The creation of man

Enki & Ninmah

1-11. In those days, in the days when heaven and earth were created; in those nights, in the nights when heaven and earth were created; in those years, in the years when the fates were determined; when the Anuna gods were born; when the goddesses were taken in marriage; when the goddesses were distributed in heaven and earth; when the goddesses ...... became pregnant and gave birth; when the gods were obliged (?) ...... their food ...... dining halls; the senior gods oversaw the work, while the minor gods were bearing the toil. The gods were digging the canals and piling up the silt in Harali. The gods, crushing the clay, began complaining about this life.

12-23. At that time, the one of great wisdom, the creator of all the senior gods, Enki lay on his bed, not waking up from his sleep, in the deep engur, in the subterranean water, the place the inside of which no other god knows. The gods said, weeping: "He is the cause of the lamenting!" Namma, the primeval mother who gave birth to the senior gods, took the tears of the gods to the one who lay sleeping, to the one who did not wake up from his bed, to her son: "Are you really lying there asleep, and ...... not awake? The gods, your creatures, are smashing their ....... My son, wake up from your bed! Please apply the skill deriving from your wisdom and create a substitute (?) for the gods so that they can be freed from their toil!"

24-37. At the word of his mother Namma, Enki rose up from his bed. In Hal-an-kug, his room for pondering, he slapped his thigh in annoyance. The wise and intelligent one, the prudent, ...... of skills, the fashioner of the design of everything brought to life birth-goddesses (?). Enki reached out his arm over them and turned his attention to them. And after Enki, the fashioner of designs by himself, had pondered the matter, he said to his mother Namma: "My mother, the creature you planned will really come into existence. Impose on him the work of carrying baskets. You should knead clay from the top of the abzu; the birth-goddesses (?) will nip off the clay and you shall bring the form into existence. Let Ninmah act as your assistant; and let Ninimma, Cu-zi-ana, Ninmada, Ninbarag, Ninmug, ...... and Ninguna stand by as you give birth. My mother, after you have decreed his fate, let Ninmah impose on him the work of carrying baskets."
5 lines fragmentary ...... she placed it on grass and purified the birth.

44-51. Enki ...... brought joy to their heart. He set a feast for his mother Namma and for Ninmah. All the princely birth-goddesses (?) ...... ate delicate reed (?) and bread. An, Enlil, and Lord Nudimmud roasted holy kids. All the senior gods praised him: "O lord of wide understanding, who is as wise as you? Enki, the great lord, who can equal your actions? Like a corporeal father, you are the one who has the me of deciding destinies, in fact you are the me."

52-55. Enki and Ninmah drank beer, their hearts became elated, and then Ninmah said to Enki: "Man's body can be either good or bad and whether I make a fate good or bad depends on my will."

56-61. Enki answered Ninmah: "I will counterbalance whatever fate -- good or bad -- you happen to decide." Ninmah took clay from the top of the abzu in her hand and she fashioned from it first a man who could not bend his outstretched weak hands. Enki looked at the man who cannot bend his outstretched weak hands, and decreed his fate: he appointed him as a servant of the king.


62-65. Second, she fashioned one who turned back (?) the light, a man with constantly opened eyes (?). Enki looked at the who turned back (?) the light, the man with constantly opened eyes (?), and decreed his fate allotting to it the musical arts, making him as the chief ...... in the king's presence.

66-68. {Third, she fashioned one with both feet broken, one with paralysed feet. Enki looked at the one with both feet broken, the one with paralysed feet and ...... him for the work of ...... and the silversmith and .......} {(1 ms. has instead:) She fashioned one, a third one, born as an idiot. Enki looked at this one, the one born as an idiot, and decreed his fate: he appointed him as a servant of the king.}

69-71. Fourth, she fashioned one who could not hold back his urine. Enki looked at the one who could not hold back his urine and bathed him in enchanted water and drove out the namtar demon from his body.

72-74. Fifth, she fashioned a woman who could not give birth. Enki looked at the woman who could not give birth, {and decreed her fate: he made (?) her belong to the queen's household.} {(1 ms. has instead:) ...... as a weaver, fashioned her to belong to the queen's household.}

75-78. Sixth, she fashioned one with neither penis nor vagina on its body. Enki looked at the one with neither penis nor vagina on its body and gave it the name 'Nibru eunuch (?)', and decreed as its fate to stand before the king.

79-82. {Ninmah threw the pinched-off clay from her hand on the ground and a great silence fell}{(1 ms. has instead:) Enki threw all (?) the clay to the ground and was greatly ......}. The great lord Enki said to Ninmah: "I have decreed the fates of your creatures and given them their daily bread. Come, now I will fashion somebody for you, and you must decree the fate of the newborn one!"

83-91. Enki devised a shape with head, ...... and mouth in its middle, and said to Ninmah: "Pour ejaculated semen into a woman's womb, and the woman will give birth to the semen of her womb." Ninmah stood by for the newborn ....... and the woman brought forth ...... in the midst ....... In return (?), this was Umul: its head was afflicted, its place of ...... was afflicted, its eyes were afflicted, its neck was afflicted. It could hardly breathe, its ribs were shaky, its lungs were afflicted, its heart was afflicted, its bowels were afflicted. With its hand and its lolling head it could not not put bread into its mouth; its spine and head were dislocated. The weak hips and the shaky feet could not carry (?) it on the field -- Enki fashioned it in this way.

92-101. Enki said to Ninmah: "For your creatures I have decreed a fate, I have given them their daily bread. Now, you should decree a fate for my creature, give him his daily bread too." Ninmah looked at Umul and turned to him. She went nearer to Umul asked him questions but he could not speak. She offered him bread to eat but he could not reach out for it. He could not lie on ......, he could not ....... Standing up he could not sit down, could not lie down, he could not ...... a house, he could not eat bread. Ninmah answered Enki: "The man you have fashioned is neither alive nor dead. He cannot support himself (?)."

102-110. Enki answered Ninmah: "I decreed a fate for the first man with the weak hands, I gave him bread. I decreed a fate for the man who turned back (?) the light, I gave him bread. I decreed a fate for the man with broken, paralysed feet, I gave him bread. I decreed a fate for the man who could not hold back his urine, I gave him bread. I decreed a fate for the woman who could not give birth, I gave her bread. I decreed the fate for the one with neither penis nor vagina on its body, I gave it bread. My sister, ......."
2 lines fragmentary

112. Ninmah answered Enki:
9 lines fragmentary

122-128. (Ninmah's answer continues) "You (?) entered ....... Look, you do not dwell in heaven, you do not dwell on earth, you do not come out to look at the Land. Where you do not dwell but where my house is built, your words cannot be heard. Where you do not live but where my city is built, I myself am silenced (?). My city is ruined, my house is destroyed, my child has been taken captive. I am a fugitive who has had to leave the E-kur, even I myself could not escape from your hand."

129-139. Enki replied to Ninmah: "Who could change the words that left your mouth? Remove Umul from your lap ....... Ninmah, may your work be ......, you ...... for me what is imperfect; who can oppose (?) this? The man whom I shaped ...... after you ......, let him pray! Today let my penis be praised, may your wisdom be confirmed (?)! May the enkum and ninkum ...... proclaim your glory ....... My sister, the heroic strength ....... The song ...... the writing (?) ....... The gods who heard ...... let Umul build (?) my house ......."

140-141. Ninmah could not rival the great lord Enki. Father Enki, your praise is sweet!


The creation of man

Ninhursag & her many early attempts that failed to produce adequate workers to be replacement for the gods

Enki & Nimmah test tubing Adamu

Ninhursag & Enki in the lab

Ninhursag & her symbol Umbilical Chord Cutter with Enki

Ninhursag & Staff

Fertility tree, Ninhursag, & nuses

I have done it, the worker of the gods

Enki & baby Adapa, created by Ninhursag

Ninhursag & infant high-bred

Ningishzidda, Ninhursag, Primitive Man, & Enki

Ninhursag & Enki in the lab

Ninhursag & brother Enki in lab

Khnemu-Enki & Thoth fashion modern man

Dumuzi the Shepherd, Adam, & Eve

Adapa, Ninhursag, Isumud, & Enki

Enki & lab-son Adapa

Adapa ascending to meet King Anu, father in heaven, planet Nibiru

Igigu - Anunnaki

The story of Atrahasis, the Babylonian story of the Flood and a precursor to the flood story in the Gilgameš Epic (Tablet XI), offers some evidence on the relationship between the Annunaki and the Igigu. The poem begins with the lines "When the gods like men bore the work and suffered the toil, the toil of the gods was great, the work was heavy, the distress was much" (lines 1-4) (Lambert and Millard 1999 [1969]: 43). The composition continues: "The Seven great Anunnaki were making the Igigu suffer the work" (lines 5-6) (Lambert and Millard 1969 [1999]: 43). What follows is partly fragmentary, but seems to indicate that the Igigu gods did not want to work any more and therefore the Anunnaki had to find a solution. Ultimately, this led to the creation of humans, who from then on had to bear the gods' work. In this story it appears that the Igigu were subordinate to the Anunnaki (von Soden 1989: 341-2). It is unclear which deities were included in the Igigu group.


Primitive Worker

Enlil & Enki now being fed by the worker-earthlings

Anunnaki arrived on Earth for mining; but they rebelled against hard work.

A text in Akkadian (the mother tongue of Babylonian, Assyrian, and Hebrew) called Atra Hasis describes the mutiny and the reasons for it in vivid detail. Enlil called for disciplinary measures to force the Anunnaki to continue toiling and to punish the mutiny’s instigators. Enki was for leniency. Anu was consulted; he sympathized with the mutineers. How was the impasse to be resolved?

Enki, the scientist, had a solution.

Let us create a Primitive Worker, he said, that will take over the backbreaking toil. The other leaders of the Anunnaki present wondered: How can it be done, how can an Adamu be created? To which Enki gave this answer:

The creature whose name you uttered, it exists!

He found the "creature" - a hominid, the product of evolution on Earth - in southeast Africa, "above the Abzu." All that we need to do to make it an intelligent worker, Enki added, was to:

Bind upon it the image of the Gods.

The assembled Gods - the Anunnaki leaders - agreed enthusiastically. On Enki’s suggestion they summoned Ninmah, the Chief Medical Officer, to assist in the task.

"You are the midwife of the Gods," they said to her - "Create Mankind! Create a Mixed One that he may bear the yoke, let him bear the yoke assigned by Enlil, let the Primitive Worker toil for the Gods!"

And, with the implied consent of the assembled "us," the task was carried out:

This is a fitting description of hominids roaming wildly as, and with, other beasts. Sumerian depictions, engraved on stone cylinders (so-called "cylinder seals") show such hominids mingling with animals but standing erect on two feet - an illustration (regrettably ignored by modern scientists) of a Homo erectus. It was upon that Being, that already existed, that Enki had suggested to "bind upon it the image of the Gods," and create through genetic engineering an Earthling, Homo sapiens.

It was a creative process not without frustrating trials and errors until the procedure was perfected and the desired result was attained by Enki and Ninmah (whom some texts, in honor of her memorable role, granted her the epithet NIN.TI - "Lady of Life").

Working in a laboratory called Bit Shimti - "House where the wind of life is breathed in" - the "essence" of the blood of a young Anunnaki male was mixed with the egg of a female hominid. The fertilized egg was then inserted into the womb of a female Anunnaki. When, after a tense waiting period, a "Model Man" was born, Ninmah held the newborn baby up and shouted: "I have created! My hands have made it!"

Sumerian artists depicted on a cylinder seal that breathtaking final moment, when Ninmah/Ninti held up the new Being for all to see. Thus, captured in an engraving on a small stone cylinder, is a pictorial record of the first Divine Encounter!

In ancient Egypt, where the Gods were called Neteru ("Guardians") and identified by the hieroglyphic symbol of a mining axe, the act of creating the first Man out of clay was attributed to the ram-headed God Khnemu ("He who joins"), of whom the texts said that he was "the maker of men . . . the father who was in the beginning."

Egyptian artists too, as the Sumerians before them, depicted pictorially the moment of the First Encounter; it showed Khnemu holding up the newly created being, assisted by his son Thoth (the God of science and medicine).


The fertilized eggs were then implanted in the wombs of female Anunnaki "birth Goddesses." It was to this process of bringing forth seven male and seven female "Mixed Ones".

But, like any hybrid (such as a mule, the result of the mating of a horse and a she-ass), the "Mixed Ones" could not procreate.

Indeed, the frequent Sumerian symbol for Enki was mat of a serpent. In an earlier work (Genesis Revisited) we have suggested that the associated symbol of Entwined Serpents (Fig. 5a), from which the symbol for healing has remained to this day, was inspired - already in ancient Sumer! - by the double helix DNA and thus of genetic engineering.

As we shall show later on, Enki’s use of genetic engineering in the Garden of Eden also led to the double helix motif in Tree of life depictions. Enki bequeathed this knowledge and its symbol to his son Ningishzidda, whom we have identified as the Egyptian God Thoth; the Greeks called him Hermes; his staff bore the emblem of the Entwined Serpents.



The creation of man

Adapa, model of modern man, meets Enlil

DNA's historic symbols come from alien god Ningishzidda

Ninhursag & DNA experiments done by the gods

Ningishzidda, & entwined serpants, DNA

Anu meets 1st earthling hybrids Adapa & Titi

Dumuzi the shepherd with Adam & Eve-Titi

Enki Originated Medical DNA Symbols

Enki experimenting with DNA on Earth

Enki & DNA experimentations

The creation of man

Among the oldest known conceptions of the creation of man are those of the Hebrews and the Babylonians; the former is narrated in the book of Genesis, the latter forms part of the Babylonian "Epic of Creation." According to the Biblical story, or at least according to one of its versions, man was fashioned from clay for the purpose of ruling over all the animals. In the Babylonian myth, man was made of the blood of one of the more troublesome of the gods who was killed for that purpose; he was created primarily in order to serve the gods and free them from the need of working for their bread. According to our Sumerian poem, which antedates both the Hebrew and the Babylonian versions by more than a millennium, man was fashioned of clay as in the Biblical version. The purpose for which he was created, however, was to free the gods from laboring for their sustenance, as in the Babylonian version.

The gods complain, but Enki, the water-god, who, as the Sumerian god of wisdom, might have been expected to come to their aid, is lying asleep in the deep and fails to hear them. Thereupon his mother brings the tears of the gods before Enki, saying:
"O my son, rise from thy bed, from thy . . . work what is wise,
Fashion servants of the gods, may they produce their . . ,"
Enki says to his mother, Nammu
O my mother, the creature whose name thou hoist uttered, it exists,
       Bind upon it the . . . of the gods;
Mix the heart of the clay that is over the abyss,
The good and princely fashioners will thicken the clay,
       Thou, do thou bring the limbs into existence;
Ninmah (the earth-mother goddess) will work above thee,
. . . (goddesses of birth) will stand by thee at thy fashioning;
O my mother, decree thou its (the new-born's) fate,
       Ninmah will bind upon it the . . . of the gods,
. . . as man . . .

Ninmah takes some of the clay which is over the abyss and fashions six different types of individuals, while Enki decrees their fate and gives them bread to eat. The character of only the last two types is intelligible; these are the barren woman and the sexless or eunuch type. The lines read:

The . . . she (Ninmah) made into a woman who cannot give birth.
Enki upon seeing the woman who cannot give birth,
Decreed her fate, destined her to be stationed in the "woman house."
The . . . she (Ninmah) made into one who has no male organ, who has no female organ.
Enki, upon seeing him who has no male organ, who has no female organ,
To stand before the king, decreed as his fate.

After Ninmah had created these six types of man, Enki decides to do some creating of his own. The manner in which he goes about it is not clear, but whatever it is that he does, the resulting creature is a failure; it is weak and feeble in body and spirit. Enki is now anxious that Ninmah help this forlorn creature; he therefore addresses her as follows:

"Of him whom thy hand has fashioned, I have decreed the fate,
    Have given him bread to eat;
Do thou decree the fate of him whom my hand has fashioned,
     Do thou give him bread to eat."

Ea is the creator and protector of humanity in the Babylonian flood myth Atra-hasīs and the Epic of Gilgameš. He hatched a plan to create humans out of clay so that they could perform work for the gods. But the supreme god Enlil attempted to destroy Ea's newly created humans with a devastating flood, because their never-ending noise prevented him from sleeping. But clever Ea foresaw Enlil's plan; he instructed a sage named Atrahasis to build an ark so that humanity could escape the destruction.

In the myth Adapa and the South Wind, Ea helps humanity keep the gift of magic and incantations by preventing Adapa from becoming immortal (Foster 2005: 525-530; Izre'el 2001; Michalowski 1980).

124-136. Ores (?) from Harali, the faraway land, ...... storehouses, ......, rock-crystal, gold, silver, ......, the yield of the uplands ......, heavy loads of them, were despatched by Enlil toward Erec. After the personal presents, the transported goods ......, Ninmah and the minister ....... The dust from their march reached high into the sky like rain clouds. Enormous marriage gifts were being brought for Nanibgal to Erec; the city was getting full inside and out, ...... it was to be replete. The rest ...... on the outlying roads ....... ...... blue sky .......

Ea's creatures

Ea was served by his minister, the two-faced god Isimu/Akkadian Usmû. Other mythical creatures also dwelt in the abzu with Ea, including the seven mythical sages (apkallū) who were created for the purpose of teaching wisdom to humanity.

Detail of a cylinder seal from Sippar (2300 BC) depicting Shamash with rays rising from his shoulders and holding a saw-toothed knife with which he cuts his way through the mountains of the east at dawn (British Museum)


The creation of man

Early homonids found by Enki in the Abzu, used in the attempt to fashion adequate workers

Enki & his hybred experiments

Enki & DNA experiments on Earth

Enki, Isimud, others, & Enki's experiment

Enki with his experiments

Enki & Abzu experiments

Enki in the Abzu modifying DNA experiments, attempting to create workers for the gods

Akkadian, Enki in Abzu fashioning "modern man", 2334-2154 B.C.

Enki sends Adapa, Dumuzi, & Ningisgzidda to Anu in heaven

Biblical Able, Dumuzi the shepherd, & Enlil

Creation of man from clay

Fashioning a man out of clay

The "creation of man from clay" is a miraculous birth theme that recurs throughout world religions and mythologies. Examples include:

  • In Greek mythology, according to Pseudo-Apollodorus (Bibliotheca, 1.7.1), Prometheus molded men out of water and earth.
  • In Sumerian mythology the gods Enki or Enlil create a servant of the gods, humankind, out of clay and blood (see Enki and the Making of Man). In another Sumerian story, both Enki and Ninmah create humans from the clay of the Abzu, the fresh water of the underground. They take turns in creating and decreeing the fate of the humans.
  • According to Egyptian mythology the god Khnum creates human children from clay before placing them into their mother's womb.
  • According to Chinese mythology (see Chu Ci and Imperial Readings of the Taiping Era), Nüwa molded figures from the yellow earth, giving them life and the ability to bear children.
  • In the Babylonian creation epic Enuma Elish, the goddess Ninhursag created humans from clay.
  • According to Hindu mythology the mother of Ganesh, Parvati, made Ganesh from clay and turned the clay into flesh and blood.
  • According to some Laotian folk religion, there are stories of humans created from mud or clay.
  • The Yoruba culture holds that the god Obatala likewise created the human race from clay.
  • According to Genesis 2:7 "And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul".
  • According to the Qur'an[23:12–15], God created man from clay.
  • The Māori people believe that Tāne Mahuta, god of the forest, created the first woman out of clay and breathed life into her.
  • According to Inca mythology the creator god Viracocha formed humans from clay on his second attempt at creating living creatures.
  • According to some Native American beliefs, the Earth-maker formed the figure of many men and women, which he dried in the sun and into which he breathed life.
  • In American culture, Wonder Woman was sculpted from clay by her mother Hippolyta and given life by the Greek gods.


Aruru (Ninmah, Nintu, Ninhursaga, Belet-ili, Mami) -She is the mother goddess and was responsible for the creation of man with the help of Enlil or Enki. She is also called the womb goddess, and midwife of the gods. On Ea's advice, she acted on his direction and mixed clay with the blood of the god Geshtu-e, in order to shape and birth seven men and seven women. These people would bear the workload of the Igigi. She also added to the creation of Gilgamesh, and, at Anu's command, made Enkidu in Anu's image by pinching off a piece of clay, throwing it into the wilderness, and birthing him there. Ea called her to offer her beloved Ninurta as the one who should hunt Anzu. She does so.


Your Lord said to the angels, "I am going to create a human being out of clay. When I have formed him and breathed My Spirit into him, fall down in prostration to him!" (Qur'an, 38:71-72)

Then inquire of them: Is it they who are stronger in structure or other things We have created? We created them from sticky clay. (Qur'an, 37:11)

We created man from an extract of clay. (Qur'an, 23:12)


Jahve, Bog, napravi čovjeka od praha zemaljskog i u nosnice mu udahne dah života. (Biblija 1:7)


(Gibson p. 68) men are considered made of 'clay'.


According to Samuel Noah Kramer (Tablets of Sumer, Colorado,1956) Nammu and Ninmah, assisted by deities who are the 'good and princely fashioners', mixed clay which was 'over the abyss' and brought man into existence.

Gods were having difficulty in finding food, and their problems have increased when the later born goddesses joined them. Enki the water god - he was the god of wisdom and in a position to help them - was fast asleep in the sea and did not hear their complaints. Enki's mother Mother of all Gods Nammu brought the tears of the complainants to Enki and told him in their presence: "O! my son, get off your bed... do what is wise. Give shape to (make some) servants to gods. Let them make their own copies.(?)" Enki thinks, decides to head the 'union of good and bright modelists' and says to Nammu: 'O! mother, the creature you have mentioned exists: Put the image of gods(?) on him. Shape his heart from the clay on the surface of the Bottomless Deep. Good and bright modelists will thicken this clay. You make its organs; Ninmah (Goddess of Earth) will work in front of you. While you are making a model…goddesses of birth will be with you. O! mother decide on the faith of the newborn, let Ninmah put the image of gods on it: This is the human."

"Enki and Ninmah"

She is the mother goddess and, as Ninmah, assists in the creation of man. Enki, having been propted by Nammu to create servants for the gods, describes how Nammu and Ninmah will help fashion man from clay. Prior to getting to work, she and Enki drink overmuch at a feast. She then shapes six flawed versions of man from the heart of the clay over the Abzu, with Enki declaring their fates. Enki, in turn also creates a flawed man which is unable to eat. Ninmah appears to curse him for the failed effort. (Kramer 1963 pp. 149-151; Kramer 1961 pp. 69-72)


Khnum, the ram-headed god of Elephantine, the potter, fashioned men on his wheel, making use of the clay in his locality as his basic material.



The Shilluk, who live along the Nile in the Sudan, say that Juok (God) created men out of clay. He traveled north and found some white clay, out of which he fashioned Europeans. The Arabs were made of reddish-brown clay and the Africans from black earth.

The Pangwe of Cameroun say that God first created a lizard out of clay which he placed in a pool to soak. He left it there for seven days, and then called ‘Man, come out’, and a man emerged instead of a lizard.


… the God Viracocha created the earth and the sky and peopled the earth with men. There was no sun and the people walked in darkness. But they disobeyed their Creator and he chose to destroy them, turning some into stone and drowning the rest in a flood which rose above the highest mountains in the world. The only survivors were a man and a woman who remained in a box and who, when the water subsided were carried by the wind to Tihuanaco, the chief abode of the Creator. There he raised up all the people and nations, making figures of clay and painting the clothes each nation was to wear. To each nation he gave a language, songs and the seeds they were to sow. Then he breathed life and soul into the clay and ordered each nation to pass under the earth and emerge in the place he directed.


Prometheus shaped man out of mud, and Athena breathed life into his clay figure.

South Californian Amerindians

Chinigchinich then formed man, both male and female, out of white clay found upon the borders of a lake.


Thus the Karens of Burma say that God "created man, and of what did he form him? He created man at first from the earth, and finished the work of creation. He created woman, and of what did he form her? He took a rib from the man and created the woman."

The aborigines of Minahassa, in the north of Celebes, say that two beings called Wailan Wangko and Wangi (created humans from earth). Said Wailan Wangko to Wangi, "Return and take earth and make two images, a man and a woman."

The Dyaks of Sakarran in British Borneo say that the first man was made by two large birds. At first they tried to make men out of trees, but in vain. Then they hewed them out of rocks, but the figures could not speak. Then they moulded a man out of damp earth and infused into his veins the red gum of the kumpang-tree. After that they called to him and he answered ; they cut him and blood flowed from his wounds, so they gave him the name of Tannah Kumpok or "moulded earth.

The supreme god of the Island of Nias, Luo Zaho, took a handful of earth as large as an egg, and fashioned out of it a figure like one of those figures of ancestors which the people of Nias construct. Having made it, he put it in the scales and weighed it; he weighed also the wind, and having weighed it, he put it on the lips of the figure which he had made ; so the figure spoke like a man or like a child, and God gave him the name of Sihai.

The Bila-an, a wild tribe of Mindanao, one of the Philippine Islands, relate the creation of man … (by) a certain being named Melu. He fashioned them accordingly in his own likeness out of the leavings of the scurf whereof he had moulded the earth, and these two were the first human beings.

The Bagobos, a pagan tribe of South-Eastern Mindanao, say that in the beginning a certain Diwata made the sea and the land, and planted trees of many sorts. Then he took two lumps of earth, shaped them like human figures, and spat on them; so they became man and woman.

The Kumis, who inhabit portions of Arakan and the Chittagong hill tracts in eastern India, told Captain Lewin the following story of the creation of man. God made the world and the trees and the creeping things first, and after that he made one man and one woman, forming their bodies of clay.

According to the Korkus, an aboriginal tribe of the Central Provinces of India: Thereupon the god (Mahadeo aka Shiva) repaired to the spot, and taking a handful of the red earth he fashioned out of it two images, in the likeness of a man and a woman.

A like tale is told, with a curious variation, by the Mundas, a primitive aboriginal tribe of Chota Nagpur. They say that the Sun-god, by name Singbonga, first fashioned two clay figures, one meant to represent a man and the other a woman.

(According to) the Santals of Bengal… Some say ' she (Malin Budhi) made them (humans) of a kind of froth which proceeded from a supernatural being who dwelt at the bottom of the sea, but others say she made them of a stiff clay.


Thus the Australian blacks in the neighborhood of Melbourne said that Pund-jel, the Creator, cut three large sheets of bark with his big knife. On one of these he placed some clay and worked it up with his knife into a proper consistence. He then laid a portion of the clay on one of the other pieces of bark and shaped it into a human form ; first he made the feet, then the legs, then the trunk, the arms, and the head. Thus he made a clay man on each of the two pieces of bark; and being well pleased with his handiwork, he danced round them for joy. Next he took stringy bark from the eucalyptus tree, made hair of it, and stuck it on the heads of his clay men. Then he looked at them again, was pleased with his work, and again danced round them for joy. He then lay down on them, blew his breath hard into their mouths, their noses, and their navels ; and presently they stirred, spoke, and rose up as full-grown men.

Pacific Islands

The Maoris of New Zealand say that a certain god, variously named Tu, Tiki, and Tane, took red riverside clay, kneaded it with his own blood into a likeness or image of himself, with eyes, legs, arms, and all complete, in fact, an exact copy of the deity ; and having perfected the model, he animated it by breathing into its mouth and nostrils, whereupon the clay effigy at once came to life and sneezed. "Of all these things," said a Maori, in relating the story of man's creation, "the most important is the fact that the clay sneezed, forasmuch as that sign of the power of the gods remains with us even to this day in order that we may be reminded of the great work Tu accomplished on the altar of the Kauhanga-nui, and hence it is that when men sneeze the words of Tu are repeated by those who are present"; for they say, "Sneeze, O spirit of life." 1 So like himself was the man whom the Maori Creator Tiki fashioned that he called him Tiki-ahua, that is, Tiki's likeness.

A very generally received tradition in Tahiti was that the first human pair was made by Taaroa, the chief god. They say that after he had formed the world he created man out of red earth, which was also the food of mankind until bread-fruit was produced. Further, some say that one day Taaroa called for the man by name, and when he came he made him fall asleep. As he slept, the Creator took out one of his bones (ivi) and made of it a woman, whom he gave to the man to be his wife, and the pair became the progenitors of mankind.

In Nui, or Netherland Island, one of the Ellice Islands, they say that the god Aulialia made models of a man and a woman out of earth, and when he raised them up they came to life. He called the man Tepapa and the woman Tetata. The Pelew Islanders relate that a brother and sister made men out of clay kneaded with the blood of various animals, and that the characters of these first men and of their descendants were determined by the characters of the animals whose blood had been mingled with the primordial clay.

According to a Melanesian legend, told in Mota, one of the Banks' Islands, the hero Qat moulded men of clay, the red clay from the marshy riverside at Vanua Lava.

The inhabitants of Noo-hoo-roa, in the Kei Islands, say that their ancestors were fashioned out of clay by the supreme god, Dooadlera, who breathed life into the clay figures.

According to a Melanesian legend, told in Mota, one of the Banks' Islands, the hero Qat moulded men of clay, the red clay from the marshy riverside at Vanua Lava.

The Marindineeze, a tribe who occupy the dreary, monotonous treeless flats on the southern coast of Dutch New Guinea, not far from the border of the British territory: They say that one day a crane or stork (dik) was busy picking fish out of the sea. He threw them on the beach, where the clay covered and killed them. So the fish were no longer anything but shapeless lumps of clay. They were cold and warmed themselves at a fire of bamboos. Every time that a little bamboo burst with a pop in the heat, the lumps of clay assumed more and more the shape of human beings.


The Cheremiss of Russia, a Finnish people, tell a story of the creation of man which recalls episodes in the Toradjan and Indian legends of the same event. They say that God moulded man's body of clay and then went up to heaven to fetch the soul, with which to animate it.


…the Eskimo of Point Barrow, in Alaska, tell of a time when there was no man in the land, till a certain spirit named á sê lu, who resided at Point Barrow, made a clay man, set him up on the shore to dry, breathed into him, and gave him life. Other Eskimo of Alaska relate how the Raven made the first woman out of clay, to be a companion to the first man ; he fastened water-grass to the back of the head to be hair, flapped his wings over the clay figure, and it arose, a beautiful young woman. The Acagchemem Indians of California said that a powerful being called Chinigchinich created man out of clay which he found on the banks of a lake ; male and female created he them, and the Indians of the present day are the descendants of the clay man and woman.

The Maidu Indians of California the first man and woman were created by a mysterious personage named Earth-Initiate, who descended from the sky by a rope made of feathers. His body shone like the sun, but his face was hidden and never seen. One afternoon he took dark red earth, mixed it with water, and fashioned two figures, one of them a man and the other a woman.

The Diegueño Indians or, as they call themselves, the Kawakipais, who occupy the extreme south-western corner of the State of California, have a myth to explain how the world in its present form and the human race were created…. Tcaipakomat took a lump of light-colored clay, split it partly up, and made a man of it.

The Hopi or Moqui Indians of Arizon… Thereupon the eastern goddess took clay and moulded out of it first a woman and afterwards a man ; and the clay man and woman were brought to life just as the birds and beasts had been so before them.

The Pima Indians, another tribe of Arizona, allege that the Creator took clay into his hands, and mixing it with the sweat of his own body, kneaded the whole into a lump. Then he blew upon the lump till it began to live and move and became a man and a woman. A priest of the Natchez Indians in Louisiana told Du Pratz " that God had kneaded some clay, such as that which potters use, and had made it into a little man ; and that after examining it, and finding it well formed, he blew upon his work, and forthwith that little man had life, grew, acted, walked, and found himself a man perfectly well shaped."

The Michoacans of Mexico said that the great god Tucapacha first made man and woman out of clay.

The Lengua Indians of Paraguay believe that the Creator, in the shape of a beetle, inhabited a hole in the earth, and that he formed man and woman out of the clay which he threw up from his subterranean abode.


Život na Zemlji nastao u muljevitim vulkanima Grenlanda?!

Grenland je danas otok u polarnom krugu prekriven ledom i snijegom gotovo tijekom cijele godine. Znanstvenici smatraju da je ono mjesto početka svekolikog života na Zemlji. Oni misle da je život nastao u njegovim muljevitim vulkanima.
Regija Isua, koja se nalazi na zapadnom dijelu Grenlanda, je mjesto na kojem se nalaze brojni muljeviti vulkani. Za njih su znanstvenici Laboratorija za geologiju iz Lyona u Francuskoj rekli kao vjeruju da su eruptirali prije 3,8 milijardi godina. Te erupcije su na površinu dovele kemijske elemente koji su važni za formaciju biomolekula. Ovo nije prva takva pretpostavka, ali znanstvenici smatraju da su konačno našli mjesto na Zemlji s perfektnim uvjetima na kojima se mogao razviti život.

Ova nova hipoteza je alternativa trenutačno prihvaćenoj teoriji koja tvrdi da je život nastao u hidrotermalnim izvorima poznatim pod nazivom „Crni pušači“ koji se nalaze na dnu oceana, a koji sadrže perfektne omjere vodika, metana i aminokiselina koje su bile potrebne za stvaranje života na planeti. No ekstremno kiselo okružje crnih pušača otežava stabilizaciju aminokiselina, što bi vjerojatno uništilo stvaranje samog života.

Ovi istraživači su ispitivali uzorke minerala serpentita koji je uzet iz regije Isua i koji je star oko 3,8 milijardi godina. Otkrili su kako se ovaj mineral oformio u visoko ne-kiselom okružju, što znači da bi ekstremno pogodovalo stvaranju i stabilizaciji aminokiselina. Što je još važnije, u oceanskoj kori Isue su pronađene sve hidrotermalne tekućine od ugljika do fosfora koji su potrebne da bi se stvorile kompleksne biomolekule. One su se kombinirale u blatnim vulkanima, i čini se da su ti vulkani bili perfektno mjesto da bi se život stvorio na tom mjestu.

Ono što je jako interesantno u ovoj teoriji je da ona tvrdi kako je život nastao na zemlji, ne u oceanima, jer je Isua majušni dio planete koja je nad morem već skoro 4 milijarde godina. Uzimajući u obzir da je gotovo cijela antička Zemlja bila prekrivena oceanima, čini se logičnim da su rane životne forme napustile blatne vulkane i napravile gigantsku zaobilaznicu, provodeći narednih nekoliko milijardi godina isključivo u oceanima prije negoli su dovoljno evoluirali da bi ponovno došli na kopno s kojega potječu. Ovo je samo teorija i s takvim podacima ne možemo biti sigurni.