The Mysteries

The Mysteries

Saqqara - Snake and Bull worship at Saqqara


Step-pyramid, c. 2667-2648 BC

The step pyramid is believed to have been initiated by the third dynasty pharaoh Djoser and designed by his vizier Imhotep. It is considered by Egyptologists to be the Oldest Pyramid in the world.

The Step-pyramid is believed to have evolved from an original 'Mastaba' form which was later built upon and extended several times until it attained its present shape. It was built from local limestone and cased in the better quality Tura limestone.

Djoser's step-pyramid was built with mud-fired bricks, then surrounded by a recessed outer wall that surrounded the whole complex

The first Causeway in the world

The causeway is believed to have been originally covered along its whole length.
(The ceiling was originally completely covered with painted stars.)

News Article: Seattle Times. June 6th. 2008.

'Egyptian archaeologists have uncovered the "missing pyramid" of a pharaoh and a ceremonial procession road where high priests carried mummified remains of sacred bulls, Egypt's antiquities chief said earlier this year'.

Zahi Hawass said the pyramid - of which only the base remains - is believed to be that of King Menkauhor, an obscure pharaoh who ruled for only eight years more than 4,000 years ago.

Evidence of serpent worship at Saqqara

The Serapium

The Serapeum is the term most often used to refer to the burial place of the sacred Apis bulls at Saqqara. It consisted of a huge underground complex to the north-west of the Step Pyramid of Djoser where the bulls were buried in enormous granite sarcophagi between the 18th Dynasty and Ptolemaic times.


Extract from Strabo: "One finds a temple to Serapis in such a sandy place that the wind heaps up the sand dunes beneath which we saw sphinxes, some half buried, some buried up to the head, from which one can suppose that the way to this temple could not be without danger if one were caught in a sudden wind storm. It was impossible to doubt it. This buried Sphinx, the companion of fifteen others I had encountered in Alexandria and Cairo, formed with them, according to the evidence, part of the avenue that led to the Memphis Serapeum...

It did not seem to me possible to leave to others the credit and profit of exploring this temple whose remains a fortunate chance had allowed me to discover and whose location henceforth would be known. Undoubtedly many precious fragments, many statues, many unknown texts were hidden beneath the sand upon which I stood. These considerations made all my scruples disappear. At that instant I forgot my mission (obtaining Coptic texts from the monasteries), I forgot the Patriarch, the convents, the Coptic and Syriac manuscripts, Linant Bey himself, and it was thus, on 1 November 1850, during one of the most beautiful sunrises I had ever seen in Egypt, that a group of thirty workmen, working under my orders near that sphinx, were about to cause such total upheaval in the conditions of my stay in Egypt."

The sacred bulls were buried in a single block of granite that weighed between sixty and eighty tons. All twenty-four sarcophagi had been plundered. Their lids had been praised loose and the contents taken. Further excavation revealed an older gallery and then another one further on. The way into the first of the galleries was blocked by a huge rock which was blown apart with explosives. Beneath where the rock had been, was found a mummy of a man. This was the mummy of a son of Ramasses II, Prince Khaemwese. He was in charge of the restoration of the Pyramid of Unas. He was also governor of Memphis and a high priest of Ptah. He had requested to be buried with the sacred bulls rather than a tomb of his own.

The mastabas at Saqqara display some interesting features. Three of the tombs had an associated mud-brick boat burial on their north side and some of the mastabas also had raised platforms which ran around them. The heads were modelled out of mud but the horns were real, and it has been estimated that a tomb might have been surrounded by up to three hundred of them. Throughout Egyptian history the bull was closely associated with kinship. The pharaoh was referred to as 'Mighty Bull'.

Bull Worship at Saqqara - (The facade of tomb 3504)...

The superstructure of the tomb shows evidence of 30 niches and 34 projections along its periphery. The structure was built on a wide platform on which, placed at reguar intervals, were clay bovine heads with real horns. At the rate of 7 to each niche and 4 on the facade, there would have been a total of 346. The bull played a considerable role in the Old kingdom, and in the pyramid texts the King is often called 'The Bull of the Sky'. But because of its horns the bull was also related to the moon. Thus it is tempting to note that the number of bull heads here approximates to that of 12 lunations (354 days), and extremely close to the number of days which Sir Fred Hoyle related to the periodic return of eclipses.

Bull worship at at Chatal Huyak, Turkey

Chatal Huyak

The corners of the pyramids of Djoser, Userkaf, and Unas align to Heliopolis

Click here for more on this subject


Ziggurat's (Predecessors to Pyramids)

The Ziggurat of Ur, Iraq - Was a '7 Step-pyramid', and is officially classified as a 'Solar Temple'.

The similarity in style with Djoser's step pyramid at Saqqara is too strong to ignore. Both structures were built with mud bricks, built in steps, and both are surrounded by the same relief pattern on the walls (although at Saqqara this pattern is transposed onto the compound wall rather than on the pyramid itself as at Ur).

More about Ur, Iraq

There are certain elements in Egypt's Early Dynastic Period which seem to betray unmistakable Sumerian influence. Egyptian hieroglyphic writing may be one. Another is the so-called 'paneled-facade' type of architecture found in Egyptian tombs from the First to the Third The most remarkable evidence of cultural connection is that shown in the architecture of the Early Dynastic tombs of Egypt and Mesopotamian seal-impressions showing almost exactly similar buildings.

- Leonard Cottrell, The Quest for Sumer


Djoser (Džozer) - Imhotep


Imhotep ỉỉ-m-ḥtp "the one who comes in peace"; fl. late 27th century BC) was an Egyptian chancellor to the pharaoh Djoser, probable architect of the Djoser's step pyramid, and high priest of the sun god Ra at Heliopolis.

Two thousand years after his death, Imhotep's status had risen to that of a god of medicine and healing. He was eventually equated with Thoth, the god of architecture, mathematics, and medicine, and patron of scribes: Imhotep's cult had merged with that of his former tutelary god.

According to myth, Imhotep's mother was a mortal named Kheredu-ankh, she too being eventually revered as a demi-goddess as the daughter of Banebdjedet. Alternatively, since Imhotep was known as the "Son of Ptah", his mother was sometimes claimed to be Sekhmet, the patron of Upper Egypt whose consort was Ptah.

A demotic papyrus from the temple of Tebtunis, dating to the 2nd century A.D., preserves a long story about Imhotep. King Djoser plays a prominent role in the story, which also mentions Imhotep's family; his father the god Ptah, his mother Khereduankh, and his younger sister Renpetneferet. At one point Djoser desires Renpetneferet, and Imhotep disguises himself and tries to rescue her. The text also refers to the royal tomb of Djoser. Part of the legend includes an anachronistic battle between the Old Kingdom and the Assyrian armies where Imhotep fights an Assyrian sorceress in a duel of magic.

The Upper Egyptian Famine Stela, which dates from the Ptolemaic period (305–30 B.C.), bears an inscription containing a legend about a famine lasting seven years during the reign of Djoser. Imhotep is credited with having been instrumental in ending it. One of his priests explained the connection between the god Khnum and the rise of the Nile to the king, who then had a dream in which the Nile god spoke to him, promising to end the drought.

Famine Stela

The story told on the stela is set in the 18th year of the reign of Djoser. The text describes how the king is upset and worried as the land has been in the grip of a drought and famine for seven years, during which time the Nile has not flooded the farmlands. The text also describes how the Egyptians are suffering as a result of the drought and that they are desperate and breaking the laws of the land. Djoser asks the priest staff under the supervision of high lector priest Imhotep for help. The king wants to know where the god of the Nile, Hapi, is born, and which god resides at this place.

Imhotep decides to investigate the archives of the temple ḥwt-Ibety (“House of the nets”), located at Hermopolis and dedicated to the god Thoth. He informs the king that the flooding of the Nile is controlled by the god Khnum at Elephantine from a sacred spring located on the island, where the god resides. Imhotep travels immediately to the location (Ancient Egyptian: jbw). In the temple of Khnum, called “Joy of Life”, Imhotep purifies himself, prays to Khnum for help and offers “all good things” to him. Suddenly he falls asleep and in his dream Imhotep is greeted by the kindly looking Khnum. The god introduces himself to Imhotep by describing who and what he is and then describes his own divine powers. At the end of the dream Khnum promises to make the Nile flow again. Imhotep wakes up and writes down everything that took place in his dream. He then returns to Djoser to tell the king what has happened.

The king is pleased with the news and issues a decree in which he orders priests, scribes and workers to restore Khnum´s temple and to once more make regular offerings to the god. In addition, Djoser issues a decree in which he grants the temple of Khnum at Elephantine the region between Aswan and Tachompso (Koinē Greek: Ταχομψώ) with all its wealth, as well as a share of all the imports from Nubia.


High Priest Enoch

Also Known as Thoth, Saurid, Idris

James Bruce (1730-1794) discovered three copies of Enoch’s book during a trip to Ethiopia.

Scientists believe that the original was written in the 2nd century BC … Among other things, in Enoch’s writings, we find reports about the so-called “sons of God” (as in the First Book of Moses), where they Were called “angels.” The decay of the sons of God (or angels) is widely reported in the Book of Enoch in Chapters VII and VIII.

But who was this Enoch, in which part of the world we get in the case of Enoch?

Where else than in Ancient Egypt, “to the great priests of Heliopolis.”

This was none other than the Egyptian god of wisdom and culture “Thoth”, named in the Greek Hermes, alias Hermes Trismegistos.

His other names are Thauti, Surid or Saurid, Idris, Onuris and the biblical Enoch.

Enoch, The Builder of The Great Pyramid Of Egypt?

According to the writings of the Arab writer AL - Mqriti The Great Pyramid was built before the great flood of a certain king named SAURID. The research revealed that SAURID is one and the same as the one the Jewish society called ENOCH.

Enoch was taken to heaven by the Archangel Mikail, and ENOCH was informed that a great cataclysm is about to happen and how to build the great pyramid as a warehouse for knowledge gathered so far, and so nothing would be lost after the great flood. Thus, when returning to earth, Enoch began construction at the Great Pyramid, which was built with the help of angels.

  • Saurid = Eridu (Enki)


Eshmun - Thoth - Anat

Atef Crown

Atef Crown

Thoth was associated in the same way with the Phoenician deity Eshmun.

Eshmun (Phoenician: lʾšmn) was a Phoenician god of healing and the tutelary god of Sidon.

Anat is also presumably the goddess whom Sanchuniathon calls Athene, a daughter of El, mother unnamed, who with Hermes (that is Thoth) counselled El on the making of a sickle and a spear of iron, presumably to use against his father Uranus.

Anat / Thoth - Atef Crown


Khemenu / Hermopolis

Thoth - God of Knowledge, the Moon, Measurement, Wisdom, the Alphabet, Records, Thought, Intelligence, Meditation, the Mind, Logic, Reason, Reading, Hieroglyphics, Magic, Secrets, Scribes, and Writing

Khemenu (Ḫmnw), the Ancient Egyptian name of the city, means "eight-town", after the Ogdoad, a group of eight deities who represented the world before creation. The name survived into Coptic as (Shmounein), from which the modern name, El Ashmunein, is derived. In Greek, the city was called Hermopolis, after Hermes, whom the Greeks identified with Thoth, because the city was the main cult centre of Thoth, the god of magic, healing and wisdom, and the patron of scribes. Thoth was associated in the same way with the Semitic Eshmun. Inscriptions at the temple call the god "The Lord of Eshmun".- Hermopolis



The nose is large, narrow and convex - Dinaric/Armenoid


Other forms of the name ḏḥwty using older transcriptions include Jehuti, Jehuty, Tahuti, Tehuti, Zehuti, Techu, or Tetu. Multiple titles for Thoth, similar to the pharaonic titulary, are also known, including A, Sheps, Lord of Khemennu, Asten, Khenti, Mehi, Hab, and A'an.

Thoth has been depicted in many ways depending on the era and on the aspect the artist wished to convey. Usually, he is depicted in his human form with the head of an ibis. In this form, he can be represented as the reckoner of times and seasons by a headdress of the lunar disk sitting on top of a crescent moon resting on his head. When depicted as a form of Shu or Ankher, he was depicted to be wearing the respective god's headdress. Sometimes he was also seen in art to be wearing the Atef crown or the United Crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt. When not depicted in this common form, he sometimes takes the form of the ibis directly.

He also appears as a dog-faced baboon or a man with the head of a baboon when he is A'an, the god of equilibrium. In the form of A'ah-Djehuty he took a more human-looking form. These forms are all symbolic and are metaphors for Thoth's attributes. The Egyptians did not believe these gods actually looked like humans with animal heads. For example, Ma'at is often depicted with an ostrich feather, "the feather of truth," on her head, or with a feather for a head.


Thoth's roles in Egyptian mythology were many. He served as a mediating power, especially between good and evil, making sure neither had a decisive victory over the other. He also served as scribe of the gods, credited with the invention of writing and alphabets (i.e. hieroglyphs) themselves. In the underworld, Duat, he appeared as an ape, A'an, the god of equilibrium, who reported when the scales weighing the deceased's heart against the feather, representing the principle of Ma'at, was exactly even.

The ancient Egyptians regarded Thoth as One, self-begotten, and self-produced. He was the master of both physical and moral (i.e. divine) law, making proper use of Ma'at. He is credited with making the calculations for the establishment of the heavens, stars, Earth, and everything in them. Compare this to how his feminine counterpart, Ma'at was the force which maintained the Universe. He is said to direct the motions of the heavenly bodies. Without his words, the Egyptians believed, the gods would not exist. His power was unlimited in the Underworld and rivalled that of Ra and Osiris.

The Egyptians credited him as the author of all works of science, religion, philosophy, and magic. The Greeks further declared him the inventor of astronomy, astrology, the science of numbers, mathematics, geometry, land surveying, medicine, botany, theology, civilized government, the alphabet, reading, writing, and oratory. They further claimed he was the true author of every work of every branch of knowledge, human and divine.




Although he is known by many attributes, Ganesha's elephant head makes him easy to identify. Ganesha is widely revered as the remover of obstacles, the patron of arts and sciences and the deva of intellect and wisdom. As the god of beginnings, he is honoured at the start of rites and ceremonies. Ganesha is also invoked as patron of letters and learning during writing sessions.

Ganesha - Thoth

The serpent is a common feature in Ganesha iconography and appears in many forms. According to the Ganesha Purana, Ganesha wrapped the serpent Vasuki around his neck. Other depictions of snakes include use as a sacred thread wrapped around the stomach as a belt, held in a hand, coiled at the ankles, or as a throne. Upon Ganesha's forehead may be a third eye or the sectarian mark, which consists of three horizontal lines. The Ganesha Purana prescribes a tilaka mark as well as a crescent moon on the forehead. A distinct form of Ganesha called Bhalachandra "Moon on the Forehead" includes that iconographic element.

Thoth = Ganesha




Seshat was the Ancient Egyptian goddess of wisdom, knowledge, and writing. She was seen as a scribe and record keeper, and her name means she who scrivens (i.e. she who is the scribe), and is credited with inventing writing. She also became identified as the goddess of accounting, architecture, astronomy, astrology, building, mathematics, and surveying. These are all professions that relied upon expertise in her skills.

Seshat - Thoth

Mistress of the House of Books is another title for Seshat, being the deity whose priests oversaw the library in which scrolls of the most important knowledge were assembled and spells were preserved. One prince of the fourth dynasty, Wep-em-nefret, is noted as the Overseer of the Royal Scribes, Priest of Seshat on a slab stela. Heliopolis was the location of her principal sanctuary. She is described as the goddess of history.

Thoth & Seshat

Pharaoh Tuthmosis III (1479-1425 BCE) called her Sefket-Abwy (She of seven points). Spell 10 of the Coffin Texts states "Seshat opens the door of heaven for you."

The Hermopolis Cosmology

The primordial Eight principles Creation from formative Chaos


The creation myth promulgated in the city of Hermopolis focused on the nature of the universe before the creation of the world. The inherent qualities of the primeval waters were represented by a set of eight gods, called the Ogdoad. The god Nu and his female counterpart Naunet represented the inert primeval water itself; Huh and his counterpart Hauhet represented the water's infinite extent; Kuk and Kauket personified the darkness present within it; and Amun and Amaunet represented its hidden and unknowable nature, in contrast to the tangible world of the living. The primeval waters were themselves part of the creation process, therefore, the deities representing them could be seen as creator gods. According to the myth, the eight gods were originally divided into male and female groups. They were symbolically depicted as aquatic creatures because they dwelt within the water: the males were represented as frogs, and the females were represented as snakes.

N35A A40
N35A X1
V28 V28 G43 A40
V28 V28 G43 X1
y G43 N2 A40
y G43 N2 X1
V28 D41 A40




The primordial Eight, (the Ogdoad), together form a single entity. The Nun is envisaged as a swampy mire, a seething primal cradle in which live four couples of serpents and frogs. Their names are Naun and Naunet, meaning both 'the initial waters' and 'inertia', Heh and Hehet, meaning 'spatial infinity'; Kek and Keket, 'the darkness'; and Amun and Amunet, 'That which is hidden'. This latter couple is sometimes replaced by Niau and Niaut, 'the void'.

As might be suspected, these qualities of the primordial state have often been compared with the shadowy waters of the Biblical Genesis, when 'the earth was without form and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep'. But rather than regard the Nun as an initial or primal chaos, in the Biblical mode, it seems more fruitful to see it as indefinable substance, the eternal and infinite source of the Universe. The lotus, which has its roots in mud, its stem in water and its leaves and flowers opening out into air, receiving the celestial dew and the sun's rays, has always been a symbol of the four elements.  This symbol is employed often in Egypt, in architecture as well as in myth. It appears in many legends of the Creation, including this very explicit one in which the Eight also figure:

"You [the Eight] have made from your seed a germ [bnn], and you have instilled this seed in the lotus, by pouring the seminal fluid; you have deposited in the Nun, condensed into a single form, and your inheritor takes his radiant birth under the aspect of a child." (Edfu VI, 11-12, and Esna V, 263.)

Here we have the principle of Creation out of chaos. Chaos, the original Ogdoad, is the formative and nurturing principle from which creation springs.


The seven steps to Paradise

  1. Crossing the celestial river by Nemty to the "Land in the West".
  2. Passing through gates and labyrinths by answering questions.
  3. Being let into the great Court of the Underworld by the god Aker.
  4. Addressing a jury of 14 judges about the deeds during life on Earth.
  5. Taken by Anubis to "Balance of Truth" to weigh his heart for sins.
  6. If the heart wasn't heavy, brought by Horus to Chief Judge Osiris.
  7. Entering the "Fields of the Reed" (Paradise) and get eternal life. (Shabbat "Lord's Day")


Postanak - Sedam dana

Shabbat "Lord's Day"


Seven is one of the greatest power numbers in Judaism, representing Creation, good fortune, and blessing.

The Bible is replete with things grouped in sevens. Besides the Creation and the exalted status of the Sabbath, the seventh day, there are seven laws of Noah and seven Patriarchs and Matriarchs. Several Jewish holidays are seven days long, and priestly ordination takes seven days. The Land of Israel was allowed to lie fallow one year in seven. The menorah in the Temple has seven branches. The prophet Zechariah describes a strange celestial stone with seven eyes (Chapter 4).

This emphasis on seven continues post-biblically with seven wedding blessings, seven circuits performed about a groom, and seven days of mourning after the death of a close relative.

Events, prayers,and esoteric observances that involve multiples of seven are also common. Entities both natural (gold) and supernatural (angels) are often grouped by sevens (I Enoch 20; II Enoch 19). Seven is a factor in many occult elements and events.

The first verse of the Torah consists of seven words and seven is the recurrent number in Pharaoh’s divinatory dreams in Genesis. The walls of Jericho fall after the Israelites encircle it seven times. In the Zohar, the seven lower sefirot are those aspects of God that are present in asiyah, our world of action. Seven is also the preferred number in spells, magic squares, amulets, and the like (Genesis 7:2; I Kings 18:43; Deuteronomy 16:9; Pesahim 54a; Sotah 10b).

  • Sabbath = seven-day week, Shabbat = seventh day of the week "Lord's Day"


Shabbat "Lord's Day" - Shiva's day

Shabbat = Shiva

Sedam čakri

I sedmoga dana Bog dovrši svoje djelo koje učini. I počinu u sedmi dan od svega djela koje učini. (3) I blagoslovi Bog sedmi dan i posveti, jer u taj dan počinu od svega djela svoga koje učini. (4) To je postanak neba i zemlje, tako su stvarani.

Shabbat "Lord's Day" = Shiva's day; Shabba = Sheva (bb = v), Tel Be'er Sheva The name is derived from the Hebrew be'er, meaning a well, and sheva, meaning "seven".

Seven Heavens


Kundalini Šakti je energija koja se ujedinjuje sa Šiva svijesti na vrhu glave kroz sedam čakri, isto tako je u univerzumu sedmerostruka moć Maha kundali.

Čakre se označavaju laticama lotosa, jer je lotosov korijen u zemlji, stabljika u vodi i cvijet u zraku.

Kundalini-Shakti Lord Shiva

Duh Božji prebiva u vama

Ne znate li? Hram ste Božji i Duh Božji prebiva u vama. Ako tko upropašćuje hram Božji, upropastit će njega Bog. Jer hram je Božji svet, a to ste vi. ...
Ili zar ne znate? Tijelo vaše hram je Duha Svetoga koji je u vama, koga imate od Boga, te niste svoji. Jer kupljeni ste otkupninom. Proslavite dakle Boga u tijelu svojem! - 1. Korinćanima


Šiva tj. muški princip je bio plavi bog, ženski princip Šakti je bila crvena. Šiva/Šakti znači spajanje šakti energije iz kosti sacruma u muladhari (koje je crvenkaste boje) sa šiva svjesnošću u šestoj čakri koje se označava plavom bojom, pinealna žlijezda je plava perla.

Na korejskoj zastavi imamo npr. crveno plavi Jin i Jang znak iz Taoizma, taj znak znači da imamo malo muške energije u ženskoj i obratno.


Broj sedam - Sacrum - Sedam sakramenata

Broj sedam označava sedam čakri koje odgovaraju sedam vidljivih planeta, u Ivanovom otkrivenju se spominje sedam pečata i sedam trublji pa imamo sedam smrtnih grijeha, sedam sakramenata...

Sakrament je riječ koja se sastoji od sacrum (sveta kost gdje kundalini stoji) i ment što znači um, prolazi kroz sedam čakra do uma.


Šiva koji u sedmoj čakri čeka sjedinjenje sa Šakti ima svoj dan Mahashivratri između veljače i ožujka (broj sedam na hebrejskom je šiva tj. shiba), taj dan se posipa svetim pepelom vibhuti i crta s njim tri horizontalne linije na čelu, tamo gdje je Šivino oko.

Katolička pepelnica pada u isto vrijeme, posipa se pepelom i crta križ na mjestu trećeg oka. U Indiji ona točka na čelu je bindi (od bindu, iako je ona na mjestu gdje je perčin, zato ga monasi obrijane glave ostavljaju), trinetra (treće oko je bog tri u jedan).

Broj sedam je svet u mnogim religijama, Mitraisti su prolazli kroz sedam stupnjeva inicijacije, u kršćanstvu sedam najviših anđela su arkanđeli. Bilo je sedam arkona koji su planetarni duhovi nebeskih sfera, Ahura mazda je kreirao šest Amesha Spenti i sedmog Spenta Mainyu, Brahma je imao sedam kumari...

Buda sa sedam zmija - Mexico - Snake Goddess Manasa, India


Zmija ima dva značenja: eksterno kozmološko, a interno je predstavljala prosvjetljenje i mudrost. Unutrašnje prosvjetljenje se događa kada se kundalini energija diže iz dna kičmenog stupa kao zmija do hipokampusa i pinealne žlijezde, tada se otvara treće oko. Te dvije zmije su Ida i Pingala oko centralne osi Shushuma; sa svake strane su 72 000 kanala, ukupno 144 000. Zato se broj 144 000 spominje tri puta u Bibliji.

Sveta tri kralja su Ida, Pingala i Šušumna koji donose poklone zlato, tamjan i smirnu/miru. U krunskoj čakri odgovaraju tamjan i smirna/mira (kao i muladhari), a zlato je element krunske čakre, dakle imamo sva tri u krunskoj čakri.

Snake worship

Kundalini serpents

The two serpents intertwine as a symbol of the relationship between two opposites: the sun and the moon, on the cosmic level, and within the sacred physiology of the subtle body, the solar nadi and lunar nadi, as they are described in the texts of Tantric Hinduism. The opposites manifest themselves in the cosmos and within the individual psyche, and they reflect the complementary aspects of the divinity, out of which all things flow.

Intertwined Twin Kundalini Serpents

The two snakes in this image represent complementary forms of divine energy. The same forms are represented by the sun and the moon, the male and the female, heat and cold. Central in this symbolism is the notion of energy. In the Hindu worldview, the term for this energy is prana, which means “breathing forth.” It may refer to the Ultimate as the transcendent source of all life, to life in general, to the life force of an specific being, to respiration, to air, and to the life organs. It is the creative force that underlies and pervades all being. In this sense, prana is related to the Greek pneuma (“spirit”) and the Melanesian mana (“power”). All of these terms refer to an invisible force that moves and empowers cosmic life.

That this energy should be represented in two of its aspects by two snakes is not surprising, since the primary divinity involved in this ritual process is also depicted as a snake, that is, Kundalini. In the West, we tend to symbolize spirit as a bird, especially a dove or an eagle. In this way, we stress the freedom and transcendence of the spirit. However, the snake is also a common symbol for spirit, because it is believed to possess the powers of healing and immortality. Shedding its skin, the snake appears to undergo rebirth. Further, it is believed to have a special connection with the life-giving powers of the earth in which it dwells.


Kundalini - Muladhara

Orpheus, Gnostic, Kabbalah

Kundalini Šakti

Orphic Egg - Phanes

Kundalini Gnostic - Kundalini Šakti - Kundalini Kabbalah

Zmijolika energija boginje Kundalini Šakti umotala se tri i po puta oko Muladhara čakre. Muladhara čakra se prikazuje sa 4 latice a predstavlja zemlju (materijalni svijet).


Mitovi o stvaranju

Indijski mit o postanku uključuje zmiju između neba i podzemlja, tamo je aswatha drvo života. Ananta shesha je maha kundali, kundalini u makrokosmosu, ona obavija axis mundi tj. nebo, stvarni svijet i podzemlje, ona je kao ouroboros krug života.  Drvo se kao i zmija samoobnavlja, to je krug života. Zmija odbacuje kožu, drvo lišće.

U mitologijama su obično dva drva, pa i u biblijskom postanku su dva, drvo života i drvo spoznaje dobra i zla. Riječ Hell potiče od nordijske boginje Hell, tako se i na nordijskom stablu života zove jedna čakra u korijenu (helheim u makrokosmosu).

Prema kretskome mitu o stvaranju, zmija ophion se sedam puta omotala oko jajeta i nastala je golubica Eurynome (to bi bilo sedma čakra).

U Egiptu se kreator smatralo božanstvo Kneph zmija koja se omotava oko jajeta.

Ilirska zmijska boginja i bog su se zvali dracon i dracena. Kod Ilira zmija je bila zaštitnica kuće i nije ju se smjelo ubiti, zmijski duh zaštitinik je bio genius kod Rimljana, jinn u islamu, agatodemon u Grčkoj, Naga u Indiji; to su bili polubogovi kao veza između ljudi i bogova., zato jer je kundalini veza do boga....

Seshat (zmija Shesha) je znana kao ona koja živi između bikovih rogova, prikazivana je sa sedam krakova iznad glave, nekad sa dvije kobre i rogovima.  Hijeroglif Heke su bile ispružene ruke i isprepletene zmije kao na kaduceju.


Zlatna jabuka - Zabranjeno voće

Zmija se omotava oko drva života i nagovara Evu "na strašan grijeh" da kuša jabuku koja predstavlja Veneru. Misli se na unutarnje prosvjetljenje i da ljudi postanu kao bogovi.

Religije prije su uvijek imale muški i ženski princip, ekvilibrij (hebrejska riječ za ekvilibrij je mashveh, kombinacija majke Ashere i Jahvea). U Bibliji je kundalini energija kroz zmiju koja nagovara Evu (šakti sila) da pojede jabuku znanja sotonizirana. Kundalini je kao zmija/sotona bačen na zemlju da puzi, u početku je zmija bila najljepše biće u vrtu sa krilima.

Kad su Židovi došli u Kanaan, došlo je do uplitanja kanaanske boginje Ashere sa Jahveom, i oni svećenici koji su slavili Asheru su proganjani, željeli su samo Jahvea kao mušku osobu i osvajača. Stajaći, ratarski narodi su imali uvijek "boginju majku" i "sina božjeg", Židovi kao pustinjski nomadi nisu jer je Jahve centralna figura. Asheru je kršćansto pretopilo u demona Astaroth. Sam Jeruzalem je bio kanaanski Urusalem, utemeljen za štovanje venere večernje zvijezde Salem. Mariju su zvali i jutarnja zvijezda po veneri.

Venera (Danica)- Jabuka - Krist je sin sjajne zvijezde Danice

Epifiza/pinealna žlijezda izlučuje hormon melatonin, na talijanskome je jabuka mela.

Herkul je iznad serpens caput i serpens cauda, to su dvije zmije koje je on ubio kao beba koje mu je poslala Hera zvana bo opis, zmijsko lice.. Ladon je trebao čuvati Herine zlatne jabuke u rajskom vrtu na drvu života, one su u kabali znak prosvjetljenja.

Atlas je imao sedam kćeri što označava sedam čakri, i želio je ubrati zlatne jabuke dok mu Heraklo pridrži nebeski svod. Znači imamo zmaja/zmiju oko sedam čakri i rajski vrt tj. krunsku čakru. Atlas je zove i 33. kralježak, on ima sedam kćeri/čakri.

Zlatna jabuka bi trebala biti rajčica; na francuskom je zlatna jabuka pomme d or (pomodor), ili raj-čica rajska jabuka ili paradajz tj. paradise što znači raj.


Pentagram of Venus

The pentagram of Venus is the apparent path of the planet Venus as observed from Earth. Successive inferior conjunctions of Venus repeat with an orbital resonance of approximately 13:8-that is, Venus orbits the Sun approximately 13 times for every eight orbits of Earth-shifting 144° at each inferior conjunction. The tips of the five loops at the center of the figure have the same geometric relationship to one another as the five vertices, or points, of a pentagram. Groups of five intersections of curves, equidistant from the figure's center, have the same geometric relationship.


Pentagram & Crescent - Turkey

Alternative Coat of Arms of Turkey

Thoth Hermes Trismegistus and his Ancient School of Mysteries

Thoth Hermes Trismegistus is portrayed by the Egyptians as the moon god with the body of a man, head of an ibis, and a crescent moon over his head. His symbol was the winged serpent staff. He was the god of wisdom, letters, and time. But he was not only known to the Egyptians. To the Sumerians he was Ningizzida; he may have been Enoch to the Jews, Odin to the Scandinavians, Wotan to the Teutons, and some even suggest Buddha.

Before he was revered as a god, he was the first great Egyptian philosopher and founder of the Ancient Mystery Schools, receiving his wisdom while in meditative trances, writing over 40 books including (allegedly) the Emerald Tablet, The Book of Thoth and The Divine Pymander, with the Book of Thoth only being given to his enlightened initiates of the Mysteries.

A reconstruction of what the Emerald Tablet is believed to have looked like by the International Alchemy Guild.

The topics he covered ranged from medicine, chemistry, law, art, music, rhetoric, magic, philosophy, geography, mathematics, anatomy, and oratory. To the Egyptians, his knowledge was so vast and all-encompassing that they first began to credit him as the communicator with the gods, eventually inducting him into the Egyptian pantheon.

Whether or not one agrees his is the hand that penned the books attributed to him, a quick perusal or in-depth study resounds in most readers, due to the similarity with Buddhism and Christianity. Perhaps the clearest examples are his teachings on reincarnation and the creation of the world.

Thoth, the ancient Egyptian god of wisdom, depicted with the body of a man, head of an ibis, and a crescent moon over his head.

Nothing is for certain about the Book of Thoth other than the fact that it was written in Egyptian Hieroglyphics.  It was kept in a golden box in the inner sanctuary of the temple and only the highest initiate of the Hermetic Arcanum Mystery School had the key to it. It is said the book described the Key to Immortality, the process achieved through awakening certain areas of the brain, similar to the Buddhist monks’ practices.  Gardner and other authors claimed the awakening of the brain was achieved through meditation, the use of a white powder, and the priestesses’ sacred essence.

The most powerful of the Mystery Schools was known as the Royal School of the Master Craftsmen at Karnak, founded by Pharaoh Thuthmosis III, though as with all the Mystery Schools, it is commonly believed that the true founders resided in Sumeria, emigrating to Egypt, which ties in to Sitchin’s claims that Enki and his sons (including Ningizzida) had Magan (Egypt) as their domain.

This school was also known as the Great White Brotherhood due to the members choice of raiment (white robes) and their dedication to producing the white powder known to the Mesopotamians as Shem-an-na, the High-Ward Fire Stone, or ‘white bread’ to the Egyptians. Pictures of it show it being offered to the Pharaohs, in the shape of a cone.

Man holding the Shem-an-na, white powder

Petrie discovered on the top of Mount Sinai, an Egyptian Temple which contained a bewildering discovery:  laying some inches deep beneath heavy flagstones in a storeroom was a considerable supply of the finest pure white, unadulterated powder. Copper smelting and animal sacrifice were quickly ruled out.

Some of the mysterious powder was taken back to Britain for analysis and examination, but no results were ever published. The rest was left open to the elements after 3000 years to become a victim of the desert winds. What has become apparent, however, is that this powder was seemingly identical to the ancient Mesopotamian fire-stone or shem-an-na - the substance that was made into bread-cakes and used to feed the Babylonian kings and the pharaohs of Egypt. This, of course, explains the temple inscriptions denoting the importance of bread and light, while the white powder (the shem-an-na) has been identified with the sacred manna that Aaron placed in the Ark of the Covenant.

Petrie discovered a large quantity of pure white powder in a temple on top of Mount Sinai. ‘Ascent of the lower ranges of Mount Sinai’. Coloured lithograph by Louis Haghe after David Roberts, 1849.

Eventually the Mystery Schools went into decline as new Dynasties emerged. The initiates left Egypt and brought the Book of Thoth to another land. Where it is now, no one knows, though supposedly the chain of succession of Grand Master since Thoth, has remained unbroken. The Rosicrucians are said to be descended from his school while the Freemasons are descended from the school founded by Solomon.


Egyptian Book of the Dead

Symbol of the House of Life. Osiris stands in the center surrounded by the primordial deities of the elements.

The Per-Ankh—the “House of Life”, served as the library of Egyptian temples. There various texts were transcribed and kept by scribes, including the “books of the dead”. According to Jeremy Naydler, the House of Life was also a center of esoteric training where students may have undertaken a course of spiritual development, resulting in initiations into “various degrees of symbolic death and rebirth”.

Fragment from Book of the Dead. ca. 1075-945 BCE.

Instructed by funerary texts such as the Egyptian Book of the Dead, initiates may have engaged in visionary journeys to the duat—the underworld—thereby acquainting themselves with its spiritual realities. Naydler insists that familiarity with the underworld was essential knowledge for the Egyptian priest-magician, and mastery of its psychic energies was necessary on the path of spiritual attainment. Funerary texts served not only as guides for the dead but also for the living—they were “training manuals” preparing them for the afterlife experience. By studying them initiates could cross the threshold of death while still alive, leading to spiritual rebirth. This may have been achieved in a state of deep trance, perhaps similar to an “out of body experience”.

Coffin Text painted on panel of sarcophagus.

Among the oldest literature of Egypt, the Pyramid Texts were originally inscribed on the interior walls of pyramids and intended exclusively for use by the pharaoh. During the Middle Kingdom, funerary texts such as the Coffin Texts were painted on sarcophagi. They continued in the New Kingdom as the Book of Coming Forth by Day—popularly known as the Egyptian Book of the Dead. These were commissioned by the wealthy and deposited in their tombs. They serve as guidebooks to the afterlife, providing prayers, hymns, magical formulas and maps of the territory of the duat to assist the soul in its postmortem journey.

Sarcophagus with Coffin Texts inscribed on them, including a map of the underworld. ca. 1985-1795 BCE.

These books of the dead describe the fantastic topography of the underworld: its marshes, rivers, lakes of fire, pylons and other sights to be found there. During the journey souls were required to pass through a number of gates, caverns and mounds. The journey through that realm was a hazardous and demanding one, requiring knowledge of many magical spells to enlist the help of the gods in overcoming obstacles along the way. These include incantations to subdue the monsters and demons that are encountered there, as well as of the names of gatekeepers who need to be addressed before they allow the traveler to continue on their way.

The following is a spell for repelling the demonic serpent Apep, the personification of evil, by by identifying oneself with Ra, the god of light, who overcomes all darkness:

“Get back! Crawl away!

Depart from me you snake!

Go and be drowned in the Waters of Nun,

at the place where your father

has commanded that you shall be slain.

Depart from the divine birth-place of Ra!

You tremble with fear,

for I am Ra at whom all tremble,

Get back you fiend, before the arrows of his light!

Ra has overthrown your words.

The Payrus of Ani is a version of the Egyptian Book of the Dead, written for Ani, a royal scribe. It describes the series of pylon gates that must be passed through in transit through the underworld, reminiscent of the gates of Egyptian temples. Each pylon has a guardian who challenges the soul’s right to pass, threatening to burn them in fire, or cut them into pieces. They have terrifying names such as “She Who Repeats Slaughter”, “Lady of the Knife Who Dances in Blood” and “The Purifier of Sinners”. Ani is required to give the name of each guardian-doorkeeper to pacify them.

Eventually Ani arrives at the “Hall of Two Truths” where his final and most important trial occurs—the “balancing of the scales”, where his heart is weighed in the balance against the feather of truth. The heart was believed to contain the record of the deceased’s actions in life, and without it there was no memory, or chance for eternal life.

Osiris overseeing the weighing of the soul in the Hall of Judgement.

If the heart weighs heavier than the feather in the scales there is always the danger the soul might be devoured by the monster Ammit–part lion, crocodile, and hippopotamus, who waits nearby. Judged worthy by the forty-two assessor gods, Ani is led by the falcon-headed god Horus into the presence of his father Osiris, ruler of the underworld and god of rebirth and regeneration. Osiris welcomes Ani to his kingdom as one of the “living ones”—the blessed dead. Following this, righteous souls may choose to dwell in the paradisiacal Fields of Reeds, or ascend to accompany the sun-god Ra on his daily journey across the heavens in his Boat of Millions of Years.

Naydler writes that the Egyptian underworld is primarily a psychic experience, similar to a dream, where the soul exteriorizes its contents, finding itself in environments which reflect its state. Progress through this realm consists in purging the part of the soul known as the ba, roughly equivalent to the subconscious mind, of all that is impure and spiritually disharmonious. According to Naydler, the Egyptian Book of the Dead describes the metamorphosis of the ba-soul into the akh-spirit, during which it becomes united with the source of spiritual light—dwelling in the heavens as a “shining one”, a star. The ba is associated with the realm of Osiris, and the akh with the sun-god Ra, so this apotheosis occurs as the center of consciousness transitions from the underworld to the heavenly world, resulting in spiritual illumination.

Psychologist Stanislav Grof agrees that these books were written not only for the dead, but also to guide the living. He insists they are not products of superstition and primitive imagination–but are instead accurate descriptions of the experiential territories traversed in non-ordinary states of consciousness, based on countless personal experiences, and many centuries of careful observation.

Egipatska-knjiga-mrtvih pdf

The Magician’s Tomb

Attached to larger Egyptian temples was the library known as the Per-Ankh—the “House of Life”. Here texts were kept and studied by magician-priests called kher-heb or “lector priests”. These were learned scribes who determined the texts to be written on temple walls, clarified religious texts, maintained the temple’s collection of magical papyri, and wrote magical spells. On a wall of the House of Life in the Temple of Edfu the following list of magical books are recorded:

The Book of Appeasing Sekhmet, The Book of Magical Protection of the King in his Place, Spells for Warding Off the Evil Eye, The Book of Repelling Crocodiles, The Book of Knowledge of Secrets of the Laboratory, The Book of Knowing the Secret Forms of the God.

Chief Lector Priest Ka-Aper–fifth dynasty.

Kher-heb priests in their official duties recited incantations and hymns during temple and state rituals. They were also well versed in magic and the interpretation of dreams. Laymen would come to them in the House of Life if they needed a spell or amulet, to have dreams interpreted, to cure illness or seek protection from malign sorcerers, demons or ghosts. When not serving in the temples, the kher-heb “moonlighted” as magicians in the community.

Evidence of their practices comes from the discovery of a shaft burial known as the Ramesseum Tomb or “Magician’s Tomb” dating from the Late Middle Kingdom (1773-1650 BCE). In it was found a magician’s box—a “tool-kit” containing twenty-three papyri and numerous reed pens. The image of a jackal, associated with the jackal headed god Anubis, is sketched on the lid of the box. This identifies its owner as an official who had access to “cultic mysteries”, according to Egyptologist Robert Kriech Ritner.

Cobra wand from Magician’s Tomb. Copper alloy. ca 2055-1650 BCE

Along with these objects were found ivory wands and broken knives used for magical protection as well as an assortment of beads, and amulets. Among these was a bronze Cobra or uraeus serpent which may have been used as a magic wand, found entangled in a mass of hair, as well as several female figurines.

The papyri found in the box are mostly magical, consisting of hymns and rituals. Others are magico-medical, and literary in nature. The beads and amulets were used for healing and protection, the knives were intended to magically protect infants from demons, while the statues were of protective deities, according to Ritner. The hair was perhaps used along with the charms for protection rituals. Ritner writes that the owner of the tomb was a magician with competence in general medicine, feminine fertility, protection from serpents and demons, childhood ills, and agricultural magic.

The goddess Sekhmet. Temple of Mut, Luxor. New Kingdom 1403-1365 BCE.

The priests of Sekhmet, the lion-headed goddess, often specialized in medicine and magic. Sekhmet was also the bringer of plague and disease, and had to be propitiated by her clergy. The scorpion goddess Selkhet also had her own magician-healers who specialized in curing the bites of scorpions and snakes.

In one such spell for curing snakebite the magician created a small sculpture of the god Horus which he placed on the head of the patient, accompanied by this spell: “Flow out, poison! Scatter yourself on the ground! Horus curses you, he wipes you out! He grinds you underfoot!… You creep away, And you are not seen again. So speaks Horus the Great Magician!”

Demons with foreign names derived from Semitic languages spoken in Syria and Palestine are common in Egyptian magical texts, and were blamed for various kinds of sickness, fevers, and infectious diseases. A technique for dealing with demonic possession was to find a spirit powerful enough to drive the demon out—or negotiate with it. Along with demons are the bau of deities—their divine manifestations—which could also threaten mankind. A person might offend a god and experience their displeasure as an illness or panic attack.

Egyptian magicians invoked strange composite deities to combat the bau of the gods. One of the most notable of these was Tutu, known by titles such as “he who keeps enemies at a distance”, as well as “great of strength”. He had a sphinx-like form consisting of the head of a man and body of a lion with snake’s tail. Tutu was considered the chief of the demons who could also harness their forces. He was  prayed to and given offerings to protect against bad dreams.

Tutu, depicted with human head, lion’s body and tail of a cobra. photo: Keith Schengili Roberts

The practice of magic in Egypt was not exclusive to the priesthood, or to men. Wise women known as rekhet, meaning “female knower” were thought to have the ability to communicate with the gods and the dead. They were consulted as seers, and their clairvoyant abilities were apparently passed down through families.

The rekhet exercised powers similar to modern “mediums” and were able to reveal which bau of the gods had placed a spell on a person, causing them misfortune. An ancient text reads: “I have gone to the wise woman and she told me the manifestation (bau) of Ptah is with you”. They also found out what the grievances of the dead were against the living and how they might be satisfied, since it was believed the “restless dead” or angry ghosts–those who had died in an unhappy condition or hadn’t received a proper burial–could bear grudges against the living and torment them. It was thought such wise women could diagnose which evil spirit or deity was responsible for causing the illness of a sick child.

Metternich Stela. Isis, Horus and Thoth are shown subduing poisonous snakes and scorpions. ca. 380-342 BCE.

The goddess Isis may have been associated with the rekhet. A stone tablet from the thirtieth dynasty, the Metternich Stela, records Isis as saying: “I am a daughter, a knowing one (rht) in her town, who dispels a poisonous snake with her oral powers. My father has taught me knowledge.”

On the stela are recorded numerous spells and rituals for healing of snake and scorpion bites. Water was poured over the stone and collected and drunk by persons  as a means of magical healing.


Heka-Egyptian Magic

In ancient Egypt there was no word for “religion”—the closest thing to it was heka–magical power. Heka literally means “the activating of the ka”, the ka being the spiritual “double”–or life force within the human body which survives it after death—and also the vital force shared by mankind and the gods. It is the universal life energy, the creative power circulating through the spiritual and physical worlds which makes creation possible. Thus magic preceded the creation of the gods and was believed to be even more powerful than them. In the Pyramid Texts the magician’s power is extolled: “The sky quivers, the earth quakes before me, for I am a magician, I possess magic”.

Heka holding serpent staffs.

Heka was personified as a god of magic, associated with the power of the written and spoken word as well as medicine and healing. He accompanied the sun-god Ra on his barque during its daily journey through the heavens, along with the gods Sia (divine perception) and Hu (divine speech). He was depicted as a man holding two serpents crossed over his chest. Heka’s female equivalent was the goddess Weret Hekau, meaning “Great of Magic”, or the “Great Enchantress” who was often depicted in the form of a cobra, as were several other Egyptian goddesses. Egyptian magicians in their ceremonies carried cobra shaped bronze staffs, possibly associated with Weret Hekau.

Ishtar holding double serpent wand. Terracotta relief, early 2nd millennium BCE.

The caduceus wand of the Greek god of magic and healing, Hermes, consists of two serpents symmetrically entwining a staff. Its earlier prototype can be found in the double serpent wand wielded by the Mesopotamian goddess Ishtar.

Thoth holding two serpent staffs, perhaps related to Weret Hekau.

Egyptian magicians summoned the power of heka through the use of sacred words, images, and rituals. Using the principle of sympathy—“like affecting like”—they attempted to influence the course of the cosmos through magic, circumventing ordinary laws of cause and effect. All things on earth were believed to be linked to their divine archetypes, therefore by using their corresponding words or images in magic the power of the neters or gods could be invoked to manifest the will of the magician. The word was believed to have power to manifest that which existed on the causal-spiritual level, especially when spoken with intention and proper intonation. Words gave life to the things they represented, exemplified by the god Tehuti, or Thoth—inventor of speech who brought the world into existence through the power of his words.

Hieroglyphs spelling the name of the god Heka.

Hieroglyphs, called mdju netjer--words of the gods– were also believed to be inherently magical as they possessed the indwelling presence of the deities. They were regarded as living things imbued with the life of that which they signified. Besides their use in temple inscriptions, hieroglyphic signs and images of gods were also used for practical magic, sometimes drawn in ink on the skin of a person for healing or protection.

Spell from Book of the Dead–Papyrus of Ani with four sons of Horus guarding the deceased. ca. 1275 BCE.

Besides the Egyptian Book of the Dead and other funerary texts, much of the archaeological evidence for Egyptian magic is in the form of written spells on tomb walls, coffins, and inscriptions on monuments and statues. Writing was also used for amulets and healing spells, like those written on a piece of papyrus then hung around a patient’s neck, or worn on the afflicted part of the body. In the Greek Magical Papyri dating from Greco-Roman Egypt, spells were written in myrrh-based ink which was washed off and the mixture swallowed, a practice which still exists in Arabic magic to this day.

Statue of Sekhmet in small chapel near the temple of Ptah in Karnak. The statue is illuminated only by a small hole in the ceiling, adding to the mysterious atmosphere of the shrine.

Magical statuary played an important role in the religious and magical practices of Egypt. Cult-images of the gods were placed in the innermost chambers of temples and cared for by “oracle priests” who presented them with food and incense several times a day, clothing them in the morning, and sealing their chambers in the evening. This was essential as the ba or soul of the patron god was believed to inhabit its statue. Egyptologist Geraldine Pinch writes: “The daily liturgy was designed to persuade deities to manifest themselves in the statues kept in the holy of holies and to bestow blessings on king, people and country.” During important festivals cult-images were removed from their shrines and carried in procession where the public consulted them as oracles, and in some cases put on boats and sailed along the Nile.  It is likely these effigies of the gods became powerful “magical talismans” in their own right. I can attest from personal experience that some of the large statues of Sekhmet the lion-headed goddess continue to emanate power to this day.

Statue of Bes, protector deity.

Statues also served as guardian figures, such as those of the dancing dwarf god Bes which were placed around temples as well as households to protect during childbirth and ward off demons and bad luck. Bes can be traced back to pre-dynastic times and his cult is thought to have originated in Somalia or Nubia. The four sons of Horus were represented in Canopic jars placed in tombs which guarded the internal organs of the deceased.

Ushabtis from British Museum. photo: Jack 1956

Tombs contained numerous ushabti— magical figurines of otherworldly servants—made from a wide range of materials such as mud, wax, dough, wood or stone. These were animated by magical spells for the purpose of waiting on the needs of the deceased in the afterlife.

Wax figures were frequently used by magicians for spells. The practice of making wax models of “enemies of the state” and then destroying them was common practice in Egyptian temples, used as a means of holding the forces of chaos at bay. The ancient Greek writer Pseudo-Callisthenes chronicles the use of wax figures by pharaoh Nectanebo II (360-342 BCE) the last native ruler of Egypt, which he used to protect his kingdom from invasion by sea:

“…he retired into a certain chamber, and having brought forth a bowl which he kept for the purpose, he filled it with water, and then, having made wax figures of the ships and men of the enemy, and also of his own men and ships, he set them upon the water in the bowl, his men on one side, and those of the enemy on the other… and uttering words of power he invoked the gods who help men to work magic, and the winds, and the subterranean demons, which straightway came to his aid…the figures which represented his own men vanquished those which represented the enemy, and as the figures of the ships and men of the hostile fleet sank through the water to the bottom of the bowl, even so did the real ships and men sink through the waters to the bottom of the sea.”

Nectanebo II. photo: Rama

Egyptian magicians also performed spells of magical transformation into the gods, identifying with them for the purpose of acquiring their power—similar to the shaman’s use of shapeshifting into animal-helping spirits. In the Egyptian Book of the Dead, spells of transformation into hawks, phoenix birds, the Eye of Horus, and various deities are recorded. A spell to assume the form of a horned snake reads: “I am a horned snake, long of years,/lying down, born every day…”

Ibis headed Egyptian god Thoth.


The pharaoh

The pharaoh was also the high priest of all state sanctioned temples. His duties included the building and maintenance of temples, as well as the performance of religious rites. One of the most important of these was the Heb-Sed Festival, a jubilee usually celebrated after thirty years of his reign, and every three years thereafter. It is thought to have originated in predynastic times and was first recorded in the Pyramid Texts, dating back to the Old Kingdom around 2,400-2,300 BCE. The central episode of the Heb-Sed was the ritual death and rebirth of the king, as his revitalization, assured continued harmony between him and the universe.

As part of the festivities he performed the sed dance, demonstrating his physical vigor by circumambulating around a large courtyard, running between sets of hoops and cairns symbolically representing the boundaries of his kingdom.

Following this, a coronation was celebrated in which the king was crowned with the white and red crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt. By doing so, he symbolically united the two lands, embodying the energies of Osiris the god of the underworld, and his son Horus, the lord of the living. Jeremy Naydler proposes that by participation in these magical rites, the king united not only the physical but the spiritual realms together, assuring the fertility of the entire land.

After the public ceremonies, the king undertook a solitary initiatory ordeal which Naydler proposes may have taken place in a chamber inside the pyramids. There he apparently laid on a bed or in a sarcophagus, entering a state of deep trance. This resulted in the awakening of his ba or subtle body, according to Naydler, by means of which he entered the otherworld of the duat in visionary consciousness.

Ba-soul hovering above mummy

The ba was often depicted as a human headed bird, and possibly in this form the king ascended to the sun-god Ra in the heavens and experienced visions of the deities. A passage of the Pyramid Texts describes the king’s celestial ascent: “…I will ascend to the sky to you, Ra, for my face is that of falcons, my wings are those of ducks…O men, I fly away from you.”

Air shafts of great pyramid oriented to stars, based on diagram of R. Bauval

Upon the king’s death the Opening of the Mouth ritual was performed on his mummy. According to authors Robert Bauval and Adrian Gilbert in their book The Orion Mystery, the ceremony was based on the Osiris myth. They propose it may have taken place within the chambers of the Great Pyramid, which served as an instrument of rebirth for the departed king. Researchers speculate that the so-called “air shafts” leading from the Queen’s and King’s chambers to the exterior of the pyramid had a symbolic function as channels for the soul of the departed king, and were oriented towards specific stars in the heavens. The star Sirius was associated with the goddess Isis, and the constellation Orion with Osiris.

Bauval and Gilbert propose the ritual began in the lower Queen’s Chamber of the pyramid where the king’s mummy was positioned in front of the shaft pointing towards Sirius. There, the deceased king (identified with the dead Osiris) was symbolically revived by the goddess Isis, associated with Sirius.

The king’s son, playing the role of Horus, used various tools to touch the eyes and mouth of his father’s mummy, magically restoring its sight and speech and enabling it to eat and drink in the afterlife. Through this act the ka or spiritual body of the deceased king was believed to be reawakened. The mummy was next taken to the King’s Chamber and placed in front of a shaft pointing to the constellation Orion (associated with the resurrected Osiris) preparing the king for the magical ascent to his new home in the heavens—in the constellation Orion—where he would dwell as a star throughout eternity. In the Pyramid Texts it is written:

“…O king, the sky conceives you with Orion, the dawn bears you with Orion…you will regularly ascend with Orion from the eastern region of the sky, you will regularly descend with Orion in the western region of the sky”.

King Amenhotep I from his funerary cult.

From his new dwelling place in the sky the deceased pharaoh, identified with Osiris god of the dead, continued to play an important role in the life of his people. His earthly tomb became the center of a royal funerary cult in which his statue received daily offerings. Dead pharaohs became deities, some displaying characteristics of local gods. For example, king Amenhotep I (1525-1504 BCE), was worshipped as the patron deity of the town of Deir el-Medina where he was consulted as an oracle by local people.

Etana’s Heavenly Ascent

Etana and the eagle. Akkadian cylinder seal.
2334-2150 BCE.

In the beginning an eagle and serpent inhabit a tall poplar tree—the eagle nesting in its branches and the serpent in its roots. The two become friends, swearing an oath before Shamash the sun-god to share their prey with their young. However, one day while the serpent is out hunting, the eagle betrays their trust and eats the snake’s young. The serpent in his grief complains to Shamash, who counsels him to trap the eagle while it is feasting on prey, then cut its feathers and imprison it in a pit.

Meanwhile, Etana, distraught that he has been unable to produce an heir, approaches Shamash, asking his help to find the magical “plant of birth” that his wife may conceive. The god advises him to search for the eagle who will help him with his quest. Etana finds the trapped bird, feeds it and nurses it back to health. As a reward, the eagle offers him his friendship, saying: “ask of me whatever you desire and I shall give it to you”. Etana tells him of his wish to ascend to heaven to find the “plant of birth”. The eagle agrees to help, saying:

“…Come, let me take you up to heaven,

Put your chest against my chest, Put your hands against my wing feathers,

Put your arms against my sides”. He put his chest against his chest,

He put his hands against his wing feathers, He put his arms against his sides,

Great indeed was the burden upon him. When he bore him aloft one league,

The eagle said to him, to Etana: “Look my friend, how the land is now,

Examine the sea, look for its boundaries. The land is hills…

The sea has become a stream”. When he had borne him aloft a second league,

The eagle said to him, said to Etana,“Look my friend, how the land is now!

The land is a hill.”When he had borne him aloft a third league,

The eagle said to him, said to Etana, “Look my friend, how the land is now!

The sea has become a gardener’s ditch”…

Etana and the eagle continue their climb, soaring further above the earth, entering the heavenly realms of the gods Anu, Enlil, and Ea. They pass through the gates of the gods—the moon god Sin, Shamash the sun god, and Adad the god of storms. They finally come to a heavenly palace where Etana finds the beautiful young goddess Ishtar seated on a throne under which lions crouch. Etana then asks the eagle to take him home. On the way back he falls off the eagle however, plummeting towards the earth, but is rescued by him in mid-flight. Unfortunately, due to a missing portion at the end of the tablet, the tale remains unfinished, leaving us in suspense…

Returning to the Epic of Etana, the tree in which the eagle and serpent dwell bears an uncanny similarity to the Ygdrassil Tree of Nordic mythology, in whose upper branches an eagle dwells, while the serpent Niohoggr gnaws on its roots. Ygdrassil spans the worlds, joining them together and providing nourishment for all creatures.

In fact, the mythic motif of World Tree inhabited by bird and serpent (or dragon) can be found in myths as widespread as the Near-East, Persia, Siberia, China, Indonesia, Mesoamerica and elsewhere. The serpent is usually associated with the powers of the underworld, while the eagle represents the heavenly realm. These two creatures appear together in many other myths as well, symbolizing the opposites of height/depth, light/dark, heaven/earth, etc.

A similar account of a king’s ascent to the heavens can be found in the Pyramid Texts of ancient Egypt (2,400-2,300 BCE) where the pharaoh is instructed to shapeshift into his ba—soul, imagined as a human headed bird, then ascend to the sky to reunite with the sun-god Re and eventually be reborn as a star.

The heavenly ascents of Etana and the pharaoh anticipate by millennia the visionary ascents through the seven-heavens by mystics of late antiquity: the Hermeticists, Gnostics, Theurgists and Jewish Merkabah riders. During their ascensions, some of them imagined passing through palaces of each celestial sphere where they encountered angelic guardians, similar to Etana’s journey. These imaginal ascents were usually performed  with the intention of attaining the unio- mystica, or mystical union with divinity, and were believed to “divinize” or transform the mystic into a god or angel.

During a pathworking, the Tree is ascended in imagination by the magician, starting at its base in the sphere of Malkuth—the material world. The various paths are traversed in sequence, each associated with its particular archetypal symbols and transformative experiences. The journey eventually culminates in the first sphere of Kether, the crown of the Tree of Life, symbolizing the god-head. This process is described by the modern Jewish kabbalist Z’ev ben Shimon Halevi as an inner spiritual journey in which the aspirant climbs the Tree of himself, continually balancing and perfecting himself at each stage. He writes; “In this way the ascent is safely made from Earth to Heaven while the man is still in the flesh”.

Inanna’s Descent

Initiations which involved visions of descent to the underworld, there the candidate experienced ordeals of death and dismemberment prior to rebirth and attainment of magic powers. This age-old drama of spiritual catharsis and transformation has uncanny parallels in the Sumerian myth of Inanna’s Descent to the Underworld, the oldest recorded myth of a journey to the netherworld, composed sometime between 1900 and 3500 BCE.

Ishtar/ Inanna, as fertility goddess. Terracotta–Sumerian period.

The goddess Inanna derives her name from the Sumerian words nin-anna meaning “queen of heaven”, and she was aptly associated with Venus, the brightest planet in the heavens. Embodying the contrasts of nature, Inanna was a goddess of love as well as war, the alluring goddess of fertility and sexual passion who also delighted in stirring up rage on the battlefield. In her appearance as the evening star on the western horizon, Venus/Inanna assumed her role as gentle love goddess. However when she appeared as the morning star heralding sunrise, she became the fierce goddess of war. One of the most popular and beloved goddesses of ancient Mesopotamia, people could identify with Inanna’s all too human passions and swings of behavior—her tenderness, promiscuity, jealousy, anger, and hubris, described in many stories.

In the myth of Inanna’s Decent to the Underworld, the goddess decides to journey to the land of the dead, ruled by her sister Erishkegal, to participate in the funeral rites of Erishkegal’s husband, the Bull of Heaven. This is a bold act, perhaps prompted by Inanna’s ambition to extend her rule to the world below. Inanna knows full well that none who descend to the netherworld ever return. Accordingly she instructs her trusted messenger Ninshubur before her departure that he should go and “weep” before the gods, so they will come to her rescue should she not return after three days.

A goddess, likely Inanna, in the underworld flanked by demons. Cylinder seal impression–c. 2330-2150 BCE.

After a long journey Inanna arrives at the gate of her sister’s palace in the land of the dead. She arrogantly bangs on the door, even threatening to break the bolts if she is not let in. Angered by her brashness, her sister Erishkegal instructs her doorman to open the gates for her. She is told she can enter only on the condition she surrenders one of her “divine powers” at each of the seven gates: her turban, her lapis measuring rod, jewelry and clothes. By the last and seventh gate Inanna is stripped bare. Naked and bowed low she enters Erishkegal’s palace where she attempts to sit on her sister’s throne. Enraged by her arrogant behavior, Erishkegal calls for Inanna’s death. She is judged by seven judges, the Anunnaki gods, then struck and killed by Erishkegal. Inanna’s corpse, like a piece of rotting meat, is hung on a hook on the wall.

As previously instructed, Inanna’s messenger approaches various gods for help, including her father Nanna the moon-god. Nanna ignores his pleas, stating that those arrogant enough to crave the divine powers of the underworld must remain there. Finally, Enki the god of wisdom and magic takes pity on Inanna’s plight and agrees to come to her aid. He creates two figures named Galatur and Kurgarra from the dirt under the fingernails of the gods. They are told to go to the palace of Erishkegal and “enter the door like flies”. When they arrive there they find Erishkegal moaning and crying like a woman ready to give birth, and appease her by expressing concern for her suffering. In gratitude, she asks them what they want in return. Without hesitating they ask for Inanna’s corpse, which they then sprinkle with the magical “water of life” and “life-giving plant”, given to them by Enki. Inanna is revived, and flees from the underworld back to the world of the living. The demons, however, chase after her demanding a replacement.

Inanna returns home to her palace to find her husband Dumuzi sitting on her throne. In fact, during her absence he didn’t even bother to mourn her loss. Enraged at his lack of concern, she gives the ungrateful man to the demons to take. Dumuzi’s sister Geshtinanna steps forward and volunteers to take his place. Brother and sister agree to alternate, each living in the underworld for half a year, and on the surface world the other half.

“Ishtar Queen of Night”, possibly representing Ishtar/ Inanna or Erishkegal. Author’s rendering of clay relief from Old Babylon period 1,500-1,550 BCE.

Dumuzi as the husband and lover of Inanna was called the “shepherd”, who helped the sheep multiply and the grain grow. He personified the yearly cycle of natural growth. It was believed his mating with Inanna in the spring caused the earth to blossom. During the heat of the summer when the crops withered and died it was thought he had descended to live in the underworld. During the period of Dumuzi’s confinement there, he was mourned by funeral rites as the sacrificial Wild Bull. This practice was so widespread that the Hebrew prophet Ezekiel witnessed it at the temple in Jerusalem, scornfully commenting: “…behold, women were sitting there weeping for Tammuz”. Tammuz/Dumuzi was reborn and returned to the world every autumn, along with the life giving rains, bringing fertility to the crops. His joyful reunion with Inanna was widely celebrated in the ancient Middle East.

We can see here the reiteration of the myth of the goddess and the bull, mentioned in previous posts, which was widespread throughout the Neolithic and Bronze Age, in which the  bull-god, lover and husband of the goddess, is sacrificed to sustain the world. Savior gods of the ancient Mediterranean world such as Dionysus, Osiris and Attis all have associations with the sacrificial bull. They were “dying gods” who were sacrificed and resurrected, symbolizing the mystery of nature’s eternal cycle of death and regeneration. According to Joseph Campbell, both Inanna and her sister Erishkegal can be understood as two sides of one goddess—representing her powers of life as well as death. As Inanna’s body hangs lifeless on a hook, Erishkegal groans in childbirth—from death springs new life. Paradoxically, as well as being the realm of death, the underworld is also the source of regeneration and life.

Eight pointed star of Inanna representing the planet Venus as Morning or Evening Star.
Utu-Inanna Symbol & father Nannar's Moon Crescent Symbol.

There is an astronomical dimension to the myth as well that was clearly understood by Mesopotamian astronomer-priests. The planet Venus, a manifestation of Inanna, always travels in close proximity to the sun as seen from the earth. It leads or follows the sun in the sky—never more than forty-eight degrees apart from it. Venus sets after the sun during certain phases of its orbit as the Evening Star, and rises before the Sun as the Morning Star during other phases. When Venus closely approaches or “transits” the Sun it disappears into its light—vanishing from sight. This can last from a few days to as long as three weeks. This period of Venus’ disappearance was understood as Inanna’s confinement and death in the underworld. Eventually Venus would be seen rising on the opposite horizon to which it was last sighted, which was interpreted as Inanna’s rebirth and return to the land of the living.

Inanna’s descent can be viewed as an allegory of individual spiritual awakening that is as relevant today as in ancient times. Writing about the myth, assyriologist Simo Parpola states: “…the goddess plays the role of a fallen but resurrected soul, thus opening the possibility of spiritual rebirth and salvation to anyone ready to tread her path.” Without descending to the depths—becoming aware of one’s “shadow” or unconscious self—ascent to the light cannot genuinely occur. To quote Carl Jung: “One does not become enlightened by imagining figures of light, but by making the darkness conscious”. Inanna and Erishkegal—the light and dark sides of the goddess—are inseparable aspects of the alchemical process of transformation of the soul.

The Mysteries of Osiris

Osiris as green-skinned god from tomb of Nefertari.

The myth of Dionysus Zagreus was murdered and dismembered by the Titans. The Orphics believed that as a result of this act mankind was created–and we inherited the spark of immortal spirit from Dionysus. It is likely the Greeks borrowed elements of the myth from the story of the Egyptian god Osiris–who suffered a similar fate of being murdered, dismembered and resurrected. Osiris was one of Egypt’s oldest and most beloved gods, and his cult gained in popularity down through the centuries. His sufferings could be related to by ordinary people, and he offered them the hope of resurrection after death. As well as being a god, Osiris was also thought to have been the first king of Egypt. Here is a well known version of the myth of  the Death & Resurrection of Osiris:

Osiris was the son of Ra the sun god, and Nut the sky goddess. He grew up to become a wise and powerful king, bringing civilization to his people, teaching them agriculture, animal husbandry, laws to live by and worship of the gods. Egypt prospered under his rule. Set, the brother of Osiris and god of desert and chaos, was envious of him. He schemed against Osiris, devising a plot in secrecy with seventy-two other conspirators. He invited Osiris to a feast and set out a beautifully decorated box which he had made to fit the exact measurements of Osiris’s body. Set offered it to anyone whom the box fit. One guest after another tried to fit in the box until it was Osiris’s turn. As he innocently laid in the box Set and the conspirators slammed the lid it on it and nailed it closed, throwing it into the Nile river. When Isis, Osiris’s wife, heard of this she was grief stricken. She set out to find the body of her husband, knowing the dead could not rest until they had a proper funeral. Searching far and wide she found nothing, finally learning that the coffin containing his corpse had floated out to sea to the land of Byblos. There it became lodged in a tamarisk tree which had miraculously grown to enclose it within its trunk, which the king of Byblos cut down and made it into a pillar for his palace. Isis travelled to Byblos to recover her husband’s body– asking to have the pillar in which the corpse of Osiris was hidden. Her wish granted, she returned to Egypt with the pillar, cutting it open and exposing the coffin. She wept over her dead husband, joined by her sister Nephthys. She hid the coffin but to no avail–that night while hunting Set found it, and enraged at the sight of Osiris, tore his corpse into fourteen pieces, scattering them throughout the land of Egypt. Learning of this, Isis set out once again to find her husband’s remains. She recovered all the pieces except for his phallus which had been swallowed by a fish. Instructed by the god Thoth, she used magic to reassemble the body of Osiris, resurrecting him briefly to life. She magically reconstituted his phallus, and hovering over his body in the form of a falcon was impregnated by him, giving birth to their son Horus.

Isis with Horus the Child.
600-643 BCE.

Horus grew to manhood, and was it was decided by a tribunal of gods that he was the rightful heir to his father’s kingdom. Set was unwilling accept this verdict and surrender the throne. Osiris appeared to Horus and urged him to avenge the evils committed by his brother. Horus challenged Set to a dual and a great battle ensued between the forces of good and evil. During the battle Horus lost his eye and Set lost his testicles. In this story good triumphs over evil, and some day Horus will be victorious and Osiris will return to rule the world of the living.

The mysteries of Osiris were popular yearly ceremonies in ancient Egypt, celebrated with passion plays at Abydos, the cult center of Osiris—the earliest recorded examples of theatre. They recalled the life, death, and resurrection of the god and lasted for many days. Leading roles were assigned to priests wearing the masks of various gods they represented, while extras in the drama were played by community members. After these performances, a mock battle was staged between the followers of Horus and Set. A procession also took place in which statues of Osiris, made from precious metals, were carried from the temple and set up in public places where people could gaze on the image of Osiris “The Beautiful One”.

Seeded grain “Osiris Bed”.

Osiris was originally an "agricultural deity" associated with the seasonal cycle of nature—the growth of the crops as well as the yearly Nile flood upon which all life depended. The annual Khoiak Festival was celebrated from mid-September to mid-October as the Nile flood waters receded exposing silt covered fields ready for sowing. During this time seeds were planted in “Osiris Beds”—molds in the form of the mummy of Osiris–and watered until they germinated, symbolizing the resurrection of the god, as well as magically enhancing the growth of the crops. The festival culminated with the ritual raising of the djed pillar, emblematic of Osiris’s backbone, bringing about his restoration.

Over the centuries Osiris came to be viewed as the ruler of the land of the dead, who presided over the weighing of souls in the Hall of Judgement. If the deceased had lived a life based on the precepts of Maat, goddess of truth and righteousness, they were welcomed by Osiris into his kingdom. In fact, in the Egyptian Book of the Dead “Osiris” became the synonymous title for the soul in the duat–the otherworld. While the living pharaoh was thought to embody Horus, his deceased father became the new Osiris dwelling in the underworld. Their relationship exemplified the close connections felt by Egyptians between the living and their departed ancestors, with the understanding that from the invisible realm of death emerges life and renewal. Through the myth of Osiris, the worshipper was also able to identify with the immortal god within their own being—the part of their spirit which was resurrected in eternity.

Sahu–the soul (ba) of Osiris/Orion glancing back at Isis/Sirius in the form of a cow.

The myth also has an astronomical/calendrical dimension. According to the ancient Greek historian Plutarch, the Egyptians associated Osiris with the constellation Orion, while Isis was symbolized by the brilliant star Sirius, in close proximity to Orion in the sky–the two forming a natural pair. Orion disappears from view every year from the spring equinox until mid-summer–blotted out by the sun’s rays as it transits through the area of the sky occupied by the constellation. Vanishing from sight at this time, it was thought Osiris/Orion had died and gone to the underworld. His absence coincided with the summer season of hot-dry southern winds which brought drought and sandstorms, associated with Set, the murderer of Osiris, and the Nile was also at its low ebb during this time of year. Set was believed to rule the land until late summer, when Isis-Sirius ascended again on the eastern horizon just before sunrise. Sirius’s “heliacal rising” heralded the Nile floods that restored life and fertility to the land, and the Egyptian New Year was celebrated at this time. The flooding of the Nile was believed to be caused by the tears of Isis weeping for her dead husband Osiris. Accompanying Sirius, however, Orion was again visible in the eastern sky before dawn—believed to represent Osiris resurrected and returned from the underworld.

Winged isis & Osiris

The mysteries of Osiris, Isis, and Horus may have been a model for initiation rites among cultures of the Mediterranean world, according to Masonic historian Albert Pike. He notes that ancient writers believed the mystery religions of Attis and Cybele celebrated in Phrygia, and Demeter and Persephone at Eleusis in Greece were copies of the mysteries of Osiris and Isis. Pike writes that the deities were also equivalent: “the Ceres of the Greeks was the same as the Isis of the Egyptians and Dionysos or Bacchus was the same as Osiris.”


In this post we turn to the ancient Greek poet, musician and magician Orpheus. According to historian Ake Hultkranz the well known legend of Orpheus and Eurydice originated from a shamanistic myth which can be found in different versions across the world from Greece, Eurasia to Japan, Polynesia and North America.  Although the details vary from culture to culture, the basic scenario of the myth is the same: a journey is taken to the land of the dead to retrieve the soul of a deceased spouse or relative in an attempt to bring them back to life–which usually fails due to the breaking of a taboo. Here’s the Greek version of the myth as told by the Latin poet Virgil:

On their wedding day Eurydice, the lovely young wife of the poet Orpheus, was bitten by a snake and died. Overcome by grief, Orpheus resolved to descend to Hades to retrieve her. Arriving there he charmed the guardians of the underworld with his mournful music, moving Persephone the queen of the dead to release Eurydice to him—on the condition he did not turn back to look at her on their return trip. Almost reaching the surface world, Orpheus forgot and glanced back at his wife. To his dismay, she vanished from sight, returning as a pale shade to Hades forever. Orpheus in his mourning retired to the mountains to devote himself to the worship of Apollo. One day he was approached by a band of wandering Maenads–female worshippers of the god Dionysus. Rejecting their advances, they became enraged and killed him–dismembering him, tearing him limb from limb. They tossed his head into a river and it washed ashore on the island of Lesbos….where it continues to deliver prophecies.

Orpheus encircled by animals. mosaic, Palermo, Italy.
photo: Giovanni Dali’Orto

Orpheus was the subject of many legends.  He was said to be the son of the Thracian king Oeagrus and the muse Calliope. Other tales said he was the son of the god Apollo who gave him his lyre, while the muses taught him verses and magical incantations. Through the power of his music, Orpheus, like shamans from time immemorial, could enchant wild beasts and even made the rocks and trees move to follow his songs. He was an adventurer who travelled the world, accompanying Jason and the argonauts on their voyage to find the Golden Fleece–protecting his crew mates from the Sirens’ bewitching songs with his own incantations. Orpheus was also a culture-hero, bringing the cult of Dionysus from Thrace to Greece. Legend has it he also travelled to Egypt and studied the religious customs and sacred rites of that land, introducing them to the Greeks.

While scholars still debate whether Orpheus was a living man or legendary figure, the mystery religion based on his teachings –Orphism—had a profound influence on Greek philosophy and spirituality. According to the Neoplatonist philosopher Proclus: “All the Greek’s theology is the offspring of the Orphic mystical doctrine”. Several pre-Socratic philosophers such as Pythagoras, Parmenides, and Empedocles were probably initiates of Orphism and influenced by its ideas. Many of Plato’s philosophical doctrines originated with Orphism. It was the Orphics who introduced the notions of the soul’s immortality as well as transmigration of the soul—or reincarnation–to the western world.

Dancing maenads. Callimachus, 1st cent. CE

Orphism was a reform religion that grew out of the cult of Dionysus, and like it, attracted many female worshippers as well as priestesses. It focused on individual spirituality, as opposed to the wine drinking and collective ecstasies of the followers of Dionysus–the intoxication sought by the Orphics was the “enthusiasm” of union with the divine. Peter Kingsley writes: “Apollo’s ecstasy was different from the ecstasy of Dionysus. There was nothing wild or disturbing about it. It was intensely private, for the individual and the individual alone”

Orphic initiation rituals were thought to involve the reenactment of the myth of the god Dionysus Zagreus, the infant child of Zeus and Persephone. The rebellious elder gods, the Titans, jealous of Dionysus, lured him out of his cave then murdered and dismembered him, devouring his flesh. Upon discovering their crime Zeus became enraged, hurling a lightning bolt at the Titans and incinerating them. Mankind, however, was made from the ashes of the Titans, who had in turn consumed Dionysus–thus we inherit our bodies from the Titans while our souls contain the immortal spirit of Dionysus. During initiation rituals, candidates consumed the raw flesh of a bull, symbolizing Dionysus, thus partaking of his spirit. Following this, they adhered to a vegetarian diet for the rest of their lives.

The Orphics believed the body with its appetites and passions–inherited from the Titans–is the source of evil, distracting the soul and plunging it into the world of matter. They saw the soul  as a spiritual being fallen from a higher realm into the cycle of life, death, and reincarnation on earth. It was thought to transmigrate through plant and animal existences as well as human lifetimes—incarnating on earth to learn certain lessons and undergo purification for past transgressions. In order for the soul to return to its original state they practiced virtuous actions, asceticism, purifications, religious rites and initiations to eliminate traces of the Titans “original sin”. By living three virtuous lives in a row and being initiated into the mysteries they believed they could earn a blessed afterlife—and be released from the cycles of rebirth.

Orphic Gold Tablet. - Thessaly, 350-300 BCE.

Historian M. Owen Lee proposes Orpheus and Eurydice might have originally been a “charter myth” for the cult of Orphism, in which Orpheus brought back secrets of life and death from the underworld which he revealed to his followers. Lee notes that the name “Eurydice” can be translated as “she who gives justice far and wide”–far more descriptive of Persephone, the queen of the dead, than a living woman. The Orphics believed  their souls were judged in the afterlife–during which time they would meet Persephone in person. The Orphic Gold Tablets, their version of a “book of the dead”, prompts the initiate to tell the goddess: “I am a son of earth and starry heaven, but my race is of heaven”, proving they have renounced the earthly for the spiritual. If their souls were found pure they could go on to dwell in the Elysian Fields—the blissful abode of heroes and philosophers.

Orpheus as archetypal poet, musician and magician, is a seminal figure of western esotericism. The influence of Orphism on another mystery religion—Christianity—cannot be denied. Artwork depicting Orpheus as the “good shepherd” was found in early Christian catacombs, and he was one of the few pagan philosophers honored by Christians. Author Linda Johnsen notes that Christian liturgy was modeled on the rites of Orphism, such as the Last Supper in which the savior is symbolically consumed–resembling the Dionysian feast of the Orphics. Even Dionysus’ power of transforming water into wine was attributed to Jesus.

Carl Kerenyi aptly said: “Mythology, like the severed head of Orpheus, goes on singing even in death and from afar.” The myth of Orpheus & Eurydice  continues to live through the ages, inspiring over sixty operas, countless poems, songs, and paintings over the past few centuries–as well as movies and rock operas to this day.

Eleusian Mysteries

It is an ironic testimony to the loyalty of the initiates that there is little, if any agreement, on exactly what the inner meaning of the Eleusian mysteries was.

The Elysian fields were written by the Greeks as existing in the ‘underworld’ and were said to be the final resting place for the souls of the worthy, but the truth is that the actual meaning of the mysteries themselves has been lost to us.

Virgil wrote mysteriously that '...the region has a sun and stars of its own...' and connects them with the sibyls to the underworld through Aeneas quest to find his dead father, and we are reminded by Bulfinch (5), that Homer believed that the Elysian plain existed physically 'on the western margins of the earth, by the stream of ocean', and that the Elysium of Hesiod was on the 'Fortunate islands' or the 'Isles of the blessed' in the western ocean, which became the longitude used by both Marinus of Tyre and Plato as the Meridian for their world maps. 

The Origin of the Mysteries

According to Diodorus Siculus, the Cretans professed that they received the 'mysteries' from the Egyptians, and that they passed them on to the Greeks. Eleusia (Eleusis) was the home of the earth-mother Demeter, but she has older origins that can be seen in the Egyptian mythologies. Diodorus siculus also wrote that the mysteries of Isis were the same as those of Demeter and that the mysteries of Osiris were the same as Dionysus.

Herodotus also mentioned that Osiris was named Dionysus by the Greeks (4), and in fact, there are several convincing enough parallels between the Roman (Demeter and Dionysus), Greek (Ceres, Bacchus), Egyptian (Isis and Osiris), and Babylonian (Tammuz and Ishtar) mythologies to consider them as having all originated from a common ancestral myth.

In all these myths, the male character is variously referred to as having more than one family connection to the female character, (i.e. Osiris was the son of Isis, at the same time as being her husband and Father), but more importantly, we also see that all these deities have inherently similar qualities, namely that they are associated with agriculture, the advent of civilisation, serpents and perhaps most importantly, the underworld...(qualities we have seen as being common to the oracle centres of ancient Greece).

In Greece, Demeter's great festival was called the Eleusina and was celebrated at Eleusis, which was chosen as a site following Demeter’s search for her lost daughter Persephone who was taken by Pluto to Hades (the underworld). The distraught earth goddess eventually retired to Eleusia, where she became the nurse to the kings sons and, in strikingly similarity to the myth of Isis (who thrust the son of the king of Byblos into a fire, during her search for Osiris), Demeter places one of the kings sons Demophon, into a fire in order to make him immortal. However, the screams of his mother break the spell and he perishes. In this myth, Demeter compensates the parents by giving their other son Triptolemus seeds, the art of agriculture, and a chariot with winged dragons. Pausanias wrote that she instructed Triptolemus and his father in the performance of her ‘rites and mysteries’ (4). Eventually, Persephone is released for one third of each year, while having to spend the rest in the underworld (analogous to a seed of corn).

The Eleusian Mysteries and the Oracle Centres

As well as the traditional association between Oracle centres the Eleusian mysteries, it is perhaps curious that the centre of the Eleusian mysteries themselves - Eleusis, appears to have been geodetically located, in accordance with the same system of 360° as seen in Egypt, the Middle east and Europe. In the Greek myth we see that Demeter makes an apparently random stop at Eleusis, and are given no further clues to explain her decision. However, it is particularly noteworthy in relation to this that Santillana (6), records Eleusis as having had a well-spring in it covered by a navel-stone, as suggested by Cornford, who says that “one of these phreata (=wells) in Eleusis was closed at its mouth by the agelastos petra,” i.e. the laughter-less rock; and that Demeter was agelastos because of the loss of Persophone. He adds that the place-name was understood by the Greeks as “Advent”, a word used in the New Testament in reference to the ‘advent of Christ’ (26). The same theme as seen to be repeated in the mythology of Mecca and other earth-navels.

More about Navel-Stones

The Eleusian Mysteries and Psychoactive Drugs

'Some scholars believe that the power of the Eleusinian Mysteries came from the kykeon's functioning as a psychedelic agent. (20) Barley may be parasitized by the fungus ergot, which contains the psychoactive alkaloids lysergic acid amide (LSA), a precursor to LSD and ergonovine. It is possible that a psychoactive potion was created using known methods of the day. The initiates, sensitized by their fast and prepared by preceding ceremonies, may have been propelled by the effects of a powerful psychoactive potion into revelatory mind states with profound spiritual and intellectual ramifications'. (20)

'While modern scholars have presented evidence supporting their view that a potion was drunk as part of the ceremony, the exact composition of that agent remains controversial. Modern preparations of kykeon using ergot-parasitized barley have yielded inconclusive results, although Shulgin and Shulgin describe both ergonovine and LSA to be known to produce LSD-like effects. (22) Terence McKenna argued that the mysteries were focused around a variety of Psilocybin mushrooms, and various other entheogenic plants, such as Amanita muscaria mushrooms, have also been suggested but at present no consensus has been reached. (24) The size of the event may rule out Amanita or Psilocybe mushrooms as active ingredient, since it is unlikely that there would have been enough wild mushrooms for all participants. However a recent hypothesis suggests that Psilocybe cultivation technology was not unknown in ancient Egypt, (25) from which it could easily have spread to Greece'.

'Another theory is that the kykeon was an Ayahuasca analog involving Syrian Rue (Peganum harmala), a shrub which grows throughout the Mediterranean and also functions as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. The most likely candidate for the DMT containing plant, of which there are many in nature, would be a species of Acacia. (26) Other scholars however, noting the lack of any solid evidence and stressing the collective rather than individual character of initiation into the Mysteries, regard entheogenic theories with pointed skepticism'. (27)

More about the role of drugs in prehistory


The Acacia Tree - Saosis





Dumuzid the Shepherd - Tammuz

Inanna & Dumuzid

Dumuzid, called "the Shepherd", (Sumerian: Dumuzid sipad) from Bad-tibira in Sumer, was the fifth predynastic king in the legendary period before the Deluge, according to the Sumerian King List.

In Babylonia, the month Tammuz was established in honor of the eponymous god Tammuz, who originated as a Sumerian shepherd-god, Dumuzid or Dumuzi, the consort of Inanna and, in his Akkadian form, the parallel consort of Ishtar. The Levantine Adonis, who was drawn into the Greek pantheon, was considered by Joseph Campbell among others to be another counterpart of Tammuz, son and consort. The Aramaic name "Tammuz" seems to have been derived from the Akkadian form Tammuzi, based on early Sumerian Damu-zid. The later standard Sumerian form, Dumu-zid, in turn became Dumuzi in Akkadian. Tamuzi also is Dumuzid or Dumuzi.

Dumuzi, "Son of the Abyss" also called "the shepherd" and "lord of the sheepfolds." Dumuzi known from his horned lunar crown, is the son-husband of the goddess Gula-Bau seen sitting in front of the serpent in a relief "Goddess of the Tree of Life" ca. 2500 B.C. Dumuzi’s mother was Ningizzida, an ancestor of Gilgamesh, consort of Ianna (Ishtar). The Great Goddess (symbolized by Demeter) also correlates to Dionysus-Bacchus-Zagreus (or in the older, Sumero-Babylonian myths, Dumuzi-absu, Tammuz, the "child of the abyss," who was originally a tree god and son of Ningishzida, he died because of Ishtar’s love. Tammuz also Thammuz is the tenth month of the year in the Jewish calendar [Hebrew Tammuz, from Babylonian Du’uzu, the name of a god]. In Egypt, Tammuz is equivalent to Osiris (Hay-Tau) in Egypt and AdonisOsiris is Dionysus in the Greek tongue, and the Roman Bacchus. A cylinder seal from Erech, end of the fourth century B.C., depicts the god Tammuz feeding the cattle of the temple. Tammuz was killed by a wild boar while shepherding his flocks. His wife rescued him from the underworld. His death was taken to represent the onset of winter. The Adonis Cult (in Nega, Byblus -Syrian coast) parallels Dumuzi, Tammuz, and Attis.




The bull, serpent, tiger, ivy, and wine are characteristic of Dionysian iconography. Dionysus is also strongly associated with satyrs, centaurs, and sileni. He is often shown riding a leopard, wearing a leopard skin, or in a chariot drawn by panthers, and may also be recognized by the thyrsus he carries. Besides the grapevine and its wild barren alter-ego, the toxic ivy plant, both sacred to him, the fig was also his symbol. The pinecone that tipped his thyrsus linked him to Cybele. The Dionysia and Lenaia festivals in Athens were dedicated to Dionysus. On numerous vases (referred to as Lenaia vases), the god is shown participating in the ritual sacrifice as a masked and clothed pillar (sometimes a pole, or tree is used), while his worshipers eat bread and drink wine. Initiates worshipped him in the Dionysian Mysteries, which were comparable to and linked with the Orphic Mysteries, and may have influenced Gnosticism. Orpheus was said to have invented the Mysteries of Dionysus.

Bull, serpent and phallus

Dionysus was a god of resurrection and he was strongly linked to the bull. In a cult hymn from Olympia, at a festival for Hera, Dionysus is invited to come as a bull; "with bull-foot raging". Walter Burkert relates, "Quite frequently [Dionysus] is portrayed with bull horns, and in Kyzikos he has a tauromorphic image", and refers also to an archaic myth in which Dionysus is slaughtered as a bull calf and impiously eaten by the Titans. In the Classical period of Greece, the bull and other animals identified with deities were separated from them as their agalma, a kind of heraldic show-piece that concretely signified their numinous presence.

The snake and phallus were both symbols of Dionysus in ancient Greece, a symbolism that continued in Roman culture with Bacchus. He typically wears a panther or leopard skin and carries a Thyrsus – a long stick or wand topped with a pine cone. His iconography sometimes include maenads, who wear wreaths of ivy and serpents around their hair or neck.

In the Orphic tradition of ancient Greece, he was referred to as Dionysus Zagreus, served as its patron god connected to death and immortality, and symbolized the one who guides reincarnation.

Dionysus is born from the thigh of Zeus. Hera reaches out to snatch the child as other gods pay witness to the scene including Aphrodite and Eros (upper left), Pan (upper center), Apollo (upper right), Artemis (not shown), the three Nysiad nymphs (lower left), Hermes (lower right) and Silenus (not shown).

Dionysus is depicted as an infant crowned with a wreath of ivy emerging from the thigh of Zeus. He stretches his arms to either ward off or embrace the goddess Hera. Zeus reclines on a hill, decked with a wreath of laurel and bearing a royal sceptre. The god Apollo stands behind him, the shepherd Pan above, and Hermes below. The divine herald stands ready to deliver the infant to the care of Silenus and the Nysiad nymphs. The grasping Hera wears a stephane crown and bracelets and bears a striped royal sceptre with a lotus-shaped head.

Zeus seated on a rock births the god Dionysos from his thigh. Hermes stands beside him holding his father's royal sceptre in one hand and his own herald's wand in the other. He wears a petasos (traveller's cap), chlamys cloak and winged boots.

Dionysus stands on the lap of Zeus after being birthed from his father's thigh. Zeus is seated on a stool with a deer-skin drape and holds a thyrsos (pine-cone tipped staff)--the usual attribute of his son. The infant holds a wine cup (krater) in one hand and a vine in the other. Aphrodite stands to the left with two blooming flowers. On the right Eileithyia, goddess of childbirth, raises her hand as midwife of the birth.

Side A: The god Dionysus is attended by a flute-playing Satyr and tambourine-beating Maenad. The bearded god is crowned with a wreath of ivy and holds a drinking cup (krater) in one hand and a staff of fruiting ivy in the other. The Satyr is seatd on a rock and plays a double-flute. The Maenad wears a wreath of serpents and beats a tympanum drum.

Dionysus and a Maenad ride in a wagon drawn by Silenus. The god wears a headband bound with ivy and holds a thyrsus (pine-cone tipped staff) and a plate of fruit. The Maenad, perched on the side of the wagon, plays a set of double pipes. A bird, perhaps a dove, sits on her lap. Silenus is depicted as a comical, old man with an upturned nose and bestial ears, covered in a coat of fluffy, white fur. He wears a headband, deer- or leopard-skin cloak and a pair of shoes. The spirit Hybris (Hubris or Violence) flies above them in the guise of a Maenad bearing a thyrsus staff. The god's wagon is decorated with cross-hatch patterns, hung with a pair of wreaths, and cushioned.

Dionysus reaches to place eggs (or fruit) in a basket balanced on the head of a comic actor playing Silenus. The god of wine wears a draped robe, beaded shoes and a headband bound with ivy. The actor has a large nose, wide eyes, broad mouth, white hair and a pointed beard, and is clothed in a full body-suit with a pot belly and dangling phallus.

The god Dionysus rides sidesaddle on the back of a panther. He wears a robe and headband and holds a wreath of ivy and a tragedy-mask on a stick. Old Silenus dances behind him beating a tympanum (a type of drum or tambourine) and carrying a second tragedy-mask. A flute-playing Maenad and a Satyriscus (boy Satyr) lead the procession.

Detail of Hebe, Dionysus, Leto, Chariclo, Hestia, Demeter, Iris and Peleus from a painting depicting the procession of gods attending the wedding of Peleus and Thetis.

King Peleus stands before his palace welcoming a procession of gods to his wedding feast. He holds a drinking cup in one hand and raises the other in greeting. The divine herald Iris leads the procession holding a herald's wand in one hand and pointing to the gods behind her with the other. She is dressed in a thigh-length robe embroidered with a flower at the breast and a pair winged boots. Four senior matrons follow close behind--Hestia and Demeter, Leto and Chariclo (wife of Chiron, granddaughter of Leto)--with Dionysus and Hebe. These six would preside over the wedding feast--Demeter and Hestia providing bread (as goddesses of grain and hearth), Leto and Chariclo meat (as mother and wife of the hunters Artemis and Chiron), and Dionysus and Hebe wine (as god of wine and divine cupbearer).

Tondo: Dionysus is crowned with a wreath of ivy and holds a fruiting grapevine in one hand and thyrsos (pine-cone tipped staff) in the other. He is accompanied by a Satyr playing a double-flute.

Dionysus is attended by a Satyriscus (child Satyr). The god is crowned with a wreath of ivy and holds a vine in one hand and a drinking cup in the other. The Satyriscus pours wine from an oinochoe jug. He has the ears and tail of an ass, and the beard and erect member of an adult. In later art and literature Dionysus' cupbearer is named Comus.

Dionysus embraces Ariadne in the company of Eros (Love). Dionysus wears a robe draped loosely across his shoulder and a flanged stephane crown decked with ribbons. He holds a tortoise-shell lyre in one hand and casts his head backwards in ecstasy. Ariadne is dressed in an elaborately embroidered gown, wears a stephane crown and earrings, and balances a tympanum (a type of drum or tambourine) on her hand hand. Eros flutters at their side tapping a drum.

Detail of Dionysus and Ariadne seated in a vineyard from a vase depicting the god and his retinue.

Dionysus drives a chariot drawn by three beasts--a panther, bull and griffin. The god is crowned with a wreath of ivy and holds a thyrsos (pine-cone tipped staff) in one hand.

Dionysus battles the Gigante Eurytus. The god is crowned with a wreath of ivy leaves and carries a miniature panther on his arm. He spears the fallen giant in the side. The giant lies prone and is trapped in the coils of serpent--presumably summoned by the god. A second giant (not shown) thrusts his spear at Dionysus.

Hephaestus is led by Dionysus back to Olympus. The divine smith has a workman's cap and mallet. Dionysus holds a thyrsos (pine-cone tipped staff) in one hand and a drinking cup in the other. They are accompanied by a dancing Maenad and a flute-playing Satyr cloaked in a panther skin.

Sides: Detail of Ariadne, Dionysus and Comus from a painting depicting the feast of the gods on Olympus. Dionysus, reclining on a couch, is crowned with a wreath of ivy and holds a cup in one hand and a thyrsos in the other. He is attended by his cup-bearer, the balding satyr-boy Comus (Festivity). Other figures in the scene (not shown) are Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Amphitrite, Ares and Aphrodite.

King Pentheus of Thebes is torn limb from limb by the crazed Maenads of the god Dionysus. The two central figures, draped in panther skins and holding the king's body, are the sisters Agave (mother of Pentheus) and Autonoe. A third Maenad holds the king's severed foot. One of Dionysus' Satyrs oversees the sparagmos (ritual dismemberment).

Dionysus reclines in a boat sprouting a fruiting grape vine. The vessel is surrounded by dolphins--the metamorphosed forms of the Tyrrhenian pirates who had tried to enslave him.

The Tyrrhenian pirates leap into the sea, transformed into dolphins by the god Dionysus. The men are depicted in mid-transformation with the combined parts of men and dolphins.

Hephaestus returns to Olympus riding a donkey and carrying hammer and tongs. He is led by Dionysus, who bears a thyrsos (pine-cone tipped staff) and drinking cup, and a Satyriscus (child Satyr) playing a flute. Hera sits trapped on a throne--a cursed gift from Hephaestus who wished to punish her for casting him from heaven at birth. She wears a crown and veil and is attended by a goddess, perhaps Hebe, holding a (peacock?) feather fan.

"Hephaistos refused to listen to any other of the gods save Dionysos - in him he reposed the fullest trust - and after making him drunk Dionysos brought him to heaven." - Pausanias, Guide to Greece 1.20.3

Dionysus leads Hephaestus back to Olympus. The god is depicted with shrunken and deformed feet riding a donkey. Dionysus stands before him, cloaked in a panther-skin and holding a cup of wine. A dancing Maenad follows behind with a coiled serpent in her hands.

Hephaestus riding a donkey and holding tongs is led back to Olympus by Dionysos and his retinue of Satyrs.


The Orphic Hymn to Dionysos


The soundtrack of this video is "The Hymn to Bacchus" by Daemonia Nymphe.
This is based on the "Orphic Hymn to Dionysos" of the 2nd century C.E.
The lyrics are the words of the original Greek text with an English translation by Andonis Theodoros.



Adonis ili Adon (grč. Ἄδωνις, Adônis) u grčkoj mitologiji bog je žita, smrti i ponovnog rođenja. Adonisovo ime dolazi od hebrejske riječi adonai koja je značila "bog". Grci su taj lik preuzeli u svojoj mitologiji, u etruščanskoj mitologiji zvao se Atunis, a u semitskoj Tammuz.

Adonisovo rođenje

Postoji nekoliko izvora o njegovu rođenju. Najčešća je ona da je Afrodita nagovorila Miru da prevari i počini incest sa svojim ocem Tijom, kraljem Smirne ili Sirije. Kad je to otac otkrio, uzeo je nož u ruke i krenuo na svoju kćer. Ona je pobjegla, a Afrodita ju je pretvorila u drvo mirhe, mirisne smole. Kad je njezin otac odaslao strijelu u to drvo ili, prema drugom izvoru, kad je vepar zabio kljove u nj, Adonis je rođen iz drveta. Ovaj mit dokazuje i porijeklo legende o Adonisu, budući da takvo drvo nije raslo u tadašnjoj Grčkoj.


Smirnu se trgovalo po deva karavane kopnom od područja proizvodnje u južnoj Arabiji strane Nabatejci njihovom glavnom gradu Petra, od kojih je distribuirana diljem Mediterana.

Adonisovi vrtovi

Adonis is the son of Myrrha and her father Cinyras. Myrrha turned into a myrrh tree and Lucina helped the tree to give birth to Adonis.

The patriarchal Hellenes sought a father for the god, and found him in Byblos and Cyprus, which scholars take to indicate the direction from which Adonis had come to the Greeks. Pseudo-Apollodorus, (Bibliotheke, 3.182) considered Adonis to be the son of Cinyras, of Paphos on Cyprus, and Metharme. According to pseudo-Apollodorus' Bibliotheke, Hesiod, in an unknown work that does not survive, made of him the son of Phoenix and the otherwise unidentified Alphesiboea.

In Cyprus, the cult of Adonis gradually superseded that of Cinyras. Hesiod made him the son of Phoenix, eponym of the Phoenicians, thus a figure of Phoenician origin; his association with Cyprus is not attested before the classical era.

The city Berytos (Beirut) in Lebanon was named after the daughter of Adonis and Aphrodite, Beroe. Both Dionysus and Poseidon fell in love with her. She would eventually marry Poseidon.


Adonia (Greek: Ἀδώνια) or Feast of Adonis was an ancient festival mourning the death of Adonis.

One of the features of the holiday was the creation of "Gardens of Adonis". This involved sowing seeds of quickly-germinating plants- wheat, barley, lettuce, fennel- in shallow baskets, bowls or even in shards of clay. Tended by the women, who watered them daily, the plants grew rapidly but had shallow root systems. Images on Greek vases show the women carrying these little gardens up ladders to the rooftops, the unique site for the Adonia. At the end of eight days the pots of greenery were thrown into the ocean or a stream.

The Gardens of Adonis (1888) by John Reinhard Weguelin: the women bear the container-grown plants and festal rose garlands to dispose of in the sea, while a girl plays the special aulos (a gingras) associated with the festival.

Adonis - my lord

Adonis is the Hellenized form of the Phoenician word "adoni", meaning "my lord". It is believed that the cult of Adonis was known to the Greeks from around the sixth century B.C., but it is unquestionable that they came to know it through contact with Cyprus. Around this time, the cult of Adonis is noted in the Book of Ezekiel in Jerusalem, though under the Babylonian name Tammuz.

Route for the Myrrha myth's spread: the red is certain, the orange uncertain.

Protiv svetoga drveća

Da, stidjet ćete se zbog hrastova što ih sad obožavate i crvenjet ćete zbog gajeva u kojima sad uživate. Jer, bit ćete poput hrasta osušena lišća i poput gaja u kojem vode nema. Junak će biti kučina, a iskra djelo njegovo, zajedno će izgorjeti, a nikoga da ugasi. - Izaija

Protiv Adonisovih vrtova

U onaj će dan gradovi tvoji biti napušteni, kao što bjehu napušteni hivijski i amorejski kad ih ostaviše pred Izraelcima, i opustjet će, jer si zaboravio Boga svog spasenja i nisi se spomenuo Stijene svoje snage. Stog' i sadiš ljupke biljke i strane presađuješ mladice; u dan kad ih posadiš, one izrastu, a ujutro procvatu tvoje sadnice, al' propada žetva u dan nevolje, u dan boli neizlječive. - Izaija


Ba bird mummy

Rođenje je naše tek san i zaborav:
Duša koja se s nama budi, Zvijezda našeg života,
Nastade na drugom mjestu
I Dolazi izdaleka.


- New Catholic Encyclopedia (1967, Vol. XIII, pp./str. 449, 450/452, 454): »There is no dichotomy of body and soul in the Old Testament. The Israelite saw things concretely, in their totality, and thus he considered men as persons and not as composites. The term nepeš, though translated by our word soul, never means soul as distinct from the body or the individual person. ... The term [psy•khe´] is the New Testament word corresponding with nepeš. It can mean the principle of life, life itself, or the living being.«

»The Christian concept of a spiritual soul created by God and infused into the body at conception to make man a living whole is the fruit of a long development in Christian philosophy. Only with Origen [died c. 254 C. E.] in the East and St. Augustine [died 430 C. E.] in the West was the soul established as a spiritual substance and a philosophical concept formed of its nature. ... His [Augustine’s] doctrine ... owed much (including some shortcomings) to Neoplatonism.«

- Encyclopaædia Britannica (1976, Macropadia, Vol. 15, p./str. 152): »The Hebrew term for ‘soul’ (nefesh, that which breathes) was used by Moses ... , signifying an ‘animated being’ and applicable equally to nonhuman beings. ... New Testament usage of psyche (‘soul’) was comparable to nefesh.«

- The Jewish Encyclopedia (1910, Vol. VI, p./str. 564): »The belief that the soul continues its existence after the dissolution of the body is a matter of philosophical or theological speculation rather than of simple faith, and is accordingly nowhere expressly taught in Holy Scripture.«

- The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria (Boston, 1898, M. Jastrow, Jr., p./str. 556): »The problem of immortality, we have seen, engaged the serious attention of the Babylonian theologians. ... Neither the people nor the leaders of religious thought ever faced the possibility of the total annihilation of what once was called into existence. Death was a passage to another kind of life.«

- Presbyterian Life (May 1, 1970, p./str. 35): »Immortality of the soul is a Greek notion formed in ancient mystery cults and elaborated by the philosopher Plato.«

- Plato’s “Phaedo” ( Secs. 64, 105, Great Books of the Western World , 1952, R. M. Hutchins, Vol. 7, pp./str. 223, 245, 246): »Do we believe that there is such a thing as death? ... Is it not the separation of soul and body? And to be dead is the completion of this; when the soul exists in herself, and is released from the body and the body is released from the soul, what is this but death? ... And does the soul admit of death? No. Then the soul is immortal? Yes.«

- Dictionnaire Encyclopédique de la Bible (Valence, France; 1935, edited by Alexandre Westphal, Vol. 2, p./str. 557): »The concept of immortality is a product of Greek thinking, whereas the hope of a resurrection belongs to Jewish thought. ... Following Alexander’s conquests Judaism gradually absorbed Greek concepts.«


Koncept uskrsnuća u Danijela

Danijel, »Tada će se probuditi mnogi koji snivaju u prahu zemljinu; jedni za vječni život, drugi za sramotu, za vječnu gadost. Umnici će blistati kao sjajni nebeski svod, i koji su mnoge učili pravednosti, kao zvijezde navijeke, u svu vječnost.«

Danijel, također, govori o neizbježnom dolasku »Kraljevstva nebeskoga«, »Kraju vremena«, »dolasku pomazanoga vladara«, i »Sina čovječjeg« kojemu će biti povjerena vlast:

»Gledah u noćnim viđenjima i gle, na oblacima nebeskim dolazi kao Sin čovječji. On se približi Pradavnome i dovedu ga k njemu. Njemu bi predana vlast, čast i kraljevstvo, da mu služe svi narodi, plemena i jezici. Vlast njegova vlast je vječna i nikada neće proći, kraljevstvo njegovo neće propasti.«


Život poslije smrti - Goran Šarić


Greek Mysteries



Hades' halls

You will find on the right in Hades' halls a spring, and by it stands a ghostly cypress-tree, where the dead souls descending wash away their lives. Do not even draw nigh this spring. Further on you will find chill water flowing from the pool of Memory: over this stand guardians. They will ask you with keen mind what is your quest in the gloom of deadly Hades. They will ask you for what reason you have come. Tell them the whole truth straight out. Say: 'I am the son of Earth and starry Heaven, but of Heaven is my birth: this you know yourselves. I am parched with thirst and perishing: give me quickly chill water flowing from the pool of Memory.' Assuredly the kings of the underworld take pity on you, and will themselves give you water from the spring divine; then you, when you have drunk, traverse the holy path which other initiates and bacchants tread in glory. After that you will rule amongst the other heroes.



"Krist", prema sv. Epifaniju, bio je duhovno Jastvo u svakoj živućoj osobi. Ovime se objašnjava zašto je Epifanije bio zbunjen kada je rekao da ne može pronaći niti jedan tekst koji bi potvrdio njegova kasnija ortodoksna stajališta.

U mnogim se esenskim rukopisima spominje "Kristo". "Krst" ili "Krist", kojeg su eseni držali božanskom unutarnjom osobom. Ona tj. on se prikazuje, prvenstveno u "Knjizi henokovoj" kao "Onaj koji je vječno u Bogu". Knjiga Henokova napisana je negdje oko 150.-120. g. pr. Krista. Krist je  također ukorijenjen u učenju gnostika, koji su držali da je Kristo zaseban i besmrtan čovjekov Duh.

Sin Posejdona i Meduze zvao se "Khryst" a svećenici Apolona bili su znani kao ,.Khyrstovi". Zapravo, riječ "Kristo" ili njezine izvedenice "Krst", "Krist", "Kristo", "Khryst" i "Krišna" javljaju se u svim drevnim religijskim sustavima i pokazuju kako je postojalo vjerovanje da je prvotni Kristo bio individualni i nevidljivi posrednik i vodič između Boga i svega duhovnog u čovjeku. Pojam Krista proistječe iz drevne religijske tradicije koju Katolička crkva uporno stoljećima zatire.

Izraz "Krist" ranokršćanski crkveni starješine doživljavali su i koristili u značenju koje se uvelike razlikovalo od kasnijeg Nicejskog vjerovanja, u kojemu se praktički oličavao taj stari i tajanstveni koncept Krista kakav se spminje još u razdoblju Horusa.

Horus o Ocu: "On je ja i ja sam on." "Ja sam uskrsnuće i život" - Horus

Du Perron, u svojoj knjizi "Zoroasterov život" (Life of Zoroaster), navodi određena proročanstva koja se mogu naći u svetim knjigama Perzijanaca. U jednom se spominje da će se u na rednim razdobljima na Zemlji pojaviti neki "sinovi Zoroastera" koji će "otkupiti grijehe čovječanstva". Isto proročanstvo nalazimo i kod Grka. U Delfijskom proročištu, prema Platonu, čuvalo se drevno i tajno proročanstvo o rođenju "Apolonovog sina" koji će na Zemlji ponovno uspostaviti pravdu te u skladu s njome vladati.

Iako većina ljudi smatra da se ime Isus prvi put pojavilo s kršćanskim božjim čovjekom, ono je ustvari bilo prilično uobičajeno, osobito u Izraelu, gdje je glasilo Jošua. U tom obliku ime se u Starom zavjetu pojavljuje preko 200 puta. Kao što je rečeno, ime Isus također potječe od Dionizova monograma, odnosno ,,IES", "Yes" ili "Jes", kao i nekih drugih inačica. Jacolliot pojašnjava ta raširena imena:

Kao što smo vidjeli, sva ta imena - Isus, Jeošua, Josia, Josue - potječu od dvije sanskrtske riječi Zeus i Jezeus, od kojih prva znači 'Vrhovno biče', a druga 'Božanska bit'. Osim toga, ta su imena bila uobičajena ne samo među Židovima nego i na cijelom Istoku.

Higgins govori da su Krišnini sljedbenici tijekom svetkovina izvikivali "Jeje" ili "Ieue". To "ieue", kao što smo već vidjeli, isto je ime kao YHWH i "Isus", što priznaje i Klement Aleksandrijski (153.-214.) koji je zamijetio da je "Spasitelj" predstavljen slovima ,,IE", što je ista oznaka koja se koristila za Apolona u njegovu hramu u Delfima. Dakako, "Spasitelj" nije bio utjelovljena, povijesna osoba već duhovni konstrukt koji je, kao što je već rečeno, bio poznat mnogim misterijskim školama i sektama, i koji se zbog toga mogu nazvati "kultistima spasenja".

Titula Kristosa dodjeljivala se ne samo kraljevima i svećenicima Jude nego i velikom broju pomazanih bogova-spasitelja pretkršćanskog vremena. Walker pojašnjava:

"Pomazanik", titula mnogih bliskoistočnih žrtvenih bogova - .Atisa, Adonisa, Tamuza, Ozirisa - potječe iz orijentalnih kultova svetog braka. Na istoku, božji lingam ili uspravljeni penis njegove statue bio je pomazivan svetim uljem (na grčkom, chrism) da bi lakše penetrirao svoju mladenku, Božicu, koju je predstavljala jedna od hramskih djevica.... Isus je postao Kristos kada ga je fcrst-ila Marija, pokajnica ili hramska djevica (Matej 26:12), koja je također objavila njegovo uskrsnuće (Marko 15:47).

Drugim riječima, bilo koji pomazanik bio bi nazvan "Kristom" od strane stanovnika Rimskog Carstva koji su govorili grčki, a takvih je bilo mnogo jer je grčki stoljećima bio lingua franca. Kao što je prethodno navedeno, Krišna je na grčkom i Kristos, a riječ "Krist" također potječe od hinduske riječi "Kris", što je naziv za Sunce, kao što je to na staroirskom "Krišna". Suočen s kritikama da je to "novo praznovjerje" izmišljeno, Euzebije protestira da su "imena Isus i Krist poznata i slavljena od davnine". Euzebije dalje tvrdi:

Isus i Krist bila su imena koja su slavili čak i božji voljeni proroci drevnog doba, što sada moram pojasniti... Kada je opisivao božjeg velikog svećenika, najmoćnijeg od svih ljudi, [Mojsije] ga je nazivao Krist... (Lev. 4:15, 16)

Euzebije nastavlja:

[Mojsijev] nasljednik dotada nije koristio oznaku Isus [Jošua], već je bio poznat pod drugim imenom, Hošea ... ali Mojsije ga zove Isusom... zato što je sam Nunov sin Jošua imao lik našeg Spasitelja... Euzebijeva smicalica "imao je lik našeg Spasitelja" bila je uobičajeni argument kršćanskih apologeta koji su, kada bi bili suočeni s činjenicom da su bogovi i/ili patrijarsi drugih doba i kultura imali slične ili istovjetne "živote" kao i Isus, pokušavali objasniti da su te prethodne osobe bile ili poganske imitacije prethodno stvorene od strane dalekovidnog vraga ili hebrejski/židovski "arhetipi" odnosno "obrasci", kako ih Euzebije naziva, za stvarnog Krista koji je trebao stići.

Kao što smo vidjeli, Tertulijan te arhetipe smatra božjim "probama" za svoju veliku ulogu.
Unatoč pokušajima kršćanskih otaca da dokažu drevnost svog spasitelja, Hotema je tvrdio da ime "Isus Krist" nije službeno usvojeno kao fraza sve do poslije prvog Nicejskog koncila, odnosno 325. godine. On govori: "Ime Isus Krist nije bilo poznato sve do nakon Nicejskog koncila. Prije tog vremena nije se pojavljivalo u nikakvom
pisanom obliku." A Roberts kaže:

Prije 4. stoljeća često se i općenito spominjao "Kristos", kao i njegovo štovanje istočno od Rima. Ali nigdje ne možemo naći autentično spominjanje Isusa Krista koji bi potjecao iz tog vremena. Ime Isus Krist svijetu je postalo poznato tek poslije Nicejskog koncila.


Tko je bio Isus?


Božji sinovi

Pokazalo se i da je svijet u kojem se kršćanstvo pojavilo bio prepun bogova i božica, a ne monoteistički vakuum. Mnogi su ti bogovi i božice sa svojim čudesnim djelima i nevjerojatnim moćima zapravo identični liku Isusa Krista, što potvrđuju i sami kršćanski apologeti. Daljnjim proučavanjem ove teme dolazimo do saznanja daje "Isus Krist" u stvari kompilacija tih različitih bogova koje se štovalo i o čijim su pothvatima govorili drevni narodi davno prije kršćanskog doba.

Premda mnogi ljudi imaju dojam da se drevni svijet sastojao od nepovezanih naroda i plemena, prava je istina da je u doba u koje je Isus navodno živio postojala trgovačka i bratska mreža koja se protezala od Europe do Kine. Ta je informacijska mreža uključivala i knjižnicu u Aleksandriji i imala pristup mnogobrojnim usmenim predajama i rukopisima koji su prenosili istu onu priču koja se izlaže u Novom zavjetu, s različitim imenima lokaliteta i etničkim podrijetlom likova. Legenda o Isusu ustvari gotovo identično prati priču o Krišni, čak i do nekih detalja, indijski mit koji seže davno u prošlost, ne prije 1400. pr.n.e.. Još stariji je dobro satkani egipatski mit o Horu koji je također praktički identičan kršćanskoj verziji, ali stariji od nje tisućama godina.

U priču o Isusu utkani su elementi iz priča o drugim božanstvima koje su bile zabilježene na širokom teritoriju drevnog svijeta, uključujući i neke priče o spasiteljima svijeta, od kojih većina ili čak svi vremenski prethode kršćanskom mitu. Time se ne želi reći da su svi ti likovi upotrijebljeni u stvaranju kršćanskog mita, s obzirom na to da neke od njih nalazimo u dijelovima svijeta koji u to vrijeme navodno nisu bili poznati, ali je sigurno da je jedan značajan broj tih božanstava iskorišten. Nalazimo tako iste priče diljem svijeta o raznim sinovima Božjim, od kojih su mnogi rođeni od djevica ili su bili božanskog podrijetla, rođeni 25. prosinca ili oko tog datuma, u spilji ili pod zemljom, bili kršteni, izvodili čuda, bili iznimnog morala, milosrdni, prolazili muke za čovječanstvo, liječili bolesne, bili temelj za spasenje duše i/ili nazivani "Spasiteljima, Iskupiteljima, Izbaviteljima", pobjeđivali tamu, bili vješani na stabla ili razapinjani, nakon smrti uskrsavali i vračali se na nebesa, otkuda su i došli.

Na popisu tih spasitelja i Božjih sinova nalaze se:

  • Adad i Marduk iz Asirije, koji je smatran "Riječju" (Logosom)
  • Adonis, Asklepije, Apolon (koji je uskrsnuo na proljetni ekvinocij kao janje)
  • Dioniz, Heraklo (Herkul) i Zeus u Grčkoj
  • Alkidej u Tebi (božanski iskupitelj rođen od djevice oko 1200. pr.n.e.)
  • Atis u Frigiji
  • Baal ili Bel u Babilonu/Feniciji
  • Balder i Frey u Skandinaviji
  • Bali u Afganistanu
  • Beddru u Japanu
  • Buda i Krišna u Indiji
  • Chu Chulainn u Irskoj
  • Codom i Deva Tat u današnjem Tajlandu
  • Krit u Kaldeji
  • Dažbog kod Slavena
  • Dumuzi (Tamuz) u Sumeru
  • Fo-Hi, Lao-Kiun, Tien i Chang-Ti u Kini, čije je rođenje popraćeno nebeskom glazbom i kojem su svjedočili anđeli i pastiri
  • Hermes u Egiptu/Grčkoj, kojeg je rodila Djevica Maja i kojeg su zvali "Logos" jer je bio glasnik svog nebeskog oca Zeusa
  • Hesus kod Druida i Gala
  • Hor, Oziris i Serapis u Egiptu
  • Indra u Tibetu/Indiji
  • Ieo u Kini, koji je bio "veliki prorok, zakonodavac i spasitelj" sa 70 učenika
  • Issa/Isa u Arabiji, kojeg je rodila Djevica Marija i koji je bio "Božanska Riječ" među drevnim arapskim Nazarencima oko 400. pr.n.e.
  • Jao u Nepalu
  • Jupiter/Jove u Rimu
  • Mitra u Perziji/Indiji
  • Odin/Wodin/Woden/Wotan u Skandinaviji, koji je "ranjen kopljem"
  • Prometej na Kavkazu/u Grčkoj
  • Quetzalcoatl u Meksiku
  • Kvirinije u Rimu
  • Salivahana u južnoj Indiji, koji je bio "božansko dijete, rođen od djevice i drvodjeljin sin", kojeg su i samog zvali "Drvodjelja" te čije ime ili titula znači "spasenje"
  • Tamuz u Siriji (bog spasitelj štovan u Jeruzalemu)
  • Thor među Germanima
  • Univerzalni Monarh kod Sibila
  • Wittoba kod Bilingoneza/Telingoneza
  • Zalmoksis u Trakiji, spasitelj koji je "obećao vječni život gostima na njegovoj svetoj Posljednjoj večeri, a zatim otišao u podzemlje te treći dan ponovno ustao"
  • Zaratustra/Zoroaster u Perziji
  • Zoar kod Bonza

Ovaj popis nije potpun i nema dovoljno prostora da se o svim ovim mitološkim likovima ide u detalje. Treba napomenuti da se, baš kao i Isusa, mnoge od ovih likova u prošlosti smatralo povijesnim osobama, ali danas se gotovo ni na jednog od njih tako više ne gleda.

Atis u Frigiji

Priča o Atisu, razapetom i uskrslom frigijskom sinu Božjem, stoljećima je starija od one o kršćanskom spasitelju, i odvija se na istom području kao i priča u Evanđeljima.

Atis s Isusom dijeli sljedeće karakteristike:

  • Rođen je 25. prosinca od Djevice Nane.
  • Smatrali su ga spasiteljem koji je ubijen za spas čovječanstva.
  • Tijelo su mu kao kruh jeli njegovi štovatelji.
  • Svećenici su mu bili "eunusi za kraljevstvo nebesko".
  • Bio je i Božanski Sin i Otac.
  • Na Veliki petak je razapet na drvetu, s kojeg je potekla njegova sveta krv da otkupi zemlju.
  • Otišao je pod zemlju.
  • Nakon tri dana, 25. ožujka (kao što se u tradiciji govori i za Isusa), uskrsnuo je kao "Svevišnji Bog".

Doane iznosi detalje o Atisovoj muci, u kojoj se ponavlja pomirenje po krvi:

Atisa, koji je nazivan "Jedinorođenim Sinom" i "Spasiteljem", štovali su Frigijci, koje se smatralo jednim od najstarijih naroda Male Azije. Prikazivali su ga kao čovjeka privezanoga za drvo, pod kojim se nalazilo janje te nesumnjivo i kao čovjeka zakucanoga za drvo ili kolac, jer kod Laktancija .... Apolon iz Mileta .... kaže: "Tijelom je bio smrtnik, mudrac u svojim čudesnim djelima, ali kad gaje zarobila naoružana sila pod vodstvom kaldejskih sudaca, umro je mučnom smrću čavlima i kolcima".

U Christianity Before Christ Jackson govori:

Dana 22. ožujka na svetkovinu Atisovu srušili su drvo bora i na njega zakucali lik boga, koji je tako ubijen i obješen na drvo... Kad se spustila noć, svećenici su pronašli grobnicu osvijetljenu iznutra ali praznu, jer je trećeg dana Atis ustao iz groba.

Atisova muka odvila se na mjestu koje će kasnije postati Galacija; upravo je Atisovim sljedbenicima Pavao uputio svoju Poslanicu Galaćanima i rekao (3:1): "O nerazumni Galaćani! Tko vas je opčarao da se ne pokoravate istini, vas, kojima je bio pred očima naslikan Isus, kao da bi bio među vama raspet?" Budući da Galaćani vjerojatno nisu bili u Jeruzalemu kad je Isus navodno razapet, opravdano možemo postaviti pitanje tko je to onda "javno naslikan kao da je razapet" pred njihovim očima? Ovo "slikanje" svakako sugerira ponavljanje muke u kultu Atisa.

U obraćanju Galaćanima Pavao opet spominje ono što je, kako se čini, događaj koji se stalno ponavlja: "Krist nas je otkupio od prokletstva zakona, jer je za nas postao prokletstvo; jer napisano je: 'Proklet svaki, koji visi na drvetu.'" Kao sljedbenici Atisovi, oni kojima su ove riječi upućene razumjeli bi dio o "svakome tko visi na drvetu" jer su oni, baš kao i drugi biblijski narodi, svake godine ili periodično repliku ili sliku boga vješali na drvo. Kao što je slučaj i u Starom zavjetu s obrednim vješanjima, ovo "proklinjanje" ustvari je blagoslov ili posvećivanje.

Atis nije bio popularan samo u Frigiji/Galaciji nego i u Rimu, gdje su on i Kibela, Velika Majka Bogova, šest stoljeća imali svoj hram na Vatikanskom brdu.10 Mit o Atisu bio je toliko sličan kršćanskoj priči da su kršćani bili prisiljeni pribjeći lažnom argumentu da je vrag najprije stvorio kult Atisa kako bi zavarao Kristove sljedbenike.


Lik Bude ima mnogo toga zajedničkog s figurom Krista:

Buda je rođen 25. prosinca12 od Djevice Maje, a rođenju su mu nazočili "Zvijezda Navještenja", mudraci1 i anđeli koji su pjevali nebeske pjesme. Kad se rodio, imenovan je vladarom svijeta i darovani su mu "skupocjeni dragulji i dragocjenosti".
Život mu je doveo u opasnost "kralj kojem je savjetovano da uništi dijete jer je postojala mogućnost da će ga ono zbaciti s trona". S dvanaest je godina učio u hramu. Smrskao je zmijinu glavu (kao što se po tradiciji govori o Isusu) i u iskušenje ga je dovela Mara ("Zla") dok je postio. Buda je kršten u vodi uz prisutnost "Duha Božjeg" ili "Duha Svetog".
Činio je čuda, iscjeljivao bolesne, nahranio 500 ljudi iz malene "košare s kolačima" te hodao po vodi. Buda je ukinuo idolopoklonstvo, bio "sijač Riječi" i propovijedao o "uspostavi kraljevstva pravde". Njegovi su se sljedbenici morali zavjetovati na siromaštvo i odreći se svijeta. Doživio je preobraženje na gori i priča se da mu je tada lice "sjalo blistavo poput sunca i mjeseca". U nekim je tradicijama umro na križu.

  • Uskrsnuo je, pri čemu su mu nadnaravne sile s tijela skinule posmrtne tkanine i otvorile grobnicu.
  • Uzdigao se tjelesno u Nirvanu, odnosno "nebesa".
  • Zvali su ga "Gospodin", "Učitelj", "Svjetlo svijeta", "Bog Bogova", "Otac svijeta", "Svemogući i sveznajući vladar", "Iskupitelj svih ljudi", "Sveti", "Tvorac sreće", "Posjednik svega", "Svemogući", "Vrhovno biće", "Vječni".
  • Smatrali su ga "Nositeljem grijeha", "Dobrim pastirom", "Drvodjeljom", "Beskonačnim i neuništivim" te "Alfom i Omegom".
  • Došao je da provede, a ne da uništi zakon.
  • Buda će se vratiti ,,u posljednje dane" da vrati red i sudi mrtvima.

Osim ovih karakteristika boga spasitelja, budistički utjecaj u kršćanstvu uključuje i: odricanje od svijeta i njegovih bogatstava, uključujući seks i obitelj, potom bratstvo među ljudima, milosrđe i okretanje drugog obraza te obraćenje. Neosporno je da je budizam prethodio kršćanstvu, a isto se tako ne može osporiti ni njegov utjecaj u svijetu davno prije početka kršćanske ere.

Kao što navodi Walker:

Utemeljen 500 godina prije kršćanstva i snažno propagiran diljem Bliskog istoka, budizam je izvršio veći utjecaj na rano kršćanstvo nego što su crkveni oci to željeli priznati jer su oni orijentalne religije općenito smatrali štovanjem vraga... priče o Budi i njegovim brojnim inkarnacijama bez prestanka su kružile drevnim svijetom, osobito zato što su budistički redovnici četiri stoljeća prije Krista putovali u Egipat, Grčku i Malu Aziju kako bi širili svoj nauk... Mnogi su učenjaci ukazali na to da su osnovne postavke kršćanstva najprije bile i osnovne postavke budizma. Međutim, isto je tako točno da su i obredi obiju ovih religija bili sličniji nego što je ijedna od njih to htjela priznati.

0 budističkom utjecaju na području gdje se navodno odvila Kristova muka Larson kaže:

Budistički misionari ulazili su u svaki kutak tada poznatog svijeta, uključujući Grčku, Egipat, Baktriju, Malu Aziju i Drugo Perzijsko Carstvo. Palestina je zasigurno bila preplavljena budističkom ideologijom u prvom stoljeću... Literatura u Indiji dokazuje da se Isus, izravno ili neizravno, uvelike oslanja na budizam kako bi došao ne samo do sadržaja svoje etike nego i oblika u kojem je izložena. I Gautama i Isus smatrali su da je parabola efikasan način."

I doista, čini se da je niz Isusovih parabola izravno preuzet iz budizma, na primjer ona o sinu razmetnome.

Postojanje budizma na Bliskom istoku za vrijeme kršćanskog doba priznaju i sami kršćanski apologeti, kao na primjer Ćiril i Klement Aleksandrijski, koji su rekli da su šamani ili budisti bili perzijski svećenici.


Dioniz ili Bakho se smatra grčkim, ali on je zapravo prerada egipatskog boga Ozirisa, čiji se kult tisućama godina rasprostirao velikim dijelom starog svijeta. Dionizova je religija bila dobro razvijena u Trakiji, sjeveroistočno od Grčke, i Frigiji koja je postala Galacija, gdje je kasnije vladao Atis. Premda se Dioniz najviše pamti po raskalašenim svetkovinama u njegovo ime, koje u latiniziranoj verziji glasi Bakho, on je imao brojne druge funkcije, a liku Isusa svoj je doprinos dao u nekoliko pogleda:

  • Dioniz je rođen od djevice 25. prosinca39 i kao Sveto Dijete položen u jasle.
  • Bio je putujući učitelj koji je činio čuda.
  • "Jahao je u trijumfalnoj povorci na magarcu."
  • Bio je sveti kralj koji je ubijen i kojeg se jelo u euharistijskom obredu za plodnost i čišćenje.
  • Ustao je iz mrtvih 25. ožujka.
  • Bio je bog vina i pretvarao vodu u vino.
  • Zvali su ga "Kralj Kraljeva" i "Bog Bogova".
  • Smatrali su ga "Jedinorođenim Sinom", "Spasiteljem", "Iskupiteljem", "Nositeljem grijeha", "Pomazanim" te "Alfom i Omegom".
  • Poistovjećivan je s ovnom ili janjetom.
  • Njegova žrtvena titula "Dendrites" ili "Mladi Čovjek s Drveta" sugerira da je obješen o drvo ili razapet.

Kao što kaže Walker, Dioniz je bio "prototip Krista sa središtem kulta u Jeruzalemu" gdje su ga, kao što je već i spomenuto, tijekom 1. stoljeća pr.n.e. štovali Židovi. Dionizov/Bakhov simbol bio je ,,IHS" ili ,,IES", što je postalo "Iesus" ili "Isus". "IHS" se do dana današnjeg koristi u katoličkoj liturgiji i ikonografiji.

Roberts o tome kaže:

,,IES" je feničansko ime boga Bakha ili personifikacije sunca, a etimološke objašnjenje te titule kaže da znači "jedan", a ,,es" "vatra ili svjetlo", tj. ako se spoji kao "ies", dobiva značenje "jedno jedino svjetlo". To je ustvari svjetlo iz Ivanova evanđelja. Ovo se ime može naći posvuda na kršćanskim oltarima, i protestantskim i katoličkim, na taj način jasno pokazujući daje kršćanska religija samo modifikacija orijentalnog štovanja Sunca, koje se pripisuje Zoroasteru. Ta ista slova IHS, koja su u grčkom tekstu, kršćani čitaju "Jes", a rimsko im je kršćansko svećenstvo dodalo i nastavak "us"...

Larson kaže:

Dioniz je postao univerzalni bog spasitelj drevnoga svijeta. Nikad nije bilo nijednog poput njega. Prvi kojemu su pripisani njegovi atributi bio je Oziris. Smrću poganstva njegove je središnje osobine preuzeo Isus Krist.

Poput Isusa Nazarećanina, Dioniz je "prava loza", a slike grožđa bitne su za oba kulta. Walker objašnjava:

Vinova loza je prvenstveno bila utjelovljenje Dioniza, ili Bakha, u njegovoj ulozi žrtvenog spasitelja. Njegova se žrtva uspoređuje s obrezivanjem vinove loze, koje je nužno za njenu godišnju obnovu... U Siriji i Babilonu loza je bila sveto drvo života. Autori Starog zavjeta prihvatili su je kao simbol odabranog naroda, a novozavjetni su je pisci učinili simbolom Krista (Ivan 15:1, 5). U kombinaciji sa snopovima klasja u svetoj umjetnosti loza je značila spasiteljevu krv (vino) i tijelo (kruh). To je ikonografija koja je započela u pogansko doba, a uskoro ju je prihvatilo i rano kršćanstvo.

Na Kreti se Dioniz zvao Iasius,46 što je bila i titula bogočovjeka orfičkih misterija na Samotrakiju, kojeg se poistovjećivalo s Dionizom i kojeg je promicao "apostol" Orfej u svom misionarskom radu, u kojem se kretao istom onom rutom kojom je navodno putovao Pavao. Iasius, Iesius ili Jazon su ustvari Isusovi ekvivalenti.


Heraklo, ili Herkul, poznat je po svojih 12 teških zadataka koji odgovaraju 12 znakova zodijaka i ukazuju na njegovu ulogu "Spasitelja". Rođen od djevice, poznat je i kao "Jedinorođeni" i "Univerzalna Riječ". Heraklova/Herkulova djevica majka zvala se Alkmena, čije je ime na hebrejskom bilo "almah" ("žena-Mjesec") i koja je, kako kaže Walker, "rodila svete kraljeve u jeruzalemskom kultu i čija je titula predana
Djevici Mariji. Paralele između ranijih mitova o Alkmeni i kasnijih o Mariji bile su prebrojne da bi bile slučajne. Alkmenin se muž suzdržavao od spolnih odnosa s njom sve dok nije rodila svoje, od Boga začeto dijete".

Walker također izlaže priču o Herkulu i njezinu vezu s kršćanskom pričom:

Njegovih dvanaest zadataka simboliziralo je prolazak Sunca kroz dvanaest kuća zodijaka... Kad je došao do kraja, odjeven je u grimiznu halju svetog kralja i ubijen, da bi nakon toga uskrsnuo kao njegov božanski otac i uzašao na nebo... Utjecaj Heraklova kulta na rano kršćanstvo ne može se podcijeniti. U rodnom gradu sv. Pavla Tarsu redovito su upriličavali svetu muku Heraklove smrti od vatre, zbog čega je Pavao smatrao spasonosnim dati spaliti svoje tijelo, poput Herakla i njemu sličnih mučenika (Prva poslanica Korinćanima 13:3). Herakla su zvali Princem Mira, Suncem Pravde i Svjetlom Svijeta. On je bio isto ono sunce koje su Perzijanci i Eseni svakodnevno pozdravljali ritualnom frazom: "Ustao je". Istom se tom formulacijom objavio Isusov povratak iz podzemlja (Evanđelje po Marku 16:6). Žrtvovan je na proljetni ekvinocij (Uskrs) tj. novogodišnju svetkovinu po starom računanju. Rođen je na zimski solsticij (Božić), kad Sunce dođe u svoj nadir i Djevičina konstelacija izađe na istoku. Kao što je Albert Veliki rekao stotinama godina kasnije: "Znak nebeske djevice uzdiže se nad horizont u trenutku rođenja našeg Gospodina Isusa Krista."

Hor/Oziris u Egiptu

Kult Ozirisa, Iziđe i Hora bio je raširen u drevnom svijetu, uključujući Rim. U egipatskom mitu Hor i njegov nekadašnji i budući Otac, Oziris, često se zamjenjuju, kao na primjer kad se govori: "Ja i moj Otac smo jedno."

O Ozirisu Walker kaže:

Od svih bogova spasitelja koji su se štovali na početku kršćanske ere Oziris je možda dao više pojedinosti za sve značajniju figuru Isusa Krista od svih drugih. Već vrlo starog u Egiptu, Ozirisa se poistovjećivalo s gotovo svakim drugim egipatskim bogom i bio je na putu da ih sve apsorbira. Imao je preko 200 božanskih imena. Zvali su ga Gospodar Gospodara, Kralj Kraljeva, Bog Bogova. On je bio Uskrsnuće i Život, Dobri Pastir, Vječnost i Neuništivost, bog koji je "učinio da se muškarci i žene ponovno rode". Budge kaže: "Oziris je Egipćanima bogočovjek koji je patio, umro i ponovno ustao te vječno vladao na nebu. Vjerovali su da će naslijediti vječni život poput njega..."

Ozirisov dolazak navijestila su tri mudraca, tri zvijezde: Mintaka, Anilam i Alnitak u Orionovu pojasu koje pokazuju izravno na Ozirisovu zvijezdu na istoku, Sirijus (Sotis), koja ukazuje na njegovo rođenje...

Oziris je svakako bio prototipski Mesija, kao i hostija. Njegovo se tijelo jelo u obliku pričesnih kolačića od pšenice, "biljke Istine"... Ozirisov kult dao je niz ideja i fraza Bibliji. U Psalmu 23 prepisuje se egipatski tekst u kojem se zaziva Dobri Pastir Oziris da mrtvaca odvede na "zelene poljane" i "vrutke tihane" zemlje nefer-nefer i okrijepi mu dušu i da zaštitu u dolini smrtne sjenke (Tuat).

Nagovještaj Očenaša nalazimo u egipatskoj himni Ozirisu-Amenu, koja je započinjala: "O Amene, o Amene, koji jesi na nebesima". Amen se također invocirao i na kraju svake molitve.  Kao što James Churchward naivno uzvikuje: "Ozirisovo i Isusovo učenje očaravajuće je isto. Mnogi su odlomci identični, od riječi do riječi."

Massey navodi druge pojedinosti o sličnosti između ozirijanizma i kršćanstva:

Na primjer, u jednoj od mnogih Ozirisovih titula u svim njegovim oblicima i mjestima on se naziva "Ozirisom u monstranci"... U rimskom obredu monstranca je prozirna posuda u kojoj je izložena žrtva ili hostija... Oziris u monstranci bi kao takav trebao biti dovoljan da pokaže da je egipatski Karast (Krst) originalni Krist i da su egipatske misterije nastavili gnostici te da su u Rimu kristijaniziram.

Oziris je bio i bog vinove loze i veliki putujući učitelj koji je civilizirao svijet. Bio je vladar i sudac mrtvima. U njegovoj pasiji protiv njega su kovali urotu i ubili ga Set i "72". Kao i Isusovo, i Ozirisovo je uskrsnuće služilo da podari nadu svima da i oni mogu učiniti isto i postati vječni.

Ozirisov "sin" ili novo utjelovljenje - Hor - s Isusom dijeli sljedeće:

  • Hora je rodila djevica Isis-Men 25. prosinca u spilji/jaslama, a to je rođenje navijestila zvijezda na istoku; rođenju su prisustvovala tri mudraca.
  • Njegov zemaljski otac se zvao "Seb" ("Josip").
  • Bio je kraljevskog podrijetla.
  • U dobi od 12 godina bio je mladi učitelj u Hramu, a u dobi od 30 godina je kršten. Na 12 je godina nestao.
  • Hora je u rijeci Eridanu ili Iarutani (Jordan)54 krstio "Anup Krstitelj" ("Ivan Krstitelj"), kojemu je odrubljena glava.
  • Imao je 12 učenika, od kojih su dvojica bili njegovi "svjedoci" i zvali su se "Anup" i "Aan" (dva "Ivana").
  • Činio je čuda, istjerivao demone i podigao El-Azarusa ("El-Osirisa") iz mrtvih.
  • Hodao je po vodi.
  • Osobni mu je pridjevak bio "Iusa", "zauvijek pravi sin" "Ptaha", tj. "Oca".
  • Nazivali su ga stoga "Svetim Djetetom".
  • Održao je "propovijed na gori", a njegovi su sljedbenici prepričavali "Iusine izreke".
  • Doživio je preobraženje na gori.
  • Razapet je između dva lopova, bio zakopan tri dana u grobnici i potom uskrsnuo.
  • Bio je poznat i kao "Put, Istina, Svjetlo", "Mesija", "Božji Sin Pomazanik", "Sin Čovječji", "Dobri Pastir", "Jaganjac Božji", "Riječ
  • Tijelom Postala", "Riječ Istine" itd.
  • Bio je "Ribar" i povezivao se s ribom ("Ihtis"), janjetom i lavom.
  • Došao ja ispuniti zakon.
  • Zvali su ga "KRST", što znači "Pomazanik".

Poput Isusa, i Horus je "vladao tisuću godina".

Prije otprilike 3500 godina na zidovima hrama u Luksoru oslikane su slike navještenja, bezgrešnog začeća, rođenja i obožavanja Hora, na kojima Tot navješćuje Djevici Izidi da će začeti Hora, Knef ili "Duh Sveti" je oplođuje, a novorođenče dolaze vidjeti i darove mu donijeti tri kralja ih maga. Uz to, u katakombama u Rimu nalaze se slike Hora kao djeteta kojeg drži djevica majka Izida - izvorna "Majka s djetetom".

Massey tumači:

Gnostička je umjetnost bila ta koja je reproducirala egipatsku Hathor-Meri i Hora kao Djevicu i djetešce Isusa u Rimu... Vi jadni idiotai, rekli su gnostici [ranim kršćanima], stare ste misterije zamijenili za moderne priče i doslovno shvatili i prihvatili sve što je mišljeno tek mistički.

Osim toga, A. Churchward govori o još jednom aspektu egipatske religije koji je prisutan u kršćanstvu:

U starim katoličkim crkvama nad glavnim oltarom vidimo jednostranični trokut, a unutar njega oko. Dodavanje oka trokutu potječe iz Egipta. Bilo je to "svevideće oko Ozirisovo".

Krišna u Indiji

Na stotine je sličnosti između Krista i indijskog mesije Krišne, posebice kada se uračunaju ranokršćanski tekstovi koji se sada smatraju apokrifnima. U engleskom je jeziku uobičajeni rani način pisanja imena Krišna bio "Christna", otkrivajući tako njegovu vezu s Kristom. U bengalskom je jeziku Krišna "Christos", što je isto kao i grčka riječ za Krista, i koje su vojnici Aleksandra Velikog izgovarali Krišna.

Ovo bi bio nepotpuni popis podudarnosti između Isusa i Krišne:

  • Krišna je rođen od Djevice Devaki ("Božanske") 25. prosinca.
  • Njegov zemaljski otac bio je drvodjelja65 koji je otišao u grad platiti porez kad je Krišna rođen.
  • Njegovo rođenje je navijestila zvijezda na istoku, nazočili su mu anđeli i pastiri; darovane su mu mirodije.
  • Nebeska vojska plesala je i pjevala na njegovu rođenju.
  • Progonio ga je tiranin koji je naredio pokolj na tisuće djece.
  • Krišnu je po glavi uljem pomazala žena koju je iscijelio.
  • Prikazuje ga se sa stopalom na glavi zmije.
  • Činio je čuda, oživljavao mrtve i liječio gubave, gluhe i slijepe.
  • Koristio je parabole da ljude nauči milosrđu i ljubavi te "živio siromašno i ljubio siromašne".
  • Korio je svećenstvo, optužujući ih za "častohleplje i licemjerje... Predaja kaže da je postao žrtva njihove osvete."
  • Krišnin "omiljeni učenik" bio je Arjuna ili Ar-jouan (Ivan).
  • Preobrazio se pred svojim učenicima.
  • Svoje je učenike naučio da čine čuda.
  • Put mu je bio "posut grančicama".
  • U nekim je predajama umro na drvetu ili je razapet između dvaju lopova.
  • Krišna je ubijen oko 30. godine života, a Sunce se tada pomračilo.
  • Ustao je iz mrtvih i uzašao na nebo "pred svim ljudima".
  • Prikazan je na križu s rupama od čavala na stopalima i znakom srca na odjeći.
  • Krišna je "lav plemena Saki".77 Zvali su ga "Pastirski Bog" i smatrali "Iskupiteljem", "Prvorođencem", "Nositeljem grijeha", "Osloboditeljem", "Univerzalnom riječju".
  • Smatrali su ga "Božjim Sinom" i "Gospodinom i Spasiteljem", koji je došao na Zemlju umrijeti za spasenje ljudi.
  • Bio je druga osoba u Trojstvu.
  • Njegovi su mu učenici dodijelili naslov "Jezeus" ili "Jeseus", što znači "čisti duh".
  • Krišna će se vratiti suditi mrtvima jašući na bijelom konju i voditi bitku s "Princem Zla", koji će opustošiti Zemlju.

Priča o Krišni kako je zabilježena u drevnim indijskim legendama i tekstovima na Zapad je prodrla u mnogo navrata. Po jednoj teoriji štovanje Krišne doprlo je do Europe već 800. pr.n.e., a donijeli su ga možda Feničani. Higgins tvrdi da je štovanje Krišne u Irskoj još i starije te ukazuje na mnogobrojne lingvističke i arheološke dokaze za tu ranu migraciju. Krišna je u zapadnu kulturu ušao u nekoliko drugih
navrata, uključujući i onaj kada ga je Aleksandar Veliki donio sa sobom nakon ekspanzije svog carstva i boravka u Indiji. Osim toga, tvrdi se da je njegovo štovanje tijekom prvog stoljeća nove ere ponovno uveo Apolonije iz Tijane, koji je donio svježu pisanu kopiju priče o Krišni na Zapad, odakle je dospjela do Aleksandrije u Egiptu.

Graham o tome kaže:

U drevnoj je Indiji postojao veliki mudrac koji se zvao Deva Bodhisatoua. Između ostalog, on je napisao i mitološku priču o Krišni, čije se ime ponekad pisalo i kao Chrishna. Oko 38. ili 40. n.e.
Apolonije je za svojih putovanja po Istoku pronašao tu priču u Singapuru. Smatrao ju je toliko važnom da ju je preveo na svoj jezik - samaritanski. U tom je prijevodu napravio nekoliko izmjena u skladu sa svojim shvaćanjima i filozofijom. Na povratku ga je donio u Antiohiju i ondje umro. Tridesetak godina kasnije našao ga je jedan drugi Samaritanac, Marcion. On je također napravio kopiju s dodatnim promjenama. Donio ju je u Rim oko 130. n.e. i ondje ju preveo na grčki i latinski.

Tu, dakle, vidimo navodno podrijetlo Marcionova Gospodinova evanđelja, za koje je on tvrdio daje Pavlovo evanđelje. Uz evanđeosku priču, moralističko učenje koje je navodno uveo Isus utemeljio je davno prije njega Krišna. Te sličnosti su razlog zašto unatoč stalnim stoljetnim pokušajima kršćanstvo nije uspjelo uznapredovati u Indiji, budući da su brahmani prepoznali kršćanstvo kao relativno novu imitaciju njihovih znatno starijih predaja, koje su osim toga smatrali i superiornima.

Higgins kaže:

Učeni jezuit Baldaeus primjećuje da svaki dio života Cristne [Krišne] jako nalikuje predaji o Isusu Kristu. On pokazuje da je vrijeme kada su čuda navodno učinjena bilo tijekom Dwaparajuga, a ono je, priznaje on, završilo 3100 godina prije kršćanskog doba, tako da, kao što kaže Cantab, ako riječi imaju značenje, kršćanski misionar priznaje da je priča o Kristu utemeljena na priči o Chrishnu [Krišni].

Mitra u Perziji

Mitra/Mithra je vrlo stari bog kojeg nalazimo i u Perziji i u Indiji i koji stotinama ili tisućama godina prethodi kršćanskom spasitelju. Kult Mitre je ustvari nedugo prije kršćanskog doba bio "najpopularnija i najraširenija 'poganska' religija tog vremena", kako kaže Wheless i onda nastavlja:

Mitraizam je jedan od najstarijih religijskih sustava na svijetu i potječe od početka povijesti, prije prvobitne iranske rase koja se podijelila na dijelove koji su postali perzijska i indijska... Kad su 65.- 63. pr.n.e. osvajačku Pompejevu vojsku velikim dijelom preobratila mitraistička visoka načela, ona je tu religiju donijela sa sobom u Rimsko Carstvo. Mitraizam se velikom brzinom proširio cijelim Carstvom i prihvatio ga je, potpomagao i štitio velik broj careva sve do Konstantinova doba.

Mitraizam je ustvari bio najveći izazov za kršćanstvo koje je za dlaku pobijedilo svoj suparnički kult. Mitra s likom Isusa Krista ima sljedeće zajedničke karakteristike:

  • Rođen je od djevice 25. prosinca u spilji, a rođenju su mu nazočili pastiri koji su donijeli darove.
  • Smatrao se velikim putujućim učiteljem.
  • Njegovim je sljedbenicima obećana besmrtnost.
  • Činio je čuda.
  • Kao "veliki Sunčev bik" Mitra se žrtvovao za mir u svijetu.85
  • Pokopan je u grobnici i nakon tri dana ponovno ustao.
  • Njegovo se uskrsnuće slavilo svake godine.
  • Zvali su ga "Dobrim Pastirom" i poistovjećivali ga i s janjetom i s lavom.
  • Smatrali su ga "Putem, Istinom i Svjetlom", "Logosom", "Otkupiteljem", "Spasiteljem" i "Mesijom".
  • Njegov sveti dan bila je nedjelja - "dan Gospodnji" - još stotinama godina prije pojave Krista.
  • Njegova glavna svetkovina bila je ona koja je kasnije postala Uskrs.
  • Njegova je religija imala euharistiju ili "Večeru Gospodnju", na kojoj je Mitra rekao: "Onaj tko neće jesti od mog tijela i piti od moje krvi da bude jedno sa mnom i ja s njime neće biti spašen."
  • "Njegova godišnja žrtva je Pesah maga, simbolično pomirenje ili zalog moralne i fizičke obnove."

Nadalje, sam Vatikan se zasniva na papinstvu Mitre i kršćanska je hijerarhija gotovo identična mitraističkoj verziji koju je zamijenila.

Kao što kaže Walker:

Vatikanska spilja pripadala je Mitri do 376. n.e., kada je načelnik grada ugušio kult konkurentskog spasitelja i zauzeo svetište u ime Krista na sam rođendan poganskog boga - 25. prosinca.

Walker dalje tumači:

Kršćani su kopirali brojne pojedinosti iz mitraističke misterije i religije, objašnjavajući kasnije te sličnosti svojim omiljenim argumentom da je vrag predvidio i preduhitrio pravu vjeru imitirajući je prije Kristova rođenja.

Shmuel Golding kaže u svojoj The Book Your Church Doesn't Want You to Read:

Pavao u Prvoj poslanici Korinćanima 10:4 kaže: ,,I svi su pili od te duhovne hridi, a ta hrid je bila Krist." Ovo su riječi koje su identične onima koje su pronađene u mitraističkim djelima, osim što se umjesto imena Krist koristi ime Mitra. Vatikansko brdo u Rimu, koje se smatra svetim za Petra, kršćansku stijenu, već je bilo sveto za Mitru. Ondje su pronađeni mnogobrojni mitraistički ostaci. Stapanje štovanja Atisa u štovanje Mitre, a potom u štovanje Isusa, izvedeno je gotovo bez prekida.

Tars, legendarni Pavlov dom, ustvari je bilo mjesto u kojem se štovao Mitra. Kao što govori Wheless, Katolička enciklopedija o mitraizmu kaže:

"Oci su predvodili bogoštovlje. Glavni medu očima, neka vrsta pape koji je uvijek živio u Rimu, zvao se 'Pater Patratus". Mitraistički papa također je bio poznat kao Papa i Pontimus Maximus.
Praktički svi elementi katoličkog obreda, od mitre preko hostije do oltara i doksologije izravno su preuzeti iz ranijih poganskih misterijskih religija.

Taylor kaže:

"Da je Rimokatolička crkva svoje temeljne obrede i doktrine posudila od poganskih rituala činjenica je u koju su najučeniji i najortodoksniji članovi Crkve najsnažnije vjerovali i koju su s najvećem uvjerenjem dokazivali."

Prometej u Grčkoj

Grčki bog Prometej navodno je iselio iz Egipta, ali njegova se muka odvila na planinama Kavkaza. Prometej dijeli nekoliko napadnih sličnosti s likom Isusa Krista:

  • Prometej je sišao s neba kao utjelovljenje Boga kako bi spasio čovječanstvo.
  • Imao je "posebno vjernog" prijatelja "Petraeusa" (Petra), ribara, koji ga je napustio.
  • Razapet je, prošao muku i uskrsnuo od mrtvih.
  • Zvali su ga Logos ili Riječ.

Quetzalcoatl u Meksiku

Suvremena znanstvena ortodoksija ne slaže se niti s datumom koji daje Graves, po kojem meksički Quetzalcoatl vuče podrijetlo iz 6. stoljeća pr.n.e., niti s pretkolumbovskim kontaktom "Starog" i "Novog" svijeta. Dokazi, međutim, ukazuju na to da je taj mit doista postojao u Meksiku davno prije kršćanske ere, što sugerira upravo takav susret svjetova. Po predaji su ustvari drevni Feničani, vrsni moreplovci, znali za
"izgubljenu zemlju" na zapadu. Ne bi nas stoga trebalo iznenaditi otkrije li se da su priče o Novom svijetu postojale u drevnim knjižnicama prije kršćanske ere, kao što je bila ona aleksandrijska, kao što je tvrdio Graves.

Kako god onamo dospjela, ne može se sumnjati u ogromnu sličnost između meksičke religije i katoličanstva. Doane primjećuje:

Stoljećima prije Kolumbova dolaska na njegovu obalu stanovnici drevnog Meksika štovali su "Spasitelja", kako su ga oni zvali (Quetzalcoatle ), koji je rođen od čiste djevice. Nebeski glasnik je navijestio njegovoj majci da će roditi sina bez dodira s muškarcem. Lord Kingsborough nam govori da je navještenje djevici Sochiquetzal, Quetzalcoatlovoj majci koja je prikazana kao "Nebeska kraljica", predmet jednog meksičkog hijeroglifa.

Quetzalcoatl je također prikazivan kao jutarnja zvijezda, doveden je u iskušenje i postio 40 dana te ga se jelo u euharistiji nazvanoj po njemu. Kao što kaže Walker:

Ovaj Spasitelj kojeg se jelo i kojeg je pomno čuvalo njegovih deset ili dvanaest čuvara bio je utjelovljenje boga Quetzalcoatla, kojeg je rodila djevica, koji je ubijen za iskupljenje izvornog grijeha i čiji se Drugi dolazak sa sigurnošću iščekivao. Često ga se prikazivalo kao trojstvo u znaku tri križa, od kojih se jedan veliki nalazio između dvaju manjih. Otac Acosta naivno je izjavio: "Čudno je da je vrag na svoj način pretvorio Trojstvo u idolatriju." Njegovoj je crkvi to sve bilo suviše poznato i dugo je njegovu knjigu čuvala kao jednu od svojih tajni.

Meksikanci su štovah križ i krstili su svoju djecu u obredu obnove i novog rođenja davno prije kontakta s kršćanstvom.95 U jednom od rijetkih sačuvanih kodeksa nalazi se slika meksičkog spasitelja koji se savija pod teretom teškog križa na potpuno isti način na koji se prikazuje Krist. Meksički je križ nosio čovjeka s rupama od čavala na nogama i rukama: meksičkog Krista i iskupitelja koji je umro za grijehe ljudi. Na jednom prikazu takvog raspela Spasitelj je bio prekriven suncima.

Uz to, Meksikanci su imali samostane i ženske manastire, a svoje velike svećenike zvali su Papes.  Meksički spasitelj i rituali bili su toliko uznemirujuće slični kršćanstvu konkvistadorskih Španjolaca da je Cortes bio primoran pribjeći standardnoj lažnoj pritužbi da je "Vrag naučio Meksikance da čine iste stvari koje je Bog naučio kršćane". Španjolci su morali uništiti što više dokaza, spaljujući knjige te nagrđujući i uništavajući hramove, spomenike i razne druge rukotvorine.

Serapis u Egiptu

Još jedan bog čija je priča izrazito slična Kristovoj, a za koju su dokazi također uništeni, bio je egipatski bog Serapis ili Sarapis, kojeg su zvali "Dobrim Pastirom" i smatrali iscjeliteljem.

O Sarapisu Walker kaže:

On je bio sinkretički bog koji je štovan kao vrhovno božanstvo u Egiptu do kraja 4. stoljeća nove ere.
Iznimno popularni kult Sarapisa koristio se istom simbolikom koju su kasnije prihvatili kršćani: napjevima, svjetlima, zvonima, posebnom odjećom, procesijama, glazbom. Sarapis je predstavljao konačnu preobrazbu spasitelja Ozirisa u monoteističku figuru gotovo identičnu kršćanskom bogu... Ovaj ptolemejski bog bio je kombinacija Ozirisa i Apisa... Kao što je Krist bio žrtveno janje, tako je Sarapis bio žrtveni bik, kao i bog u ljudskom obliku. Svake su ga godine žrtvovali za otkupljenje grijeha Egipta..."

Kao što smo vidjeli, sliku Serapisa, koji je nekoć stajao u Serapionu/Serapeumu u Aleksandriji, preuzeli su kasniji kršćani kao sliku Isusa, a kult Serapisa smatrao se kultom izvornih kršćana.

Albert Churchward pojašnjava:

Rimske katakombe prepune su ilustracija koje su reproducirane kao egipatsko-gnostička pravila, doktrine i dogme koje su služile Perzijancima, Grcima, Rimljanima i Židovima kao dokazi za nehistorijsko podrijetlo kršćanstva. Pri prelasku sa stare egipatske religije na novi kult kršćanstva nije bilo važnijeg čimbenika od štovanja Serapisa.

Kao što govori car Hadrijan u svom pismu Servijanu:

"Oni koji se klanjaju Serapisu su kao kršćani. Čak i oni koji se predstavljaju kao Kristovi biskupi odani su Serapisu."


Kao i u slučaju osnivača drugih religija i sekti, mnogi ljudi vjeruju da je Zoroaster bio stvarna ličnost koja je raširila perzijsku religiju oko 660. pr.n.e. Međutim, tvrdi se da je zoroastrijanizam postojao prije 10.000 godina te da je bilo barem "sedam Zoroastera ... koje su zabilježili različiti povjesničari".101 Jasno je stoga da Zoroaster nije jedna osoba, nego drukčije začinjena verzija sveprisutnog mita s drukčijim etničkim podrijetlom. Ime Zoroaster znači "sin zvijezde", što je uobičajeni mitski pridjevak, za koji Jacolliot tvrdi daje perzijska verzija starijega indijskog "Zuryastare (koji je obnovio štovanje sunca) i od kojeg potječe ovo ime Zoroaster, koje je samo po sebi tek titula koja se dodjeljuje političkom i religijskom zakonodavcu".

Sličnosti Zoroastera s Kristom su sljedeće:

  • Zoroaster je rođen od djevice i začet je "bezgrešnim začećem zrakom božanske mudrosti".
  • Kršten je u rijeci.
  • U svojoj je mladosti zadivio mudrace svojom mudrošću.
  • U divljini ga je u iskušenje dovodio vrag.
  • Započeo je službu s 30 godina života.
  • Krstio je vodom, vatrom i "svetim vjetrom".
  • Istjerivao je demone i vratio vid slijepcu.
  • Učio je o nebu i paklu i otkrivao misterije, uključujući uskrsnuće, sud, spasenje i apokalipsu.
  • Imao je sveti gral.
  • Ubijen je.
  • Njegova je religija imala euharistiju.
  • Bio je "Riječ koja je tijelom postala".
  • Zoroasterovi sljedbenici očekuju "drugi dolazak" u od djevice rođenom Saoshyantu

(Spasitelju), koji treba doći 2341. godine i započeti svoju službu u dobi od 30 godina te tako započeti zlatno doba. Dobro je poznata činjenica da je zoroastrijanizam preplavio Bliski istok prije kršćanske ere. Kao i mazdaizam i mitraizam, bila je to religija koja je postojala stoljećima prije navodnog vremena "historijskog" Zoroastera. Njezin utjecaj na judaizam i kršćanstvo je nedvojben:

Kad je Ivan Krstitelj govorio da može krstiti vodom, ali da će iza njega doći onaj koji će krstiti vatrom i Duhom Svetim, izgovarao je riječi koje su došle izravno iz same srži zoroastrijanizma.

"Zoroaster" je nomade smatrao zlima, a zemljoradnike dobrima. Perziju tj. Iran smatrao je svetom zemljom. Poput kršćanskih misionara i on je vjerovao da vrag (Angra Mainyu ili Ahriman) "sije lažne vjere", a njegovi sljedbenici su kasnije tvrdili da su to judaizam, kršćanstvo, manihejstvo i islam. Kao i njegov potomak jahvizam, i zoroastrijanizam je bio monoteistička religija koja je zabranjivala slike ili idole
Boga, koji se u zoroastrijanizmu nazivao "Ormuzd" ili "Ahura-Mazda". Stoga je u njegovoj doktrini moguće pronaći i vjersku nesnošljivost.

Larson govori o utjecaju zoroastrijanizma na kršćanstvo:

Od osnovnih elemenata koje su sinoptičari preuzeli iz zoroastrijanizma možemo spomenuti sljedeće: naglašeno osobni i živopisni koncepti neba i pakla; upotreba vode za krštenje i duhovno čišćenje; spasitelj rođen od majke čiste djevice; vjerovanje u demone koji prljaju ljudska bića i moraju se izgnati; Mesija moralne pravednosti; opći veliki sud na temelju dobrih i loših djela; osobna besmrtnost i poseban život svake ljudske duše; apokaliptička vizija i proročanstvo; te konačne muke i nevolje prije drugog dolaska... Uz to, Pavao, Otkrivenje i Četvrto evanđelje snažno su se oslonili na zoroastrijanizam u elementima kojih u sinoptičkim evanđeljima nema, kao što su primjerice: doktrina apsolutnog metafizičkog dualizma, koncept Logosa, preobrazba u nebeski duh, tisućgodišnje kraljevstvo, Armagedon, konačni požar, pobjeda nad Sotonom, obnova svemira i nebeski grad koji se s najviših nebesa spušta na Zemlju.

Wheless kaže:

Vidjeli smo da su sve te božanske i "otkrivene" doktrine kršćanske vjere izvorno dio poganske zoroastrijanske mitologije, koji su prvo preuzeli Zidovi, a potom hrabro plagirali kršćani koji su bili bivši pogani.

Drugi Spasitelji i sinovi Božji

Mnogi drugi sinovi Božji i nekoliko "kćeri Božjih", kao i božice poput Diane Soteire, dijele brojne karakteristike s kršćanskim spasiteljem, kao što su sljedeći istaknuti primjeri.

Arapski Issa navodno je živio oko 400. pr.n.e. u zapadnoj arapskoj regiji Hijazu, gdje su također postojala mjesta koja su se zvala Galileja, Betlehem i Nazaret, grad koji u Palestini nije osnovan sve do nakon navodnog vremena "Isusa iz Nazareta".

Sličnosti između arapskog Isse i palestinskog Isusa brojne su i izražene. Asklepije je veliki grčki bog iscjelitelj koji je imao dugu kovrčavu kosu, nosio halje i činio čuda, uključujući i podizanje iz mrtvih.

O Asklepiju Dujardin kaže:

Riječ Soter ne znači samo Spasitelj, nego i Iscjelitelj. Ta se titula pridaje Eskulapiju... i zanimljivo je vidjeti da su isti oni ljudi koji su svijetu prenijeli revolucionarnu poruku o spasenju putem saveza s Bogom istovremeno bili organizirana skupina iscjelitelja koji su iz dana u dan zarađivali za život iscjeljivanjem.

Također je utvrđeno da je orfička religija slična kršćanstvu. U djelu Jesus Christ: Sun of God David Fideler govori o grčkom junaku/bogu Orfeju:

Orfizam je propagirao ideju vječnog života, koncept "izvornog grijeha" i čišćenja, kažnjavanje zlih u zagrobnom životu te alegorijsko tumačenje mita, koji su ranokršćanski oci primijenili na kršćansko Sveto pismo. Orfej je bio poznat kao Dobri Pastir, a Isus se često prikazivao kao Orfej, dok svira okružen životinjama, simbol Miroljubiva Kraljevstva ili Zlatnog doba, koji predstavlja vječni sklad Logosa. Poput Orfeja i Isus je sišao u pakao kao spasitelj duša.

Werner Keller kaže:

U Berlinu postoji malena amajlija s razapetom osobom, Sedam Sestara i Mjesecom na kojoj je ispisano ORPHEUS BAKKIKOS. Izgleda iznenađujuće kršćanski. Isto se može reći i za prikaz visećeg Marsije u Kapitolinskom muzeju u Rimu.


Orpheus - Bacchus

Orpheus-Bacchus crucified, from a cylinder seal of A.D. 300. There's the crucifixion as metaphysical symbol - Orpheus in the same sense as the Christ, and he goes to the cross like a bridegroom to the bride. Atop the cross is the moon - the death and resurrection motif - and above that, seven stars representing the Pleiades, known to antiquity as the Lyre of Orpheus.

Ponovno razapinjanje Sina Božjega

Zaista, onima koji su jednom prosvijetljeni, i okusili dar nebeski, i postali dionici Duha Svetoga, i okusili Lijepu riječ Božju i snage budućega svijeta, pa otpali, nemoguće je opet se obnoviti na obraćenje kad oni sami ponovno razapinju Sina Božjega i ruglu ga izvrgavaju. - Hebrejima


Justin Mučenik

Justin Mučenik

U svojoj Prvoj apologiji kršćanski otac Justin Mučenik (oko 100. - 165. n.e.) priznaje sličnosti između starijih poganskih bogova i religija te kršćanstva kad, suočen s ismijavanjem, pokušava dokazati da kršćanstvo nije ništa smješnije od ranijih mitova:

ANALOGIJE S POVIJEŠĆU KRISTOVOM. I kad kažemo da je Riječ - Božji prvorođenac - nastala bez spajanja spolova i da je On - Isus Krist, naš Učitelj - razapet i umro, pa ponovno uskrsnuo i uzašao na nebesa ne govorimo ništa drugo od onoga što se vjeruje za Jupiterove sinove. Jer vi znate koliko su sinova vaši cijenjeni pisci pripisali Jupiteru: Merkura, tumača i učitelja; Asklepija kojeg je, premda je bio sjajan liječnik, pogodila i ubila munja te je tako uzašao na nebo, Bakha, koji je živ rastrgan i Herkula, koji se predao vatri da izbjegne svoje muke; i Ledine sinove Dioskure; i Perzeja, sina Danajinog; i Belerofona koji je, premda je nikao iz svijeta smrtnika, uzašao na nebo na konju Pegazu. Što tek reći o Arijadni i onima koji su poput nje postavljeni među zvijezde? Ili o carevima koji umiru među vama, a vi ih smatrate vrijednima deifikacije i u njihovu čast nalazite nekoga tko se kune da je vidio gorućeg Cezara kako se uzdiže na nebo sa svoje posmrtne lomače?

U svojoj beskonačnoj apologiji Justin ponavlja sličnosti između svoga bogočovjeka i bogova iz drugih kultura:

Što se tiče opovrgavanja da je naš Isus razapet, reći ću da je muka bila svojstvena svim prethodno spomenutim Jupiterovim sinovima... Kažemo li da ga je rodila djevica, to isto možemo reći i za vašega Perzeja. Govorimo li o njegovom liječenju hromih, oduzetih i bogalja od rođenja, nije to ništa više nego što ćete vi reći o svom Asklepiju.

Baveći se ovim usporedbama između kršćanstva i prethodnog mu poganstva Justin Mučenik je, međutim, mračno ustvrdio:

Kad je do Đavoljih ušiju došla vijest da su proroci pretkazali dolazak Krista, Sina Božjeg, on je natjerao poganske pjesnike da stvore veliki broj onih koji će se zvati Jupiterovim sinovima. Đavao je upleo svoje prste u ovo kako bi ljudi zamišljali da je prava Kristova povijest istog karaktera kao i čudnovate priče koje se prepričavaju o sinovima Jupiterovim.

U svom Dijalogu sa Židovom Trifonom Justin Mučenik ponovno priznaje ranije postojanje kršćanske priče i koristi svoju standardnu iracionalnu apologiju u svoju korist, tj. „Davao je stigao prvi":

Znaj, Trifone, da su moje znanje iz Pisama i moju vjeru u Pisma učvrstile one prijevare koje je onaj što se naziva đavlom dao ispričati među Grcima; kao što su neke skovali Magi u Egiptu, a druge lažni proroci iz Ilijinog doba. Jer kad kažu da je Bakho, sin Jupiterov, rođen iz odnosa Jupitera i Semele i da je on otkrio vino, kad kažu da je nakon što je rastrgan na komade umro i ponovno ustao te uzašao na nebo; i kad u njegove misterije uvode vino, ne bih li trebao primijetiti da đavao oponaša proročanstvo koje je dao patrijarh Jakov, a zabilježio Mojsije? I kad kažu da je Herkul bio snažan, proputovao cijeli svijet i da je rođen od Zeusa i Alkmene te uzašao na nebo nakon smrti, ne bih li trebao primijetiti da se Pismo koje govori o Kristu koji je „snažan kao div i vodi svoje ljude" oponaša na isti način? I kad đavao govori o Asklepiju koji je oživljavao mrtve i liječio sve bolesti, ne bih li mogao reći da time isto oponaša proročanstva o Kristu?... I kad čujem, Trifone, da je Perzej začet od djevice, shvatim daje i ta priča plod ove lažljive zmije.

Ovakav „đavao je to učinio" odgovor postao je de rigeur protiv stalne i racionalne kritike. Kao što kaže Doane:

Tertulijan i sv. Justin objašnjavaju sve podudarnosti koje postoje između kršćanstva i poganstva tvrdeći „davno prije nego što je bilo kršćana đavao je zadovoljno uredio da njihove misterije i obrede kopiraju njegovi štovatelji".

Kršćanski autor Laktancije (240.-330.) u svojim nastojanjima da potvrdi cara Konstantina u novoj vjeri i preobrati „pogansku" elitu također se naveliko pozivao na poganske priče kao dokaz da kršćanstvo nije apsurdno, nego jednako smisleno kao što su bile i one, premda je on naravno odbacio ove ranije verzije kao đavolje djelo.

Dynastic race Index Sargon