Shamanism

The social function of the Shaman was oracle, healer and spiritual guide all in one. Their job it was to maintain a connection with the spirit world. 

The modern concept of a shaman is based on early stereotypes and Victorian values. Shaman were able to communicate through the Earth-spirit. They were often associated to an animal, or familiar.

What is Shamanism.?

The word shaman originated among the Siberian Tungus (Evenks) and literally means he (or she) who knows. The concept of a shaman was almost lost in the 20th century, but it is making a slow revival in 'new-age' cultures.  In essence, shamanism is a belief system, similar to many religions today, it is often spoke of as one of the first 'religions' practiced by people.

There is a growing belief that a high percentage of rock art is of a shamanic origin.


10-15,000 year engraving is said to be a depiction of a shaman. (From Les Troise Freres cave, France).

In his book 'Supernatural', Graham Hancock makes the case that shamanic experiences led to the sudden development of art, symbolic thinking, and early civilization (pp. 29-31). 

Whether we find its traces in Australia, Asia Africa, or Europe, it is simply impossible to overstate the uniqueness and peculiarity of the evolutionary event by which we were drawn into fully modern consciousness and the fully modern capacity for symbolism and culture, religion, and art. No ancestor in the human lineage had ever made use of any form of symbolism before, and needless to say, no other animal species had ever done so either. But the switching-on of humanity's symbol-making capacity between approximately 100,000 and 40,000 years ago was the change that changed everything.

The idea that most cave-art originated from the shamanic experience is not one to be lightly ignored. The connection of the shaman to the mother-earth through imaginative and magical symbols is a serious proposition and should be considered with the greatest care. Although interpreting cave art is undoubtedly a matter of opinion, there are several recognised pieces which appear to show shamanic images.

More about Prehistoric Cave-art

Generally, the shaman enters the spirit world by effecting a transition of consciousness, entering into an dream state, ecstatic trance, either auto-hypnotically or through the use of intoxicants. The methods employed were diverse, and are often used together. Some of the methods for effecting such trances are as follows: Fasting, drumming, dancing, and psychedelic drugs.

One of the defining characteristics of a shaman is their ability to see beyond three-dimensions. 

 

The oldest Shaman in the world

Article: National Geographic (Nov 2008)

Archaeologists in northern Israel say they have discovered the world's oldest known grave of a shaman. The 12,000-year-old grave holds an elderly female of the mysterious Natufian culture, animal parts, and a human foot. Hundreds of Natufian graves have been excavated in Israel, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon. But only the one uncovered by Grosman contains a woman believed to have been a shaman.

The 1.5-meter-tall (nearly 5-foot-tall), 45-year-old woman was relatively old for her time. After her death, she was placed in a mud-plastered and rock-lined pit in a cave and was buried beneath a large stone slab. She was not buried with everyday items and tools, as hunters, warriors, or political leaders were. Instead, her grave contained 50 arranged turtle shells and parts of wild pigs, eagles, cows, leopards, martens, and a human foot,

Eliade (3), argues that vestiges of shamanic activity 'remain among all the European peoples'. He believed that its persistence and spread across Europe and Asia resulted from a 'systematic reorganisation of magico-religious life' that was basically accomplished at a period when the proto-Indo-Europeans had not yet separated'. He continues by saying that traces of Shamanism can be found in ancient Greece where the 'few figures of Greek legend who can be compared to Shamanism are related to Apollo'. These legendary figures are said to have come 'from the north', from the land of the Hypoboreans. (1)

 

Drug-Use and Shamanics

In 1988, David Lewis-Williams of the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, launched one of archaeology's longest-running controversies when he proposed that the vivid cave paintings of Upper Palaeolithic Europe were produced by shamans whose consciousness had been altered by drugs or self-induced trances.

Article: http://www.archaeology.org/0511/reviews/neolithic.html 


Psychedelic mushrooms were called 'Holy Children' by the Mazatec shamen

Terrence Mckenna - It is well known fact that psychotropic drugs induce altered states of consciousness. It was argued by Terrence McKenna that they were a leading stimulant in the evolution of the human brain, and the origin of language and religion. This theory did not originate with Mckenna. In 1986, shortly before his passing, Gordon Wasson put forth his own theory on the origin of religion from hallucinogenic mushrooms, specifically Amanita muscaria, with examples from several cultures that he had previously described, in details. In addition, Wasson also believed that Soma was responsible for:

"A prodigious expansion in Man's memory must have been the gift that differentiated mankind from his predecessors, and I surmise that this expansion in memory led to a simultaneous growth in the gift of language, these two powers generating in man that self-consciousness which is the third of the triune traits that alone make man unique. Those three gifts - memory, language and self-consciousness - so interlock that they seem inseparable, the aspects of a quality that permitted us to achieve all the wonders we now know." (2)

A modified version of this theory was later developed by McKenna, in the late 1980's. His theory differed from Wasson in that Mckenna believed that mushrooms containing the entheogen psilocybin, and he specifically says Stropharia cubensis, was responsible for the origin of religion and development of memory, language and self-consciousness. According to Mckenna, both events occurred in Africa, and began during the prehistoric, nomadic, hunting/gathering period of man's existence. The conclusion that Stropharia cubensis was "The Tree of Knowledge" was based on the elimination of plants containing entheogens that are available in Africa. Mckenna further restricted the plants considered to those having entheogens with indole compounds, which are characteristically strong visionary entheogens. With these prerequisites, the list of hallucinogenic plants was short:Tabernanthe iboga and Peganum harmala (Syrian Rue). Although both are known to be used by religious cults, these species were eliminated from consideration. The roots of Tabernanthe iboga contain the the alkaloid ibogaine, the entheogen, is required in far greater amounts than would normally be consumed in a meal by early man. In addition, its usage is only traced as far back as the 19th. While Peganum harmala may be found through the arid part of Mediterranean North Africa, there is no history of its usage here and it, again, must be too highly concentrated or must at least be combined with dimethyltryptamine (DMT) before it will produce an hallucinogenic effect. With the elimination of these two species, McKenna was left only with psilocybin mushrooms. These mushrooms could be found abundantly growing on the dung of the hooved animals that grazed in the grassland areas where they were being hunted. Stropharia cubensis was singled out because it was the only species thought to produce psilocybin in concentrated amounts and to be free of other compounds that may produce side-affects. It was the addition of the Stropharia to the diet of early man that led to better eyesight (an advantage for hunters), sex, language, and ritual activity (religion among them), when eaten. McKenna suggested that the mushroom augmented the above traits by changing the behaviour of individuals. These changes in behaviors favored increased usage of language, leading to an increase in vocabulary to communicate when hunting and gathering. Although evolution was occurring on the genetic level, due to increase in mutations from the change in diet that had occurred, according to McKenna, social evolution, due to the mushroom consumption was responsible for the above changes.

At the same time that language was developing, religion also began. When taken at levels that cause intoxication, a feeling of ecstasy occurs, with hallucination and access to what the user would perceive as the realm of the supernatural. This led to the origin of the shaman whose duty is to communicate with the unseen mind of nature.


Samples from the cache of ten mushroom figurines discovered in Guatemala city and dated at around 100 - 300 BC

Article: The Lycaeum. (1992)

The idea that the use of hallucinogens should be a source of inspiration for some forms of prehistoric rock art is not a new one. After a brief examination of instances of such art, this article intends to focus its attention on a group of rock paintings in the Sahara Desert, the works of pre-neolithic Early Gatherers, in which mushrooms effigies are represented repeatedly. The polychromic scenes of harvest, adoration and the offering of mushrooms, and large masked "gods" covered with mushrooms, not to mention other significant details, lead us to suppose we are dealing with an ancient hallucinogenic mushroom cult. What is remarkable about these ethnomycological works, produced 7,000 - 9,000 years ago, is that they could indeed reflect the most ancient human culture as yet documented in which the ritual use of hallucinogenic mushrooms is explicitly represented. As the Fathers of modern ethno-mycology (and in particular R. Gordon Wasson) imagined, this Saharian testimony shows that the use of hallucinogens goes back to the Paleolithic Period and that their use always takes place within contexts and rituals of a mysfico-religious nature.

The She-Shaman

One of the burials at Dolni Vestonice, Czech revealed a human female skeleton, ritualistically placed beneath a pair of mammoth scapulae, one leaning against the other. The bones and the earth surrounding it contained traces of red ochre, a flint spearhead had been placed near the skull and one hand held the body of a fox. This evidence has led to suggestions that this was the burial site of a shaman. This is the oldest site not only of ceramic figurines and artistic portraiture, but also of evidence of female shaman.

More about Dolni Vestonice

Article: (14 Jan,. 2013). Eurekalert.org

'4,000-year-old shaman's stones discovered near Boquete, Panama'

'Archaeologists working at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama have discovered a cluster of 12 unusual stones in the back of a small, prehistoric rock-shelter near the town of Boquete. The cache represents the earliest material evidence of shamanistic practice in lower Central America. Based on the placement and the unusual composition of the stones in the cache, Richard Cooke, STRI staff scientist, suggested they were used by a shaman or healer. Consulting geologist Stewart Redwood determined that the cache consists of a small dacite stone fashioned into a cylindrical tool; a small flake of white, translucent quartz; a bladed quartz and jarosite aggregate; a quartz crystal aggregate; several pyrite nodules that showed evidence of use; a small, worn and abraded piece of chalcedony; a magnetic andesite flake; a large chalcedony vein stone; and a small magnetic kaolinite stone naturally eroded into an unusual shape, similar to a flower'.

Link to Full Article

 

DMT - A spiritual molecule

 

Sadhu

 

 

 


The Role of Drugs in Prehistory

The numerous examples of 'drug' use in prehistory suggests that they may have played an important role in our imaginative development. For example, we now know that the flowers associated with Neanderthal burials had psychoactive properties (Leroi-Gouriian 1984)

The question is not whether drugs were used in prehistory, but rather - to what extent and what for. Prehistoric rock-art and shamanic imagery suggest that humans have been using mind altering substances for thousands of years. It is even suggested that they may have played an evolutionary role in our mental development.

Evidence for Drug use in Prehistory

In 1988, David Lewis-Williams of the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, launched one of archaeology's longest-running controversies when he proposed that the vivid cave paintings of Upper Paleolithic Europe were produced by shamans whose consciousness had been altered by drugs or self-induced trances. (10) The following examples suggest that his proposition may have substance.

 

Drugs and Shamanism

In his book 'Supernatural', Graham Hancock makes the case that shamanic experiences led to the sudden development of art, symbolic thinking, and early civilization (pp. 29-31).

Whether we find its traces in Australia, Asia Africa, or Europe, it is simply impossible to overstate the uniqueness and peculiarity of the evolutionary event by which we were drawn into fully modern consciousness and the fully modern capacity for symbolism and culture, religion, and art. No ancestor in the human lineage had ever made use of any form of symbolism before, and needless to say, no other animal species had ever done so either. But the switching-on of humanity's symbol-making capacity between approximately 100,000 and 40,000 years ago was the change that changed everything.

 

The Pineal Gland

There are numerous depictions of 'cobs' or 'pine-cones' in ancient and sacred art. The pine-cone has a strong symbolism, being a reference to the 'Third-eye' or 'pineal-gland', so named because of its similarity in shape. The pine-cone is traditionally associated with immortality and knowledge. The Pineal gland is activated by Light, and it controls the various biorhythms of the body. It works in harmony with the hypothalamus gland, which directs the body's thirst, hunger, sexual desire and the biological clock, that determines our aging process.

"E. A. Wallis Budge has noted that in some of the papyri illustrating the entrance of the souls of the dead into the judgment hall of Osiris the deceased person has a pine cone attached to the crown of his head. The Greek mystics also carried a symbolic staff, the upper end being in the form of a pine cone, which was called the thyrsus of Bacchus. In the human brain there is a tiny gland called the pineal body, which is the sacred eye of the ancients, and corresponds to the third eye of the Cyclops. " Manly P. Hall.


The Egyptian Staff of Osiris, dating back to approximately 1224 BC, depicts two intertwining serpents rising up to meet at a pin-econe.

Modern scholars and philosophers have noted the staff’s symbolic parallels to the Indian “Kundalini,” a spiritual energy in the body depicted as coiled serpents rising up from the base of the spine to the Third Eye (Pineal Gland) in the moment of enlightenment. Awakened Kundalini represents the merging and alignment of the Chakras, and is said to be the one and only way to attain the “Divine Wisdom” brining pure joy, pure knowledge and pure love.

In 1997, British Dr. Jennifer Luke extensively documented the Pineal Gland as the primary target for Fluoride accumulation in our bodies (5), where it calcifies the Pineal, inhibiting blood flow and “clogging” the basic functions of our Third Eye. By feeding the public Fluoride from birth, critics claim that our greater spiritual abilities are being dulled by chemically clouding our biological portal to spiritual awareness.

The Psychopharmacologist Rick Strassman believes the Third Eye/Pineal Gland to be the source of the psychedelic Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) in our bodies (6). Strassman has hypothesized that large amounts of DMT are released in our bodies during heightened states of spiritual consciousness, such as birth, death and near-death experiences -- or perhaps during the awakening of our Kundalini in a moment of Enlightenment.

Synthesized DMT, or plants containing DMT are often used as recreational psychedelics, or in shamanic ceremonies, such as the Ayahuasca ceremony originating in South America. DMT and/or Ayahuasca users often report intensely entheogenic experiences of spiritual awakening, contact with entities of supernatural or spiritual origin, and the dilation or compression of time.

 

The Cult of the Mushroom

The late Maya archaeologist Dr. Stephan F. de Borhegyi, was convinced that hallucinogenic mushroom rituals were a central aspect of Maya religion. He based this theory on his identification of a mushroom stone cult that came into existence in the Guatemala Highlands and Pacific coastal area around 1000 B.C. along with a trophy head cult associated with the Mesoamerican ballgame. In most cases the mushroom imagery was associated with ritual sacrifice in the Underworld, with jaguar transformation and calendar period endings, and with the decapitation and resurrection of the underworld Sun God by a pair of deities associated with the planet Venus. Mushrooms were also closely associated with Tlaloc and the ritual warfare carried out in his name that is known as Tlaloc warfare.

Link to Full Article: http://mayavasepro.webs.com/


This figure has a Flyagaric mushroom 'Hidden in plain sight'. It symbolises the transformation into the 'Jaguar God' following consumption of the hallucinogen. This image appears in Olmec art from as early as 1200 BC. (7)


Psychedelic mushrooms were called the 'Holy Children' by the Mazatec shamen.

More about Prehistoric Guatemala

 

Terrence Mckenna: The Evolution of Imagination

It is well known fact that psychotropic drugs induce altered states of consciousness. It was argued by Terrence McKenna that they were a leading stimulant in the evolution of the human brain, and the origin of language and religion. This theory did not originate with Mckenna. In 1986, shortly before his passing, Gordon Wasson put forth his own theory on the origin of religion from hallucinogenic mushrooms, specifically Amanita muscaria, with examples from several cultures that he had previously described, in details. In addition, Wasson also believed that Soma was responsible for:

"A prodigious expansion in Man's memory must have been the gift that differentiated mankind from his predecessors, and I surmise that this expansion in memory led to a simultaneous growth in the gift of language, these two powers generating in man that self-consciousness which is the third of the triune traits that alone make man unique. Those three gifts - memory, language and self-consciousness - so interlock that they seem inseparable, the aspects of a quality that permitted us to achieve all the wonders we now know." (2)

A modified version of this theory was later developed by McKenna, in the late 1980's. His theory differed from Wasson in that Mckenna believed that mushrooms containing the entheogen psilocybin, and he specifically says Stropharia cubensis, was responsible for the origin of religion and development of memory, language and self-consciousness. According to Mckenna, both events occurred in Africa, and began during the prehistoric, nomadic, hunting/gathering period of man's existence. The conclusion that Stropharia cubensis was "The Tree of Knowledge" was based on the elimination of plants containing entheogens that are available in Africa. Mckenna further restricted the plants considered to those having entheogens with indole compounds, which are characteristically strong visionary entheogens. With these prerequisites, the list of hallucinogenic plants was short:Tabernanthe iboga and Peganum harmala (Syrian Rue). Although both are known to be used by religious cults, these species were eliminated from consideration. The roots of Tabernanthe iboga contain the the alkaloid ibogaine, the entheogen, is required in far greater amounts than would normally be consumed in a meal by early man. In addition, its usage is only traced as far back as the 19th. While Peganum harmala may be found through the arid part of Mediterranean North Africa, there is no history of its usage here and it, again, must be too highly concentrated or must at least be combined with dimethyltryptamine (DMT) before it will produce an hallucinogenic effect. With the elimination of these two species, McKenna was left only with psilocybin mushrooms. These mushrooms could be found abundantly growing on the dung of the hooved animals that grazed in the grassland areas where they were being hunted. Stropharia cubensis was singled out because it was the only species thought to produce psilocybin in concentrated amounts and to be free of other compounds that may produce side-affects. It was the addition of the Stropharia to the diet of early man that led to better eyesight (an advantage for hunters), sex, language, and ritual activity (religion among them), when eaten. McKenna suggested that the mushroom augmented the above traits by changing the behaviour of individuals. These changes in behaviors favored increased usage of language, leading to an increase in vocabulary to communicate when hunting and gathering. Although evolution was occurring on the genetic level, due to increase in mutations from the change in diet that had occurred, according to McKenna, social evolution, due to the mushroom consumption was responsible for the above changes.

'At the same time that language was developing, religion also began. When taken at levels that cause intoxication, a feeling of ecstasy occurs, with hallucination and access to what the user would perceive as the realm of the supernatural. This led to the origin of the shaman whose duty is to communicate with the unseen mind of nature'.

Article: The Lycaeum. (1992)

The idea that the use of hallucinogens should be a source of inspiration for some forms of prehistoric rock art is not a new one. After a brief examination of instances of such art, this article intends to focus its attention on a group of rock paintings in the Sahara Desert, the works of pre-neolithic Early Gatherers, in which mushrooms effigies are represented repeatedly. The polychromic scenes of harvest, adoration and the offering of mushrooms, and large masked "gods" covered with mushrooms, not to mention other significant details, lead us to suppose we are dealing with an ancient hallucinogenic mushroom cult. What is remarkable about these ethnomycological works, produced 7,000 - 9,000 years ago, is that they could indeed reflect the most ancient human culture as yet documented in which the ritual use of hallucinogenic mushrooms is explicitly represented. As the Fathers of modern ethno-mycology (and in particular R. Gordon Wasson) imagined, this Saharian testimony shows that the use of hallucinogens goes back to the Paleolithic Period and that their use always takes place within contexts and rituals of a mysfico-religious nature.

 

What were they smoking in Egypt?

In a one-page article appearing in Naturwissenschaften, German scientist Svetla Balabanova (1992) and two of her colleagues reported findings of cocaine, hashish and nicotine in Egyptian mummies. The findings were immediately identified as improbable on the grounds that two of the substances were known to be derived only from American plants - cocaine from Erythroxylon coca, and nicotine from Nicotiana tabacum. The suggestion that such compounds could have found their way to Egypt before Columbus' discovery of America seemed patently impossible.

 
These 'images' on the temple walls of Dendera (left) and Abydoss (right), suggest an association between the the ceremonial nature of the temples and inhaling a 'burning substance'...

The study was done as part of an ongoing program of investigating the use of hallucinogenic substances in ancient societies. The authors themselves were quite surprised by the findings (Discovery, 1997) but stood y their results despite being the major focus of criticism in the following volume of aturwissenschaften. Of the nine mummies evaluated, all showed signs of cocaine and hashish Tetrahydrocannabinol), whereas all but one sampled positive for nicotine. It is interesting too that the concentrations of the compounds suggest uses other than that of abuse. (For example, modern drug addicts often have concentrations of cocaine and nicotine in their hair 75 and 20 times higher respectively than that found in the mummy hair samples.) It is even possible that the quantities found may be high due to concentration in body tissues through time.

Without question, the study has sparked an interest in various disciplines. As Balabanova et. al. predicted, "...the results open up an entirely new field of research which unravels aspects of past human life-style far beyond [sic] basic biological reconstruction."

Follow this link for a full and balanced review of the subject:

http://www.faculty.ucr.edu/~legneref/ethnic/mummy.htm

 

Ancient Greece: The Prophetic Oracles

Both Minoan and Greek images attest to an association between the gods and poppies as seen below.

 
Left: Gold signet ring, Knossos. 1500 BC. Demeter, seated beneath the Double Axe and the World Tree, hands three poppy heads to Persephone. Right: Sacramental vase in the National Archeological Museum of Taranto. 450 BC, depicts Demeter's son, Dionysos, wearing a crown of opium poppies.

An association between poppies and the oracles can be seen in the exquisite example of Minoan art below. What has been termed the 'Sleeping Goddess' or the 'Poppy Goddess' is one of several figurines discovered inside a room without windows. Her posture is that of worship or prayer, as are the other figurines. The symbolism of the poppies is clear considering its reputation, and the cuts on the sides are additional indications that the poppies are functional (either medicinally or for inducing a trance-state). 

The prophetic abilities of the Delphic oracles were renowned for over a thousand years.


This Minoan figurine of the female in worship stance wearing a diadem of opium poppy heads, each painted with a slit for extraction of the sap.

More about the Oracles

 

Drugs in Prehistoric Asia

Article: (Aug 15, 2012) News.Com.Au.

'Ancient Siberian Princess Buried With Cannabis'.

'Tattoo's as complex and abstract as any modern design have been found on the body of Siberian princess buried in the permafrost for more than 2500 years. Two warriors recovered from the same burial site in the permafrost of the Ukok Plateau were similar fantastical creatures.   (Quick-link)


Buried with the 'princess' were six saddled-and-bridled horses, bronze and gold ornaments - and a small canister of cannabis'.

More about Tattoo's in Prehistory

Article (2008) Discovery.Com

'Prehistoric Cultivated Marijuana Stash Found in China'

According to a recent report, researchers have discovered almost two pounds of marijuana "cultivated for psychoactive purposes" in the Gobi Desert, an area located in southern Mongolia and the northern Inner Mongolia region of China. According to the researchers, the marijuana stash is about 2,700 years old. The following is an excerpt from the news report

Nearly two pounds of still-green plant material was found in the grave of a 2,700-year-old  light-haired, blue-eyed Caucasian man in the Gobi Desert, and has been identified as the world's oldest marijuana stash, according to a paper in the latest issue of the Journal of Experimental Botany.

A barrage of tests proves the marijuana possessed potent psychoactive properties and casts doubt on the theory that the ancients only grew the plant for hemp in order to make clothing, rope and other objects. It is possible that the man was a shaman but it is unknown whether the marijuana was grown for spiritual or medical purposes. The substance has also been found in two of the 500 Gushi tombs excavated so far in northwestern China.

More about the 'Cherchen' Mummies

At Merv oasis, a little west of Urumchi (China), there is a religious complex that dates back to the second Millenium BC. In its most important room, the 'White room', are storage vessels which contain traces of Poppy and Ephedra. Apparently, the poppy derivatives provide such stunning highs that the ephedra had to be used to prevent the shaman from losing consciousness. (9)

The Pazyryk barrows, (5th-3rd centuries B.C.) Russia: The Pazyryk tombs discovered by Rudenko were in an almost perfect state of preservation. Unique artefacts found during excavation of the burial mounds (kurgans) of Pazyryk in the Eastern part of the High Altai, at a height of 1,600 metres above sea level include skeletons and intact bodies of horses and embalmed humans, together with a wealth of artefacts including saddles, riding gear, a chariot, rugs, clothing, jewelry, musical instruments, amulets, tools, and, interestingly, an "apparatus for inhaling hemp smoke". Also found in the tombs were fabrics from Persia and China, which the Pazyryks must have obtained on journeys covering thousands of miles. (8)

 

Drug-use in the Pre-Columbian Americas

Article: Bulletin on Narcotics. Issue 1, 1971; 3-14. By Albert Hofmann.

'The country of origin of the majority and most important of the so-called magic, i.e. hallucinogenic drugs, is Central America. Magic drugs were already of great importance in the old Indian cultures of Mexico. The Spanish chroniclers and naturalists who came to the country soon after the conquest of Mexico by Cortez mentioned in their writings a great number of plants with intoxicating, stimulating, or narcotic effects; these plants were unknown in the Old World and were used by the Indians both in their medical practices and in their religious ceremonies. The cultic use and divine worship given to many of these drugs met with the disapproval of the Christian missionaries, who attempted by any means possible to liberate the Indians from this devilry. They were, however, only partially successful in this respect. The native population secretly continued using the drugs considered by them as holy even after having been converted to Christianity.

Three magic drugs were used mainly by the Aztecs and neighbouring tribes in their religious ceremonies and medical practices, which were strongly influenced by magical concepts; these drugs are still used today for the same purpose by the witch doctors in remote districts of Mexico. They are: 1. peyotl, a cactus species; 2. teonanácatl, certain foliate mushrooms; 3. ololiuqui, the seeds of bindweeds.

The first of these magic drugs to be analyzed was peyotl, the cactus Anhalonium Lewinii, this being done at the turn of the century. The alkaloid mescaline was found to be the psychoactive principle of peyotl. These investigations are to be considered as the first scientific studies in the field of psychotomimetics, and the two pioneer researchers who carried them out, Louis Lewin and Arthur Heffter, deserve a place of honour in the history of psychotomimetic research'.

Link to Full Article


Samples from the cache of ten mushroom figurines discovered in Guatemala city and dated at around 100 - 300 BC.

More about Guatemala

Tiahuanaco, Bolivia.

Highly decorated snuffing tablets and tubes are often found as grave goods during the periods 3,4,5,6,7,8. Until now the type of drugs consumed in this paraphernalia has been unclear. From the modern city of Arica, naturally mummified human bodies with abundant hair provided a unique opportunity to test for hallucinogenic plants consumed in Andean prehistory. Analysis by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry demonstrated the presence of harmine. The Banisteriopsis vine, commonly called Ayahuasca, was the probable source. This is the first confirmed evidence of psychoactive plant consumption in pre-Hispanic Andean populations along the Atacama coastal region. Of the 32 mummy hair samples analyzed 3 males tested positive for harmine. This alkaloid aids in the catalysis and synergic effects of powerful hallucinogenic drugs. The consumption of harmine was likely related to medicinal practices and not exclusively ingested by shamans. Another important aspect of this evidence is that Banisteriopsis is an Amazon plant. It does not grow in the Atacama coastal region. Thus, our findings reveal extensive plant trade networks in antiquity between the coast, desert, highlands, and Amazon basin.

Link: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/1368/version/1

'Examinations of hair samples exhibit remnants of psychoactive substances in many mummies found in Tiwanaku culture mummies from Northern Chile, even those of babies as young as 1 year of age, demonstrating the importance of these substances to the Tiwanaku'. (10).

More about Tiahuanaco

More about about Pre-Columbian America

 

Hallucinogens and the Neolithic Megaliths

Gavr'inis, France - Thursday, January 27, 2005 - Bangor Daily News.

'Neolithic pottery artefacts found in the chamber contain traces of cannabis'. (3)

Balfarg, Scotland: The Balfarg henge is a part of a larger prehistoric ceremonial complex in Fife, Scotland.  grooved-ware pottery found at the site dates to around 2900 BC. Some of the vessels may have been used to hold black Henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) which is a poison but also a powerful hallucinogen. This discovery is briefly explored in the journal Antiquity in the article ' The use of henbane as a hallucinogen at Neolithic ritual sites: a re-evaluation' (1)

Carrowmore, Ireland. (Site 4) - Dated about 4,600 BC, contains the remains of a passage-tomb which may be the earliest in the country. Such an early date, however, is controversial. This tomb is one of the smallest complete sites in the cemetery and produced the remains of over 65 fragments of antler pins, including seven pieces with mushroom-shaped heads, as well as over 30 kilos of cremated human bone.

Skara Brae, Orkneys: Hallucinogenic Alcohol: 5,000 year old traces of cereal-based fermented alcohol - laced with hemlock and henbanewere discovered near Skara Brae in the Neolithic metropolis of Orkney. (Gourlay, 2001)

However important, alcohol is nowhere near the full story of induced Neolithic consciousness change.   In many cultures, psychoactive drugs and their effects are viewed as vehicles for making contact with other worlds, in particular those of the ancestors in the context of temple-centred ceremony.  Rudgley (1999, p.137-141) has proposed cannabis and/or opium as likely candidates in the early western Neolithic and a growing body of opinion points in the same direction. (Devereux, 1997: Sherratt, 1997; Thomas, J., 1998)  The Orkney brew described above, it will be remembered, was blended with henbane and hemlock.  Henbane, bearer of the trance-inducing, hallucinatory (and extremely toxic) drug Hyoscyamine, is one of what Sherratt (1996) terms “the Saturnine herbs”.  Sherratt recounts how during the 1980’s henbane was recovered from carbonised Neolithic porridge, eaten from Grooved Ware pottery in the context of a mortuary structure, Balfarg/Balbirnie in Fife, Scotland.  Discovery in the 1920's of three burial chambers at the Jersey La Houghe Bie site adds weight to Sherratt's thesis.  David Keys reports that the chambers "...contained 21 pottery vessels marked with a burnt, resin-like material.  Archaeologists believed that this was from drugs, possibly opium or hashish."  (6)

Drugs and the Eleusian Mysteries

'Some scholars believe that the power of the Eleusinian Mysteries came from the kykeon's functioning as a psychedelic agent. Barley may be parasitized by the fungus ergot, which contains the psychoactive alkaloids lysergic acid amide (LSA), a precursor to LSD and ergonovine. It is possible that a psychoactive potion was created using known methods of the day. The initiates, sensitized by their fast and prepared by preceding ceremonies, may have been propelled by the effects of a powerful psychoactive potion into revelatory mind states with profound spiritual and intellectual ramifications'.
'While modern scholars have presented evidence supporting their view that a potion was drunk as part of the ceremony, the exact composition of that agent remains controversial. Modern preparations of kykeon using ergot-parasitized barley have yielded inconclusive results, although Shulgin and Shulgin describe both ergonovine and LSA to be known to produce LSD-like effects. Terence McKenna argued that the mysteries were focused around a variety of Psilocybin mushrooms, and various other entheogenic plants, such as Amanita muscaria mushrooms, have also been suggested but at present no consensus has been reached. The size of the event may rule out Amanita or Psilocybe mushrooms as active ingredient, since it is unlikely that there would have been enough wild mushrooms for all participants. However a recent hypothesis suggests that Psilocybe cultivation technology was not unknown in ancient Egypt, from which it could easily have spread to Greece'.
'Another theory is that the kykeon was an Ayahuasca analog involving Syrian Rue (Peganum harmala), a shrub which grows throughout the Mediterranean and also functions as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. The most likely candidate for the DMT containing plant, of which there are many in nature, would be a species of Acacia. Other scholars however, noting the lack of any solid evidence and stressing the collective rather than individual character of initiation into the Mysteries, regard entheogenic theories with pointed skepticism'.

More about the Eleusian Mysteries


Bagremovo drvo i mirisava trstika


Kanabis

Od bagremova drva neka naprave Kovčeg - Izlazak

- List of Acacia species known to contain psychoactive alkaloids

Nabavi najboljih mirodija: pet stotina šekela smirne samotoka, pola te težine - dvjesta pedeset - mirisavog cimeta, dvjesta pedeset mirisave trstike, pet stotina - prema hramskom šekelu - lovorike i jedan hin maslinova ulja. Od toga napravi posvećeno ulje za pomazanje; da bude smjesa kao da ju je pravio pomastar. Neka to bude posvećeno ulje za pomazanje. - Izlazak

- kaneh-bosm, što je semitski izričaj za latinsi kanabis

 

Ulje za pomazanje

Nabavi najboljih mirodija: pet stotina šekela smirne samotoka, pola te težine - dvjesta pedeset - mirisavog cimeta, dvjesta pedeset mirisave trstike, pet stotina - prema hramskom šekelu - lovorike i jedan hin maslinova ulja. Od toga napravi posvećeno ulje za pomazanje.

Ovdje je zanimljiva riječ "mirisave trstike". Naime lingvisti* su dokazali da je riječ za kanabis tj. biljku iz čijeg se ulja dobiva hašiš bila kaneh-bosm, koja se u tradicionalnom hebrejskom nazivala kaneh ili kannabus. Korijen riječi kan u ovoj jezičnoj konstrukciji znači "trstika" ili "konoplja", dok bosm znači "aromatski". Ova se riječ pojavljuje 5 puta u Starom Testamentu; u knjigama Izlaska, Pjesmi nad Pjesmama, Izajii, kod Jeremije i Ezekijela (poznatog po živim vizijama).

Riječ kaneh-bosm je krivo prevedena kao calamus, obična močvarna trstika, slabe novčane vrijednosti, koja nije imala kakvoću i značaj pripisan biljci kaneh-bosm. Greška je nastala u najstarijim grčkim prijevodima Hebrejske biblije, Septuaginti, u 3. st. n.e., i ponavljala se do danas.

Ovo "ulje za pomazanje" svećenika, bilo je strogo čuvano i nedostupno običnom puku pod prijetnjom smrti:

Pomaži Arona i njegove sinove i posveti ih meni za svećenike. Onda kaži Izraelcima ovako: "Ovo je moje posvećeno ulje za pomazanje od koljena do koljena. Ne smije se polijevati po tijelu običnoga čovjeka; ne smijete praviti drugoga ovakva sastava! Tko god takvo napravi, ili tko ga stavi na kojeg svjetovnjaka, neka se odstrani od svog naroda!"

Nanošenje konopljinog ulja na kožu ima halucinogeno djelovanje i to je odavno poznato.

Uljem od kanabisa premazivalo se sve u Božjem Šatoru:

Time onda pomaži: Šator sastanka i Kovčeg Svjedočanstva; stol i sav njegov pribor; svijećnjak i sav njegov pribor; žrtvenik kadioni; žrtvenik za žrtve paljenice i sav njegov pribor; umivaonik i njegov stalak: posveti ih, i oni će tako postati posvećeni; i što god ih se dotakne, posvećeno će postati.

Miomirisni kad

Jahve još reče Mojsiju: "Nabavi mirodija: natafe, šeheleta i helebene. Od ovih mirodija i čistoga tamjana, sve u jednakim dijelovima, napravi tamjan za kađenje, smjesu mirodija kakvu pravi pomastar, opranu, čistu, svetu. Od toga nešto smrvi u prah i jedan dio stavi pred Svjedočanstvo, u Šator sastanka, gdje ću se ja s tobom sastajati. Držite ovu mirodiju presvetom! Tko sebi napravi što takvo da mu miriše, neka se iskorijeni iz svoga naroda."

Jahve se Mojsiju "prikazivao" u oblaku, poput oblaka dima u koji je bilo uvijeno proročište u grčkim Delfima ili šamani na svojim sastancima.

Drugo spominjanje kanabisa-'kaneh-bosm' (Pjesma nad Pjesmama)

Mladice su tvoje vrt mogranja pun biranih plodova: nard i šafran, mirisna trska (kaneh-bosm) i cimet, sa svim stabljikama tamjanovim, smirna i aloj s najboljim mirisima.

Treće spominjanje kanabisa-'kaneh-bosm' (Izajia)

Tu se Bog (tj. svećenici) žali da mu narod ne kupuje dovoljno: Nisi mi kupovao za novac trsku (kaneh-bosm), nisi me sitio salom svojih žrtava; nego si me grijesima svojim mučio, bezakonjem svojim dosađivao mi.

Prije toga imamo živopisnu viziju u hramu punom dima: ...vidjeh Gospoda gdje sjedi na prijestolju visoku i uzvišenu. Skuti njegova plašta ispunjahu Svetište. Iznad njega stajahu serafi; svaki je imao po šest krila: dva krila da zakloni lice, dva da zakrije noge, a dvama je krilima letio. I klicahu jedan drugome: "Svet! Svet! Svet Jahve nad Vojskama! Puna je sva zemlja Slave njegove!" Od gromka glasa onih koji klicahu stresoše se dovraci na pragovima, a Dom se napuni dimom.

I hram se napuni dimom od Slave Božje - Otkrivenje 15, 8

Četvrto spominjanje kanabisa-'kaneh-bosm' (Jeremija)

Što će mi tamjan koji dolazi iz Šebe i trska mirisna (kaneh-bosm) iz zemlje daleke? Vaše mi paljenice nisu drage, nisu mi po volji klanice vaše.

Peto spominjanje kanabisa-'kaneh-bosm' (Ezekijel)

Zbog obilja trga tvojeg, silnoga ti blaga, i Damask s tobom trgovaše za helbonsko vino i saharsku vunu. I Dan i Javan iz Uzala za trg tvoj prekaljeno gvožđe mijenjahu, cimet i slatku trsku (kaneh-bosm).

*Ben-Yehuda Hebrejsko-Engleski rječnik (1964)' piše da je kaneh-bosm ustvari konoplja kanabisa, str. 140;
[Hebrejski lingvist Eliezer Ben-Yehuda (1859-1922) je poznati obnovitelj hebrejskog jezika u prošlom stoljeću i vrhunski autoritet po pitanjima tog jezika, osnivač 'Academy of the Hebrew Language']

Mojsijev recept za hramsko ulje za pomazanje

500 šekela = 12,5 libri ili 5,6 kg
hin = galon ili oko 4 litre

Tri glavne mirodije:

- mirna samotok = (mirta) = eterično ulje kore drveta iz Indije s aromom cimeta: 5,6 kg
- ulje mirisavog cimeta (slatki cimet): 2,8 kg
- kaneh-bosm (kanabis): 2,8 kg
- lovorika (eterično ulje kore drveta s Dalekog istoka s aromom cimeta): 5,6 kg

Sve pomiješati i uliti u oko 4 litre maslinova ulja.

 

Akacija (bagrem)

Nova studija izraelskog profesora Benny Shanon, profesora kognitivne psihologije na Hebrejskom Sveučilištu u Jeruzalemu, pokazuje da je Mojsije bio pod utjecajem halucinogene biljke kada je tobože dobio Deset zapovijedi Božjih na planini. Naime, neke biljke iz sinajske pustinje sadrže psihoaktivne molekule kakve su prisutne u biljaka od kojih se priprema vrlo snažna amazonska halucinogena smjesa ayahuasca. Prema tome, grom, munja i trublje sa Sinaja, koji se spominju u Knjizi Izlaska (kao i u Otkrivenju ili kod Ezekiela), mogli su lako biti plod imaginacije ljudi u halucinogenom stanju.

"Mojsije je bio pod utjecajem droga i kada je vidio gorući grm", dodao je Shanon te rekao kako je i sam koristio takve supstancije.

"Biblija kaže da ljudi vide zvukove, a to je klasični fenomen", rekao je citirajući primjer religioznih obreda u amazonskim prašumama, u kojima su droge korištene da bi omogućile ljudima da "vide glazbu". Spomenuo je svoje vlastito iskustvo kada je koristio ayahuascau, jaku psihodeličnu biljku, za vrijeme vjerskih obreda u Amazoni. "Doživio sam vizije koje su imale spiritualno-religiozne konotacije".

Rekao je da su psihodelični učinci ayahuascae usporedivi s onim napitcima baziranima na kori bagremova drveta, koja je često spominjana u Bibliji.

Akacija (bagrem) drvo je koje se često spominje u Bibliji kao građa za zavjetni kovčeg i ostale drvene dijelove Hrama Jahvina:
Jahve reče Mojsiju: "Reci Izraelcima da me darivaju. A primajte ove darove: zlato, srebro i tuč; ljubičasto, crveno i tamnocrveno predivo i prepredeni lan; učinjene ovnujske kože, pa fine kože; bagremovo drvo; ulje za svjetlo; mirodije za ulje pomazanja i miomirisno kađenje; oniks i drugo drago kamenje

Od bagremova drva neka naprave Kovčeg: dva i po lakta dug, lakat i po širok i lakat i po visok. Okuj ga čistim zlatom, okuj ga izvana i iznutra; a oko njega stavi naokolo završni pojas od zlata.

Napravi i žrtvenik za paljenje tamjana; napravi ga od bagremova drva.

Mojsije je prve ploče sa zapovjedima razbio u bijesu. Bog mu kaže da opet iskleše ploče, pa će ih On opet ispisati:
U to vrijeme Jahve mi reče: 'Iskleši dvije kamene ploče kao i prijašnje pa se popni k meni na brdo; a napravi i drveni kovčeg. Na ploče ću napisati riječi koje su bile na prvim pločama što si ih razbio. A onda ih položi u kovčeg.' Načinih kovčeg od bagremovine, isklesah dvije kamene ploče kao što bijahu prve, pa se, s dvjema pločama u ruci, popeh na brdo. I napisa na te ploče, kao i prije, Deset riječi koje vam je Jahve rekao na brdu, isred ognja, na dan zbora. Onda ih Jahve dade meni. Okrenuh se i siđoh s brda.


The Blue Lotus


The Blue Lotus - Thoth - Hathor

 

The Acacia Tree - Saosis

 
Bagrem -Saosis

The Egyptian creation Myth

Egyptian Culture: Acacia tree of ‘Saosis’ is considered by Egyptians as the Tree of Life. As per the Ennead system (nine deities) of ancient Egyptian culture, Isis and Osiris are believed to be the first couple. They emerged from the Tree of Life i.e. the acacia of Saosis. Read more on ‘Creation Theories‘.

see Ennead: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ennead

FURTHER READING: http://www.aldokkan.com/religion/creation.htm

see also Djed: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Djed

Ancient Egypt

  • In Egyptian mythology, in the Ennead system of Heliopolis, the first couple, apart from Shu & Tefnut (moisture & dryness) and Geb & Nuit (earth & sky), are Isis & Osiris. They were said to have emerged from the acacia tree of Saosis, which the Egyptians considered the “tree of life”, referring to it as the “tree in which life and death are enclosed”. A much later myth relates how Set killed Osiris, putting him in a coffin, and throwing it into the Nile, the coffin becoming embedded in the base of a tamarisk tree.
  • The Egyptians’ Holy Sycamore also stood on the threshold of life and death, connecting the two worlds.

Atum (alternatively spelled TemTemuTum, and Atem) is an important deity in Egyptian mythology, whose cult centred on the city of Heliopolis (Egyptian: Annu). His name is thought to be derived from the word ‘tem’ which means to complete or finish.

Anthes (1957) translates Atum as “he who is integral”, Bonnet as “he who is not yet complete”. Kees(1941) opts for “he who is not present yet” or “he who does not yet exist completely”, whereas Hornung(1986) chooses “he who is differentiated”, eliminating the important connotation of the alternation-point between a mere genetic potential (in precreation) and the beginning of its activity (or escape from latency). Atum completes everything in precreation, not in creation. Indeed, the whole creative process of Atum “hatching” out of his “egg” and initiating the “first occasion” (“zep tepi”) takes place in an interstitial “First Time”, the “Golden Age” of the gods and goddesses who, in the beginning of time and space itself, differentiate Atum in so many frequencies of natural differentials (natural laws and the accidents they describe).

Thus he has been interpreted as being the ‘complete one’ and also the finisher of the world, which he returns to watery chaos at the end of the creative cycle. As creator he was seen as the underlying substance of the world, the deities and all things being made of his flesh or alternatively being his ka.
Sometimes he also is shown as a serpent, the form which he returns to at the end of the creative cycle and also occasionally as a mongoose, lion,bull, lizard, or ape.
In the Heliopolitan creation myth established in the sixth dynasty, he was considered to be the first god, having created himself, sitting on a mound (benben) (or identified with the mound itself), from the primordial waters (Nu). Early myths state that Atum created the god Shu and goddess Tefnut from spitting or from his semen by masturbation in Heliopolis.

Atum was a self-created deity, the first being to emerge from the darkness and endless watery abyss that girdled the world before creation. A product of the energy and matter contained in this chaos, he created divine and human beings through loneliness: alone in the universe, he produced from his own semen Shu, the god of air, and Tefnut, the goddess of moisture. The brother and sister, curious about the primeval waters that surrounded them went to explore the- and disappeared into the darkness. Unable to bear his loss, Atum sent a fiery messenger to find his children. The tears of joy he shed on their return were the first human beings.
He is generally represented in human form and as the source of the Pharaoh’s power he wears the double crown of Egypt- red for Lower Egypt, White for Upper Egypt and he also carries a tall cross, the symbol of eternal life.

Mound/Pyramid of Atum.

The Acacia is a tree long intertwined with the metaphor and mystery of the human mind. In particular, the religious myths of the desert-dwelling peoples of Africa and the middle east.

In the old testament it is sometimes referred to as the shittum tree. It was used in the construction of the ark of the covenant and God’s tabernacle. When God first appeared to Moses in the desert, it was a burning acacia bush that carried the message. It is widely accepted that a crown of acacia thorns that was placed on Jesus’ head as he was crucified on a cross of acacia wood.

Frederick Dalcho explains that a sprig of Acacia was used by Hebrews to mark the graves of dear departed friends while explaining its use in Masonic funeral rites.

The bulk of the ancient Egyptian pantheon was said to have be born beneath the branches of the goddess Saosis’ Acacia tree north of Heliopolis. The thorns of the tree are said to represent the goddess Nieth and symbolize birth and death.

When Osiris was betrayed and murdered, his coffin was thrown into the river. It lodged in the rocks where an acacia tree grew around it, enveloping it completely. This tree was the key to Isis’ finding and restoring his body. Upon his resurrection, Osiris was given rulership of the underworld.

Some versions of the myth record the birth of the god Horus as “out of the branches of the acacia”, to represent the continued lineage of Osiris. In Egyptian politics, the sitting pharoh was considered to be a living representation of Horus, ruler of the land of the living, and the recently deceased was thought to be Osiris, ruler of the land of the dead.

In “The Hiram Key” Christopher Knight and Robert Lomas speculate on the nature of the Egyptian king making ceremony and submit that the rituals of freemasonry are a modern analogue of these ancient rites of passage.

In the Egyptian ritual, Knight and Lomas conjecture that the pharaoh-to-be would undergo an elaborate ritual in order to seal and ordain his right to rule. The ritual would involve members of an elect group of the high priesthood and would culminate in the administration of a powerful hallucinogenic drug. The drug would induce a catatonic state for a known period of time, set to wear off at the dawning of the bright star of the morning.  While in this trance, the new pharaoh would travel to Orion’s belt and commune with the gods, who would pass on the necessary knowledge and power to assume his own God-ship on earth.

This claim is somewhat substantiated in the translation of utterance 294 from the east wall of the sarcophagus antechamber of the pyramid of Unas.

“436: To say the words : ‘Unas is a Horus who came out of the acacia (SnD) [House of the Acacia, linked with funerary ritual / mummification], who came out of the acacia, to whom it was ordered : “Beware of the lion!”. He comes out to whom it was ordered : “Beware of the lion !”. 437: Unas has come out of this Dnj.t-jar after he has passed the night in his Dnj.t-jar. Unas appears in the morning. He has come out of his Dnj.t-jar after he has passed the night in his Dnj.t-jar. Unas appears in the morning.”

What I find even more compelling is the addition of the knowledge that the acacia tree would have been a viable and ready source of  the chemical Di-Methyl Tryptamine, or DMT.

DMT is a naturally occurring chemical in the human brain, in small quantities. There is much that is not known about where it comes from or why. Some suspect it is produced in the pineal gland and production stimulated through the attainment of certain meditative states. In 1988 Jace Callaway speculated that release of this chemical is responsible for the visual imagery of dreaming.  When taken in large doses it is a powerful hallucinogen.

Persons who have taken DMT for recreational psychedelic experiences report a short lived, intense visual experience.

“1 minute – 2 – 5 minutes – depending on dosage: DMT hyperspace. For all practical purposes, you will no longer be embodied. You will be part of the intergalactic information network. You may experience any of the following:

  • Sense of transcending time or space
  • Strange plants or plantlike forms
  • The universe of formless vibration
  • Strange machines
  • Alien music
  • Alien languages, understandable or not
  • Intelligent entities in a variety of  forms

Rick Straussman, author of “The Spirit Molecule”, a book exploring the biology of DMT, believes that pineal DMT release at 49 days after conception marks the entrance of the soul into the human fetus.

The pineal has mostly been implicated for its role in melatonin production, which is important in seasonal and age-related reproduction issues. Also, there are some mood, sleep, and body temperature effects. Some skin coloration ones in reptiles and amphibians. I have suggested it’s involved in DMT production, because the precursors and enzymes necessary for its formation are quite high in the pineal. However, there are no hard data to suggest this actually happens.
There are some interesting coincidental findings around the pineal and spiritual issues. Descartes believed that because it’s the only unpaired organ in the brain, and because we can only have one thought in our mind at one time, and since thought seems to be a function of the soul (our relationship to the divine), that the pineal was a valve for the transfer/conduction of divine and human communication.

The pineal is first seen in the embryo at 49 days, the same amount of time the Tibetan Buddhists believe the soul requires from death to its next rebirth. Also, the first sign of clearly differentiated male and female gonads in the human occurs are 49 days. Thus, there’s some interesting relationship among spirituality and gender/reproduction here.

Recent speculation has centered around the role of naturally occurring DMT being responsible for the mystic visions of saints and biblical prophets.

(from DMT, Moses, and the Quest for Transcendence by Cliff PickoverReality Carnival )The molecule DMT (N,N-Dimethyltryptamine) is a psychoactive chemical that causes intense visions and can induce its users to quickly enter a completely different “environment” that some have likened to an alien or parallel universe. The transition from our world to theirs occurs with no cessation of consciousness or quality of awareness. In this environment, beings often appear who interact with the person who is using DMT. The beings appear to inhabit this parallel realm. The DMT experience has the feel of reality in terms of detail and potential for exploration. The creatures encountered are often identified as being alienlike or elflike. Some of the creatures appear to be three-dimensional. Others appear to lack depth.

Author Terence McKenna has used DMT and feels that, “Right here and now, one quanta away, there is raging a universe of active intelligence that is transhuman, hyperdimensional, and extremely alien… What is driving religious feeling today is a wish for contact with this other universe.” The aliens seen while using DMT present themselves “with information that is not drawn from the personal history of the individual.”

Given what we know about the pharmacological prowess of the ancient Egyptian priesthood, I think it’s safe to assume they had knowledge of the effects of the chemicals derivable from Acacia. I also think it’s safe to say that they were familiar with ways to combine it with other hallucinogens in order to prolong and magnify the effects. Could a DMT trip be the means by which a new pharoh communicated with the Gods and received the secrets of kingship? Did the ancient Jews use the chemical in their own rites? Is naturally occurring DMT the key to mystical experience? At this time, we can only speculate.

An 1847 depiction of the Norse Yggdrasilas described in the Icelandic Prose Edda by Oluf Olufsen Bagge.
The concept of a tree of life as a many-branched tree illustrating the idea that all life on earth is related has been used in science, religion,philosophy, mythology, and other areas. A tree of life is variously;

  1. a motif in various world theologies, mythologies, and philosophies;
  2. a metaphor for the livelihood of the spirit.
  3. a mystical concept alluding to the interconnectedness of all life on our planet; and
  4. a metaphor for common descent in the evolutionary sense.

According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, the tree of knowledge, connecting heaven and the underworld, and the tree of life, connecting all forms of creation, are both forms of the world tree or cosmic tree. According to some scholars, the tree of life and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, portrayed in various religions and philosophies, are the same tree.

Acacia

The acacia, acanthus, covered with small leaves protected by thorns, is a savannah tree capable of existing on little water. In Egypt it often grew on the edge of the fertile land and in desert wadis. Despite its being indigenous it was on occasion also imported from Nubia. Its short trunk yields timber which is hard and durable, though of little length:

[2.96.1] The vessels used in Egypt for the transport of merchandise are made of the Acantha (Thorn), a tree which in its growth is very like the Cyrenaic lotus, and from which there exudes a gum. They cut a quantity of planks about two cubits in length from this tree, and then proceed to their ship-building, arranging the planks like bricks, and attaching them by ties to a number of long stakes or poles till the hull is complete, when they lay the cross-planks on the top from side to side. They give the boats no ribs, but caulk the seams with papyrus on the inside. Each has a single rudder, which is driven straight through the keel. The mast is a piece of acantha-wood, and the sails are made of papyrus. - Herodotus Histories II

Pliny had this to report of the acacia tree:

No less esteemed, too, in the same country, is a certain kind of thorn, though only the black variety, its wood being imperishable, in water even, a quality which renders it particularly valuable for making the sides of ships: on the other hand, the white kinds will rot very rapidly. It has sharp, prickly thorns on the leaves even, and bears its seeds in pods; they are employed for the same purposes as galls in the preparation of leather. The flower, too, has a pretty effect when made into garlands, and is extremely useful in medicinal preparations. A gum, also, distils from this tree; but the principal merit that it possesses is, that when it is cut down, it will grow again within three years. It grows in the vicinity of Thebes...

Pliny, Natural History, Book XIII, chapter 19 - (eds. John Bostock, H.T. Riley)

Acacia products were most useful to the physician. Its resin was collected and used for burn wounds and setting broken bones (pHearst #221), acacia leaves were applied in treatments of eyes (cf. pEbers #415), wounds (pSmith #46) and skin diseases (pEbers #105), seeds were employed for treating fingers and toes (pHearst #191, #194 etc), for cooling the vessels (pHearst #238, #249) and for the mysterious aAa disease (pHearst #83).

Leather was tanned with acacia pods or bark. Garlands often included acacia flowers. Branches were hoped to prevent kites from robbing.

In mythology, the first gods were born under the sacred acacia tree of the goddess Saosis, identified with Hathor, and Horus was also said to have emerged from it.

The acacia of Heliopolis was a tree in which life and death was decided upon, similar to the ished tree. Acacia and palm carried the sun god Re:

... the Boat of Ra arrived at the town of Het-Aha; its forepart was made of palm wood, and the hind part was made of acacia wood; thus the palm tree and the acacia tree have been sacred trees from that day to this.

From the Legend of Horus of Behutet and the winged disk

The Tree of Life

Persian carpets are loaded with symbolism and it all relates to the Cosmos and our Creation, none more so than the famous tree of life design. Almost every civilization have stories and art of a tree of life that could grant immortality or is the start of all Creation.

In Christian, Judaic and Islamic beliefs the tree of life stood in the Garden of Eden and Adam and Eve was banished from the garden to prevent them from eating the fruits of this tree, after disobeying God’s command. In the “Life of Adam and Eve”, it tells how Adam falls ill many centuries after banishment and is in pain. Seth and Eve travel to the doors of the Garden to beg for some oil of the tree of mercy (i.e. the Tree of Life). Archangel Michael refuses to give them the oil at that time, but promises to give it at the end of time, when all flesh will be raised up, the delights of paradise will be given to the holy people and God will be in their midst.

In Persian and Zoroastrianian legends, the mighty Gaokerena was a mythic Haoma plant that had healing properties when eaten and gave immortality to the resurrected bodies of the dead. In Egyptian mythology, Isis and Osiris are said to have emerged from the acacia tree of Iusaaset, which the Egyptians considered the tree of life, referring to it as the "tree in which life and death are enclosed." A much later myth relates how Set and 72 conspirators killed Osiris, putting him in a coffin, and throwing it into the Nile, the coffin becoming embedded in the base of a tamarisk tree. The Egyptians' Holy Sycamore also stood on the threshold of life and death, connecting the two worlds. In India the Bodhi tree is believed to be the tree under which Buddha sat when he became enlightened and the tree has been revered and the place of pilgrimage ever since. The Assyrian Tree of Life was represented by a series of nodes and criss-crossing lines. It was an important religious symbol, often attended to in Assyrian palace reliefs by human or eagle-headed winged genies, or the King, and blessed or fertilized with bucket and cone. A Taoist story tells of a tree that produces a peach every three thousand years. The one who eats the fruit receives immortality.

Another related issue in ancient mythology of Iran is the myth of Mashyа and Mashyane, two trees who were the ancestors of all living beings. The ancient Sumerian God Dammuzi was personified as a tree, as is the Hindu Brahman. According to Mesoamerican cultures the World Tree is said to dwell in three worlds: Its roots reach down to the underworld, its trunk sits on the Earth, and its branches extend up to the heavens. Many cultures share a belief that this tree is the Axis Mundi or World Axis which supports or holds up the cosmos. Yggdrasil is an immense ash tree that, according to Nordic beliefs, is center to the cosmos and considered very holy.The branches of Yggdrasil extend far into the heavens, and the tree is supported by three roots that extend far away into other locations; one to the well Urðarbrunnr in the heavens, one to the spring Hvergelmir, and another to the well Mímisbrunnr. It is said that Yggdrasil connects all nine worlds.

The ancients knew and understood the symbolism and secrets of the tree of life and how it also relates to our human bodies. Pictures of the neural pathways in the brain shows how similar they are to the roots of a tree. Our spinal cord represents the stem of a tree and our reproductive system, ofcourse, represent our human fruit. The spiritualists have compared the tree of life also to our spiritual bodies and how we can attain balance via our kundalini (our vital essence) through our spinal cord and all the chakras and pineal gland (the gate of the Garden of Eden). The Kabbala tree of life visually or conceptually, represents as a series of divine emanations God's creation itself ex nihilo, the nature of revealed divinity, the human soul, and the spiritual path of ascent by man. In this way, Kabbalists developed the symbol into a full model of reality, using the tree to depict a map of Creation.
Sources:

 

Isis, the Acacia Goddess


Birds in an acacia tree, from a Middle Kingdom tomb

There are many species of acacia, medium-sized, thorny trees with rough, dark bark that can be found in the arid parts of Africa and Asia.

In parts of Africa, the trees characteristically have a dome-shaped canopy because of the way the giraffes graze them. Yet the acacia has developed what seems like an almost miraculous defense system. The tree senses its leaves being grazed. This triggers the release into the acacia’s leaves of a poisonous tannin-so poisonous, if enough is consumed, it can even be deadly.

Researchers discovered this when they observed giraffes browsing only one in ten acacia trees, while antelopes on a fenced game ranch that could not roam freely ate acacia and died.

Furthermore, the tree emits a chemical, ethylene, into the air that can travel on the breeze about 50 feet to alert nearby acacia trees-and they produce the tannin, too.

While the ancient Egyptians may not have been aware of the less observable aspects of this cycle, they clearly recognized acacia as special-both practically and magically.


A stool made from acacia wood

On the practical side, the Egyptian acacia, acacia nilotica, has many, many uses. Acacia, called shont, shonnet, shondj, or shondet in Egyptian (it is called sont in modern Arabic), is an attractive hardwood from which the ancient Egyptians built, among other things, boats, sarcophaguses, and furniture.

… the Boat of Ra arrived at the town of Het-Aha; its forepart was made of palm wood, and the hind part was made of acacia wood; thus the palm tree and the acacia tree have been sacred trees from that day to this.

- the Legend of Horus of Behutet and the Winged Disk


Acacia flowers are sweet smelling and look like mini suns

Acacia’s sweet smelling, yellow flowers, which look like little yellow sunbursts, are astringent and were used to help cleanse the skin and clear up skin problems. Brewed acacia leaves were drunk in a cough mixture. They were also applied to wounds and swollen limbs for their astringent properties. The tree’s seedpods are edible by livestock. The crushed bark produces tannin that was used to help heal burns and tan leather.

Gum acacia (aka “gum arabic”), a resin exuded by the tree, has an amazing variety of uses. It is edible and is extremely nutritious. During the gum harvest, modern-day pickers are said to live almost entirely on it, and just six ounces is enough to sustain an adult for a day.


Woman gathering gum acacia in Sudan

Gum acacia assists in blending and smoothing fats, so it is often used in candy making. It can be used in medicines, incense, paint, and even as glue. Ancient Egyptian women used gum acacia, blended into a base of dates and honey, as a contraceptive. And it worked, too. When gum acacia is dissolved, it produces lactic acid, a spermacide.

DMT, a hallucinogen associated with spiritual experiences, may be present in acacia nilotica in low doses. It is, however, present in other species of acacia in higher doses. This has, of course, led some to speculate that the Egyptians may have used the drug as a way to contact the Otherworld.

And that thought is the perfect crossover to look into acacia’s magical potencies.


Acacia pods, very nutritious, make excellent fodder for all kinds of animals

The acacia could represent both life and death for it was thought to encompass both. As the antelopes learned, the tree can be deadly, though it is more often connected with life and healing. The tree is evergreen, making it an apt tree of life. Its yellow flowers look like small suns, making it a solar and renewing, tree. Among the virtues of acacia recorded by Pliny, is a quality that would seem to associate it with resurrection and renewal:

…but the principal merit that it possesses is, that when it is cut down, it will grow again within three years.

- Pliny, Natural History, Book XIII, chapter 19

In one of the formulae of the Coffin Texts, wood from the Goddess Saosis’ (that is, Iusaaset, the primordial Grandmother of Creation and the Gods, sometimes identified with Hathor or Isis) sacred acacia is crushed by the deceased for its healing properties.

In another, the acacia provides an unidentified instrument of power that enables the deceased to avoid evil things in the Otherworld. In yet another text, the acacia appears to be an ingredient in a divine mortar.


Just as the Double Lions served as the gateway to the Otherworld, sometimes Two Acacia Trees could be a gateway

The acacia is also associated with the Double Lion, the twin lions Who guard the horizon to the Otherworld.

The Egyptians must have considered the acacia an ancient, even primordial, tree. In the Book of Coming Forth by Day, the deceased says that he stands before Anubis in a time before the acacia was born, that is, In The Beginning, before the Deities had established All Things. At Heliopolis, there was a tradition that all the Goddesses and Gods were born beneath an acacia tree. In the Book of Coming Forth by Day, the deceased goes to “the Acacia Tree of the Children;” probably the Divine Children of Iusaaset, the Goddesses and Gods born beneath the sacred acacia.


The deceased makes offering while his ba receives water from the Acacia Goddess in the Otherworld

While the acacia is associated with a number of Egyptian Deities, it has specific associations with Isis and Her family. A particular acacia-simply called The Acacia, or Shondj-was sacred to Her. The Goddess Shontet, the Acacia Goddess Who took part in the Osirian resurrection rites at Djedu (Mendes), was considered to be a form of Isis. And Isis and Nephthys together were called the Two Shonti Goddesses, that is, the Two Acacia Goddesses.

In the story of the “Contendings of Horus and Set,” Isis, in the form of Her sacred bird, flies into the branches of Her holy acacia after tricking Set into condemning His own attempts to usurp the rightful rule of Horus, Isis’ son. In some tales, the acacia is the tree that magically grew up around the body of Osiris when His sarcophagus washed up on the shores of Byblos. He is called “the One in the Tree” and “the Solitary One in the Acacia.” In the Pyramid Texts, Horus, “comes forth from the acacia tree.”


Acacia nilotica, showing leaves and thorns

In one of the poison-curing spells that include the legend of “Isis & the Seven Scorpions,” when Horus is stung and cries out in pain, it is the doorkeepers at the Temple of the Holy Acacia Tree who hear Him and send a cry to the heavens for help, since Isis is away making libations for Osiris.

Because of Divine associations like these, acacia could serve as an offering to both Horus and Isis—and although I haven’t yet run across it, it would seem that it would be a very appropriate offering for Osiris as well.

The acacia is a tree of beauty, usefulness, powerful protection, life and death, and the magic of healing…and thus it is sacred unto Isis Shontet, the Lady of the Acacia.


Autohtoni hrvatski psihodelici

Od mandragore i muhare do bunike i jutarnje slave


Psihodelici - ilustracija

Kako je 'The Scientist' svojevremeno pisao, dvije odvojene znanstvene studije dokazale su kako psihodelici nemaju negativnih utjecaja na mentalno zdravlje ljudi i da psihički problemi nastaju jedino ako su već bili prisutni. Dapače, psihoaktivne supstance bi imale popriličnu iskoristivost u medicini - da nisu zabranjene. Kao što možete vidjeti na potonjoj grafici, psihodelici zapravo nisu krovna podjela psihoaktivnih supstanci, već je riječ o halucinogenima - psihoaktivnim agensima koji stvaraju halucinacije, perceptivne anomalije i subjektivne prozore drugačijih misli, osjećaja i svijesti.

Pojedini autori poput Grahama Hancocka ili Terencea McKenne smatraju mogućim koketiranje nekih ranijih hominida s psihoaktivnim biljkama čime su stekli potrebni okidač za prijelaz na višu razinu postojanja i evolutivne procese. Primitivni ljudi su se vrlo brzo povezali s tim apstraktnim svjetovima i otkrili obrasce božanskog, nadnaravnog i prirodnog. Animističke i šamanističke tradicije koristile su ih tijekom ceremonija i rituala, a umjetnici su formirali umjetničke pravce ovisno o psihologiji vezanoj uz autohtone biljke krajeva iz kojih dolaze - zato ne čudi da tijekom konzumacije napitka Ayahuasce korisnici vide južnoameričke ornamente.

Onome tko nije probao halucinogene izuzetno je teško opisati taj svijet, posve drugačiji od bilo kojeg drugog iskustva. Realnost je posve promijenjena, kao i svijest, percepcija je iskrivljena ili preciznije rečeno, usklađena na drugu fazu, prostor i vrijeme kao i dimenzije znaju imati drugačije karakteristike, iskustvo je snovito, a osjećaji i empatija poput osjeta pojačani i rekalibrirani. Kako je samo iskustvo subjektivno - nekome ista vizija može biti nadahnjujuća i adrenalinska, a drugome šokantna i teško probavljiva. Sjećanje, pamćenje ili živci nisu pogođeni pa se nakon psihodelične seanse korisnici učestalo osjećaju odlično, rekonektirano i opušteno.

 

Osnovna podjela halucinogena

PSIHODELICI (širenje svijesti)

  • Triptamini (psilocibin, DMT, LSD, ibogain)
  • Fenetilamini (meskalin, MDMA)
  • Tropani (atropin, skopolamin, hioscijamin)
  • Izoksazoli (ibotenska kiselina)
  • Dibenzopirani (THC)
  • Aromatski eteri (safrol, miristicin, Salvinorin A, B)

DISOCIJATIVI (odvajanje od svijesti)

  • Ketamin
  • PCP

DELIRIJANTI (sužavanje svijesti)

  • Skopolamin
  • Atropin
  • Alkohol

 

Muhara (Amanita Muscaria)


Muhara (Amanita Muscaria)

Legendarna gljiva o kojoj kruže urbane legende o njezinoj toksičnosti (iako nije zabilježeno puno slučaja smrtnosti) tradicionalna je halucinogena gljiva čitave sjeverne hemisfere, a u ove krajeve je došla po predaji šamanskih tradicija. Sadrži koktel dvaju halucinogenih tvari - muscimola i ibotenske kiseline. Muskarin pak doista djeluje toksično pa konzument slini, suzi, povraća... Antidepresiv s delirijantskim karakteristikama služio je Vikinzima kao sredstvo fokusa na bitku. Šamani su koristili muharu kao alat prijelaza u drugi svijet - napitak je relativno lako pripraviti jer se gljiva može narezati na listiće, prokuhati u slanoj vodi i nakon pola sata gljive možete nesmetano pojesti, a napitak iskoristiti za psihodeliju. Kako je sama ceremonija izgledala nije do kraja poznato, barem kada pričamo o Slavenima. Danas je ova psihoaktivna gljiva najprepoznatija po Carrollovoj 'Alisi u zemlji čudesa', štrumpfovima i litavskim vjenčanjima.

 

Bunika (Hyoscyamus Niger)


Bunika (Hyoscyamus Niger)

Bunika ili svilajac dolaze iz obitelji pomoćnica, a svih deset vrsta u rodu su psihoaktivne. Nalaze se u zaraslim predjelima, smetlištima, nasipima, gradilištima... Izuzetno je bogata psihoaktivnim supstancama pa se u njoj nalaze skopolamin, hiosciamin, atropin i neki drugi tropani. Dobar izbor je i zbog toga što je djelovanjem slabija od sebi sličnih biljki poput dature ili beladone, lakše joj je snagu odokativno procijeniti, a i brzina djelovanja daleko je predvidljivija. Konzumirane bobice uvode u stanje nalik deliriju i euforiji - osjećaji su više povezani s fizičkim (letenje, halucinacije, delirij) nego psihičkim iskustvom. Zato je u šamanskoj tradiciji često korištena kao medij prijelaza iz doba mladosti u zrelo doba, a adolescenti je danas najčešće i zloupotrebljavaju pri eksperimentiranju i rekreaciji.

 

Mandragora (Mandrak)


Mandragora (Mandrak)

Kultna 'vještičja metla' autohtona je šamanska biljka Dubrovačke Republike i danas endemski raste na Sniježnici u Konavlima. Krasi je ogroman korijen s vanjskim listovima čudnog mirisa i okusa. Psihoaktivne supstance i u njoj tvore koktel skopolamina, atropina i hioscijamina pa tom logikom čitavu šamansku tradiciju Hrvatske možemo nazvati tropanskom. U mitologiji je nazivana 'jabukom spoznaje dobra i zla', 'Đavoljom jabukom', a vještice su je koristile i zbog plodova koji nevjerojatno nalikuju ljudskim obrisima. Kako je rasla ispod raspela i vješala, smatralo se da ju potenciraju urin i sperma mrtvaca. Zanimljivo, uvozili su je u Egipat i na Bliski istok radi magijskih ceremonija. Najčešće je spominjan psihodelik u Bibliji gdje je u judaističkoj tradiciji naznačena kao 'Biljka ljubavi'. Tek je tijekom inkvizicije dobila negativni kontekst - svećenici su vještice optuživali da su se trljale njezinim korijenom po vagini pa su na taj način 'letjele' na metlolikoj biljci.

 

Datura (Tatula, Kužnjak)


Datura (Tatula, Kužnjak)

Sjevernoamerička psihoaktivna biljka vrlo se brzo po otkriću Novog svijeta našla u šamanskoj tradiciji Europe, unatoč ogromnoj konkurenciji. Možemo je pronaći na pustarama, gradilištima i otpadima. Biljka je iznimno opasna i potrebno je za njezinu uporabu imati poprilično iskustvo - južnoamerički šamani tako odokativno procjenjuju koliku pojedina ubrana biljka ima snagu, koliko će trebati za njezin učinak i koliko dugo će taj učinak trajati. Kao i ranije navedene biljke, i ova sadrži atropin, hioscijamin i skopolamin, no s ogromnim variranjima od biljke do biljke, koja dosežu čak i peterostruke vrijednosti. Slikovito, mlade biljke miješaju atropin i skopolamin u omjeru 3:1, nakon cvjetanja je on 3:1 za skopolamin, a kasnije isti opet pada i paralelno jača hioscijamin. Ni najiskusniji šamani ne koriste dature, izuzev kao dio nekog drugog obreda. Kako simptomi djelovanja traju od 24 sata do dva tjedna, dobra stvar je što se oni informirani o njezinim djelovanjima ipak ne usude istu konzumirati. Zaštitnik dature je Santo Toloache, a u narodnoj medicini konzumira se za desetke tretmana bolesti. Castanedin Don Juan smatra je najmoćnijom biljkom učiteljicom ali ju je i on izbjegavao zbog hirovitosti nalik LSD-u.

 

Velebilje (Atropa Belladona)


Velebilje (Atropa Belladona)

Tamnoljubičaste bobice sadrže iste alkaloide kao i ranije navedene biljke, uz dodatak beladonina. Kako je riječ o delirijantima, iskustvo prati izrazita tupost, sužena svijest, odvojenost i delirijske halucinacije. Poznate su i autohtone ceremonije vezane uz biljku - lišće se probire i bere čitavog ljeta, a zatim se suši na vjetru u što tanjim slojevima - po mogućnosti u nekom hladu i mraku. Vrhovi grančica s listovima se prikupljaju, kao i korijenje do tri centimetra u promjeru, a nakon što se sve osuši kuha se kompot. Druga opcija je konzumacija plodova, odnosno bobica. Velebilje raste u brdskim i planinskim krajevima, šumama uz bukovo i hrastovo drveće. Izrazito su otrovni i smrtni pa njihova konzumacija nije preporučljiva izvan stručnog šamanskog obreda.

 

Psilocibinske gljive


Psilocibinske gljive

Vjerojatno i najrasprostranjeniji psihodelik, s najdužom praksom uporabe koja seže još iz pećina drevnog Alžira i Južne Amerike. To su u osnovi gljive koje sadrže triptamine poput psilocibina i psilocina. Legendarni 'gljivarski' antropolog Gastón Guzmán ih je kategorizirao i popisao, te je došao do okvirne brojke od 200 vrsta. U 'mainstream' su ušle tijekom ekspanzije hipi pokreta kao 'Magic Mushrooms' ('Čarobne gljive'), a u istom vremenskom kontekstu zabranjene su UN-ovom konvencijom o 'psihotropnim supstancama' (1971.) kada ih se potiskuje u ilegalu. Kako u Hrvatskoj nismo imali ekspanziju psihodelične (kontra) kulture tijekom sedamdesetih zbog totalitarnog režima, nikada nisu niti postale dio tradicije izuzev sporadičnih uporaba i rekreacije. Uništavanje gljivarske kulture javlja se dolaskom katoličkih misionara koji su ih prozvali 'dvosmjernom komunikacijom s đavlom', a vlastito tumačenje duhovnosti smatrano je blasfemijom jer su svećenici jedini službeni posrednici između duhovnog i zemaljskog. Tako je psilocibin postao zabranjena i skrivena ('okultna') praksa. I tako bješe sljedećih par stoljeća dok gljive nisu došle na Zapad. Ukoliko netko želi ući u psihodelični svijet, upravo su gljive uz Ayahuascu idealna početna faza.

 

Jutarnja slava


Jutarnja slava

Poznati balkonski ukras kućanica diljem zemlje zapravo je prirodni izvor spoja sličnog LSD-u, ergina iliti LSA. Njihovu tradicijsku uporabu dokumentirao je legendarni antropolog Richard Schultes, te je povezao s astečkom civilizacijom. Također su je koristili i Zapoteci, a slučajno ju je otkrio dr. Albert Hofmann prilikom svojih eksperimenata s raženom plijesni i LSD-om. Izuzev famozne CIA-ine uporabe u MKULTRA programu danas je biljka rekreativno korištena kao pripravak u psihodeličnim čajevima. Samo djelovanje je iznimno slično spominjanom Acidu i korisnika odvodi u stanje nalik shizofreniji, no s izrazito potenciranim emocijama i empatijom, rekonekcijom i snažnim filozofski nabijenim halucinacijama. Ukoliko se odlučite mamama ukrasti sadnicu, predlažem da recept proguglate prije vlastitog eksperimentiranja.

Index