeskim tijelima omogućila je Feničanima da se otisnu dalje od obale i plove otvorenim morem, što nitko drugi u to vrijeme nije znao. Grci su zato zvijezdu Sjevernjaču, koju su Feničani najviše koristili u svojoj noćnoj navigaciji zvali Feničanska zvijezda.

Carthaginian Trireme (three rowers)
Trireme had a projecting gallery fitted to each side to house a third bank of rowers, the name Trireme means three oared. In ships with multiple banks of rowers the rowers were housed in several projecting galleries.

Orijentiranost na more učinilo je Feničane sjajnim pomorcima i brodograditeljima, koji su se mogli ponositi tada najbržim i najvećim brodovima (tzv. " trireme " – 170 ljudi za veslima na tri palube), tako da ne čudi što su Feničani prvi pomorci koji su oplovili Afriku (6.st.); izveli su prvu trgovačku plovidbu do Britanije (5.st.), neki naučnici tvrde da su doplovili čak i do Brazila. Svoje sjajne pomorske sposobnosti znali su i dobro naplatiti kao plaćenici u perzijskoj ratnoj floti.

Najtrajnije feničansko postignuće u pomorstvu bilo je uspostavljanje trgovačkih kolonija širom Mediterana (na Cipru, u Italiji, u južnoj Francuskoj i Španjolskoj, u sjevernoj Africi, Malta, Baleari…), gdje su fenički gradovi naseljavali svoje stanovništvo, koje je sa sobom donosilo svoj jezik i običaje i na taj način se fenička kultura i civilizacija širila Mediteranom. Mnoge feničke kolonije s vremenom su postale samostalne, a najslavnija i najmoćnija od njih bila je Kartaga (koju je utemeljio grad Tir u 8.st.B.C.), koja je bila najutjecajniji grad zapadnog Mediterana, sve do sukoba sa Rimljanima nekoliko stoljeća kasnije.

Oko polovine 8.st.B.C. fenički gradovi-države izgubili su svoju samostalnost od Asiraca, zatim od Neo-Babilonaca, Perzijanaca i ostalih osvajača koji su slijedili, ali fenička kultura je preživjela. Zbog njihovog velikog i raširenog utjecaja, ugaritski alfabet, koji su preuzeli i usavršili, prihvaćen je i od starih Grka i na taj način ostao glavno pismo do danas.


Dodona - Oracle Centre

The oldest Greek oracle and location of the landing place of the ark in Greek mythology.

Dodona was the oldest Hellenic oracle centre according to the fifth-century historian Herodotus. Aristotle considered the region to have been the most ancient part of Greece and where the Hellenes originated. (4)

Priestesses and priests in the sacred grove interpreted the rustling of the oak (or beech) leaves to determine the correct actions to be taken.

Dodona: (Dione)

Archaeological excavations  have recovered artefacts from as early as the Mycenaean era (3), and prehistoric sites at Dodona, have been shown to have been in existence since about 2,000 BC. (6)

Originally a shrine to the mother goddess Gaia or Dione, Dodona  came to be shared by Zeus who's consort became Dione. There were no permanent structures when Homer wrote the Iliad around 750 BC, at Dodona until the 4th  century BC.

Herodotus accounts of the origin of Dodona.

Herodotus records two different accounts for the origin of Dodona. He wrote firstly that he was told by priests at Egyptian Thebes (Karnak) that  "two priestesses had been carried away from Thebes by Phoenicians; one, they said they had heard was taken away and sold in Libya, the other in Hellas; these women, they said, were the first founders of places of divination in the aforesaid countries." This story suggests that the oracles at the oasis of Siwa in Libya and of Dodona in Epirus were equally old, but similarly transmitted from Egypt by Phonecians, and that the priestesses were women.

Herodotus also recorded what he was told by the prophetesses, called peleiades ("doves") at Dodona which was that 'two black doves had come flying from Thebes in Egypt, one to Libya and one to Dodona; the latter settled on an oak tree, and there uttered human speech, declaring that a place of divination from Zeus must be made there; the people of Dodona understood that the message was divine, and therefore established the oracular shrine. The dove which came to Libya told the Libyans (they say) to make an oracle of Ammon; this also is sacred to Zeus. Such was the story told by the Dodonaean priestesses, the eldest of whom was Promeneia and the next Timarete and the youngest Nicandra; and the rest of the servants of the temple at Dodona similarly held it true'.

Ref: Herodotus (Histories 2:54–57)

According to Herodotus, the oracle was a woman who interpreted the rustling of the wind in the oak trees as well as the sounds of copper vessels being struck. Like the Pythia at Delphi, the oracle was fabled to enter a trance-like frenzy while delivering her responses to questions written on lead tablets.

Dodona and the Oracle Octave: Geodetic Placement.

Having mentioned that Herodotus associated the origin of Dodona with Thebes in Egypt (above), it is of interest that both sites have been proposed to have been located according to an apparently deliberate geodetic placement of sacred temples and shrines.

Dodona is the Mythological landing place for Deucalion after the flood, while Ararat is known in Hebraic as the landing place of the Ark for Noah. Apart from this early mythological connection between sites, there is a geographical similarity in that both have ancient oracle centres to the earth-mother placed next to dominant mountains and the distance between them is the same as the distance between Dodona and Thebes, so that the three sites form an almost exact equilateral triangle .

In the Case of Dodona which lies at 39° 32' 47" N, 20° 47' 16" E, it was suggested by Stecchini ( ), that its location was in accordance to a larger system of deliberate geodetic placement of oracle sites. including Delphi, Dodona and Delos, and other important sites in both Greece and the Middle-east.

'Stecchini maintains that the iconographically consistent presence of pairs of pigeons, perched on, or on either side of, the omphaloi , or "navels," of the ancient world, are an indication of their function as the measurers of the geodetic absolute center. He adds, that, "from prehistoric times" ... "carrier pigeons [were] used for establishing geographic distances.

According to Greek legends, a central geodetic point was obtained by loosing two birds of equal strength and using the mean of the time employed in flight. This would allow for differences in wind current and other variables. By repeated flights even more accurate measurements could be obtained. In ancient literature and iconography the flight of two doves is the standard symbol for the stretching of meridians and parallels.

With Stecchini's information in hand, it becomes possible to see that the dove-stories originating out of Egypt are a direct reference to the mathematical calculations used by the Egyptian priests to establish that their place in the world was at the absolute center'. (2)

Herodotus noted the religious transference from the earlier earth-mother-goddess to a pantheon of gods between Greece and Egypt, at the same time confirming the status of Dodona as the first Greek oracle site, and places the existence of oracles before the gods. He said:

‘After a long lapse of time the names of the gods came to Greece from Egypt… not long after the arrival of the names, they sent to consult the oracle at Dodona about them. This is the most ancient oracle in Greece, and at that time there was no other.’ (24)

In addition to having been recorded as the first Greek oracle centre, Dodona has a still greater, and older claim to fame being located at the foot of Mount Tomaros, which is named in Greek myth as the refuge for Deucalion and his wife, the sole survivors of the great ‘flood of Deucalion’. It is within this myth that an older, perhaps hidden significance (and connection), can be found in the location of Dodona, for while Mt. Tomaros is the reputed resting place of the Greek ark, the Hebrews record the final resting place of their ark as being on Mount Ararat in Turkey (near Metsamor), which both sits on the same latitude as Dodona and happens to be equidistant from Thebes, so that the three locations form an almost perfect equilateral triangle. It is also interesting to note the location of the 30th parallel in connection to this triangle, as it runs across it a third of the way its height. (See Appendix B for further details).

Having already seen that certain prominent sacred sites from Northern (Lower) Egypt share a geometric and geodetic connection with the region of Mount Ararat, we can see now that Thebes, the geodetic centre of Southern (Upper) Egypt, also shares a similar relationship. The accuracy between the locations of these three important sites lends favour to Stecchini’s suggestion of a deliberate placement of ancient oracle centres. It is also apparent that as well as having a geometric relationship, a geodetic one can be seen at both Egyptian sites (namely, Heliopolis being on the 30th parallel in the North, and Thebes being located exactly 2/7th’s of the distance from the Equator to the North pole).

While it is possible that such a geometric connection between sites may be a coincidence, the earlier mythological connections (of earth-mother and ark) are harder to explain. It is not possible to know if the significance of the site was already known to the Egyptian priests at Thebes (or Phoenicians) when the oracle at Dodona was established, but there is little doubt that the location had a special significance from before the arrival of the Egyptian oracles.

As if to confirm that the placement of sacred sites was ordained through geodetic principles, a look at the most famous of all Greek oracle centres brings us to the one at Delphi which contains a tradition of geodesy in its origin myth, which says that it was located by Zeus who released two birds from the eastern and western ends of the earth, with the point where they flew past each other being considered the centre of the world and therefore marked with an omphalus stone. As well as being located almost exactly one degree south of Dodona, it also happens to be placed 3/7th’s of the distance from the equator to the North Pole. Delphi also lies along the same alignment formed by connecting Dodona to Behdet in Egypt (which was the geodetic capital of Northern Egypt before 3,000 BC according to Stecchini), and which sits on the same longitude as Thebes and the same Latitude as Alexandria. It is noticeable that as well as forming an alignment, these three oracle sites are separated by almost exact degrees of latitude (based on a division of 360°).

Dodona (39° 30' N. 20° 51' E)

Delphi (38° 29' N, 22° 26' E)

Behdet (31° 30' N, 31° 14' E)

The oracle centre at Delos also had an omphlus (with a serpent wrapped round it), and we can see that it too was located almost exactly one degree south of Delphi.

Delos – (37° 26’ N, 25° 17’ E)

It is sufficient for present to demonstrate the strength of the connection between the regions of Mt. Ararat and that of Dodona, both sharing the same mythological ‘fingerprint’, both on the same latitude, and both equally distanced from Thebes, the ancient navel of Egypt. However, it is clear from Santillana’s work that there is evidence of a complex set of traditions involving the following themes: Navel-stones, Geometry and Astronomy and a flood event.


Omphalos stones from Left to Right: Delphi, Delos, Karnak.

We have already seen that the two sites for the landing of the ark are geometrically connected; this reference to the ark leads us neatly to the aspect of navel stones, which were famously found at both Thebes in Egypt and at Delphi (two). In order to understand the significance of the oracle centres it has been necessary to look at the myths that surround them, this proves to be the case with the Omphalii too.

(More about Omphalos and Earth Navels)      (Other Prehistoric Geometric alignments)

Plugging The Deep.

Having already determined the existence of an ancient geometric relationship between Dodona and Mt. Ararat (Metsamor), it is interesting to find that Stecchini (1), offers several examples to support the association between navel-stones and ‘the flood’ by referring to their function as ‘plugs’; an idea typified by the following phrase “The opening of the navel brings the deluge”. However of even greater interest is that we see in ‘Hamlet’s Mill’ (5), that certain common subject matter has been approached but through a different medium, namely mythology. The primary emphasis of their research was the existence of an ancient system of astronomical/ astrological knowledge involving the precession of the equinoxes, and the constellations, stored in mythologies around the world. It is from their work we are made aware of a significant set of stories concerning the purpose of navel-stones, through which such already described associations are reinforced.

In the Sumerian myth of Utnapishtim (Noah), we are told that the first ark was ‘a cube measuring 60x60x60 fathoms’, which represents the unit in sexagesimal system (where 60 is written as 1 or 1³ ). In one version, we are told that ‘there is no ark, just a cubic stone, which rests on a pillar which reaches from earth to heaven’. In the Old Testament, these elements are repeated, when we learn that Noah’s ark was also a cube, whose landing symbolised the end of the great flood. In Jewish legends, it is said that “since the ark disappeared there was a stone in its place…which was called the foundation stone”…and it is said to lie above the waters that are below the Holy of Holies. In Mecca, the navel of the Islam faith, there stands the Holy stone of the Ka’aba, which is also a cube, and we are told that even Christ is compared to ‘a cube shaped mountain’. But why a cube?

Apart from the obvious fact that a cube represents a single unit (as in the Sumerian base-6), the traditional reason for the cube-shape is suggested as being the shape designated for the planet Saturn, as illustrated in Keplers ‘Mysterium Comographicum’. To support this idea Santillana reminds us that in this group of stories, the figure (power) who warns ‘Noah’ of the impending flood, (and suggests the dimensions of the Ark), is ‘…Saturn, as Jehovah, as Enki, as Tane, etc…’. The antiquity of these traditions is shown by the fact that In pre-Islamic days, before the Ka’aba was constructed, there was a well on the site, which had a statue of the ‘God’’ Hubal, across the opening ‘to prevent the waters from rising’. Hildegard Levy points out that, in pre-Islamic days, the god Hubal was Saturn, and that the Holy stone of the Ka’aba served the same symbolic function (5).

Having touched upon the idea that the traditions and symbolism of the Greek Oracle centres have several stark similarities to earlier pagan deities, it is also possible to see that the comparatively unknown ‘Eleusian mysteries’ are also associated with the exact same deities (or versions of them). In fact, these similarities are so strong that it is difficult to ignore the possibility that they are both part of the same belief system. In addition, we are offered support for the idea of a relationship between the placement of ancient Greek locations, the application of longitude/latitude and the Eleusian mysteries from a Frenchman called Xavier Guichard.


The Phoenicians Semitic speakers from the eastern Mediterranean

The Phoenician, as a people, even though they may come from Semitic origin or from India, did not survive the ages as an ethnically pure race. Invading Egyptians, Assyrians, Babylonian, Hittites, Persians, Macedonians, Greeks, and Romans, in addition to many others, added genetic material and culture to the Phoenicians. They in turn through their trade and frequent contact with cultures and races of the Mediterranean world added new dimensions to their stock from lands as close as Cyprus or as far as Spain or even Britain.

A form of Aramaic was the language of the Phoenicians. It was a Semitic language of the Northern Central, or Northwestern, group that was originally spoken in Tyre, Sidon, Byblos, and neighboring towns and in other areas of the Mediterranean colonized by Phoenician people. It was most closely related to Hebrew, Syriac, and Moabite which were written in a script derived from the Phoenician alphabet. The earliest Phoenician inscription deciphered dates probably from the 11th century BC; the latest inscription from Phoenicia proper is from the 1st century BC, when the language was already being superseded by Aramaic proper.

In addition to being used in Phoenicia, the language spread to many of its colonies. In one, the North African city of Carthage, a later stage of the language, known as Pun which was influenced by the Barber, became the language of the Carthaginian empire. Phoencian survived in use as a vernacular in some of the smaller cities of North Africa at least until the time of St. Augustine, bishop of Hippo (5th century AD) and continued to be used by North African peasants until the 6th century AD.

Phoenician words are found in Greek and Latin classical literature as well as in Egyptian, Akkadian, and Hebrew writings. The language is written with a 22-character alphabet that does not indicate vowels.

The Byblos Syllabic texts is the earliest known example of mixing a Semitic language with modified Egyptian hieroglyphic characters. It appeared as an inscriptions (eighteenth century B.C.), from the city of Byblos on the Phoenician coast. This script is described as a "syllabary [that] is clearly inspired by the Egyptian hieroglyphic system, and in fact is the most important link known between the hieroglyphs and the Canaanite alphabet."

During the period of the Roman Empire the native Phoenician language died out and was replaced by Aramaic as the vernacular. Latin, the language of the soldiers and administrators, in turn fell before Greek, the language of letters of the eastern Mediterranean, by the 5th century AD.


Amurru, 1940 BC


Amorites su drevni narod koji je u drugoj polovici 3. tisućljeća pr. Kr. naseljavao područja sjevernog Levanta i Mezopotamije (današnja Sirija i Irak). Isprva nomadi na području Sirije i Libanona, kasnije naseljavaju gradove u Mezopotamiji. Postupno su prihvatili akadsku kulturu, jezik i običaje, pa su kasniji kraljevi amorićanskih dinastija čak nosili i akadska imena (npr. Hamurabi). Tijekom 2. tisućljeća pr. Kr. Amorićani su poklekli pod napadima Hetita i Kasita.

  • 1894 p.n.e. na obalama Eufrata osniva se Babilon, BAB-ILUM – božja vrata
  • HAMURABI – preuzima vlast u Amorejskim gradovina i ujedinjuje ih u centralističku monarhiju (oko 1792-1750 p.n.e.)
  • HAMURABIJEV ZAKONIK – strogo zakonodavstvo na osnovi načela: "Oko za oko, zub za zub"

By the time of the last days of the Third Dynasty of Ur, immigrating Amorites had become such a force that kings such as Shu-Sin were obliged to construct a 170 miles (270 km) wall from the Tigris to the Euphrates to hold them off. These Amorites appear as nomadic clans ruled by fierce tribal chiefs, who forced themselves into lands they needed to graze their herds. Some of the Akkadian literature of this era speaks disparagingly of the Amorites, and implies that the Akkadian and Sumerian speakers of Mesopotamia viewed their nomadic and primitive way of life with disgust and contempt, for example:

Babylonian city

The MAR.TU who know no grain... The MAR.TU who know no house nor town, the boors of the mountains... The MAR.TU who digs up truffles... who does not bend his knees (to cultivate the land), who eats raw meat, who has no house during his lifetime, who is not buried after death.

"They have prepared wheat and gú-nunuz (grain) as a confection, but an Amorite will eat it without even recognizing what it contains!"



The Amorites (Sumerian MAR.TU, Akkadian Tidnum or Amurrūm, Egyptian Amar, Hebrew אמורי ʼĔmōrī, Ancient Greek Amorites 2Αμορίτες) were a tribe who could be found in literature, residing in such places as the Land of Canaan, land of Amurru and the Land of the Amorites. On the Ancient Egyptian monuments, the Amorite is called 'Amar (Amarii)' and in the cuneiform tablets of Tel el-Amarna, they are referred to as the Amurra. The Babylonians had called this area of Canaan in Syria-Palestine, “the land of the Amorites" and sometime referred to them as 'Westerners.' In the bible, the Amorites are physically described as a powerful people of great stature "like the height of the cedars," (Amos 2:9).


Marduk is spelled DAMAR.UTU in Sumerian, literally, "the calf of Utu" or "the young bull of the Sun".


Amorites in the Bible

A tebi ostavljam Šekem, nešto više nego tvojoj braći, što sam ga svojim mačem i lukom osvojio od Amorejaca." - Postanak

Ja pred njima istrijebih Amorejce visoke k'o cedar, jake poput hrašća, ja uništih i plod na njima i korijen pod njima. Ja vas izvedoh iz zemlje egipatske i četrdeset vas godina vodih po pustinji da zaposjednete zemlju amorejsku. - Amos

West Semitic - Amorites

In the earliest Sumerian sources concerning the Amorites, beginning about 2400 BC, the land of the Amorites ("the Mar.tu land") is associated not with Mesopotamia but with the lands to the west of the Euphrates, including Canaan and what was to become Syria by the 3rd century BC, then known as The land of the Amurru.

They appear as an uncivilized and nomadic people in early Mesopotamian writings from Sumer, Akkad and Assyria, especially connected with the mountainous region now called Jebel Bishri in northern Syria called the "mountain of the Amorites". The ethnic terms Mar.tu (Westerners), Amurru (likely derived from 'aburru', pasture) and Amar were used for them in Sumerian, Akkadian and Ancient Egyptian respectively. From the 21st century BC, possibly triggered by a long major drought starting about 2200 BC, a large-scale migration of Amorite tribes infiltrated southern Mesopotamia. They were one of the instruments of the downfall of the Third Dynasty of Ur, and Amorite dynasties both usurped native rulers of long-extant Babylonian city-states such as Isin, Larsa, Eshnunna and Kish and also established new ones, the most famous of which was to become Babylon, although it was initially a minor and insignificant state.

Known Amorites wrote in a dialect of Akkadian found on tablets at Mari dating from 1800–1750 BC. Since the language shows northwest Semitic forms, words and constructions, the Amorite language is a Northwest Semitic language, and possibly one of the Canaanite languages. The main sources for the extremely limited knowledge about Amorite are the proper names, not Akkadian in style, that are preserved in such texts. The Akkadian language of the native Semitic states, cities and polities of Mesopotamia (Akkad, Assyria, Babylonia, Isin, Kish, Larsa, Ur, Nippur, Uruk, Eridu, Adab, Akshak, Eshnunna, Nuzi, Ekallatum etc.), was from the east Semitic, as was the Eblaite of the northern Levant. - Amorites



The Amorites (Sumerian MAR.TU, Akkadian Tidnum or Amurrūm, Egyptian Amar, Hebrew אמורי ʼĔmōrī, Ancient Greek Αμορίτες) were a tribe who could be found in literature, residing in such places as the Land of Canaan, land of Amurru and the Land of the Amorites. On the Ancient Egyptian monuments, the Amorite is called ‘Amar (Amarii)’ and in the cuneiform tablets of Tel el-Amarna, they are referred to as the Amurra. The Babylonians had called this area of Canaan in Syria-Palestine, “the land of the Amorites” and sometime referred to them as ‘Westerners.’ In the bible, the Amorites are physically described as a powerful people of great stature “like the height of the cedars,” (Amos 2:9).

Amorites from the city of Mari

Some evidence of the ancient Amorites was found in one of their old main cities called, ‘Mari’ which is located in modern-day Syria on the Euphrates. Today, the city of Mari is known under the modern name of ‘Tall al-Ḥarīrī.’ Mari was also known to be the ancient city of the Sumerians. The ancient texts found in this city date from 18B.C. and are written in the Akkadian-language, and  refer to the Amorites by the name of the warlike tribe, ‘Banuyamina.’ The meaning of the compound Hebrew name, Banu- Yamina is another form of the English name, Benjamin. Benjamin was one of the Tribes of Israel.

Mari, c. 3000 BC

Second Mariote Kingdom, c. 2500 - 2290 BC

Second Eblaite Empire, c. 2300. - 2000 BC

Third Mariote Kingdom, c. 2266 - 1761 BC

Yamhad, c. 1810 - 1517 BC


Third Eblaite Kingdom, c. 2000 BC- 1600 BC

Ebla - J2

The third Eblaite kingdom is designated "Mardikh III"; it is divided into periods "A" (c. 2000–1800 BC) and "B" (c. 1800–1600 BC). In period "A", Ebla was quickly rebuilt as a planned city. The foundations covered the remains of Mardikh II; new palaces and temples were built, and new fortifications were built in two circles-one for the low city and one for the acropolis. The city was laid out on regular lines and large public buildings were built. Further construction took place in period "B". The first known king of the third kingdom is Ibbit-Lim, who described himself as the Mekim of Ebla. A basalt votive statue bearing Ibbit-Lim's inscription was discovered in 1968; this helped to identify the site of Tell-Mardikh with the ancient kingdom Ebla. The name of the king is Amorite in the view of Pettinato; it is therefore probable the inhabitants of third kingdom Ebla were predominantly Amorites, as were most of the inhabitants of Syria at that time.


West Semitic languages

The grouping, supported by Semiticists like Robert Hetzron and John Huehnergard, divides the Semitic language family into two branches: Eastern and Western. The East Semitic languages consist of the extinct Eblaite and Akkadian languages, while the remaining majority of Semitic languages form the West Semitic languages grouping.

It consists of the clearly defined sub-groups: Modern South Arabian, Old South Arabian, Ethiopic, Arabic and Northwest Semitic (this including Hebrew, Aramaic and the extinct Amorite and Ugaritic languages). Ethiopic and South Arabian show particular common features, and are often grouped together as South Semitic.

West Semitic languages



Sinovi su Hamovi: Kuš i Misrajim, Put i Kanaan.

Od Kanaana potječe Sidon, njegov prvenac, i Het. Dalje: Jebusejci, Amorejci, Girgašani, Hivijci, Arkijci, Sinijci, Arvađani, Semarjani i Hamaćani. Poslije se kanaanska plemena razgranaše, tako da se granica Kanaanaca protezala od Sidona prema Geraru sve do Gaze pa prema Sodomi, Gomori, Admi i Sebojimu sve do Leše. To su sinovi Hamovi prema svojim plemenima i jezicima, po svojim zemljama i narodima.


Spominjanje Gospodara GA-na-na u semitskih Eblaite tableta (od 2350 pne) iz arhiva Reci Mardikh tumači nekih učenjaka da spomenuti božanstvo Dagona naslov "Lord of Canaan" Ako je točno, to bi značilo da Eblaites bili svjesni Kanaan kao entitet od 2500 godina prije Krista. Jonathan Tubb navodi da je pojam GA-na-na "može pružiti trećeg tisućljeća referencu na Kanaanaca ", dok u isto vrijeme tvrdeći da je prvi sigurno referenca je u 18. stoljeću prije Krista.


Amoriti ili Amorićani (hebrejski ’emōrî, egipatski Amar, akadski Tidnum ili Amurrūm (što odgovara sumerskom MAR.TU ili Martu). Isprva nomadi na području Sirije i Libanona, kasnije naseljavaju gradove u Mezopotamiji.


Amorites & Canaanites

Canaanites delegation to Tutankhamun

Amorites & Canaanites



Zalloua and Wells 2004 and al-Zaheri 2003 uncovered the earliest known migration of J2, from Sumeria to Canaan. In 2001, Nebel et al. found that, "According to Underhill et al. (2000), Eu 9 (H58) evolved from Eu 10 (H71) through a T→G transversion at M172 (emphasis added)," and that in today's populations, Eu 9 (the post-mutation form of M172) is strongest in the Caucasus, Asia Minor and the Levant, whilst Eu 10 becomes stronger and replaces the frequency of Eu 9 as one moves south into the Arabian Peninsula, so that people from the Caucasus met with Arabs near and between Mesopotamia (formerly Sumeria) and the Negev Desert, as "Arabisation" spread from Arabia to the Levant and Turkey, as well as many peoples (e.g. Jews, Armenians, Lebanese) having returned from diasporas.

Per research by Di Giacomo 2004, J-M172 haplogroup spread into Southern Europe" from either the Levant or Anatolia, likely parallel to the development of agriculture. As to the timing of its spread into Europe, Di Giacomo points to events which post-date the Neolithic, in particular the demographic floruit associated with the rise of the Ancient Greek world. Semino et al. derived older age estimates for overall J2 (having used the Zhivotovsky method c.f. Di Giacomo), postulating its initial spread with Neolithic farmers from the Near East. However, its subclade distribution, showing localized peaks in the Southern Balkans, southern Italy, north/central Italy and the Caucasus, does not conform to a single 'wave-of-advance' scenario, betraying a number of still poorly understood post-Neolithic processes which created its current pattern. Like Di Giacomo, the Bronze Age southern Balkans was suggested by Semino 2004 to have been an important vector of spread.


Babylonia - Amorites, c. 1920 - 1530 BC



Sargon I (1920–1881 BC) succeeded as king in Assyria in 1920 BC, he eventually withdrew Assyria from the region, preferring to concentrate on continuing the vigorous expansion of Assyrian colonies in Anatolia, and eventually southern Mesopotamia fell to the Amorites, a Northwest Semitic-speaking people from the northern Levant. During the first centuries of what is called the "Amorite period", the most powerful city states in the south were Isin, Eshnunna and Larsa, together with Assyria in the north. - Babylonia



Y-chromosome G2a - Haplogroup J2

Zalloua and Wells 2004 and al-Zaheri 2003 uncovered the earliest known migration of J2, from Sumeria to Canaan. In 2001, Nebel et al. found that, "According to Underhill et al. (2000), Eu 9 (H58) evolved from Eu 10 (H71) through a T→G transversion at M172 (emphasis added)," and that in today's populations, Eu 9 (the post-mutation form of M172) is strongest in the Caucasus, Asia Minor and the Levant, whilst Eu 10 becomes stronger and replaces the frequency of Eu 9 as one moves south into the Arabian Peninsula, so that people from the Caucasus met with Arabs near and between Mesopotamia (formerly Sumeria) and the Negev Desert, as "Arabisation" spread from Arabia to the Levant and Turkey, as well as many peoples (e.g. Jews, Armenians, Lebanese) having returned from diasporas.

  • We suggest; Y-DNA G2a & J2


Babylonia - Kassites, c. 1500 -1155 BC

The Kassite language has not been classified. However, several Kassite leaders bore Indo-European names, and they might have had an Indo-European elite similar to the Mitanni. Over the centuries, however, the Kassites were absorbed into the Babylonian population. Eight among the last kings of the Kassite dynasty have Akkadian names, Kudur-Enlil's name is part Elamite and part Sumerian and Kassite princesses married into the royal family of Assyria.

Herodotus was almost certainly referring to Kassites when he described "Asiatic Ethiopians" in the Persian army that invaded Greece in 492 BC. Herodotus was presumably repeating an account that had used the name "Cush", or something similar, to describe the Kassites; the similar name "Kush" was also, purely by coincidence, a name for Ethiopia. A similar confusion of Kassites with Ethiopians is evident in various ancient Greek accounts of the Trojan war hero Memnon, who was sometimes described as a "Cissian" and founder of Susa, and other times as Ethiopian. According to Herodotus, the "Asiatic Ethiopians" lived not in Cissia, but to the north, bordering on the "Paricanians" who in turn bordered on the Medes. - Kassites


Y-chromosome G2a - Y-chromosome J1

  • We suggest; Y-DNA G2a & J1


The crystal ‘lens’ from Nineveh (Kuyunjik, Iraq)

The first glass was Sumerian. (1)

In 1853, Sir David Brewster (1781-1868) presented a lens to the British Association for the Advancement of Science that had been found in excavations by Austen Henry Layard (1817-1894) at Nineveh (Kuyunjik, Iraq). It had been found in deposits dated around 600 BC and although its provenance was not in question, doubts were raised about its function. Whilst it clearly works as a lens, it was thought to have been used as a decoration in a piece of jewellery.

More about Optics in Prehistory


Babylonian map of the world

Babylonian "map of the world" in the British Museum, London was long claimed as the earliest extant map. The map was composed in Babylonia and is the only Babylonian map drawn on an international scale. It is a Neo-Babylonian (Persian Period, circa 500 BCE) copy of an original dating to the Sargonid Period, circa late eighth or seventh century BCE. The clay tablet is a drawing and textual description of the Babylonian cosmos. It is oriented to the north-west. (It is uncertain whether the accompanying cuneiform text was composed together with the map.) It is the only known map of the world dating from the Neo-Babylonian Period. All other maps have a purely local focus.

More about the Babylonian Map of the World


The Baghdad Batteries: (AD225-640)

Railway construction in Baghdad in 1936, uncovered a copper cylinder with a rod of iron amongst other finds from the Parthian period. In 1938, these were identified as primitive electric cells by Dr. Wilhelm Konig, then the director of the Baghdad museum laboratory, who related the discovery to other similar finds (Iraqi cylinders, rods and asphalt stoppers, all corroded as if by some acid, and a few slender Iron and Bronze rods found with them). He concluded that their purpose was for electroplating gold and Silver jewellery.

More about the Baghdad Batteries

Baterija iz Bagdada

Je li se struja koristila tisućama godina prije nego što smo je “otkrili”?

Kada mislimo o struji, većina nas se sjeti Benjamina Franklina i Nikole Tesle. Godina Franklinovog sudbonosnog otkrića bila je 1752.

No, postojanje baterije iz Bagdada sugerira mogućnost mnogo šokantnijeg znanstvenog napretka u tom polju – prije 2 000 godina! Baterija je otkrivena 1936. godine i smatra se da je kreirana u Mezopotamiji. Sastoji se od cigle u obliku vrča i unutar toga ima galvanizirane željezne čavle omotane listom bakra, a neki arheolozi teoretiziraju da se koristila i neka kiselina koja je generirala električnu struju unutar vrča.

Ako je to točno, taj bi uređaj za dva tisućljeća nadmašio zasad priznatu godinu otkrića struje – otkrića elektrokemijskih ćelija, koje je otkrio Alessandro Volta.

Jesu li se ili nisu ovakvi uređaji koristili kao baterije dosta je nejasno i arheolozi se ne slažu, no također ne znaju za što bi im trebala struja koja nastaje jer nemamo nikakvih povijesnih zapisa tog vremena. Neki smatraju da se uređaj koristio za galvaniziranje objekata, no dokaz za korištenje uređaja u tu svrhu nije pronađen.

No, znamo da bi baterije u teoriji mogle funkcionirati. Barem je dvaput provedeno repliciranje baterija i u oba je eksperimenta dokazano da su baterije zaista sposobne proizvoditi elektricitet kad bi bile napunjene kiselinom. No, zasad je stvarna svrha ovih uređaja nepoznata.

Baterija iz Bagdada

Aryan Index Hyksos