The Mysterious Odin

WHO was DAN of mythical proportions, otherwise known as ODIN?

Tradition and history records the existence of THREE FAMOUS MEN who bore the name "ODIN." The first, according to author J. Garner, was known as WODAN and "is the same as the ODIN OF THE SCANDINAVIANS." He goes on to say:

It would also appear that WODAN, or ODIN, who seems to be identified with those gods WHOM CUSH WAS THE HUMAN ORIGINAL, had a son "BALDER," who was slain by LOKI, the spirit of evil, just as OSIRIS was slain by TYPHON, the spirit of evil. Just also as the deaths of Osiris, Bacchus, Thammuz, etc., are LAMENTED, so is BALDER lamented by his mother, FREYA or FRIGGA, who was told by Hela, the goddess of Hell, that he would be restored to life if everything on earth wept for him. Again, just as the war god MARS or Mergal was another manifestation of the younger BABYLONIAN god, so "THOR," the war god of the Scandinavians, was another son of Odin...Odin, Freya and Thor, in short, are the SCANDINAVIAN TRINITY, CORRESPONDING TO THE EGYPTIAN TRINITY, OSIRIS, ISIS, AND HORUS, and other forms of the same Trinity, and like Horus, Apollo and Chrishna, Thor is represented as bruising the head of the serpent. -- The Worship of the Dead.

Notice, now, what Alexander Hislop says about the FIRST Odin:

The name of one of ODIN'S SONS indicates the meaning of Odin's own name. BALDER, for whose death such lamentations were made, seems evidently just that CHALDEE FORM OF BAAL-ZER, "The seed of Ball"; for the Hebrew Z as is well known, frequently in the later Chaldee, becomes D. Now Baal and Adon both alike signify "Lord," and, therefore, if Balder be admitted to be the seed of Baal, that is as much as to say that he is the son of Adon; and consequently, ADON AND ODIN MUST BE THE SAME. This, of course, PUTS [THIS] ODIN A STEP BACK; makes his son to be the object of lamentation and not himself; but the same was the case also in Egypt; for there Horus the child was sometimes represented as torn in pieces, as Osiris had been. Clemens Alexandrinus says (Cohortatio, Vol. I, p. 30), "they lament an infant torn in pieces by the Titans." The lamentations for Balder are very plainly the counterpart of the lamentation for ADONIS; and, of course, if BALDER was, as the lamentations prove him to have been, the favorite form of the Scandinavian Messiah, he was ADON, or "Lord," as well as his father.

The name of the other SON OF ODIN, the mighty and warlike THOR, strengthens all the foregoing conclusions. Ninyas, the son of Ninus, on his father's death, was, of course, from the nature of the mystic system, set up as Adon, "the Lord." Now, as ODIN had a son called THOR, so the second Assyrian Adon had a son called THOURIS (Cedrenus, Vol. I, p. 29). The name Thouris seems just to be another form of Zoro, or Doro, "the seed"; for Photius tells us that among the Greeks Thoros signified "Seed"...The D is often pronounced as TH, -- Adon...the pointed Hebrew, being pronounced "Athon."-- The Two Babylons. Loizeaux Brothers, Neptune, N.J. 1959. Appendix, note L, p. 312.

The SECOND ODIN -- the one we are interested in -- is mentioned in the Saxon Chronicle where his ancestry is given: "The Saxon Chronicle commences the LINE OF DAN I with the following two names: 'Noah, Sem.' Thereafter a long break occurs in the genealogy -- similar to the Biblical statement : "Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham' (Matthew 1:1)." Compendium of World History, Vol. II, p. 44).

Who SATURNUS OF KRIT, ancestor of ODIN, really was. In modern English the name would be SATURN OF CRETE. There were MANY Saturns in antiquity, often confused with one another. Usually the name was applied to a man who FLEES or who HIDES himself.

Saturn is a Latin word derived from a root meaning TO FLEE INTO HIDING. The Greek term was KRONOS. This particular SATURN OF CRETE was so famous that the PHOENICIAN HISTORIAN SANCHONIATHON spoke of him. Fragments of his works have been preserved by Eusebius in Preparation of the Gospel, book i, ch. x. Here are his words: "For KRONOS or (SATURN), whom the Phoenicians call ISRAEL...." (Corey's Ancient Fragments of the Phoenician, Carthaginian, Babylonian, Egyptian and other Authors, by E. Richmond Hodges, page 21.)

S. Gusten Olson recognizes this link in the line of ODIN: "It is commonly accepted that ALL the ruling families of the North definitely date BACK TO ODIN (however not the original Odin, but perhaps the PRIMARY, HISTORICAL ODIN). The historical Odin is DESCENDED FROM THE TROJAN LINE OF KINGS. (The Incredible Nordic Origins. Nordica S. F. Ltd., Kent, England. 1981, p. 87).

The December, 1981 issue of The Link discusses the royal lines of northern Europe and their LINK to the mysterious ODIN:

The varied collection of sagas, poetry and prose which comprises the early literature of the northern nations of Europe contains much interesting and valuable historical material, although it is often difficult to separate the fanciful from the factual. The REPEATED assertions and implications that the FAMILIES DESCENDED FROM ODIN (or WODEN) derive from THE ANCIENT TROJAN KINGS (often thought to belong to the fanciful category) may indeed prove to have FIRM FOUNDATION IN TRUTH.

The written history of Denmark properly begins with the FIRST KING to reign over the people in the Danish peninsula -- this was DANUS I! He is also known as DAN I in Danish history and was the SECOND ODIN or VOTAN.

HOW this ODIN arrived in the Northwest of Europe is noted by Herman L. Hoeh: "Denmark originally received its name from the TRIBE OF DANAAN. It passed to the king who took the name of the subjects over whom he ruled. KING DAN I commenced his reign IN 1040 [B.C.]. This was the year of the breakup of the German realm. The division of German territory between the three sons of Wolfheim -- Kells, Gall and Hiller -- left the seafarers of the far northwest of Europe without leadership. To fill the void the German and HEBREW inhabitants of DENMARK called upon a SCION OF THE TROJAN HOUSE to reign over them. That scion was DAN I. He lived at that time IN THRACE." (Compendium of World History, Vol. II, pp. 43-44).


The Viksø helmets

In a newly opened peat-digging area of Brøns Mose at Viksø (Veksø) on Zealand one of the workers heard a crunching sound under his spade. He had chanced upon two almost identical horned helmets of bronze. These were decorated with bosses and adorned with eyes and beaks. The helmets from Viksø are from the Bronze Age and were made in the early part of the first millennium BC. They were probably used at religious ceremonies. Later on they were deposited in the bog as offerings. One of the helmets was placed on a wooden tray of ash. The offerings may also have included a ceramic vessel.

Helmet from Viksø

Where were the Viksø helmets produced?

It is not clear where the extraordinary Viksø helmets were produced. It may have been in central Europe or northern Germany, however, we cannot completely rule out that they were manufactured in Denmark. Under all circumstances the craftsmen were influenced by the bronze work of the east Alpine Donau area. Horned helmets must have been familiar objects in the North. Numerous rock carvings, especially from western Sweden, show men wearing horned helmets.

Helmet from Viksø

You can see the bronze helmets from Viksø in room 12 of the exhibition.

Viksø (Veksø) is located in northern Zealand.

Vikinge skibs

Horned helmets ca 900 BC - found in a northern Zealand bog

Horned helmet, ca 900 BC

Gilt ornamental plate with horns, NW Zealand ca 1400 BC

Ornaments, central Jutland ca 800 BC

Rock carving of a ship with sun images, 1100-700 BC

Gundestrup Cauldron

The Gundestrup Cauldron is believed to have originated in SW Romania or NW Bulgaria

Gundestrup Cauldron - found in 1891 in Jutland

No one knows how the Gundestrup Cauldron ended up in Denmark

The interior of the Gundestrup Cauldron

Gundestrup Cauldron

Roman silver cups, 1st C. AD, found in a burial in Lolland

Scenes from the Iliad on a 1st C. AD Roman cup

Pretzel-shaped brooch from Gråbense Vig on Falster


Vidasus - Cernunnos

The "Cernunnos" type antlered figure or "horned god", on the Gundestrup Cauldron, on display, at the National Museum of Denmark in Copenhagen

Vidasus je ilirski bog zaštitnik domaćih životinja, šuma i pašnjaka te izvora, a zajedno sa boginjom Tanom božanstvo plodnosti. Štovao se pod različitim imenima, negdje kao Vidasus, drugdje kao Magla (enus?), ili pak Cor.., Messor i slično.  Ovo ime Cor neobično podsjeća na keltskog boga Cernunnosa koji je imao identičan opis. Isto tako, pretpostavlja se da je sa ovim ilirskim božanstvom u vezi i poznato ime Grabovius (otkud potječe i naša ilirska riječ grab), koje se javlja na takozvanim iguvinskim pločama iz Umbrije u Italiji.

Sve do sedamdesetih godina prošlog vijeka govorilo se u Bosni KERITI loptu: KERI loptu, KERIO loptu, KERAJU loptu. POTISNUTI loptu JAKOM SILOM, tj. KERITI je: "Eno ih na igralištu KERAJU loptu." Suigrač viče svom suigraču: "KERI je, šta čekaš?" A onda je riječ KERITI potisnuta u zaborav pred engleskom riječjima “šut” (shoot, en.) i “šutnuti”.

KERAČA je drveni štap kojim se jakim zamahom udarao klis i odbacivao što dalje na protivnički teren. Zašto pominjemo ove dvije riječi: KERITI i KERAČA? Zato što ćemo pomoću njihovog oblika i značenja njih odrediti značenje imena keltskog boga KERNUNOSA.

Keltski bog KERNUNOS (Cernunnos, lat.) bio je bog plodnosti, šuma i životinja. Kažu da je dobio ime po rogovima, jer na keltskom KAR kažu da znači ROG: galsko KARNON znači ROG (cornu, lat.). Ali ime KERNUNOVO nije KARNUNOS (CARNUNNOS), vec KERNUNNOS. Razlika je dakle u korijenu riječi, jer u riječi KARNON korijen je KAR- što je korijen riječi KARNON, što znači ROG, a u imenu KERNUNOS korijen je KER-, te značenje KERNUNOVOG imena treba tražiti u korijenu KER-.

Sjetimo se grčkog mitskog psa KERBERA (Κέρβερος) koji TJERA i ODGONI sve od ulaza u Ad. I srbska riječ za lovačkog psa je KER: lovački KER je POTISKAČ, GONILAC.

Riječ KERAMIKA (KERAMIKOS) izvedena je od KERAMOS. Božanstvo antičkih grčkih keramičara bio je KERAMIS, sin Dionizija i Ariadne. Postoje mišljenja da KERAMOS znači ROG (horn, en.). Ali pogledajmo sad ovo:

“hrána f(Vuk), sveslav. i praslav. postverbal *horna, danas samo u značenju »1° Nahrung«, od hraniti, hraním (1487) “nähren”.

Slog hra- nastao je po zakonu likvidne metateze, rus. horona, polj. chrona.” (Petar Skok, Etimologijski rječnik hrvatskoga ili srpskoga jezika, JAZU, Zagreb, 1971)

Da li primjećujemo morfološku sličnost između engleske riječi HORN i praslovenskog HORNA: HORNA - HORN. U obje riječi korijen je isti: HOR-. Otkud i zašto ta sličnost? To je od HRANE, od HORNE koja se držala u ROGU, jer su drevni bogovi prikazivani sa ROGOM punim HORNE. Idemo dalje!

Rog sa hranom HORNOM (hranom).

Govore da je staroenglesko HORN rog životinja (horn, njem.; horen, hol.) I da je izvedeno od grčkog KERAS (κέρας, gr.) što znači ROG. Vidjeli smo da to nije tačno i da je englesko HORN izvedeno od praslovenskog HORNU (hrana). Sjetimo se KERA koji POTISKUJE I GONI gonič divljač. Sjetimo se i štapa KERAČE kojom se zamahom SILE izbacuje klis. Sjetimo se riječi KERI (loptu): ta riječ takođe znači SILOM (ENERGIJOM) zamaha UDARI loptu, POTISNIJE.

Ime rimske boginje CERES nastalo je od srbskog korijena KER- (u latinskom je glas K često pisan kao C). CERES je boginja poljoprivrede i ŽITA, boginja plodnosti i rađanja. Englesko CEREAL znači ŽITO, a englesko KERNELje ZRNO.

Englesko INCREASE (IN-CRE-ASE) znači UMNOŽITI, UVEĆAVATI, RASTI. Da bi se nešto ZAČELO, UMNOŽILO, UVEĆAVALO I RASLO potrebna je ENERGIJA, SILA, SNAGA koja će POKRENUTI proces ZAČEĆA. I kad se nešto ZAČNE, opet je potrebna ENERGIJA, SILA i SNAGA koja će TJERATI začeto da RASTE i u svim riječima koje smo nabrojali: KER, KERICA, KERAČA, KERAMIKA, CERES, CEREAL, CREATION, KERNEL korijen je KER-.

I vratimo se KERNUNOSU koji je bog je plodnosti, šume i životinja: zar se PLODNOST ne začinje nekom ENERGIJOM, SILOM RASTA, SILOM POTISKA, GONJENJA i POTISKA? Da, KERNUN, KERNUNOS (Cernunnos, lat.) je bog proljeća, bog plodnosti, bog šume i bog životinja, jer on svojom djelotvornom POTISNOM SILOM aktivira plodnost, ražmnožavanje, rađanje i rast, te je KERNUNOS prethodnik boga VELESA. Tračko VELEK i savremeno srbsko VLAČITI znače IZVLAČITI, jer se sve, počev od trave iz zemlje, pupoljaka izgrana drveća i jelenjih rogova iz glava jelena, sve se u proljeće IZVLAČI, IZDUŽAVA, tj. RASTE. Zato su KERNUNOS i VELES prikazani sa ROGOVIMA kao simbola tog VLAČENJA, IZVLAČENJA I RASTA.

Kad se hrišćanima pomenu ROG I ROGOVI, oni odmah zamisle đavola sa rogovima, a zaboravljaju da i Biblija u pozitivnom smislu spominje ROG I ROGOVE:

“Koji se suprote Gospodu, satrće se; na njih će zagrmjeti s neba; Gospod će suditi krajevima zemaljskim, i daće snagu caru svojemu, i uzvisiće rog pomazaniku svojemu.” (1.Sam. 2,10)
“I podiže nam rog spasenija u domu Davida sluge svojega.” (Luka 1,69)
“Tu ću učiniti da uzraste rog Davidu, postaviću vidjelo pomazaniku svojemu.” (Psal. 132,17)

Starobiblijski oltari imali su na ćoškovima rogove, jer su i u Bibliji rogovi simboli RASTA SNAGE, SILE I MOĆI, a riječ koja označava POKRETACKU SILU, POTISNU SILU RASTA ROGOVA JE srbska riječ KERITI sa korijenom KER-.

Od ovog korijena izvedena je i srbska riječ KERICA (to je ona ukrasna resa, kita ili roščić što visi na haljini i zastavi). Od korijena KER- izvedeno je ime KERNUNOS.

  • Keriti se, bučno se veseliti uz pjesmu i svirku.
  • Karati, vikati, svađati se..
  • Karati, jebati

Božanstvo sa jelenjim rogovima (motiv na stećku).

Božanstvo sa jelenjim rogovima (petroglif, Val Camonica, Italy, 400 g. st. ere).

Božanstvo sa jelenjim rogovima na indijanskim petroglifima (Alta Vista, Mexico; San Rafael Swell, Utah, USA).




The Germanic futhark had 24 letters; Scandinavia had 16; the Anglo-Saxon system had up to 31. The runes in the upper circle are arranged in six sections (formed by the six points of the star) with four runes in each of the six fields. That makes 24 (6x4). So it is the Germanic futhark.

Expert opinion has come to our aid: the letters do not form words, apparently, but merely represent each of the signs.

James E. Knirk
Professor, Runic Archives, Museum of Cultural History, University of Oslo
The runes around the outside of the six-pointed star I was able to read, but it was not easy. I start on your blogspot picture with the runes to the right of due north, i.e. from 12 o'clock and on around. They read:
ozhk (or: oRhk, one uses both transliterations)
ïsjr   ebfu   wtpi   ŋmgd (the first an ng-sound) aþnl


Odin - Tribe of Dan

Horned helmet, ca 900 BC

Sun chariot

Vikinge skibs

Viking Pirates flag (Thrace)


Odin in the New World!

Where did ODIN go after establishing his people in Northwestern Europe? Where was this FARAWAY LAND across the seas?

To find the surprising answer we must go to the sacred writings of the ancient QUICHE MAYA people in Mexico! In the Popul Vuh, a rare codice that has been preserved down to this day, we find recorded the MIGRATIONS and wanderings of the ancestors of the MAYA. The Popul Vuh clearly shows that they TRAVELED WESTWARD ACROSS THE ATLANTIC OCEAN TO MEXICO!

Writings and traditions from other Indian tribes show SIMILAR ORIGINS of a people crossing A GREAT BODY OF WATER FROM THE NORTHEAST to reach their present land!

Notice what the writer of the Popul Vuh records: "They also multiplied there IN THE EAST....All lived together, they existed in GREAT NUMBERS and walked there IN THE EAST....There they were then, in great numbers, the black man and the WHITE MAN, many of many classes, men of many tongues....The speech of all was the same. They did not invoke wood nor stone, and they remembered the word of the Creator and the Maker..." (English version by Goetz and Morley, pp. 171-172).

The record of the MAYA continues: "...THEY CAME FROM THE EAST...they left there, from that great distance....THEY CROSSED THE SEA" (ibid., pp. 181, 183). When the rulers of the ancient Maya sought to establish their kingdom "they decided to go TO THE EAST....It had been a long time since their fathers had died....And starting on their journey, they said: 'We are going TO THE EAST, there WHENCE CAME OUR FATHERS.' Certainly they CROSSED THE SEA when they came there to THE EAST, when they went to receive the investiture of the kingdom" (pp. 206-207).

Herman Hoeh asks the question: "To what line of great kings IN THE EAST were these Quiche Maya journeying? To the successors of the GREAT RULER who conducted them, ABOUT 1000 B.C., TO THE USUMACINTA RIVER IN MEXICO."

And WHO was this "great ruler" that led the ancestors of the Quiche Maya across "the sea" to their new home in Mexico?

The MAYA claim that their kingdom was founded by a GREAT RULER named VOTAN or ODEN or DAN by various tribes. He was a WHITE MAN who CAME BY SEA FROM THE EAST and settled them in their new land. The TIME of their MIGRATION, according to [Spanish historian] Ordonez, was TEN CENTURIES BEFORE THE PRESENT ERA. This Votan -- who was also worshipped as a god -- was famous for having himself JOURNEYED TO A LAND WHERE A GREAT TEMPLE WAS BEING BUILT.

Just as KING ODIN or DANUS gave his name to DENMARK -- DANMARK-- so Odin gave his name to the "FOREST OF DAN" in the land of the QUICHE INDIANS. (See pages 549 and 163 of volume V, Native Races of the Pacific States, by Hubert H. Bancroft.) "DAN...founded a MONARCHY ON THE GUATEMALAN PLATEAU" (Bancroft, vol. I, p. 789). His CAPITAL, built for the Indians and their WHITE SUZERAINS, was named AMAG-DAN.

Here we have the records of DANISH KINGS, as early as 1000 YEARS BEFORE THE BIRTH OF CHRIST, sailing to the NEW WORLD and PLANTING COLONIES OF RED MEN FROM EUROPE IN THE YUCATAN AND GUATEMALAN HIGHLANDS. -- Compendium of World History. Vol. II, pp. 90-91).

The Annals of the Cakchiquels -- Lords of Totonicapan

"These, then, were the THREE NATIONS OF THE QUICHES, and they came from WHERE THE SUN RISES, DESCENDANTS OF ISRAEL, of the same language and the same customs ....When they arrived at the edge of the sea, BALAM-QITZE (a native title for one in a religious office) touched it with his staff and at once A PATH OPENED, which then CLOSED UP AGAIN, for thus the great God wished it to be done, BECAUSE THEY WERE THE SONS OF ABRAHAM AND JACOB. So it was that those THREE NATIONS (the "mixed multitude" of Exodus 12:38) passed through, and with them THIRTEEN OTHERS CALLED VULKAMAG" -- meaning the 13 tribes. ISRAEL had altogether 13 tribes including LEVI.

"We have written that which by tradition our ancestors told us, who came from the other part of the sea, WHO CAME FROM CIVAN-TULAN, BORDERING ON BABYLONIA" page 170. Page 169 says they "...came from the other part of the ocean, FROM WHERE THE SUN RISES." (Translated by Delia Goetz; published by the University of Oklahoma Press, 1953.)

This settlement of Hivites was A REGION DOMINATED BY MIDIAN. A high priest who visited the land of Midian and Moab in Moses' day was named BALAAM -- almost the exact spelling in the QUICHE-MAYA title BALAM used for priests!

The people LED BY ODIN OR VOTAN across the Atlantic to the New World were NOT exclusively the SONS OF TIRAS FROM THRACE; some tribes were called CHIVIM, reports Ordonez the early Spanish writer. It is the VERY HEBREW SPELLING used for the English word HIVITES, some of whom once LIVED IN MT. SEIR, the LAND OF CAVES, NEAR BABYLON! So the Mexican Indians were a mixed people. -- Compendium of World History, pp. 92-94.

Archaeological evidence of the JEWISH PRESENCE IN MEXICO has been forthcoming over the years, showing the annals of Mexico to be accurate in all details. A stone has been unearthed in CAMPECHE, MEXICO, showing the side view of a scowling man wearing a large MAYAN earring. According to William F. Dankenbring: "The earring, archaeologists were astonished to learn, contains the STAR OF DAVID in its design. Also it contains a lantern-like object which illustrates an ancient PHOENICIAN ANCHOR. The combination of sailing ship and STAR OF DAVID is also found in a figure on a JEWISH TOMB at Beit-Shearim, ISRAEL, dating from the second or third century B.C." (Beyond Star Wars. Triumph Publishing Co., Altadena, CA. 1978, p. 87).

In the ruins of ancient CHICHEN ITZA, in the tomb of a HIGH PRIEST, another amazing artifact was discovered:: "One after another, magnificent relics were exhumed from the debris littering the floor of the crypt. Scattered about were shells inlaid with mother-of-pearl, pottery vessels, and a CEREMONIAL FLINT BLADE that Thompson described as RESEMBLING "THE VOTIVE STONE SICKLES OF THE ANCIENT DRUIDS...." (Maya: The Riddle and Rediscovery of a Lost Civilization, by Charles Gallenkamp. Viking Penguin, Inc. N.Y. 1985, p. 176).

The Druids were the priests and lawmakers commonly believed to have been associated with the Celtic peoples of Gaul and Britain. The Encyclopedia Britannica states: "Of the officials themselves, it seems most likely that their order was purely Celtic, and that it originated in Gaul, perhaps as a result of CONTACT WITH THE DEVELOPED SOCIETY OF GREECE; but DRUIDISM, on the other hand, is probably in its simplest terms the PRE-CELTIC and ABORIGINAL faith of Gaul and the British Isles that was adopted with little modification by the MIGRATING Celts." (1943. Vol. 7, p. 678).

The uncovering of the ceremonial flint blade at Chichen Itza shows that the Mayan people came from Northwestern Europe before settling in Mexico.


Vikinški artefakti

Godinama se špekulira o tome gdje su se Vikinzi iskrcali na tlu Amerike, i ako jesu, koliki je bio njihov utjecaj na lokalnu populaciju. Iako postoje jako dobro očuvani ostaci vikinških naselja na tlu sjeveroistočne Amerike poput L’Anse aux Meadows na New Founlandu u Kanadi, znanstvena zajednica je ove ostatke predočila kao malo vrijednu arheološku fus notu koja ne zaslužuje svoje mjesto u povijesnim knjigama, a kamo li dovođenje u pitanje Kolumbovog otkrića Amerike.

L’Anse aux Meadows, vikinško naselje na obalama New Founlanda

Iako su se brojni američki starosjedioci vjekovima zalagali za poništavanje bjelačke povijesne politike, poglavito u otkrivanju Amerika, jer je ona već bila naseljena brojnim plemenima indijanaca, problem Kolumbovog epiteta je puno veći i dublji, naime, zahvaljujući njegovu „otkriću“ Amerika, Španjolska i Portugal su dobili pravo na osnivanje kolonija (danas samostalnih država).

Zahvaljujući pomoći pape Aleksandra VI Borgije, Indiosi i Indijanci su postali „mrtvi teret“ koji je jedino mogao poslužiti kako roblje ili besplatna meta za psihopate svih vrsta i oblika koji su dolazili iz Europe. Naime Aleksandar VI, lojalni sluga španjolske krune, je izdao nekoliko papinskih bula u kojima otvoreno zagovara i opravdava porobljavanje domorodačkih naroda Kariba i Amerika, a sve to zbog koristi španjolskih monarha. U bulama Eximiae Devotionis, Inter Caetera i Dudum Siquidiem iz 1493., Španjolska dobiva svako pravo na porobljavanjem i prodajom naroda u područjima koje otkrije u Amerikama.

S obzirom da su papinske bule imale status neoborivih internacionalnih zakona, Amerike su tako postale zlatni rudnik za sve one kojima miris domorodačke krvi ne smeta.

Uskoro su Engleska i Francuska pratile katolički primjer i lov na Indijance i Indiose je počeo, a kako je završio znamo svi.
Kada bi Kolumbo izgubio svoj status „otkrivača“ Amerika, današnji indiosi i indijanci bi imali pravnu osnovu za pokretanjem tužbi zbog democida, genocida, mučenja, silovanja, krađe i otimačine zemlje i dobara koji su se na tlu Amerika događali od 1492.
Zbog toga se i pitanje boravka Vikinga u Americi pokušava marginalizirati pa čak i ismijati.

Arheolozi amateri i otkriće stoljeća

Grupa amaterskih arheologa iz savezne države Michigan je nedavno otkrila 194 objekta na lokalitetu za kojeg se znalo kako je pripadalo nekadašnjim američkim indijancima. Ovo nalazište uopće nije bilo od interesa arheološkim institucijama koje su smatrale da se diljem SAD-a i Kanade nalazi više od 1000 sličnih lokaliteta. Pa ipak nakon nekoliko mjeseci rada na površinu su „isplivali“ predmeti koji nikako nisu pripadali nekdašnjim Indijancima već Vikinzima.

Vikinzi su u Americi ostavili svoje tragove koji se ne mogu zanijekati

Indijansko naselje s neobičnim artefaktima se nalazi na poznatom trgovačkom putu pored tjesnaca Mackinac koji iz jezera Huron vodi u jezero Michigan. Na veliko čuđenje znanstvenika, svi artefakti su podrijetlom iz Europe i to poglavito iz Skandinavije i Njemačke, dok je nekoliko pronađenih rano romaničkih srebrenih dugmića nastalo na području Velike Britanije. Uz metalne predmete pronađeni su i ukrasni predmeti poput četki, češljeva i kopči koji su napravljeni od morževe bjelokosti s Islanda i Grenlanda. Otkriće ovih artefakata ukazuje na prisustvo Vikinga i bogatu trgovačku mrežu koja je djelovala i preko Atlantika.

Ovaj nalazak je definitivni znak kako moramo promijeniti naša stanovišta o pradavnoj prošlosti, jer smo smatrali kako su indijanci u Amerikama bili uglavnom pasivnog karaktera te da o međunarodnoj razmjeni i trgovini nisu niti razmišljali.

Vikinška naselja iz takozvane “Beadmore kulture” na području Kanade. Iako se o ovim lokacijama zna puno, artefakti iskopani u njima se sustavno uništavaju

No ovaj nalazak je uspio razjasniti još jednu arheološku misteriju, naime u samom vikinškom naselju L’Anse aux Meadows je pronađeno nekoliko oraha koji tipično rastu u okolici New Yorka i Velikih jezera, znanost je taj nalazak iz 1960., smatrala sporadičnim ako ne i pogrešno datiranim arheološkim artefaktom, ponajviše zbog toga što su međunarodnu trgovinu preko Atlantika smatrali modernom izmišljotinom koja se nikako nije smjela i nije mogla događati u ranom VIII i IX vijeku.

2012., su otkrivene još neke trgovačke vikinške postaje, riječ je o Nanooku na otoku Baffin i Nanguviku na otoku Willows i otoku Avayalik.

Vikinški lokaliteti na otoku Baffin u Kanadi

Možda nam se čini kako vikinške postaje na sjevernim obalama Velikih jezera nisu neka važna vijest, pa ipak morali bi se zamisliti nad činjenicom kako su Vikinzi u povijesnim knjigama opisivani kako koljači i pljačkaši koji su Slavenima dali ime, naime prvotni zapadnoeuropski zapisi Slavena se odnose na romaniziranu i latiniziranu imenicu „Sclavi“ ili roblje, jer su Vikinzi uglavnom dobavljali roblje iz područja Ukrajine, Bjelorusije, Rusije i Balstičkih država, a osim toga poznato je kako su slavenizirani Vikinzi bili osnivači Kijeva i Kijevskog kraljevstva.

Mogli bismo pomisliti kako su Vikinzi na području Amerika vodili istu politiku kao i na području Europe, no to zapravo nije tako jer sve lokacije otkrivene na širem području Velikih jezera imaju potpuno mirnodobski i trgovački karakter u kojima se jasno vidi suživot Europljana (Vikinga) s domicilnim stanovništvom.

Ovakva nalazišta bi također mogla objasniti izvješća ranih naseljenika Europljana iz XVII i XVIII vijeka koji su opisivali plavooke i svjetlopute Indijance koji su govorili s nekim mješavinama keltskih i germanskih jezika, na žalost ta plemena su davno izumrla jer su vodili miroljubivu politiku s Europljanima koji su ih, u znak „zahvalnosti“ zarazili boginjama i drugim njima nepoznatim bolestima, poglavito prodajom deka i hrane iz bolničkih karantena domaćem življu.

Kako god bilo trgovina iz Europe prema Americi i obrnuto je čini se išla preko kanala Svetoga Lorenza, preko jezera Michigan i Erie, a uskoro se očekuje detaljna analiza arheološkog odjela Sveučilišta u Michiganu, koja bi trebala pojasniti koliko su stari pronađeni artefakti.
Nadamo se da će istina konačno izaći na svjetlo dana te da ćemo pradavne kulture Amerika i sjeverne Europe početi sagledavati u potpuno drugačijem svjetlu bez velike glorifikacije Kristofora Kolomba i katoličkih monarha Europe.

Vikinge skibs


The Later Odin

We have seen so far that there were two Odins - Dan I. There is also a THIRD ODIN to be found in the sagas and traditions of the Scandinavian people who, like his namesake DAN I, was descended from the KINGS OF TROY! The details are to be found in Olson's The Incredible Nordic Origins:

Odin [the third] was king of the Asgardians or the Aesir, located BETWEEN THE BLACK AND CASPIAN SEAS. The "Historian's History of the World," Volume XVI, tells us that he was a mortal man and was KING OF THE HELLESPONT. He had great possessions in Turkland, and his followers were called by the Gothic writers Asae, Asiani, and Asiotae. Their principal city was ASGARD.

"The ANGLO-SAXONS had their base in TROY, as the Asa-Sveas had theirs in Asagard" (Syd-Skandinavernas Forstfodsloratt, pp. 47, 48).

It is believed that ASGARD lay near today's ASOV, which is situated on the Sea of Asov, north of the Black Sea, at the mouth of the DON RIVER. This is where ODIN and the Asar, according to a saga, originally lived (Sveriges kulturhistoria, p. 43)....

After committing his kingdom to his two brothers VE and VELIER, Odin made vast conquests as he and his hordes marched toward Northwestern Europe.

First he entered Riisland (Russia), and after having successfully taken over that nations inhabitants, appointed his son BO to reign over them.

From there he went by sea to Northern Germany, reducing Saxony and dividing it among his children. HORSA AND HENGIST -- the chiefs of the SAXONS who conquered Britain in the fifth century-- CONSIDERED ODIN AS ONE OF THEIR ANCESTORS.

Following the conquest of Saxony, he proceeded to JUTLAND [JEWSLAND] and Funen (now parts of Denmark) and subdued them. this he gave to his son SKIOD, from whom the kings of Denmark are descended. The city of ODENSE was built by him.

Thereafter he advanced to Suithoid (Sweden), where he was kindly received by Gylfus or Gylso, king of the country, with whom, according to Dalin, he was acquainted. He and his followers were allowed to settle there. He built the city of Sigtuna....

The desire of ODIN to spread his religion and to dominate caused him to undertake a conquest of Norway. His son SAEMING became ruler over this kingdom.

After these many feats, he finally returned to Sweden, where he perceived he was about to die from a lingering disease. Unwilling to suffer the ignominy of not dying in battle, he gave himself nine wounds and other cuts. When he died, his body was carried to Sigtuna where it was burnt with much pomp. -- Pp. 70-72.

The reason ODIN left the Hellespont region in the first place was because of the vengeance of the Romans. At this time (first century B.C.) the Roman Commonwealth was at its strongest; and the then king of PONTUS attempted to arm all the people in his territory against the power of Rome. After some initial successes, this king and his ill-united people were forced to retreat from the advancing Romans.

As a result ODIN was also forced to flee from the Roman wrath. "Mallet says his [Odin's] true name was SIGGE, the son of Fridulph. FRIDULPH CAN BE TRACED BACK TO PRIAM, KING OF TROY."

After arriving in the Northwest of Europe Odin sought revenge against the Romans. "Dalin writes that the entire North became aroused by him against Rome. It is said that his resentment, as a result of being driven from his country by the Romans caused him to be all the more violent. This desire for revenge he left fermenting in the bosom of Northern Europe. When the time came, they all by common consent and after successive attacks toppled Rome!" (The Incredible Nordic Origins, p. 72).

M. Paul du Chaillu, quoting old Norse sagas, summarizes the life of ODIN: "At this time the Asia men came from the east. Their LEADER was called Odin, who was a mighty warrior. In every battle he gained victory. He owned a great deal of land in SWITHIOD THE GREAT (SCYTHIA), whose capital was ASGARD (KIEV)!"

Sharon Turner, who compiled a History of the Anglo-Saxons, wrote: "The human existence of ODIN appears to be satisfactorily proved. The FOUNDERS OF THE ANGLO-SAXON OCTARCHY [in Britain] deduced their descent FROM ODIN by genealogies, in which their ancestors are distinctly mentioned up to him!" (Quoted from Wake Up! August, 1980).


Trundholm sun chariot

Trundholm sun chariot pictured, Nordic Bronze Age, c. 1100 BC

A model of a horse-drawn vehicle on spoked wheels in Northern Europe at such an early time is surprising; they would not be expected to appear until the end of the Late Bronze Age, which ranges from 1100 BC to 550 BC. This and aspects of the decoration may suggest a Danubian origin.

Klaus Randsborg, professor of archeology at the University of Copenhagen, has pointed out that the sum of an addition of the number of spirals in each circle of the disk, multiplied by the number of the circles in which they are found, counted from the middle (1x1 + 2x8 + 3x20 + 4x25), results in a total of 177, which comes very close to the number of days in six synodic months, only 44 min 2.8 s shorter each.

The synodic cycle is the time that elapses between two successive conjunctions of an object in the sky, such as a specific star, with the sun. It is the time that elapses before the object will reappear at the same point in the sky when observed from the Earth, so it is the apparent orbital period observed from Earth.

He asserts his belief that this demonstrates that the disk was designed by a person with some measure of astronomic knowledge and that the sculpture may have functioned as a calendar.

Mask of Agamemnon

Apsū & Tiamat / Oceanus & Tethys

Anatolian/Sumerian religion

Anatolian religion... A series of stone and terra-cotta statuettes found in these shrines represent a female figure, sometimes accompanied by leopards and, from the earlier levels of excavation, a male either bearded and seated on a bull or youthful and riding a leopard. The main deity of these Neolithic people was evidently a goddess, a mistress of animals, with whom were associated both a son and a consort.


Vikinški mačevi napravljeni tehnologijom „iz budućnosti“

Arheologija je prepuna misterija koju znanost teško može objasniti, jedna od takvih nepoznanica su takozvani Ulfberhts mačevi iz devetog, desetog i jedanaestog vijeka, napravljeni metalurškom tehnologijom koja se „otkrila“ tek za vrijeme industrijske revolucije.

170 primjeraka vikinških mačeva s potpisom kovačnice Ulfberhts prestavljaju pravu poslasticu za sve ljubitelje nepoznanica iz prošlosti. Ovi mačevi su nekada sjekli kosti, drvo i oklope poput papira, njihove oštrice se gotovo nisu trošile, dok im je savitljivost bila gotovo legendarna, naime mogli su se bez problema savinuti do 10 stupnjeva postrtance bez pucanja.

Pradavna visoko tehnološka nepoznanica,
Ulfberht mačevi napravljeni od najmodernijeg čelika.

Svi ovi artefakti su napravljeni od 800 do 1000 godine nove ere u kovačnici od koje je ostalo samo ime, naime ovi mačevi na sebi imaju ime ispisano kiselinom, a njihov metalurški sastav nalikuje najmodernijim željeznim kovinama (čelikom) koje se dobivaju na temperaturi od 1648,9 stupnjeva Celzijeve ljestvice. Prastari vikinški kovači Ulfberhtsa su znali kako iz željeza izvući gotovo sve nečistoće, nešto što i dan danas mogu uraditi samo neke visokospecijalizirane ljevaonice i to pod komandom nekoliko najbolje obučenih metalurga.

Zvanična znanost smatra da srednjevjekovni metalurzi nisu mogli stvarati takve vrste metala, jer jednostavno rečeno, nisu imali ljevaonice i tehnologiju s kojom bi se napravila takvo moderna slitina čelika.

Zapravo izvlačenje nečistoća iz rude željeza predstavlja samo jedan od koraka stvaranja Ulfberhts mačeva, druga nepoznanica je dodavanje 1,5% ugljika u željezo, te proces stvaranja takozvanog snažnog ugljičnog čelika.

Što je više ugljika u željezu to on postaje tvrđi, željezo s visokih 1,0 do 2,0% se zapravo naziva ultra visokougljični čelik. Čelik, također,  postaje tvrđi i sa smanjivanjem nečistoća bakra, magnezija i silicija.

Ulfberhts mačevi u sebi imaju tri puta više ugljika od svih tada poznatih legura, a ta vrsta čelika se zapravo „izmislila“ tek tijekom IX vijeka. Pitanje je kako su Vikinzi mogli stvoriti ultra visokougljični čelik bez industrijske tehnologije?

Moderni kovači dan danas imaju problema stvaranja ovakvih artefakata, Richard Furrer jedan od najpoznatijih kovača današnjice je rekao kako samo nekoliko ljudi danas može reproducirati takve mačeve, no da im to zasigurno neće proći „od prve“:

Richard Furrer u pokušaju stvaranja vikinških legendarnih mačeva.

„Da bi se stvorio mač s takvim nevjerojatnim svojstvima je zapravo najkompliciranija stvar koju poznajem u kovačnici i metalurgiji i meni je stvaranje i oblikovanja takvog metala iznimno teško dostignuće. Stvaranje oružja iz obične nerafinirane rude je i onako zahtjevan posao, zamislite kako je to izgledalo ljudima iz srednjeg vijeka, dobivali su iznimno oružje koje se nije moglo slomiti i koje se nije lako moglo otupiti, zasigurno su kovači Ulfberhts mačeva nalikovali na čarobnjake s nadnaravnim sposobnostima.“

Furrer je danima pokušavao stvoriti savršenu repliku Ulfberhtsa, koristio se srednjevjekovnom tehnologijom, no nakon nekoliko pokušaja i promašaja uspio je napraviti „savršenog klona,“ na kraju je zaključio kako mu je to pošlo za rukom samo zato što je znao moderne omjere za stvaranje ultra visokoulgljičnog čelika.

Tipični “organski” urozak famoznih čeličnih mačeva iz Damaska.

Interesantno je napomenuti da su se prvi Ulfberhts mačevi pojavili nakon što su Vikinzi osnovali prva naselja u regiji oko rijeke Volge i nakon što su stvorili jake trgovačke veze s Bliskim Istokom, naročito s kovačima iz Damaska koji su bili poznati po stvaranju takozvanog čelika iz Damaska, koji je na sebi imao prepoznatljiv „drveni“ uzorak točnije uzorak koji je vidljiv na tkanini damast.

Iako nema povijesnih dokaza o miješanju ovih dviju tehnologija, teško je ne primijetiti očigledne podudarnosti u izvedbi i kvaliteti slitine.

Hoće li znanost uspjeti dokučiti tajne prastarih metalurga?

Dr. Alan Williams – arheolog metalurg, je ispitao četrdeset primjeraka mačeva Ulfberhts, no nije uspio do kraja pojasniti kako su Vikinzi stvorili tehnologiju koja nikako ne pripada njihovom vremenu, a naročito kako su takve primjerke mačeva ponovili u više od sto identičnih artefakata.

Williams je na raspolaganje dobio primjerke Ulfberhts mačeva od privatnog kolekcionara koji ih je marljivo skupljao. Nakon metalurških analiza u najpoznatijim laboratorijima Velike Britanije i uz pomoć suradnje tri sveučilišta, otkriveno je da su Ulfberhts mačevi rađeni gotovo na način kako su stvarani najbolji mačevi iz Japana. Naime sjevernjaci su kovinu oblikovali u stotinama slojeva koju su grijali, oblikovali s laganim kovačkim batovima, te je naglo hladili vodom, ponavljajući proces sve do trenutka dok kovač nije bio zadovoljan stanjem kovine.

Ulfberhts mačevi su s tržišta nestali jednako naglo kako su i nastali, čim su Ruska plemena blokirala trgovačku rutu s Bliskim Istokom nestala je proizvodnja najubojitijeg oružja Europe ondašnjeg vremena.

Interesantno je napomenuti kako je većina famoznih Ulfberhts mačeva pronađena u rijekama, dok su njihove jeftine kopije unutar grobova vikinških velikana bile i ostale ritualne i ne baš dobre replike.

Čini se da su Vikinzi svoje najbolje mačeve koristili za ritualne žrtve – darivanje rijekama, pa ipak ostaje pitanje zašto su to radili.

Naknadna istraživanja su pokazala da su većina primjeraka Ulfberhts mačeva iz poznatih muzeja zapravo jeftine kopije iz grobnih humaka, dok samo nekolicina privatnih kolekcionara koji su mogli platiti skupu metaluršku analizu imaju originale neprocjenjive vrijednosti.

Tribe of Dan

Haplogoupa I2a2 - Odin

Distribucija Haplogrupe I2a u Europi

Iz haplogrupe I2a proizlaze I2a1 i I2a2

Haplogrupa I2a1 (P37.2)

Haplogrupa I2a1 je daleko najveća grana I2 nalazi se na jugo-istoku, jugo-zapadu i sjevero-zapadu Europe.

Haplogrupa I2a1b (M423)

Haplogrupa I2a1b-L621

I2a1b-L621 i njegov L147.2 predstavlja preko 90% I2a1b (M423)
Maksimalne frekvencije među dinarskim narodima (Slovenci, Hrvati, Bošnjaci, Srbi, Crnogorci i Makedonci), kao i u Bugarskoj, Rumunjskoj, Moldaviji, zapadnoj Ukrajini i Bjelorusiji, a u manjoj mjeri u Albaniji, Grčkoj, Mađarskoj, Slovačkoj, Poljskoj i jugozapadnoj Rusiji.

Haplogrupa I2a1b-L161.1

Poznat po genetskom rodoslovlju kao "I2-M423 ", L161.1 s najvišim frekvencijama u zapadnoj Irskoj (5-10%), i škotskom gorju (1-5%), također može se naći (> 1%) u srednjoj i zapadnoj Europi, od Skandinavije do sjeverozapadne Španjolske. Također je pronađen u Albaniji, sjevernoj Grčkoj, Bugarskoj i Rumunjskoj.

Haplogrupa I2a1a1 (M26)

I2a1a (M26, L158, L159.1 / S169.1) nalazi se u Zapadnoj Europi, i dostiže maksimalnu frekvenciju među "Sardinians" (37.5%), i "Baski" (5%), dvije izolirane populacije. M26 na Britanskom otočju, Nizozemskoj, Francuskoj, Zapadnoj Njemačkoj, Švicarskoj, Sardiniji, Siciliji, zapadnoj obali Italije, Iberiji i mediteranskoj obali Magreba.

Distribucija Haplogrupe I2a1 u Europi

Haplogrupa I2a2 (P214)

I2a2 nalazi se u Zapadnoj Europi, u najvišim frekvencijama je u središnjoj i sjevernoj Njemačkoj (10-20%), Benelux (10-15%), kao i na sjeveru Švedske. Također je pronađen 3-10% kod stanovnika Danske, istočne Engleske i sjeverne Francuske, te je rjeđi u Norveškoj osim na jugu.

Iz Haplogrupe I2a2 proizlaze I2a2a i I2a2b

Haplogrupa I2a2a (M223)

I2a2a iznosi više od 90% I2a2.

I2a2a3 (Z161 +) najveći je od četiri grane I2a2a nalazi se pretežno u germanskim zemljama, s posebno visokom koncentracijom u Danskoj, Njemačkoj, Nizozemskoj, Engleskoj i na sjeverozapadu Sicilije. Niže gustoće je u ostatku Europe, od Portugala do Rusije.

I2a2a2 (L701 +) ima vrlo široku distribuciju. Nalazi se u srednjoj Europi u Njemačkoj, Poljskoj, Rumunjskoj i Ukrajini, u nižim frekvencijama u Grčkoj, Italiji, Francuskoj, Španjolskoj, Engleskoj, Irskoj, i Armeniji. Upadljivo je odsutan u Skandinaviji i Škotskoj.

I2a2a1 (M284 +) javlja se isključivo u Velikoj Britaniji.

I2a2a4 (L1229 +) tipičan je za Englesku, Normandiju (kao i u drugim dijelovima Francuske), središnje i sjeverne Njemačke. Također je pronađen kod engleskih prezimena u Irskoj. Veća gustoća je u Njemačkoj i Engleskoj nego u Danskoj i Francuskoj, te izostanak na Siciliji.

Haplogrupa I2a2b (L38 / S154)

I2a2b ima distribuciju uglavnom ograničenu na alpskoj Italiji, Švicarskoj, njemačkom Porajnju, Harz planinama, Nizozemskoj, istočnoj Francuskoj, i Britanskom otočju (s izuzetkom Cornwall, Wales, Cumbria i škotskim gorama).

Distribucija Haplogrupe I2a2 u Europi


Vikings Denmark - Tribe of Dan

Maritime colonization of Europe

Horned helmets ca 900 BC - found in a northern Zealand bog - Vikinge skibs - DaNes

  • Haplogrupa I2a2a (M223)
  • Haplogrupa I2a2b (L38 / S154)