Setnakhte


Setnakhte, 1189 - 1186 BC

His mummy has never been identified with certainty, although the so–called "mummy in the boat" found in KV35 was sometimes identified with him, an attribution rejected by Aidan Dodson who rather believes the body belonged to a royal family member of Amenhotep II of the 18th Dynasty. In any case the mummy was destroyed in a looting in 1901, thus preventing any analysis on it.

Setnakhte Elephantine stela touches on this chaotic period and refers explicitly to the expulsion of certain Asiatics, who fled Egypt, abandoning the gold which they looted from Egyptian temples behind. Setnakhte identified with the God Atum or Temu, and built a temple to this God at Per-Atum (Biblical Pithom).

I postaviše nad njima nadglednike da ih tlače teškim radovima. Tako su faraonu sagradili gradove-skladišta: Pitom i Ramses. - Izlazak

Papyrus Harris

The beginning of the Great Harris Papyrus or Papyrus Harris I, which documents the reign of Ramesses III, provides some details about Setnakhte's rise to power. An excerpt of James Henry Breasted's 1906 translation of this document is provided below:

"The land of Egypt was overthrown from without, and every man was thrown out of his right; they had no "chief mouth" for many years formerly until other times. The land of Egypt was in the hands of chiefs and of rulers of towns; one slew his neighbour, great and small. Other times having come after it, with empty years, Irsu ('a self-made man'), a certain Syrian (Kharu) was with them as chief (wr). He set plundering their (i.e., the people's) possessions. They made gods like men, and no offerings were presented in the temples.

"But when the gods inclined themselves to peace, to set the land in its rights according to its accustomed manner, they established their son, who came forth from their limbs, to be ruler, LPH, of every land, upon their great throne, Userkhaure-setepenre-meryamun, LPH, the son of Re, Setnakht-merire-meryamun, LPH. He was Khepri-Set, when he is enraged; he set in order the entire land which had been rebellious; he slew the rebels who were in the land of Egypt; he cleansed the great throne of Egypt; he was ruler of the Two Lands, on the throne of Atum. He gave ready faces to those who had been turned away. Every man knew his brother who had been walled in. He established the temples in possession of divine offerings, to offer to the gods according to their customary stipulations."

Until 2000, Chancellor Bay was considered the only plausible candidate for this Irsu. However, an IFAO Ostracon no. 1864 found at Deir el-Medina dated to Year 5 records that 'Pharaoh (Siptah) LPH has killed the great enemy, Bay'. Because Chancellor Bay died at least 3 years before this 'Irsu', he can no longer be considered a plausible candidate for this historical figure.

Karkisha = Kohen, Arsu /Great Harris Papyrus) = Aaron

Irsu (alt. Arsu, Iarsu, Yarsu) = Aaron

I učiniše Izraelci kako im je Mojsije bio rekao: zatražiše od Egipćana srebrnine, i zlatnine, i odjeće. Jahve je učinio te Egipćani bijahu naklonjeni narodu pa davahu. Tako su Egipćane oplijenili. - Izlazak

 

Amenemope

Amenemope the son of Kanakht is the ostensible author of the Instruction of Amenemope, an Egyptian wisdom text written in the Ramesside Period. He is portrayed as a scribe and sage who lived in Egypt during the 20th Dynasty of the New Kingdom and resided in Akhmim (ancient Egyptian Ipu, Greek Panopolis), the capital of the ninth nome of Upper Egypt. His discourses are presented in the traditional form of instructions from father to son on how to live a good and moral life, but (unlike most such texts) they are explicitly organized into 30 numbered chapters.

Although once thought to be unique, the Instruction is now seen to share common themes with the wisdom literature of other ancient Near Eastern cultures including Babylonia and Israel, most notably the biblical books of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Sirach, for which a Hebrew translation of the Instruction served as a source. Within the Book of Proverbs, verses Proverbs 22:17-23:11 closely parallel Amenemope's Instruction. The date of 1100 BCE places the authorship of the Instruction earlier than any part of the Bible, and egyptologists such as James Henry Breasted credit Amenemope with having a profound influence on Western ethical and religious development due to his Instruction being read by the Hebrews and portions of it being included, sometimes verbatim, in various books of the Bible. "It is likewise obvious that in numerous other places in the Old Testament, not only in the Book of Proverbs, but also in the Hebrew law, in Job, ... in Samuel and Jeremiah, Amenemope's wisdom is the source of ideas, figures, moral standards, and especially of a certain warm and humane spirit of kindness." (Amenemope, in turn, was drawing on a much older text, The Maxims of Ptahhotep.)

Izreke 22: 17-18: "Prigni uho svoje i čuj riječi moje i upravi svoje srce mojem znanju, jer milina je ako ih čuvaš u nutrini svojoj, i kad ti budu sve spremne na usnama tvojim."
Amenemope, ch 1.: "Give thine ear, and hear what I say, And apply thine heart to apprehend; It is good for thee to place them in thine heart, let them rest in the casket of thy belly; That they may act as a peg upon thy tongue"

Izreke 22:22: "Nemoj pljačkati siromaha zato što je siromah i ne gazi ubogoga na sudu."
Amenemope, CH 2.: "Beware of robbing the poor, and oppressing the afflicted."

Izreke 22: 24-25: "Ne druži se sa srditim i ne idi s čovjekom jedljivim da se ne bi privikao na staze njegove i namjestio zamku duši svojoj."
Amenemope, ch 10: "Associate not with a passionate man, Nor approach him for conversation; Leap not to cleave to such an one; That terror carry thee not away."

Izreke 22:29: "Jesi li vidio čovjeka vična poslu svom: takav ima pristup kraljevima i ne služi prostacima."
Amenemope, 30 pog.: "A scribe who is skillful in his business findeth worthy to be a courtier"

Izreke 23: 1: "Kad sjedneš blagovati s moćnikom. dobro pazi što je pred tobom; stavljaš nož sebi pod grlo ako si proždrljivac; ne poželi slastica njegovih jer su jelo prijevarno."
Amenemope, ch 23.: "Eat not bread in the presence of a ruler, And lunge not forward with thy mouth before a governor. When thou art replenished with that to which thou has no right, It is only a delight to thy spittle. Look upon the dish that is before thee, And let that (alone) supply thy need."

Izreke 23: 4-5: "Ne trudi se stjecati bogatstvo; okani se takve misli; usmjeriš li oči prema njemu, njega već nema jer načini sebi krila kao orao i odleti u nebo."
Amenemope, ch 7: "Toil not after riches; If stolen goods are brought to thee, they remain not over night with thee. They have made themselves wings like geese. And have flown into the heavens."

Izreke 23:10: "Ne pomiči prastare međe i ne prodiri u polje siročadi,"
Amenemope, pog. 6: "Remove not the landmark from the bounds of the field... and violate not the widows boundary"

Izreke 23:12: "Obrati pouci srce svoje i uho svoje riječima mudrim."
Amenemope, ch 1.: "Give thine ears, hear the words that are said, give thine heart to interpret them"

Izreke 22,20: "Napisah ti trideset što savjeta što pouka"
Amenemope, 30 ch, linija 539): ""Look to these thirty chapters; they inform, they educate."

Instruction of Amenemope

10 Božjih zapovjedi - Knjiga mrtvih

«Pozdravljam te, veliki Bože, Vladaru dvaju Istina. Došao sam tebi, moj
Vladaru, kako bi me odvesti da vidim tvoje ljepote.
Ja znam tebe, ja znam tvoje ime, ja znam imena od 42 Boga koji su sa tobom u ovoj širokoj dvorani Dvije Istine.
Gledaj, došao sam ti. Donio sam ti istinu; došao sam ti bez grijeha.
Protiv nikoga nisam griješio.

  1. Nisam se loše ponašao prema ljudima.
  2. Nisam činio zlo umjesto pravde.
  3. Nisam govorio loše o Bogu.
  4. Nisam bio nasilan prema siročetu.
  5. Nisam radio ono što Bog ne voli.
  6. Nisam ubio, niti sam ikoga isporučio ubojici.
  7. Nisam uzrokovao ičiju patnju.
  8. Nisam prekomjerno i nezakonito bludničio.
  9. Nisam uzeo mlijeko iz dječjih ustiju, niti sam odveo stoku sitnoga zuba iz njihovih prebivališta.
  10. Nisam sprječavao Boga u njegovim namjerama.»

Sveti dokumenti

"Sveti povijesni dokumenti" Židova uopće nisu povijesni već samo tradicija i kopije nekih drugih, mnogo starijih dokumenata, koji vode isključivo do Egipta... Moderna istraživanja u židovskim zapisima otkrivaju složeno djelo koje nije jedinstveno djelo židovskog zakonodavca nego urednički kolaž semitskih legendi pomiješanih s kozmopolitskim mitovima, koji su kopirani od Egipćana, izravno ili neizravno, ali bez gnoze.


Izlazak oko 1187 BC


David Roberts - Israelites Leaving Egypt

Teorija koja uzima doslovno izjavu u I. Kraljevima da je izlazak iz Egipta dogodio 480 godina prije nego je Salomon počeo graditi Hram u Jeruzalemu. To se dogodilo u četvrtoj godini njegove vladavine, oko 960 prije Krista; dakle, Izlazak bi bio oko 1440 pne.

Četiri stotine i osamdesete godine poslije izlaska Izraelaca iz zemlje egipatske, četvrte godine kraljevanja svoga nad Izraelom, mjeseca Ziva - to je drugi mjesec - počeo je Salomon graditi Dom Jahvin. - 1. kraljevi

Ovaj zaključak, međutim, u suprotnosti s većinom biblijskim i arheoloških dokaza.

Gradovi Pitom i Ramzes smješteni u sjeveroistočnom dijelu egipatske delte, izgrađeni su za vrijeme faraona Horemheb i Ramzes II.
Thutmose III (faraon u 1440 p.n.e.) imao svoju prijestolnicu u Tebi, daleko na jugu, i nije provodio velike građevinske poslove u delti regiji.

Edom i Moab, mala kraljevstva u Transjordanu koja su prisilili Mojsija da napravi krug istočno od njih, nisu se još naselili i organizirali.

Arheološka istraživanja su otkrili tragove nasilnog uništenja nekih kanaanskih gradova datiraju oko 1200 p.n.e.

Biblijski pisci su shvatili 12 generacija od Mojsija do Salomona pozivanje na 480 godina je najvjerojatnije urednički komentar igrač 40 godina za svaku generaciju. Budući da su stvarne generacije bliže 20 godina, datum izlaska je između 1189 i 1186 pne.

Jošua i željezo - Željezno doba

Spališe grad i sve što bijaše u njemu: uzeše samo srebro, zlato, tučano i željezno posuđe i staviše u riznicu Doma Jahvina.

A sinovi Josipovi rekoše: "Gora nam ova neće biti dosta, a svi Kanaanci koji žive u ravnici imaju željezna kola, oni što su u Bet-Šeanu i selima njegovim i oni koji su u dolini jizreelskoj. - Jošua

Ali Juda nije uspio zauzeti Gaze s njenim područjem, ni Aškelona s njegovim područjem, ni Ekrona s njegovim područjem. Jahve bijaše s njim te on osvoji gorje, ali ne mogaše potjerati onih u nizini jer imahu željezna kola. - Suci

 

Timna Valley

Izlazak: Bilo je oko šest stotina "tisuća" pješaka, osim žena i djece. A mnogo i drugoga svijeta pođe s njima, i mnoga stoka, krupna i sitna.

Matematički argumenti biskupa Colensa da se vojska od 600.000 ljudi nije mogla mobilizirati u jednoj noći, da se tri milijuna ljudi s njihovim jatima i stadima nije moglo napajati iz jednog izvora.


Sinaj

U podnožju goleme formacije pješčenjaka u središtu doline Timna poznatoj kao "Stupovi kralja Salomona", iskopan je mali egipatski hram posvećen Hathor, egipatskoj božici rudarstva. Utemeljen je za vrijeme vladavine faraona Setija I (1318-1304 pne) i služio je članovima egipatskih rudarskih ekspedicija i njihovim lokalnim suradnicima. Svetište se sastoji od otvorenog dvorišta promjera 9 x 6 m., Sa pronaos (kult komorom), gdje je niša usječena u stijeni, gdje je kućica za kip Hathor.


Svetište Hathor - YHWH - Solomonovi stupovi

Hram je teško oštećen u potresu i obnovljen za vrijeme vladavine faraona Ramzesa II (1304-1237 pne), s povećanim dvorištem (10 x 9 m.) i novim, čvrstim bijelim podom. Zidovi su izrađeni od lokalnog pješčenjaka i granita, fasada je od bijelog pješčenjaka iz rudarskog područja. Hram je sa svoja dva kvadratna stupa koja nose Hathorove glave morao biti uzbudljiv prizor u svjetlu izlazećeg sunca.

Exodus - Nina Paley

U hramskom dvorištu je radionica za lijevanje bakrenih figurica, kao i zavjetnih prinosa. Među nalazima u ovom hramu su hijeroglifski natpisi uključujući i kartuše (plombe) većine faraona koji su vladali od 14. Do 12. stoljeća pne. Tu su i brojni drugi egipatski zavjetni prinosi, uključujući mnogo bakrenih predmeta, alabaster brodovi, mačke i leopard keramičke figurice, pečati, perle i skarabej kao skulptura Hathor, figurice i plakete. Sve u svemu nekoliko tisuća predmeta otkriveni su u egipatskom hramu.
Među nalazima u ovom svetištu je veliki broj zavjetnih darova koje su donijeli Midjanci, uključujući i lijepo ukrašenu midjansku keramiku i metalni nakit. Od posebnog značaja je nalaz bakrene zmije s pozlaćenom glavom.


Bakrena zmija

Padom egipatske kontrole u regiji, početkom 12. stoljeća prije Krista, rudnici i Hathorov hram u Timni su napušteni. Rudarsko svetište transformirano je u pustinjsko šator svetište. Otkrivene su velike količine oštećenog crvenog i žutog platna s perlicama utkanim u njega, zajedno s brojnim bakrenim prstenima, korištenim za zavjese. Pronađeno je 12 rudarski kampova u kojima je otkrivena velika količina midjanske keramike (Qurayyah keramika), sve je datirao u razdoblju XIX. dinastije.


Hator

Izbrisana je većina tragova egipatskog kulta, izbrisane su slike Hathor i egipatski natpisi na stećcima.  Ostaci tkanina duž dvorišnih zidova pruža dokaz da se egipatski hram pretvorio pustinjsko šator svetište.


A fabric fragment showcasing red and blue dye from the ancient mines in the Timna Valley.

Šator svetište u Timna Valley najbliže odgovara biblijskom opisu svetišta u pustinji.


Timna Dolina je bila poznata kao Wadi Mene'iyeh, arapski -iyeh je hebrejski eyheh, od čega je izvedeno  Jahve (Exodus 3:14, eyeh aser eyheh, "I Am that I AM", "...tell them Ehyeh has sent you.")?

 

Serabit el-Khadim


Stela


Hator - Serabit el-Khadim

 

Hathor

 
Hathor

Hathor is an ancient Egyptian goddess associated, later, with Isis and, earlier, with Sekhmet but eventually was considered the primeval goddess from whom all others were derived. She is usually depicted as a woman with the head of a cow, ears of a cow, or simply in cow form. In her form as Hesat she is shown as a pure white cow carrying a tray of food on her head as her udders flow with milk. She is closely associated with the primeval divine cow Mehet-Weret, a sky goddess whose name means "Great Flood" and who was thought to bring the inundation of the Nile River which fertilized the land.

 
Hathor

Through this association, Hathor came to be regarded as the mother of the sun god Ra and held a prominent place in his barge as it sailed across the night sky, into the underworld, and rose again at dawn. Her name means "Domain of Horus" or "Temple of Horus" which alludes to two concepts. The first allusion is to the part of the sky where the king (or dead king) could be rejuvenated and continue rule (or live again) while the second is to the myth that Horus, as sun god, entered her mouth each night to rest and returned with the dawn. In both cases, her name has to do with re-birth, rejuvenation, inspiration, and light. Her relationship with the sky identified her with Venus, the evening and morning star.

 
Hathor

The sistrum is her instrument which she used to drive evil from the land and inspire goodness. She is the patron goddess of joy, celebration, and love and was associated with Aphrodite by the Greeks and with Venus by the Romans. She was always, from the earliest times, associated with women and women's health in body and in mind. In time, women came to identify with Hathor in the afterlife the same way that, previously, all people identified with the god Osiris. She was an immensely popular and influential goddess. Scholar Geraldine

 
Hathor

Pinch comments on this, writing:

Hathor was the golden goddess who helped women to give birth, the dead to be reborn, and the cosmos to be renewed. This complex deity could function as the mother, consort, and daughter of the creator god. Many lesser goddesses came to be regarded as "names" of Hathor in her contrasting benevolent and destructive aspects. She was most commonly shown as a beautiful woman wearing a red solar disk between a pair of cow's horns (137).

The red solar disk, as well as a number of Hathor's personal attributes, would come to be associated with the later goddess Isis. In time, Isis absorbed more and more of the characteristics of Hathor until she supplanted her as the most popular and widely worshipped in Egypt.

Mythical origins

Although in time she came to be considered the ultimate personification of kindness and love, she was initially literally a blood-thirsty deity unleashed on mankind to punish humans for their sins. An ancient tale similar to that of the biblical flood tells of the great god Ra becoming enraged at human ingratitude and evil and releasing Sekhmet upon humanity to destroy them. Sekhmet descends on the world in a fury of destruction, killing everyone she finds and toppling their cities, crushing their homes and tearing up fields and gardens. At first, Ra is pleased because humanity had forgotten him and the gifts of the gods and had turned to only thinking of themselves and following after their own pleasure. He watches Sekhmet's swath of destruction with satisfaction until the other gods intervene and ask him to show mercy. They point out that Sekhmet is going too far in teaching this "lesson" to humanity and how, soon, there will be no human beings left on earth to benefit from it.


Hathor & Nefertari

Ra regrets his decision and devises a plan to stop Sekhmet's blood lust. He orders Tenenet, the Egyptian goddess of beer, to brew a particularly strong batch and then has the beer dyed red and delivered to Dendera. Sekhmet, by this time, is crazed with the thirst for more blood and, when she comes upon the blood-red beer, she quickly seizes it and begins drinking.

She becomes drunk, falls asleep, and wakes up as Hathor the benevolent. Humanity was spared destruction and their former tormentor became their greatest benefactress. Following her transformation, Hathor bestowed only beautiful and uplifting gifts on the children of the earth and assumed such high status that all the later goddesses of Egypt can be considered forms of Hathor. She was the primordial Mother Goddess, ruler of the sky, the sun, the moon, agriculture, fertility, the east, the west, moisture and childbirth. Further, she was associated with joy, music, love, motherhood, dance, drunkeness and, above all, gratitude.

 
Hathor

Worship of Hathor

Unlike other deities of ancient Egypt, whose clergy needed to be of the same sex as the deity they served, those who served Hathor could be men or women. Hathor's cult center was at Dendera, Egypt, but she was widely regarded and worshipped throughout Egypt to the extent that she was also honored as a goddess of the afterlife in the Field of Reeds (the Egyptian land of the dead). Originally, when one died in ancient Egypt, whether male or female, one assumed the likeness of Osiris (lord and judge of the dead) and was blessed by his qualities of moral integrity. So popular was Hathor, however, that, in time, the female dead who were deemed worthy to cross into the Field of Reeds assumed Hathor's likeness and qualities while the male dead continued to be associated with Osiris. Geraldine Pinch writes:

The Coffin Texts and the Book of the Dead have spells to help the deceased live forever as a follower of Hathor. In a Late Period story, Hathor rules the underworld, emerging to punish those who behave unjustly on earth. By the Greco-Roman period, dead women in the afterlife identified themselves with Hathor instead of Osiris. It was only after Isis took over many of her attributes that Hathor lost her place as the most important of Egyptian goddesses (139).

   
Hathor

Hathor's popularity is attested to by the number of minor goddesses who shared her attributes and were considered aspects of the Mother Goddess. The most important of these were the Seven Hathors who were present at the birth of a human being and decreed their fate. Hathor was, in early times, worshipped in the form of a cow or as a cow with stars above her. Later she was pictured as a woman with the head of a cow and, later still, as a woman complete with a human face but sometimes with the ears or horns of a cow. The Seven Hathors shared these attributes but also had a red ribbon which they used to bind evil forces and dark demons. The Seven Hathors were venerated highly in life for their ability to assist in matters of love and protection from harm and, after death, for their protective abilities against the forces of darkness.

 
Hathor

As a goddess who transcended life and death, Hathor was widely worshipped and came to be idenified with a deity inscriptions call The Distant Goddess. This is a goddess who abandons her father Ra and assumes the form of a wild feline to elude any attempts to find her or catch her. She vanishes into the distant desert and hides in the arid plains. This goddess was identified with Mehit, a protective goddess, with Sekhmet, Bastet, Mut, and others but quite often with Hathor. A god is sent forth by Ra to find his daughter and bring her home and, when this happens, she brings with her the inundation of the Nile River which overflowed its banks and brought life to the people. Before she released the life-giving waters, however, she had to be placated and shown appreciation. Geraldine Pinch writes:

When the Distant Goddess returned, she brought the inundation with her, but she had to be pacified with music, dancing, feasting, and drunkenness. This was the mythical justification for the wild, ecstatic elements in Hathor's cult. It was proper for the whole of creation to rejoice when Hathor appeared again in all her radiant beauty and joined forces with her father (138).

 
Hathor

She took the form of a woman, goose, cat, lion, malachite, sycamore fig, to name but a few. However, Hathor's most famous manifestation is as a cow and even when she appears as a woman she has either the ears of a cow, or a pair of elegant horns. When she is depicted as entirely a cow, she always has beautifully painted eyes.

  • U hebrejskom kalendaru bik je prvi znak, otuda Torah. Torah je anagram od hathor, Ha-thor (egipatska krava).

 

Atos - Hathor

Atos je tajanstvena planina s manastirima u Makedoniji u sjevernoj Grčkoj. Ime Atos potječe od imena egipatske božice Ator ili Hator, planina Atos je stoljećima zatvorena za žene. Ti seksualno potisnuti redovnici toliko se plaše svega što je žensko da u blizinu svojih manastira ne puštaju ni ženke životinja.

ZAŠTO? Najveće područje na svijetu zabranjeno za žene

Ovom području žene se ne smiju približiti na manje od 500 metara.

Ruski predsjednik Vladimir Putin u posjetu je Svetoj gori u Grčkoj na obilježavanju tisućljetne prisutnosti ruskih pravoslavnih redovnika na tom svetom mjestu istočnog kršćanstva, prenose u subotu agencije.

Planina Atos, zapravo poluotok površine 335 kvadratnih kilometara, vjerojatno je najveće područje na svijetu zatvoreno za žene i ženske primjerke domaćih životinja, prenosi BBC.

Želite li je posjetiti, prvi je korak slanje kopije putovnice uredu za hodočasnike koji dopušta dolazak najviše stotinu pravoslavnih i deset nepravoslavnih posjetitelja. Oni mogu tri noći ostati u jednom od 20 samostana na poluotoku.

Ženama je pristup strogo zabranjen i za razliku od muških prijatelja koji se ukrcavaju na trajekt moraju ostati u jednoj od dviju najbližih luka.

Sveta gora zatvorena je za žene dulje od tisuću godina, štoviše obali se ne smiju približiti na manje od 500 metara, stoji u strogim pravilima.

Prema dr. Grahamu Speakeu, autoru knjige "Sveta gora: Duhovna obnova u raju", u povelji iz 10. stoljeća piše da je zabranjen pristup ženskim životinjama, ali ni riječi o ženama jer je "svakome jasno da žene nemaju što raditi u muškim samostanima".

Bio je to najjednostaviji način da se osigura celibat, kaže on. Ono što Svetu goru razlikuje od ostalih manastira jest da se cijeli poluotok smatra jednim velikim samostanom, dodaje dr. Speake.

No još je jedan razlog za zabranu, povezan s pravoslavnom tradicijom.

"Jedno od vjerovanja kaže da je djevicu Mariju na putu za Cipar vjetar skrenuo s kursa i da se iskrcala na Svetu goru. Toliko joj se svidjelo da se molila svome sinu da gora bude samo njezina s čime se on složio", kaže Speake. "I dan danas goru u njezinu čast zovu vrtom Božje majke koja jedina predstavlja svoj spol na Svetoj gori", dodao je.

Zabrana se odnosi na sve domaće životinje, a jedine pripadnice ženskog roda su mačke. "Tamo je puno mačaka, a razlog za to je jednostavan, love miševe", rekao je Speak.

Među ostalim mjestima koja zabranjuju pristup ženama je hram Sabarimala u Indiji, planina Omine u Japanu i ulica Herbertstrasse u crvenoj četvrti Hamburga St. Pauli gdje na jednom znaku piše: "Zabranjen ulazak mlađima od 18 godina i ženama", piše BBC. (Hina)


Atos

 

Alphabet - Serabit el-Khadim

 
Serabit el-Khadim

Primjerak proto-Sinaitic pismu, jedan od prvih (ako ne i prvi) Fonemska skripte. Možda prevesti kao "smrt u / za Ba'alt" (ženski oblik Baala)

 

The Alphabetic sphinx of Sinai

 

Sinai inscription 345

This sandstone statuette (24 centimetres in length) was found in the ruins of an Egyptian temple in the Sinai Peninsula, on the site of the ancient turquoise mines that were exploited by the Pharaohs in the Bronze Age (before 1200 BCE).

It is now housed in the British Museum, and several years ago I went there to see it; I already had plenty of pictures from books, and my friend Alexandros Zaharopoulos had been permitted to take several close-up photographs for me previously, but I wanted to view it with my own eyes. It is not on display, so I was taken behind the scenes to the West Asian section and the Egyptian department, but neither of them knew where the sphinx was. Finally the egyptologists dug it up, and I was taken into a small room where a young custodian allowed me to hold it for a few minutes. "It's closing time" he announced abruptly, and whisked it away.

There is writing on it, perhaps the riddle of the sphinx?

It was discovered by the archeologist William Flinders Petrie, together with other inscribed objects found in the temple and also in and around the mines. Most of the inscriptions are hieroglyphic Egyptian, but many of them display the unknown script seen here. Actually, this sphinx has examples of both scripts, and the egyptologist Alan Gardiner was able to solve the riddle: the name of the goddess it represented is there in Egyptian writing and in the original alphabet, which apparently borrowed Egyptian hieroglyphs to create its letters.

This side shows [2] the Egyptian hieroglyphic text, above [3] another line of the presumed alphabetic script.

The largest character is a square, with a bird inside it; this is the hieroglyph for the goddess Hathor (Khat-Khor); the bird is a hawk, representing the god Horus, and the square is a shrine; Hat-Hor, as the mother of Horus, enshrines him. She was a goddess who was especially dear to people who ventured far from home on military or mining expeditions. She is here described as "Lady of turquoise" (that means the deity protecting the members of the expedition searching for this precious stone). The hoe-sign stands for mr, "beloved", and so some one or some thing is "beloved of Hathor, Lady of the turquoise".

A reasonable assumption would be that [3] the line of enigmatic writing below this says the same thing in a different language and script. We know from Egyptian inscriptions on the site that West Asians were present, speakers of Semitic languages. The words for the verb "love" in West Semitic (Ugaritic, Phoenician, Hebrew) are DD (the root in the names David and Dido), and 'aHaB (which begins with a glottal stop suggesting a choking sensation, with the H and B evoking heavy breathing).

Now, we know that the name of the letter ' (glottal stop) is 'Aleph, meaning "ox", which became Greek Alpha (standing for the vowel a), so the ox-head here could be 'Aleph, if this is the original alphabet. The ox-head can be seen at the top of the table of alphabetic signs from Thebes (top left). Its development into A is obvious: it has simply been inverted, so that the horns have become legs.

(A sketch of the document is provided here for easier reference.)

Further, the second letter of the alphabet is B, Beth , Greek Beta, and it means "house"; and the square sign could represent the ground-plan of a simple dwelling (as in Egyptian writing, where the hieroglyph for house is a rectangle or a square, with an opening for the doorway). On the protoalphabet table from Thebes (top right), B consists of an upright line and a triangle (the door of the house is open).

This would give us two thirds of 'HB, and it leads us to the supposition that H is represented by the figure in between the 'Aleph and the B; this is obviously a person in a highly emotional state, presumably "celebrating", and the Hebrew word for this is HLL (as in Halleluyah, "Celebrate Yahweh", or "Praise the Lord"). With hindsight we can say that this character lost its body and legs, becoming E (H in Semitic, and the vowel E[psilon] in Greek). The H can be seen dimly under the B on the Theban alphabetic ostrakon.

Thus, the root "love" has been deciphered, and if it had M before 'HB it would produce a passive participle, "loved" (Pu`al form in Hebrew). The wavy line is equivalent to the Egyptian hieroglyph for "water", and the Semitic word for this is mu or mayim. On our oldest copy of the alphabet, the M is a thin line at the bottom. So we seem to have M'HB "beloved", and now we need to find a goddess, a divine lady.

It is known that the Semitic goddess of the city of Byblos (in Lebanon) was worshipped as B`LT, which means "Lady"; it is the feminine form of the well-known title Ba`al, "Lord". The T would indicate the feminine ending -at. We will assume that this writing system was like the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets, showing consonants but not vowels (and with hindsight we can also say that we are here looking at the prototype of the alphabet).

In my transcription of B`LT the letter represented by` is `Ayin (as distinct from ', 'Aleph, the glottal stop, in M'HB), and `ayin means "eye". In the sequence before us we seem to have an eye (in a vertical position), and the same set of signs can be seen on the other side of the sphinx (see the full picture at the top). We can see a B (house), then an eye, followed by L (like an inverted italic l) and T (a cross, +); both the L and T have changed little in their progress through the Phoenician alphabet to the Greco-Roman alphabet. On the ancient alphabetic table, `Ayin, the eye-sign is in the bottom left corner, with L to the right of it (a shepherd's crook, rather than a coil of rope, as sometimes suggested); and, incidentally, K is above it and Y is below it (both of which will receive our attention ere long). T is hard to locate: it may be the tiny cross to the right of the M, at the bottom of the tablet, or it is attached to a leg of the jubilater (H), as shown in my drawing.

Note that we have M'HB`LT here (a piece has broken off, leaving most of the L and possibly part of the T, but the the full B`LT is on the other side [4], so we can be sure that it is not the god Ba`al who is being invoked); still, M'HB B`LT is what we should have (and this version with -BB- is found in other inscriptions from the turquoise mines); but there is a dot in the square B, and this may indicate that the letter is doubled (a practice exemplified in the Hebrew Bible).

The B`LT on the other side has L preceding it. The same sequence is found on another statuette from the same temple (Sinai 346; our sphinx is numbered Sinai 345). LB`LT clearly means "to" or "for" (la) "Ba`alat", so both objects were offerings to the goddess.

We might expect the donor of the sphinx to have inscribed his name on it, as the one who is "beloved of Ba`alat". In my view, he has identified himself by name and occupation, and stated that this is his offering to the Lady.

Looking first at [1] the combination of signs below the neck, between the paws, we can see a square (B) with N inside it, though we are viewing it sideways. The origin of N is a serpent (usually an erect cobra, as here); the first letter on the dedicatory inscription at the bottom of the picture is N (a bent line, representing a snake). The West Semitic word for "snake" is nakhash, and by the "acrophonic principle" the first sound in the word that goes with the picture is the one that is sounded; we have already seen this operating in the case of the house, Beth (bayt) standing for B. On the Theban alphabetic ostrakon, the N is a line next to the B, stretching from the H into the top right corner.

It would appear that the scribe has imitated the form of the Hathor hieroglyph (a hawk inside an edifice) and has put the snake inside the house, to produce BN, the Semitic word for "son" (bin or ben). The two letters above are K and R, I suggest, identifying the person as "son of KR". The Roman letter R still shows the human head from which it arose (including a beard); here we find a human head and neck, and even shoulder. Our letter K (Greek Kappa) is acknowledged as deriving from a hand with fingers (Hebrew Kaph, meaning "hand" or "palm of the hand"); but I suspect that the vegetational "palm" (Hebrew kippah) could also be used, and that may be what we see here (with a few token leaves only). On the Theban protoalphabet, the K is on top of the eye-sign; indeed, it seems to be poking its stem into the hapless eye. The R is in the middle of the column on the far left: a head with an eye and a hair-line.

The reading BNKR, could say "Son of KR", with KR as the name of the father. However, I think I have found this same sequence (bnkr) in a number of other inscriptions in this mining area. Since kur means "furnace", and since various pieces of metallurgical equipment have been found here, with several inscriptions referring to this apparatus, it is clear that the Semites would have been engaged in making and mending the copper tools used in the mining, and they were thus "sons of the furnace", written without vowels as BNKR. Here on the sphinx, the expression could be singular or plural: "The metalworker(s) beloved of Ba`alat". However, I will eventually propose that the name of the donor is also inscribed on this statuette.

Turning to the the signs in the dedicatory line [4], we find the other hand-sign, Yod (which became Y, I, and J in our alphabet) standing next to the L; the word yad means "forearm" (including the hand), and that is what we see here, with the fingers pointing down. A similar form appears on the Theban protoalphabet (bottom left). The Y could stand for a whole word, or the end of the word before "to Ba`alat". One possibility is the suffix -ya, "my".

The letter preceding the Y is a puzzle. After wrestling with it for years I decided it is the prototype of our Q/q. Looking at both photographs (the full figure and the closeup), I see a stem with a dot on the middle of it and an oblique stroke coming out from the dot. This corresponds to the Egyptian hieroglyph depicting a cord wound on a stick (numbered by Gardiner as V25, the New Kingdom form of V24, which does not have the leftwards projecting stroke). The Hebrew word qaw means "a string", a measuring line, often used metaphorically by the prophets in the Bible; in my world builders have such a cord wound around a pencil. The extra stroke in the pictograph would be the end of the string poking out. (This extra feature is significant for dating: it shows that the sphinx belongs in the New Kingdom and the Late Bronze Age, after 1600 BCE, because the normal form in the preceding period, the Middle Bronze Age, was simply -o- , though this continued into the LBA.) In the development of the alphabet in the Iron Age (after 1200 BCE) the lines at the top disappeared; they are not in the Phoenician Q, nor the Roman Q. The Hebrew name for the letter is not Qaw, but Qoph, and this apparently means "monkey"; presumably this designation arose when the original reference of the sign was forgotten. The South Arabian alphabet retained the top of the stick above the wound cord. On the protoalphabetic tablet, Q stands in the middle, stretching up to the mouth-sign and the inverted door; it has two appendages at the top.

The sign to the left of Q on the dedication to Ba`alat line of writing is ||, two roughly parallel lines; on the Theban ostrakon (top left corner) it appears in the more normal horizontal stance [=]. This character is known to represent Dh, as in English this, and in fact the sign says dhu (meaning "this") in several of the other Sinai protoalphabetic inscriptions. Taking it here as an introductory "This (is)" (no verb is required in Semitic syntax), we can read the remaining letters as NQY. In Eastern Semitic (Akkadian, Assyrian, Babylonian) there is a word niqu, meaning "offering" (a gift made to a deity). This word is not found elsewhere in West Semitic texts, but Babylonian was the international language of the Bronze Age, from `Iraq to Egypt, and this educated scribe could have felt free to use it. The Y, as stated earlier, is a first-person suffix -ya, "my".

So, he has written: "This is my offering to Ba`alat" [4]. And who is he? I would look for his name in [5] the marks on the shoulder (look at the photograph above). There are two small characters: one is apparently an ox-head (`Aleph); and choosing from the remaining letters in the repertoire, I would say the other is a fish. The argument rages over the sound represented by this sign: some insist that it is D, because the Hebrew word for "fish" is dag; others (including myself) identify it as S, which is called Samek in Hebrew (samk is an Arabic word used for "fish" by the descendants of the Cana`anites and Phoenicians in Lebanon). If the fish-sign is S, we have to accept an alternative sign for S in this shape -|-|-| (but it stands vertically, like a telegraph pole). It could conceivably represent the fish after all the flesh had been eaten, but I would think that it represents a human spinal column (like the Egyptian hieroglyph R11, a spinal column, representing stability, to be compared with F41, depicting vertebrae), with samk meaning "support". These alternative forms of Samek do not occur together in any of the inscriptions known to me. Eventually the fish-sign disappeared and the column stood firm, representing S in the Phoenician alphabet, and X in the Greek alphabet, but it has no place in the Roman alphabet.

The character for D is not a fish but a door: the Hebrew name Dalet and Greek Delta reveal the common noun dalt, "door". I think we can settle the matter here and now; in the next inscription that we shall consider (Sinai 376), the fish and the door are found side by side (in adjacent columns). Similarly, in the Theban copy of the protoalphabet, the fish, S, is situated above the Q and to the right of the 'Aleph, and beside it is the door (inverted), D. One response to this would be to say that it is not a door but an ax, since the door post is longer than the door itself; and the ax could be Z (though I can not find a word for ax which starts with Z, and I cannot see an ax anywhere else in the protoalphabetic inscriptions). I will assume that this scribe chooses to draw his door-sign; another ostrakon from the Theban collection has anumn-sign remained, becoming Greek X (ks), but not passing over into the Roman alphabet. even longer post, but it also has what I think may be the Z, |><|, as also on the short inscription (Thebes 4) that I have described elsewhere, which has this Z and Dh. Finding the double-triangle Z among the jumble of characters on the alphabetic tablet (Thebes 1) is not easy; it may be lurking in the faint marks on the far right (next to H), or else in the traces next to Q and above M.

Accepting that the fish is S, then the name of the donor on the sphinx is 'S, which could be 'Asa, which means "Myrtle", but it is a masculine name, borne by a king in the Bible (1 Kings 15:8-22).

Thus, the Cana`anite text declares:

"[4] This is my offering to Ba`alat; [5] 'Asa [1] Smith ("son of the furnace"), [3] beloved of Ba`alat".

But the combination 'S (ox and fish) occurs in five other inscriptions from this ancient mining region, and three of them seem to be concerned with our friend 'Asa. (The others are Sinai 368 and 375, each bearing a word for "granary": 'sm [368] and 'st [375].) The story of Asa the Semitic Smith will be told in subsequent chapters. There is a historical novel waiting to be written on the basis of this evidence.

 

Aravah Valley

The Arabah was home to the Edomites (Edom was called "Idumea" in Roman times).

The arid conditions of the Aravah Valley in which the copper mines are located make for excellent preservation of organic materials, which would otherwise have disintegrated over time. Along with the collection of fabrics, the archaeologists also recovered from the mines a cache of seeds belonging to the Biblical “Seven Species.” Deuteronomy 8:7–8 mentions seven staple foods (wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives and dates) that have blessed the Land of Israel.

Ta Jahve, Bog tvoj, vodi te u dobru zemlju: zemlju potoka i vrela, dubinskih voda što izviru u dolinama i bregovima; zemlju pšenice i ječma, loze, smokava i šipaka, zemlju meda i maslina; (9) zemlju u kojoj nećeš sirotinjski jesti kruha i gdje ti ništa neće nedostajati; zemlju gdje kamenje ima željeza i gdje ćeš iz njezinih brdina vaditi mjed. (10) Do sita ćeš jesti i blagoslivljati Jahvu, Boga svoga, zbog dobre zemlje koju ti je dao.

 

Exodus

The Bible suggests that the Exodus occured ca. 1446 BC (cf. 1 Kings 6:1) for some Protestant scholars, which would place the event in the Late Bronze Age (ca. 1570-1200 BC). Most archaeologists prefer, on the basis of archaeological findings in Israel, to date the settling of the Promised Land by Israel to the Early Iron I, the Ramesside period  (ca. 1200-1100 BC), noting the sudden appearance of over 200 Iron I villages in the Hill Country. The destruction of the Canaanite cities by Joshua would have to be the end of Late Bronze Age in this scenario. The problem is that  according to several leading archaeologists, there is no evidence of a series of Late Bronze Age campsites anywhere in the Sinai or Negev (Kadesh Barnea being identified with Ain Qadeis or Ain el Qudeirat in the Negev and neither of these two sites date earlier than the late 10th century BC or Iron Age II).

Repeated archaeological surveys of the area about Saint Catherine's have failed to find any Late Bronze Age campsites. The thousands that allegedly perished in the worship of the Golden Calf should have left numerous burial tumuli, but to date no Late Bonze Age graves have been found (yet burial tumuli exist for earlier times in other areas of the Sinai like the Early Bronze Age of the 3rd millenium BC). For these reasons mainstream critical scholarship understands that the Exodus and conquest of Canaan as presented in the Hebrew Bible is fiction.

Perevolotsky and Finkelstein on the absence of archaeological evidence for an Exodus presence in the Southern Sinai:

"In recent years archaeological research in the Sinai peninsula has burgeoned as never before. Intensive surveys and excavations have been carried out in all regions of the peninsula, and what was once a remote and mysterious region has become, archaeologically speaking, well known and relatively understood. All this archaeological activity, however, has contributed almost nothing to our understanding of the Exodus. This is true despite the fact that the Bible describes the wanderings of the Israelites at great length and even provides us with a long list of place-names where the children of Israel encamped during their wanderings (Numbers 33). But, so far, no remains from the Late Bronze Age (15th-13th centuries BC- the period in which these events were supposed to have taken place) or even from the subsequent Iron Age I have been found anywhere in the whole Sinai peninsula, except for archaeological evidence of Egyptian activity on Sinai's northern coastal strip. Accordingly, no progress has been made in locating the Israelite encampments, in identifying their route, or in fixing the site of Mt. Sinai."

(p. 28. Aviram Perevolotsky & Israel Finkelstein, "The Southern Sinai Exodus Route in Ecological Perspective." Biblical Archaeology Review. July-August 1985, Vol. XI, No.4)

Rosen:

"The virtual absence of remains from the Middle Bronze or Late Bronze Ages in this area [the Lower Negeb] and the rest of the Negeb contradict the 38 year Israelite settlement recounted in Exodus. Similar problems attend virtually all attempts to identify specific sites (especially Mt. Sinai)) in the Central Negeb with places mentioned in Exodus."

(p.1064. Vol. 4. Steven A. Rosen, "Negeb." David Noel Freedman, Editor. The Anchor Bible Dictionary. New York. Doubleday. 1992. 6 vols.)

Dever:

"The Sinai Tradition...All we can say is that recent extensive exploration of the entire Sinai by Israeli archaeologists, geologists, and others has turned up virtually no Middle Bronze/Late Bronze presence in the Central or South Sinai. Our current detailed knowledge of this remote and hostile area calls into question the biblical tradition of a million-and-a-half or more people migrating there (Nu 11:21) for some 40 years (De 2:7). The barren terrain and sparse oasies might have supported a few straggling nomads, but no more than that."

(Vol. 3. p. 547.   Willam G. Dever, "Israel, History of, Archaeology and the Conquest." David Noel Freedman, Editor. The Anchor Bible Dictionary. New York. Doubleday. 1992. 6 vols. )

Romer also noted the absence of any evidence in the Sinai for Moses' Israelites (600,000 warriors, or one and a half million souls):

"Hard evidence of the Exodus event in the preserving deserts of the Sinai, where most of the biblical wandering takes place, is similarly elusive. Although its climate has preserved the tiniest traces of ancient bedouin encampments and the sparse 5000-year-old villages of mine workers, there is not a single trace of Moses or the Israelites; and they would have been by far the largest body of ancient people ever to have lived in this great wilderness."

(p. 58, "Genesis." John Romer. Testament, The Bible and History. New York. Henry Holt & Co. 1988. ISBN 0-8050-0939-6)

Finkelstein and Silberman:

"Some archaeological traces of their generation-long wandering in the Sinai should be apparent. However, except for the Egyptian forts along the northern oast, not a single campsite or sign of occupation from the time of Ramesses II and his immediate predecessors and successors has ever been identified in Sinai. And it has not been for lack of trying. Repeated archaeological surveys in all regions of the peninsula, including the mountainous area around the traditional site of Mount Sinai, near Saint Catherine's Monastery, have yielded only negative evidence: not even a single sherd, no structure, not a single house, no trace of an ancient encampment. One may argue that a relatively small band of wandering Israelites cannot be expected to leave material remains behind. But modern archaeological techniques are quite capable of tracing even the very meager remains of hunter-gatherers and pastoral nomads all over the world. Indeed, the archaeological record from the Sinai peninsula discloses evidence for pastoral activity in such eras as the third millenium BCE and the Hellenistic and Byzantine periods. There is simply no such evidence at the supposed time of the Exodus in the thirteenth century BCE."

(pp. 62-63, "Did the Exodus Happen ?" Israel Finkelstein & Neil Asher Silberman. The Bible Unearthed, Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of its Sacred Texts. New York. The Free Press. 2001.  ISBN 0-684-86912-8,  pp. 385 hdbk)

Finkelstein i Silberman:

One of the great mysteries of archaeology is that despite repeated attempts to find evidence of the Exodus by some 600,000 Israelite warriors and their familes, not a sherd has been found of the Late Bronze Age (16th-15th century BCE) in the Sinai, or Negev and several towns mentioned did not exist at this time in Egypt, the Negev, Transjordan and Canaan.

Particularly frustrating is the location of Mount Sinai. Despite Gebel Musa near St. Catherine's moastery being identified as Mt. Horeb by Romano-Christian traditions of the 4th century AD, repeated archaeological surveys and sweeps have failed to turn up any Late Bronze campsites or graves sites for the thousands who perished in the Golden Calf incidentyet tombs exist of the Early Bronze Age throughout the Sinai! One Israeli scholar in a book on the wanderings of Israel and Mt. Sinai, Professor Menashe Har-el (Har-el in Hebrew meaning "The Mountain of God") has noted 13 different scholarly proposals for the location of Mt. Sinai (cf. his book titled The Sinai Journeys, The Route of the Exodus. San Diego, California. Ridgefield.1983) . Not one of the site proposals have been confirmed because none have the pottery debris of the Late Bronze period in association with them. These 13 sites also fail in providing pottery debris for an Exodus ca. 1250 BC, favored by many Critical scholars, that is, in Ramesside times (noting the mention of Ramesses in Exodus 12:37) and Early Iron IA, ca. 1200 BC.

Wilderness of Paran

The Exodus narratives state that after encamping at Mt. Sinai, the Israelites then encamped in the wilderness of Paran:

"In the second year, on the twentieth day of the second month, the cloud lifted from the Tabernacle of the Testimony, and the Israelites moved by stages from the wilderness of Sinai, until the cloud came to rest in the wilderness of Paran." (Numbers 10:11-12 RSV)

Three days march from Mount Sinai and the wilderness of Sinai found them encamping again, suggesting the wilderness of Paran is three days march from Mt. Sinai (Numbers 10:33)

Hobab, brother-in-law of Moses and son of Reuel the Midianite, return to Midian from Mt. Sinai (Numbers 10:29-30).

Moses defeating the Amalekites at Rephidim (Exodus 17:8), after leaving the Wilderness of Sin (Exodus 17:1), while at Rephidim he strikes a rock causing a stream of water to erupt  to sustain his people. After Amalek's defeat he is portrayed entertaining his father-in-law, Jethro the Midianite at the mountain of God ((Exodus 18:1-3). Then in Exodus 19:1 we are informed Israel moves into the wilderness of Sinai, leaving Rephidim.  One would think the mountain of God is either at Rephidim or some place to the east of it. A wadi Refayid has been suggested for Rephidim (it lies east of Feiran and northwest of Gebel Musa and St. Catherine's). The problem, is that the wilderness of Paran, if it refers to the oasis of Feiran, lies west of Refayid and St. Catherine's, not east.

Timna Valley

As Moses is portrayed as dwelling in Midian and grazing his father-in-law's sheep westward to the edge of the wilderness (Exodus 3:1), and as Midian is generally associated with the area called Madyan in Arabic ( a region south of the port of Aqabah), the Ramesside events at Timna, on the very edge of the Sinai peninsula, suggest that it is most probably the original location "lurking behind" the confused and garbled biblical narratives. That is, Paran, Sinai, Horeb and Rephidim are genuine names found in the Southern Sinai, but their locations don't match the biblical sequencing of events.

Could it be that Timna, located at the western edge of the great Arabah valley which extends from the Dead Sea to the port of Aqaba, lies behinds the nomenclature "Horeb"? That is, Arabah has been transformed into Horeb? The mountain of Horeb is then, in this proposal, "the mountain of the Arabah", located in Sinai, that is, it is a part of the chain of mountains forming the eastern border of the Sinai Peninsula or the Sinai Wilderness?

Mainstream scholars understand that Israel's settling of Canaan is attested archaeologically in Iron I, ca. 1200 BC with over 200 villages or hamlets appearing in the Hill Country. This is the Ramesside era, and the events at Timna are of the Ramesside era!

Hathor

The Egyptian sanctuary at Timna, dedicated to Hathor, possessed votive objects bearing cartouches from Ramesses II (1304-1237 BC) through Ramesses V (ca. 1160-1156 BC); Midianite as well as Negebite pottery was found in association with Egyptian wares (cf. Vol. 4, pp.1184-1203, Beno Rothenberg, "Timna,"  Michael Avi-Yonah & Ephraim Stern, Editiors. Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. Prentice-Hall. 1978. ISBN 0-13-275149-6)

After the Egyptians left Timna the Midianites are believed to have desecrated the Hathor Shrine and erected a Tabernacle or Tent Shrine, with Masseboth (standing stones) and a copper snake in the Naos area. The Hathor pillars bearing her face, with cow ears, were effaced and reused, being placed "upside down." The bronze snake, the tent and the effacing may be what lurks behind the Bible's portrayals of Moses making a bronze snake for Israel to worship, the tent may be what's behind the Tabernacle of Israel in the wilderness, and the effacement of Hathor has been recast as the destruction of the Golden Calf. Some of the votive objects dedicated to Hathor may have been dedicated by the peoples working the copper mines whose pottery is from the Negev, Southern Canaan and Midian, recalling the association in the Bible of Midianites and Israelites in the Sinai and Arabah wanderings.

12 mining camps

Rothenberg and Glass noted 12 mining camps in the Har Timna copper mining area run by the Egyptians which all posssessed Midianite pottery (which is also called al Qurayya ware, after the site in North-West Arabia where it was produced), all dating to the Ramesside period. Could these 12 camps be what's behind the notion that Israel in the wilderness also had 12 tribal camps, who entertained Jethro's Midianites and Kenites ("metal smiths") at the Mountain of God (Hebrew: Har-El) also called Mount Horeb or Mount Sinai?

Midianite pottery

Rothenberg and Glass:

"Between 1964 and 1976, three smelting camps were excavated in the Timna valley, and at all three sites Midianite pottery was found in the layers of the New Egyptian Kingdom, dated, on the basis of finds at Site No. 200 (the Egyptian-Midianite Sanctuary of Timna), to the 19th-20th Dynasties, i.e., from the beginning of the thirteenth to the mid-twelfth century BC. Nine other sites in the valley also produced the same Midianite pottery."

(p.77. Beno Rothenberg & Jonathan Glass. "The Midianite Pottery." John F.A. Sawyer & David J.A. Clines, editors. Midian, Moab and Edom, The History and Archaeology of Late Bronze Age Jordan and North-West Arabia. Sheffield, England. JSOT Press. 1983)

Rothenberg and Glass on the dating of the Midianite wares:

"Midianite pottery was found at twelve sites in the Timna Valley, but only three of them were excavated. The date of the use of this pottery at Site No. 200 -the Hethor Sanctuary- could be fixed by Egyptian inscriptions and inscribed objects, found in the same sealed layers, to the period from Ramesses II to Ramesses V, i,e., from ca. 1290 BC to 1152 BC."

(p.100. Rothenberg & Glass. 1983)

Rothenberg and Glass provided a map plotting various locations of Midianite wares in North-West Arabia, the Arabah, Edom, Jordan, the Hebron hill country, the Northern Negev and the northern Sinai south of Bardawil Lagoon. I note that the biblical presentation of the Exodus has Israel in the Sinai, Negev, Arabah, by passing Edom to wind up in Jordan, then in the Hebron Hill Country and the Negev under Joshua. Of interest here is that Midianite pottery is found in all these locations of the 13th-12th centuries BC, when some scholars suggest the Exodus took place (cf. p. 70. Figure 2. "Distribution Map of Midianite Pottery." Rothenberg & Glass. 1983). The Exodus account suggests that some Kenites accompanied Israel and Moses and settled near Arad. Midianite pottery has been found near Arad at Tel Masos in the Beersheva valley. Kadesh Barnea is Tel Masos not Ain el Qudeirat (Qudeirat is biblical Hazor Addar mentioned in Judah's south border).  Masos was determined to be the EARLIEST IRON IA encampment in all the Negev (ca. 1230 BC), and the BIGGEST, which aligns with the biblical scenario of all Israel being at Kadesh Barnea. By contrast, Ain el Qudeirat is _no earlier_ than the 10th century BC (Iron II).

II understand that the events at the Ramesside Hathor Shrine at Har Timna are -in part-  what lurks behind the Mt. Horeb/Sinai narratives. The various place names in the Southern Sinai, like Paran, Rephidim, Sinai, etc., were picked up in Iron II times (as witnessed by the 9th-8th century Judaean pottery found at Feiran), but that by this period, the 9th-8th century BC, memories had forgotten that Timna was the site of Mount Horeb; these site names from the 9th-8th century BC then came to "jumbled together" - the biblical narrator not knowing their true locations-   when the Pentateuch was written in the Exile, ca. 562 BC. The Timna valley was formerly known as wadi Mene'iyeh, could Arabic -iyeh preserve the Hebrew eyheh, from whence some scholars suspect Yahweh is derived (cf. Exodus 3:14, eyeh aser eyheh, "I Am that I AM", "...tell them Ehyeh has sent you.")?

Midianite pottery is documented at Timna, an Egyptian mining camp on the east side of the Sinai (westside of the Arabah) of the Ramesside era, which would fit to a degree the biblical story. I am not aware of any Ramesside era Midianite pottery being found any further west, into the Sinai (such as Feiran or Gebel Musa by St. Catherine's).

Serabit el Khadim

Timna has the votives cast in metal, bracelets, rings, and ear-rings, etc., honoring Egyptian gods, made by peoples from South Canaan and the Negev, and a tabernacle or tent-shrine, historical kernels underlying the Exodus narratives (Israel being portrayed as casting objects from their bracelets, rings, and ear-rings).  What Timna does NOT possess, however, is the tablets made from the living rock of the mountainside by God's hand and given to Moses, who later destroys them, leaving them strewn upon the ground. It is in the vicinity of Serabit el Khadim that archaic Proto-Sinaitic inscriptions are found near mine entrances, carved into the living rock of the mountain sides by the Asiatic miners from South Canaan. Archaeologists have also found and noted that some of these inscriptions appear upon stone tablets that were found STREWN UPON THE GROUND'S SURFACE, here, for me is the historical kernel, of Mose's tablets broken and lying on the ground. In some cases these tablets are found in association with burial tumuli of the deceased South Canaanite miners. Perhaps this is the historical kernel underlying the slaughter of the thousands for worshipping the Golden Calf, said slaughter being precipitated by Moses' casting the stone tablets to the ground and ordering vengenace upon his people.

Beit-Arieh, an Israeli archaeologist, with extensive experience with the Sinai, remarks about Proto-Sinaitic inscriptions found on stones labs "strewn" on the ground outside mine entrances in the vicinity of Serabit el-Khadim, which, he argues, is evidence of miners from South Canaan working for the Egyptians (his article discusses the identity of the Asiatic Miners, and when they were at the mines):

"Obviously, if the metallurgical equipment can be dated to the final period of Egyptian activity at the site (New Kingdom) this is strong evidence to the same period.  It should be remembered that several of the inscribed slabs found at the beginning of the century were found strewn on the surface outside the mine shafts, additional evidence that they belong to the final phase of Egyptian presence at the site."

(pp. 63-5. Itzhaq Beit-Arieh. "Canaanites and Egyptians At Serabit el-Khadim." Anson F. Rainey, editor. Egypt, Israel Sinai; Archaeological and Historical Relationships In The Biblical Period. Tel Aviv, Israel. Tel Aviv University. 1987 [These papers being presented in 1982 at a conference at Tel Aviv] ISBN 965-224-008-7)

Red Cloth

Rothenberg had found a quantity of cloth colored red and yellow with beads sewn on to it at the Hathor Shrine at Har Timna ( He also found copious quantitities of beads dedicated to Hathor, some, probably from sacred Menant necklaces). He thought it might be the remains of a Midianite tent, set up after the Egyptians withdrew from Timnah in the reign of Ramesses V. I have recently learned that Hathor possessed an epithet, "Mistress of the Red Cloth," or "She of the Red Cloth."

The cloth found by Rothenberg is not a Midianite tent, but a votive to Hathor? It strange that if Israel so honored Yahweh's Tabernacle in the Wilderness that she had it with her at Shiloh, that the Midianites would abandon such a holy relic at Timna. If Israel is, in part drawing some of her notions from Midianite religious beliefs and practices as alleged by some scholars, I find it unusual that the Midianite Tabernacle was abandoned.

Scholars have studied the textiles unearthed at the Timna Hathor shrine in the Arabah and have concluded that they appear to have been made by Asiatics, not Egyptians. The textiles were identified as being either Linen (from Flax) or Woolen. The manner of the weave appears to be Asiatic. The Egyptians are believed to have preferred linen textiles, the few woolen examples found in Egypt are suggested to have been by Asiatic weavers who either resided there or were imports into the country. The Timna linens are of a weave not found found in Egypt, leading Sheffer and Tidhar to suggest they were made by Asiatics (cf. p. 230. Avigail Sheffer and Amalia Tidhar. "Textiles- Conclusions." Beno Rothenberg. The Egyptian Mining Temple at Timna. 1988. London [cf. p. 224 for pinkish-blue-green, red, red & yellow, and blue colored fabrics; p. 225 tasseled fabric or fringes; p. 226 yellow threads for fringe, for priests]).

Two differing textile weights were found, heavy cloths and lighter, finer cloths. It is suggested that the heavier cloths were for awnings, curtains and perhaps a Tent cloth, whilst the lighter, finer weaves were of clothing for the priests officiating at the shrine. The textiles exhibited different dyes, yellow, red, blue and pink. Tassles or fringe were also found as well as cordage. The cordage was suggested to be either for the tent shrine or perhaps belts for tunics (cf. pp. 224-230, Sheffer & Tidhar).

The excavators were impressed by the quantity of textiles and their numerous locations. Some of the textiles may have been dedicated to Hathor, but others appear to have been dedicated during the so-called "Midianite phase," when a Tent shrine was erected, after the Egyptians abandoned Timna, ca. 1140 BC.

Avigail Sheffer & Amalia Tidhar:

"(1) On a large number of the Timna textiles the thread is z-spun. Since z-spinning is entirely absent in Egyptian fabrics of the early periods, the z-spun fabrics of the later periods may have been either imports or made by foreign weavers in Egypt.

Almost no woolens from the 14th to 12th centuries BC are known from excavations in Egypt, and, moreover, it is unlikely that any woolen fabrics would be found inside an Egyptian temple, since the use of wool in connection with ritual was taboo in ancient Egypt. Yet, in Timna a large number of woolen textiles were found inside the temple. The linen fragments demonstrate the use of the tabby weave, with approximately the same number of warps and wefts to the square centimeter (equal count). However, in Egyptian linen of all periods the warps greatly exceed the wefts in number, and sometimes the weft threads were nearly obscured by them. We therefore conclude that most of the Timna textiles did not originate in Egypt, but were possibly brought to the site, or locally produced, by the mine workers recruited, according to the archaeological evidence, from the Negev tribes or North West Arabia (Midian).

(2) Although the above data can tell us little about function, the coarser and heavier textiles may have been tent cloth (for awnings, partions, etc.) or perhaps curtains' the fine textiles are probably remnants of clothes or priests' sacred vestments which were kept permanently in the temple. There are also pieces of cord which could have served many purposes; they might have been tent ropes or even belts."

(p. 230. Avigail Sheffer & Amalia Tidhar. "Textiles- Conclusions." Beno Rothenberg. The Egyptian Mining Temple at Timna. London. 1988)

It is of note that the cordage and textiles finds, heavy cloths for curtains, awning and tent cloths as well as lighter, finer clothing textiles, with fringing, tassles and cords, ALL APPEAR in the description of the furnishings of the Tabernacle as noted by the Exodus traditions (cf. Exodus 35:19-26), which portrays Asiatic women (Israelite wives) weaving linen and woolen items such as curtains and veils as donations to the Tabernacle, dyed in blue, purple and red, as well as clothing for the priests and tassles and cords for the tent.

Also of interest, found within the sanctuary were four mineral votives, semi-precious stones, 1) Whitish Selenite Crystal 4x2x3 cm.; 2) Micritic Limestone Calcite, stained pink, 4.5x1x2 cm.; 3) Red-brown Haematite, 2.5x2x0.75 cm.; and 4) a Chert concretion, buff to gray, 2 cm. (cf. p. 266 Rothenberg. 1988. Timna Temple). It is MY UNDERSTANDING that these small stones are what is behind the notion of 12 precious stones as votives for Aaron's Ephod (Ex 39:1-15).

Bronze serpent

Also of interest is that Rothenberg in 1972 wrote that the bronze serpent was found within the sacred Naos of the Midianite shrine at Timna. He has corrected this statement in his 1988 work, advising that a review of field notes indicates that the serpent was NOT found within the Naos, but outside of it (cf. p. 89. Note 84. Beno Rothenberg. The Egyptian Mining Temple at Timna. London. Institute for Archaeo-Metallic Studies, Institute of Archaeology, University College London. 1988). In 1972 he wrote that the bronze serpent was the only item found in the Naos. It would appear that nothing was worshipped by the Midianites in the Naos from this new development. Could this be Yahweh, of whom no image is to be made? In his 1988 (p. 89. Note 91) work he also reports two shallow cup marks on the boulder's surface (perhaps to receive libations?).

Exodus

It is my conlusion that events, as attested the archaeological findings at the Hathor shrine at Har Timna in Ramesside times (Seti I - Ramesses V, ca. 1291-1141 BC), are what lurks behind -in part- the Exodus traditions of donations to the Tabernacle at Mount Horeb on the border of Midian in the Wilderness of Sinai and the Arabah, the Midianites perhaps laying claim to Har Timna (Gebel Mene'ieyeh) after Egypt departed the area, thus I understand that "Mount Horeb near Midian" is Har Timna/Gebel Mene'ieyeh. Could it possibly be that " 'ieyeh" of Gebel Mene'ieyeh preserves the statement found in Exodus?

Exodus 3:13-14 (RSV)

"Then Moses said to God, "If I come to the people of Israel and say to them, 'The God of your fathers has sent me to you,' and they ask me, 'What is his name ?' what shall I say to them ?" God said to Moses, "I AM WHO IAM" [ehyeh asher ehyeh]." And he said, "Say this to the people of Israel, 'I AM [Ehyeh] has sent me to you."

Despite numerous locations proposed for Mount Sinai or Horeb, no scholarly consensus has been reached because archaeologists demand archaeological proof of encampments in the form of pottery debris from either the Late Bronze Age, for those arguing the Exodus was ca. 1446 BC as suggested by 1 Kings 6:1, or the Early Iron I Ramesside era as Israel is said to have begun its Exodus from a place called Rameses and the sudden appearance of 200+ villages of stone in Iron I, in the Hill Country of Canaan, is for these scholars the settlement of Israel in Canaan under Joshua.

Dr. Pinch has suggested that the Timna copper mines may have been worked as early as Pharaoh Amenhotep III (ca. 1386-1349 BC) of the 18th Dynasty, if her proposal is correct, then we have evidence for two sites possessing "the required" Late Bronze Age (ca. 1560-1200 BC)  and Early Iron IA (ca. 1220-1100 BC) pottery debris to correctly site Mount Sinai or Mount Horeb, the Egyptian-run mining camps of Serabit el Khadim in the southern Sinai and Har Timna in the mountains forming the eastern border of the Sinai:

"On the basis of the inscribed faience, Rothenberg (1972.132, 171) and Schulman (1976.117, 126) date all the Egyptian faience from Timna to the Ramesside period. Only 25 pieces of votive faience inscribed with royal names were recovered from the temple, compared with nearly 500 from Serabit el-Khadim. The royal names mentioned are Seti I, Ramesses II, Merenptah, Seti II, Tawosret and Ramesses III, IV, and V (Schulman in Rothenberg 1988.145). At Serabit el-Khadim the date range of the 'royal name' faience is from Amonhotpe I to Ramesses VI, but the Ramesside rulers seem to have dedicated a much greater quantity and wider variety of inscribed faience than the 18th dynasty rulers did (1.4.3). Given this, and the troubled history of the Timna temple, if offerings were made there during the 18th dynasty, one would expect only a small proportion of the surviving faience to be of that date.

Most of the non 'royal name' Timna faience can be dated to the Ramesside period by style, technique and material, but some categories provide exceptions. The evidence of the comparitive material from Deir el-Bahri and Serabit el-Khadim suggests that some of the cat figurines found at Timna are 18th dynasty...One of the Timna Hathor masks (1988 fig. 30.1) is similar to the 18th dynasty pieces from Deir el-Bahri (e.g. Pl.30). The fish and flower decoration on some of the faience bowls is of a type usually dated to the 18th dynasty...The use of spiral decoration around the rim of bowls decorated with fish and flowers is charcteristic only of the 18th dynasty (2.11.3.1). Some of the beads common at Timna, such as the corrugated sheroids and gadrooned discs, are usually dated to the 18th dynasty...Much of the glass and some of the pottery could date to the late 18th dynasty (1.5.2). On the basis of the objects themselves, I would suggest that offerings were being made at Timna as early as the reign of Amonhotpe III."

(pp. 66-67. "Timna." Geraldine Pinch. Votive Offerings to Hathor. Oxford. Griffith Institute, Ashmolean Museum. 1993. ISBN 0-900416-55-6 pbk)

Pinch:

"The Timna temple was an Egyptian foundation dedicated to Hathor, Lady of Mefkat [Turquoise]. It was used by copper mining expeditions. A shrine may have existed at the site as early as the reign of Amonhotpe III. The temple was repaired and rebuilt several times, probably under Seti I, Ramesses II, and Ramesses III. It is of a basic Egyptian type, with the semi rock-cut sanctuary characteristic of Hathor shrines.

Hardly any votive stelae or statues have survived intact. The date range of the small Egyptian offerings is from the late 18th dynasty to the mid 20th dynasty. The 'royal name' faience is similar to that from Serabit el-Khadim, but most of the Timna offerings are Ramesside. Timna was a state-run temple at this period, but is unlikely to have had a permanent staff. The local peoples who worked with the Egyptians probably made some offerings in the temple, but there is also evidence for Midianite hostility towards the Hathor cult."

(p. 70. "Timna." Geraldine Pinch. Votive Offerings to Hathor. Oxford. Griffith Institute, Ashmolean Museum. 1993. ISBN 0-900416-55-6. Note: on pp. 61-65 Pinch gives her reasons for why she suspects Timna may have existed as an Egyptian site under Amenhotep III).

Mt. Sinai

That events at Mount Timna (Israeli Har Timna), on the eastern border of the Sinai Wilderness, is what   -in part-  lurks behind the Pentateuchal narratives of Mt. Sinai/Horeb.

1. Mt. Sinai/Horeb IS IN the wilderness of Sinai (Ex 19:2)

2. Moses led Jethro the Midianite's sheep to the wilderness [of Sinai], to Horeb, the Mountain of God (Hebrew: Har-El).

3. Later, after the Exodus from Egypt, he encounters Jethro at Mt. Sinai.

4. We need a site that is AS CLOSE TO MIDIAN AS WE CAN GET, YET STILL IN THE SINAI WILDERNESS, that is Har Timna, on the eastern perimeter of the Sinai (cf. Franz's and Spark's arguments that Mt. Sinai is NOT "in" Midian.

5. We need a site that has either Late Bronze or Early Iron I pottery evidence of Midianites and peoples from the Negeb (Moses' Israelites settling in the Negeb, the homeland of Jacob and Isaac). We also need pottery evidence of peoples from Egypt.  Har Timna has all three pottery forms, which cover the Late Bronze-Early Iron I periods (1318-1156 BC)!

6. A Tabernacle or tent-shrine exists at Mt.Horeb/Sinai. Remains of a tent believed to have been erected by Midianites exists at Timna, placed over the Egyptian Hathor Shrine.

7. Moses makes a serpent of bronze for Israel to behold in the wanderings. A bronze serpent was found at the tent-shrine.

8. Moses erects masseboth at Mt. Sinai (Ex 24:4 "pillars"). A row of masseboth were found in the Timna Tent-Shrine, believed to have been erected by Midianites.

9. Moses destroys the Egyptian god (Golden calf). Stone pillars bearing the face of Hathor-goddess, are effaced by the Midianites.

10. At Sinai we are informed Israel worships Egyptian gods as well as God. We need a site that shows non-Egyptians worshipping Egyptian gods. Votive offerings at the Hathor shrine are a mix of Egyptian and Midianite and Negebite (based on the pottery there which is Negebite, Midianite and Egyptian).

11. The Exodus story is set in Ramesside times with its city of Ramesses. The Hathor shrine at Timna was erected in Ramesside times (Seti I, Rameses II  through  Ramesses V) and maintained till ca. 1156 BC.

12. A pillar of cloud by day and of fire by night is associated with Mt. Sinai.  The Egyptians were in charge of the mining of copper at Timna with a workforce of Negebites and Midianites. They had developed an improved smelting system whereby fires were stoked day and night. The clouds of smoke by day evidently reflected the glowing charcoal fires by night making the "pillar of cloud."

Knauth : "So efficient was the Egyptian operation that smelting furnaces burned round the clock, raising output and saving fuel. Instead of stoking new fires each morning, as had been done by earlier smiths. the Egyptians ran the furnaces at top temperatures for several days at a time. An average smelt, under Egyptian management, yielded more than 200 pounds of copper at once- a far cry from the 20 pounds that could be smelted by older methods at Timna." (p.52, "Streamlining an Age-Old Smelting Process," Percy Knauth. The Metalsmiths [The Emergence of man Series]. New York. Time-Life Books. 1974). Perhaps the smoke plumes were transformed into a pillar of cloud?

13. This is the only site near the Sinai, that posssesses the required pottery assemblages, Late Bronze-Early Iron I, of  a peoples from Egypt, the Negev, and Midian.

14.  While at Mt. Sinai Israel is engaged in metalurgical activities, she casts gold, silver and bronze objects for the Tabernacle. So the *ideal site* ought to have evidence of objects being cast "on-site," and some of these objects ought to be of a "religious" nature. The Hathor shrine at Timna possesses votive objects cast "on site" of armbands, rings, ear-rings and figurines, like a bronze snake, a ram and a phallic male idol cast in copper (still partially in its mold). The Timna area was sacred since Chalcolithic times as a occupation of that era underlies the Egyptian Hathor shrine.

15.  Deuteronomy 1:2 suggests Mt. Horeb is eleven days journey from Kadesh Barnea. The current scholarly consensus is that Ain el Qadeis or Ain el Qudeirat in the Negev is the site.  A daily rate of march for a physically fit army is between 15-20 miles a day. Pharaoh Tuthmoses III mentions his army reaching Gaza from Sile in Egypt, in ten days, traveling a rate of 15 miles a day.  The Israelites, burdened with women, children, the aged, herds of goats, sheep and cattle, would not be able to attain the 15 miles a day that the Egyptian army achieved. A rate of 6 miles a day would be more reasonable. The distance from Har Timna to Ain el Qadeis is approximately 66 miles, traveling at a rate of 6 miles a day, in 11 days Ain el Qadeis could be reached from Har Timna. Bryant G. Wood observes : "A large group of pastoralists moving with their possessions and animals can cover no more than 6 miles in a day, and usually less (Conder 1883: 79; cf. Beitzel 1985: 91). The limiting factor is the animals. When the Israelites left Egypt, they had "large droves of livestock, both flocks and herds" (Ex 13:38). "

16.  Deuteronomy 1:2 suggests that "the way to Seir" is a route used to reached Kadesh Barnea from Mt. Sinai.  There appears to be conflicting statements about Seir's location in the biblical texts.  It is identified with the mountains to the east of the Arabah in some verses, and with the western side of the Arabah in others. Some scholars have proposed that the Darb esh-Sha`ira, a track going south from the Negev, past Gebal esh-Sha`ira (to the west of Eilat) and on to the southern Sinai, is the "way to Seir." If they are correct, then Timna which lies just east of the Darb esh-Sha`ira, might be Mt. Sinai/Horeb.

Serabit el Khadim & Har Timna

Despite my having identified two possible sites for Mount Sinai, Serabit el Khadim and Har Timna, in a mountainous setting with a Late Bronze and Iron I presence, we still have "problems." In regards to Har Timna, the tent, if Midianite, is not the Tabernacle of the Exodus, as that tent was said to have been placed in the Temple of Solomon at Jersualem in the Holy of Holies. The bronze serpent Moses made was also kept at the Jerusalem temple until destroyed under the reign of Hezekiah.

As regards Serabit el Khadim, the shattered stela-form tablets do not bear the 10 commandments on their surfaces, so they are not the stones Moses presented to Israel.

 

Smrt u pustinji

Izlazak: Pođu tako Izraelci iz Ramsesa prema Sukotu. ...Tri mjeseca nakon izlaska iz zemlje egipatske, istoga dana, stignu Izraelci u Sinajsku pustinju.

Kod brda Hora, uz među edomsku, reče Jahve Mojsiju i Aronu: "Neka se Aron pridruži svojim precima! Neće ući u zemlju koju dajem Izraelcima, jer ste se oprli mojoj zapovijedi kod Meripskih voda. Uzmi Arona i njegova sina Eleazara, pa ih izvedi na brdo Hor. I svuci Aronu njegove haljine pa ih obuci njegovu sinu Eleazaru. Aron će se pridružiti precima, umrijet će ondje."

Ponovljeni zakon: Potom mu reče Jahve: "Ovo je zemlja za koju sam se zakleo Abrahamu, Izaku i Jakovu da ću je dati tvome potomstvu. Dopustio sam da je pogledaš svojim očima, ali ti onamo nećeš prijeći." I Mojsije, sluga Jahvin, umrije ondje u zemlji moapskoj po Jahvinoj zapovijedi. I ukopa ga on u dolini u zemlji nasuprot Bet Peoru. Do dana današnjega nitko nije doznao za njegov grob.

  • Aron i Mojsije su nestali u Sinajskoj pustinji i njihov grob ne postoji

 

Aaron died on mount Hor & Mosera

Aaron died on mount Hor

And Moses did as the LORD commanded: and they went up into mount Hor in the sight of all the congregation. And Moses stripped Aaron of his garments, and put them upon Eleazar his son; and Aaron died there in the top of the mount. Numbers 20:27-28
And Aaron the priest went up into mount Hor at the commandment of the LORD, and died there. Numbers 33:38

Aaron died at Mosera

And the children of Israel took their journey from Beeroth of the children of Jaakan to Mosera: there Aaron died, and there he was buried. Deuteronomy 10:6
  • Nezna se gdje je Aaron umro

 

Sigmund Freud - Moses and Monotheism

Freud je bio poznavatelj Biblije i židovske tradicije. Freudov otac bio je odgojen u ortodoksnoj židovskoj tradiciji koju su poštovali do dolaska u Beč. Nepoznato je zašto je otac odustao od židovske tradicije kad su doselili u Beč. Freudovo ime bilo je Shlomo Sigismund što je također imalo religijski karakter. Otac mu je u sedmoj godini poklonio Bibliju s napisanom napomenom na Hebrejskom jeziku tražeći od njega da proučava stare tekstove.

One of Sigmund Freud’s very last publications, which came out during his exile in England, is Der Mann Moses und die monotheistische Religion. Drei Abhandlungen, published in English as Moses and Monotheism (1939).

There is a tradition of considering Moses as an Egyptian rather than a Hebrew, which Freud also did in Moses and Monotheism. Not as implausible as it might sound to those familiar only with the traditional story. The familiar Biblical story itself describes Moses growing up as an Egyptian prince, and Moses is an Egyptian name. Jan Assmann discusses this tradition, including Freud’s part in it, in Moses the Egyptian: The Memory of Egypt in Western Monotheism (1997; Harvard Press edition).

Assmann points out that the selection of the phrase “der Mann Moses” (the man Moses) for the title of Freud’s book in German refers to Exodus 11:3, the only place in the Scriptures in which Moses is referred to that way, in what Assmann calls “such a distancing manner”. That description includes a reference to Moses being “exceedingly important in the land of Egypt”, making the use of “der Mann Moses” a particular reference to his Egyptian background.

Freud cites the references in Sellin’s earlier Mose[sic] und seine Bedeutung fur die israelitisch-jüdischenReligionsgeschichte (1922) and describes Sellin’s references there to the murder of Moses as follows:

In 1922 Ernst Sellin made a discovery of decisive importance. He found in the book of the Prophet Hosea (second half of the eighth century [BCE]) unmistakable traces of a tradition to the effect that the founder of their religion, Moses, met a violent end in a rebellion of his stubborn and refractory people. The religion he had instituted was at that time abandoned. This tradition is not restricted to Hosea: it recurs in the writings of most of the later Prophets; indeed, according to Sellin, it was the basis of all the later expectations of the Messiah.

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) in London, 1938, with the manuscript of An Outline of Psychoanalysis

Sellin saw the northern prophets Hosea and Amos as part of a religious tendency that preserved the “desert religion” of Moses and the period of the Exodus. This trend placed a strong emphasis on an ethical monotheism. So they were particularly critical of the assimilation of what they saw as Canaanite practices, especially including the incorporation of Canaanite deities. The Hebrew Bible repeatedly refers to the cult of the goddess Asheroth. Sellin argues that Asheroth was of honored in some form as part of the Yahwist religion and later archaeological work has confirmed that view. She was sometimes considered to be Yahweh’s consort. But as the invective against Asheroth in the Hebrew Bible shows, this was never a generally accepted practice and apparently always had its opponents, not just among the supposed “desert religion” tendency of Hosea and Amos.

Sellin detects two distinct traditions in the Hebrew Bible over the wandering of the Israelites in the desert: a Sinai tradition and a Kadesh tradition, which were merged at the time of Saul and David. He’s careful to note that solutions have to be inferred from the evidence and cannot be taken as certain.

Sellin argued that part of this desert religion/Sinai tradition included a version of the Exodus in which the Israelite rose up against Moses and actually killed him. This tradition was also known to others, he argues, that were not Northern prophets like Deutero-Isaiah and Deutero-Zechariah. He lists the following as “Seher un freien Propheten” working in the direct Mosaic tradition: “Debora, Samuel, Nathan, Elia, Amos, Hosea, Jesaja, Micha, Jeremia, Deuterojesaja”. He argued that those in this group who followed the ethical religion of Moses “the most truly have the image of the historical Moses,” i.e., the more likely correct image.

 

Mojsijev odlazak

Mojsije ostade ondje s Jahvom četrdeset dana i četrdeset noći. Niti je kruha jeo niti je vode pio. Tada je na ploče ispisao riječi Saveza - Deset zapovijedi.

A narod, videći gdje Mojsije dugo ne silazi s brda, okupi se oko Arona pa mu rekne: "Ustaj! Napravi nam boga, pa neka on pred nama ide! Ne znamo što se dogodi s tim čovjekom Mojsijem koji nas izvede iz zemlje egipatske.


Argo

  • Prijedlog; Mojsije se ukrcao na brod Argo i nikad se nije vratio

 

Argonautica - Story of Mopsus, c. 1184/83 BC

The Christian chronicler Eusebius of Caesarea was as convinced of Mopsus' historicity as his pagan predecessors and contemporaries: in his parallel chronologies he entered under the year corresponding to 1184/83 Mopsus reigned in Cilicia.

The Cambridge Ancient History has a link on the Sea Peoples to the Story of Mopsus ("the calf"), whose story seems linked to Cilicia, to the Libyans and to Ashkelon. This has connections to the Adana/Denyen/Danaan connection too.John D. Croft (talk) 13:24, 17 August 2012 (UTC)

We suggest; Mopsus = Amenmesse


Building Argo


Orpheus

 

Argonautica

Argonautica is a Greek epic poem written by Apollonius Rhodius in the 3rd century BC. The only surviving Hellenistic epic, the Argonautica tells the myth of the voyage of Jason and the Argonauts to retrieve the Golden Fleece from remote Colchis. Their heroic adventures and Jason's relationship with the dangerous Colchian princess / Sorceress Medea.


The Argo, by Konstantinos Volanakis

Jason was an ancient Greek mythological hero who was the leader of the Argonauts whose quest for the Golden Fleece featured in Greek literature. He was the son of Aeson, the rightful king of Iolcos. He was married to the sorceress Medea. He was also the great-grandson of the messenger god Hermes, through his mother's side.

Jason has being the mythical founder of the city of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia.

Golden Fleece figuring as a solar emblem.

 

Golden Fleece

Through mediation of the God Hermes, Phrixus and Helle fled from their father's and stephmother's court, in Boeotia, flying on a golden ram. As they flew over Tracie, Helle leaned over and looked down, lost her balance and fell, which is why that area of the sea has been called the Hellespont (= where Helle drowned) ever since.

Phrixus arrived safely in Colchis were he offered the ram to Zeus and gave the Golden Fleece to king Aeetes who had received him well. The precious Golden Fleece was hung on an oak tree in the sacred grove of Ares, where a fierce dragon kept perpetual guard over it.

Jason

When Jason's father had been thrown of his throne by his half brother Pelias, he sent Jason to the wise Centaur Chiron, in order to raise the boy in safety.

When Jason was twenty years of age he came to king Pelias in the city of Iolcus and claimed the throne king Pelias had illegally taken from Jason's father. As a ruse the king promised him the throne as soon as Jason would bring him the famous Golden Fleece, owned by the king of Colchis.

  • Irsu (alt. Arsu, Iarsu, Yarsu)= Jason = Aaron

Jason, Eleazarov sin

Tada Juda izabra Ivanova sina Eupolema, iz Akosove kuće, i Eleazarova sina Jasona i posla ih u Rim da s Rimljanima sklope prijateljstvo i savez (18) da bi se tako oslobodili jarma. Uvidjeli su da grčko kraljevstvo porobljuje Izraela. - 1. Makabejci

Argo

Jason ordered a ship to be built with 50 oars. The ship was so perfect that it had in that time no match. The ship could actually talk and had the gift of foreseeing, thanks to a piece of wood from the holy oak of Dodone, a gift of the goddess Athena. The ship was very fast and was therfore named Argo, argos being Greek for fast.


The voyage of the Argonauts

Argonauts

The crew of the Argo consisted of  Greek hero's and even sons of gods. The steersman was Tiphys. There were, amongst others, the musician Orpheus, the seer Idmon, and Mopsus, Heracles, Hylas, Idas, Theseus, Peleus, Amphiaraus from Argos, Acastus, Castor and Polydeuces (Pollux), Periclymenus (son of Neleus), Peleas and his brother Telamon.

The voyage

The voyage of the Argo is depicted on a map, drawn according to the epic "Argonauts" by Apolloniusof Rhodos.

The first stop was on the isle of Lemnos, where the found only women as all men had been slaughtered earlier. The Argonauts lay with the women of the island and thus reintroduced a male element into the population.

Their next halt was Samotracie and after that they sailed through the Hellespont to arrive in Kyzikos, where they were received hospitably. When the time came for them to depart a head wind forced them back again and this time the people from Kyzikos mistook them for invaders and a fierce battle followed. When the mistake was discovered there was a reconciliation and the deaths were honoured on both sides.

Now the Argo sailed along the shores of Mysia, coming to the land where the soothsayer Phineas dwelt. They rid him of the Harpies, fierce birds that had stolen the food of the blind Phineas and who had left him almost starving, nearly to death. Out of gratitude he explained to them how they should try to sail through the Symplegades or "Clashing Rocks"

The Symplegades were two huge cliffs, reaching as high as the sky itself and not firmly fixed in the sea. Every so often they clashed together with such terrible speed and power, that they were certainly to crush any ship foolhardedly enough to venture between them. Phineas had advised the Argonauts to release a dove to fly between the rocks as to test the situation. The dove came through all right and only its tail was slightly harmed. The Argo thus got up as much speed as it possibly could and managed to pass between the Clashing Rocks losing only a small part of its stern. After that time the two rocks fused together and never moved again. Others say that the rocks  moved outward once more and stayed still ever after.

When the Argo finally reached Colchis (at the east coast of the Black Sea), king Aeetes promised to give the companions the Golden Fleece, on condition that Jason first accomplished two difficult feats: first he had to yoke two fire breathing bulls with bronze hooves, and then he was to sow dragon's teeth in a field and deal with the armed warriors who would spring up like plants.

In performing these feats he was helped by Medea, the king's daughter and a sorceress, who had fallen in love with Jason. And when the king finally denied Jason the Golden Fleece, thus going back on his word, she helped him to steal it, by setting a charm of sleep on the dragon.

The voyage of the Argo back to Greece has been described variously. Most accounts agree that after crossing the Black Sea, the Argo sailed up the Danube, entered the Adriatic, and then along the rivers Po and Rhone, came to Circe's island, off the coast of Tyrrhenia.

Then they sailed along the island of the Sirens, sea spirits with the heads of beautiful women and the bodies of birds. They would lure ships on to dangerous rocks by enchanting the sailors with their songs. The Argonauts escaped from their bewitching song thanks to Orpheus, who played his lyre and sang of the beauties of his own country so loudly that he drowned out the Sirens. He sang of home and the beloved waiting there for the sailors, thus strengthening their wish to sail home.

They sailed successfully between Scylla and Charibdis, evil sea spirits, who lived on either side of the Straits of Sicily. Scylla would roll rocks down in order to crush passing ships, while Charybdis was the motive power beneath a terrible whirlpool, which struck fear into the hearts of sailors and sucked their vessels down to destruction.

Then the Argonauts called at the island of the Phaeacians, the coast of Libya, then heading towards Crete.

On Crete, at that time, there was a gigantic bronze (robotic) creature, called Talos, whom the god Hephaestus had made as a guardian for the kingdom of Minos. He would throw huge boulders at ships he conceived to be hostile. Medea, however caused his death by her sorcery.

When the Argonauts finally returned in triumph to Iolcus, king Pelias, after receiving the Golden Fleece, broke his promise and refused to abdicate in Jason's favour. In fact he had killed earlier Jason's entire family. Then Medea helped him again and, by her sorcery, made Pelias' daughters kill their father.

 

Colchians

Herodotus regarded the Colchians as an Ancient Egyptian race. Herodotus states that the Colchians, with the Ancient Egyptians and the Ethiopians, were the first to practice circumcision, a custom which he claims (without historical proof) that the Colchians inherited from remnants of the army of Pharaoh Sesostris. Herodotus writes, "For it is plain to see that the Colchians are Egyptians; and what I say, I myself noted before I heard it from others. When it occurred to me, I inquired of both peoples; and the Colchians remembered the Egyptians better than the Egyptians remembered the Colchians;  the Egyptians said that they considered the Colchians part of Sesostris' army. I myself guessed it, partly because they are dark-skinned and woolly-haired; though that indeed counts for nothing, since other peoples are, too; but my better proof was that the Colchians and Egyptians and Ethiopians are the only nations that have from the first practised circumcision."

Apollonius of Rhodes states that the Egyptians of Colchis preserved as heirlooms a number of wooden tablets, which show, with considerable accuracy, seas and highways.

According to Pliny the Elder:The Colchians were governed by their own kings in the earliest ages, that Sesostris king of Egypt was overcome in Scythia, and put to fight, by the king of Colchis, which if true, that the Colchians not only had kings in those times, but were a very powerful people.

Colchians

 
Y-chromosome G2a - Y-chromosome J1

 

Argonautica's routes from Iolcus to Aegina


Argonautica

Brygean Islands The Argonauts and Colchians reached the Adriatic Sea by a fabled branch of the Ister River. Jason and Medea murdered her brother Apsyrtus on one of the Brygean Islands. His Colchian followers later settled around the Adriatic and their descendents still remain there, including the 'Apsyrtians' on the Brygean Islands. Other Colchians settled in Illyria (near the tombs of Cadmus and Harmonia, modern day Pola) and the Ceraunian Mountains.
Hyllus A city on the Dalmatian coast. Its exact location is unknown to modern scholars but somewhere near modern Šibenik. It is home of the Hylleans, who proved friendly to the Argonauts after the death of Apsyrtus. In gratitude for their kindness, Jason endowed the Hylleans with a tripod, originally a gift to him from Apollo, which protects their country against invaders to this very day. They buried it for safe-keeping deep under the city of Hyllus, where it still lies hidden.
The city, country and people took their name from Hyllus, a son of Heracles and the water nymph Melite.
Libya The Argo was beached in the notorious shallows of the Syrtis (Gulf of Sidra) after a north wind swept them from Greek waters. The Argonauts here resigned themselves to death until three nymphs, the guardians of Libya, appeared, advising them to carry the Argo overland. Arriving thus at 'Lake Triton', they encountered the Hesperides, whose garden had been ravaged by Heracles just the day before. Canthus, one of the Argonauts, is subsequently killed by the son of Garamas, a native shepherd and son of Apollo. Another Argonaut, Mopsus, dies from snake bite. A third, Euphemus, receives directions and a clod of earth from Triton. The Garamantes, a Libyan pastoral tribe, are descended from Garamas (though this is not explicitly stated by Apollonius). The snake that killed Mopsus was descended from the blood of the Gorgon's head that dripped onto the soil when Perseus once flew past. The clod of earth, once dropped into the sea, would become the island Calliste (Thera), from where Greek migrants would one day colonize Libya. The harbour in Lake Triton, where Argo rested before entering the sea, is called Argo Harbour and signs of the visit are still visible there to this day.

 

Mopsus


Argonauts

Mopsus Apollo's son, skilled in the augury of birds, from Thessalian Titaresia. He is an advisor to Jason. The seer Mopsus learns from the omens that they are meant to establish a cult of the gods (Rhea / Cybele). He dies from snake bite in Libya.

 

Egypt was the final action of Argonauts?

The stranding of the Argonauts on the Libyan coast, their carrying of Argo across the desert and the deaths there of Mopsus and Canthus

The island of Thera was the mother city of Cyrene. Aegina was once home to the Argonauts Peleus and Telamon, exiled thence for murdering their brother. The island of Anaphe is where the Aitia of Callimachus begins with a tale of the Argonauts, and his final action is in Alexandria.

Apollonius of Rhodes

We suggest; The final aition of the Argonauts was in Egypt

 

Story of Mopsus

Mojsiju je Jahve odgovorio: "Vidi! Faraonu ću te nametnuti kao božanstvo; tvoj brat Aron bit će tvoj prorok. - Izlazak

Mopsus

Mopsus was one of two seers among the Argonauts, and was said to understand the language of birds, having learned augury from Apollo. He had competed at the funeral-games for Jason's father and was among the Lapiths who fought the Centaurs. While fleeing across the Libyan desert from angry sisters of the slain Gorgon Medusa, Mopsus died from the bite of a viper that had grown from a drop of Medusa's blood. Medea was unable to save him, even by magical means. The Argonauts buried him with a monument by the sea, and a temple was later erected on the site.

Musaeus of Athens

According to Artapanus, (Eusebius, PrEv 9.27.4) he recounts that the Greeks called Moses Musaeus and that he taught Orpheus, who was widely considered to be the father of Greek culture.

In 450 BC, the playwright Euripides in his play Rhesus describes him thus, "Musaeus, too, thy holy citizen, of all men most advanced in lore." In 380 BC, Plato says in his Ion that poets are inspired by Orpheus and Musaeus but the greater are inspired by Homer. In the Protagoras, Plato says that Musaeus was a hierophant and a prophet. In the Apology, Socrates says, "What would not a man give if he might converse with Orpheus and Musaeus and Hesiod and Homer? Nay, if this be true, let me die again and again." According to Diodorus Siculus, Musaeus was the son of Orpheus, according to Tatian he was the disciple of Orpheus, but according to Diogenes Laertius he was the son of Eumolpus. Alexander Polyhistor, Clement of Alexandria and Eusebius say he was the teacher of Orpheus. Aristotle quotes him in Book VIII of his Politics: "Song is to mortals of all things the sweetest." According to Diogenes Laertius he died and was buried at Phalerum, with the epitaph: "Musaeus, to his sire Eumolpus dear, in Phalerean soil lies buried here." According to Pausanias, he was buried on the Mouseion Hill, south-west of the Acropolis, where there was a statue dedicated to a Syrian. For this and other reasons, Artapanus of Alexandria, Alexander Polyhistor, Numenius of Apamea, and Eusebius identify Musaeus with Moses the Jewish lawbringer. Musaeus is singled out in Book 6 of The Aeneid, as someone who the souls of Elysium particularly looked up to. - Musaeus of Athens

Zalmoxis

Zalmoxis is a supposed divinity of the Getae and Dacians (a people of the lower Danube), mentioned by Herodotus in his Histories Book IV, 93–96, written before 425 BC.

According to Jordanes's Getica, he was a learned man, philosopher, before whom, two other learned men existed, by the names of Zeuta and Deceneus.

Herodotus asserts that Zalmoxis was originally a human being, a slave who converted the Thracians to his beliefs. The Greeks of the Hellespont and the Black Sea tell that Zalmoxis was a slave of Pythagoras, son of Mnesarchos, on the island of Samos. After being liberated, he gathered huge wealth and, once rich, went back to his homeland. Thracians lived simple hard lives. Zalmoxis had lived among the wisest of Greeks, such as Pythagoras, and had been initiated into Ionian life and the Eleusinian Mysteries. He built a banquet hall, and received the chiefs and his fellow countrymen at a banquet. He taught that neither his guests nor their descendants would ever die, but instead would go to a place where they would live forever in a complete happiness. He then dug an underground residence. When it was finished, he disappeared from Thrace, living for three years in his underground residence. The Thracians missed him and wept fearing him dead. The fourth year, he came back among them and thus they believed what Zalmoxis had told them.

Zalmoxis is related to Pythagoras, stating that he founded a mystical cult;. This theory may be found in Eliade's work. Zalmoxis is a Christ-like figure who dies and is resurrected. - Zalmoxis

Moesia

On the west side of the Black Sea, there is, according to ancient geography, a region which was called "Moesia," signifying the land of the Moses-ites, and the people of which were called Moesi, or Mosesites. These people had such great reverence for a person whom they called Zal-moxis, whom Herodotus, the father of history, supposed to be their God, and concerning whom he concludes his account as follows: “Zalmoxis must have lived many years before Pythagoras; whether therefore he was a man ot a deity of the Getae, enough has been said of him." T. R.

Howlett says, "Zalmoxis, whom Herodotus supposed them to worship as a god, is without doubt Moses; Zal signifying "chief," or "leader," while Moxis and Aloses are but the Greek for the Hebrew Mosie, which is also rendered Moses in our tongue.

Some authors assume Zalmoxis was another name of Sabazius or Thracian Dionysus. Sabazius appears in Jordanes as Gebelezis. Leaving aside the suffixes -zius/-zis, the root Saba- = Gebele-, suggesting a relationship of the name of the goddess Cybele, as "Cybele's Zeus".

Parion Mysia

Located near Lampsacus, it was a colony probably founded by Eretria and Paros.

Their first mention is by Homer, in his list of Trojans allies in the Iliad, and according to whom the Mysians fought in the Trojan War on the side of Troy, under the command of Chromis and Ennomus the Augur, and were lion-hearted spearmen who fought with their bare hands.

Herodotus in his Histories wrote that the Mysians were brethren of the Carians and the Lydians, originally Lydian colonists in their country, and as such, they had the right to worship alongside their relative nations in the sanctuary dedicated to the Carian Zeus in Mylasa. He also mentions a movement of Mysians and associated peoples from Asia into Europe still earlier than the Trojan War, wherein the Mysians and Teucrians had crossed the Bosphorus into Europe and, after conquering all of Thrace, pressed forward till they came to the Ionian Sea, while southward they reached as far as the river Peneus.

Little is known about the Mysian language. Strabo noted that their language was, in a way, a mixture of the Lydian and Phrygian languages. As such, the Mysian language could be a language of the Anatolian group. However, a passage in Athenaeus suggests that the Mysian language was akin to the barely attested Paeonian language of Paeonia, north of Macedon.

 
Parion-Mysia coin - Kuntillet Ajrud

 

Alexandria Jewish about Moses

Jewish men of letters who lived in Alexandria thay claimed for Moses the merit of having given to Egypt, Phoenicia, and Hellas all their culture. He taught the Jews the letters, and they then became the teachers of the Phoenicians and, indirectly, of the Greeks, says Eupolemus.

Jewish historians who lived at Alexandria, such as Eupolemus, attributed to Moses the feat of having taught the Phoenicians their alphabet, similar to legends of Thoth. Artapanus of Alexandria explicitly identified Moses with the Greek figure Musaeus (whom he called "the teacher of Orpheus").


Orpheus


Mediterranean race in Africa

Giuseppe Sergi's much-debated book The Mediterranean Race (1901) argued that the Mediterranean race had in fact originated in Africa, and that it also included a number of dark-skinned African peoples, such as Ethiopians. Sergi's studies claimed that the Mediterraneans, the Africans and the Nordics all originated from an original Eurafrican Race. According to Sergi the Mediterranean race, the "greatest race of the world", was responsible for the great civilisations of ancient times, including those of Egypt, Carthage, Greece and Rome. These Mediterranean peoples were quite distinct from the peoples of northern Europe. Sergi also argued that the Mediterranean race was closely related to a Hamitic African population, which included such groups as the Tutsi. To Sergi the Semites were a branch of the Eurafricans who were closely related to the Mediterraneans.

 

The Negroid Periphery Of The Mediterranean Race

Negroes with small amounts of Mediterranean blood. In the deserts and highlands of Ethiopia, Eritrea, and the Somalilands is found a con- centration of several related Mediterranean types, mixed in varying degrees with negroes. To the west these partial whites border on Sudanese negroes; to the southwest the partially Hamitic tribes of Kenya and Uganda form art extension of the peripheral Mediterranean racial area. To the north, the Beja-Bisharin group of Hamitic-speaking nomads connect the East African Hamitic-speaking peoples with their wholly white Egyptian and Berber relatives of North Africa.

FIG. 1 (2 views). A Somali from the tribe of Mahmud Grade, British Somaliland. This Somali represents the closest approximation to a white man found among his people. The extreme narrowness of his head and face, the straight nasal profile, and the prominence of his chin, mark him as less negroid than many of his fellows. At the same time his skin is nearly black, his hair curly but not frizzly. The type to which this So- mali belongs is ancient in East Africa, as shown by the excavations of Leakey in Kenya. It is a specialized, locally differentiated Mediterranean racial form.

FIG. 2 (2 views). Closer to the standard Mediterranean type of Arabia and North Africa is this senile Agau, a member of a fast diminishing group of Hamitic-speaking aborigines in the kingdom of Gojjam in northern Ethiopia. Although his skin is dark, his hair is nearly straight, and his measurements as well as his cranial and facial fea- tures are purely or almost purely Mediterranean. He shows no visible signs of negroid admixture, although from a purely genetic standpoint some must be present.

FIG. 3 (2 views). This individual is a tall, slender Semitic-speaking Ethiopian from the kingdom of Shoa. Except for his hair form he is essentially white and Mediter- ranean. His skin is a sallow yellowish, of a hue often seen among attenuated negro- white hybrids in America.

FIG.4 (2 views). A Hamitic-speaking Wollega Galla, frizzly haired but otherwise not specifically negroid. There is a non-negroid brachycephalic strain in Ethiopia, with heavy browridges and a strong facial bony structure. This individual shows some traits characteristic of this element.

FIG. 5 (1 view, © Karakashian Bros. Tropical Photo Stores, Khartoum). The Mediterranean quality found among the partly negroid Beja and Bisharin is most evi- dent in the female sex. Their bodily build and breast form; as well as their facial fea- tures and hair form, show this especially. This Baggara woman from the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan is less negroid than the majority.


Crete

Chadian Arabic (also known as Shuwa/Shua/Suwa Arabic; Arabic: لهجة تشادية‎, Baggara Arabic, and, most recently, within a small scholarly milieu, Western Sudanic Arabic) is one of the regional colloquial varieties of Arabic.

 

Colossi of Memnon


Amenhotep III & Tiye

Very important site is that of Jabal Barkkal, where Egyptian Pharaoh Tuthmoses III built the first Temple of Amun in Sudan around the 15th century BC. It was later expanded by the prominent Ramses II, turning the site into a major centre for the cult of Amun. Right next to it is another monument, the Temple of Mut. Built to the order of Taharqa, and dedicated to Mut, the Egyptian Sky goddess and bride of Amun, the temple is engraved into Jabal Barkkal itself. Very interesting scenery is that of the two temples from the top of the mountain. Make sure to do the easy climb in the morning so you have the light at the right angle for your souvenir photograph. Also on the western side of Jabal Barkkal lies a small royal cemetery of 20 pyramids at the mountain's foot. For a period of time, Kushites would bury their royals at Napata before shifting to Meroe.

  • Mut, Maut and Mout (mati, mater, majka.. Mate, Matko)


Lion-headed Mut

Jebel Barkal or Gebel Barkal (Arabic: جبل بركل ‎) is a very small mountain located some 400 km north of Khartoum, in Karima town in Northern State in Sudan, on a large bend of the Nile River, in the region called Nubia.

  • Jebel = Jabal or Jubal

Memnon was a hero of the Trojan War, a King of Ethiopia who led his armies from Africa into Troy to help defend the beleaguered city but was ultimately slain by Achilles. Memnon was said to be the son of Eos, the goddess of dawn. He was associated with colossi built several centuries earlier, because of the reported cry at dawn of the northern statue, which became known as the Colossus of Memnon.

Emathion, king of Aethiopia

  • Emathion, king of Aethiopia, the son of Tithonus and Eos, and brother of Memnon. Heracles killed him.
  • Emathion, was aged Aethiopian courtier of Cepheus in Ethiopia. He "feared the gods and stood for upright deeds". Emathion was killed by Chromis during the fight between Phineus and Perseus.

Mut, Maut and Mout (mati, mater, majka.. Mate, Matko)
Emathion = Emathia = D EL-MAUT (Delmatae)

 

Dalmatiner

White with black polka dots

First pictures of dalmatian-like dogs already exist in Egyptian pharaohs graves.

Takvih pasa bilo je u starom Egiptu, odakle je preko Grčke došao u Dalmaciju i tu se zadržao. Najstarije poznato ime ove pasmine je dubrovački gonič, dok je kasnije selekcioniran i školovan kao dalmatinski ptičar. Naši su ga pomorci proširili po svim državama s kojima je Dubrovačka Republika imala trgovačke veze.

Tako je iz Francuske, gdje su ga zvali galski pas, stigao u Englesku. Tu se uzgoj proširio i pas je dobio standard pod imenom "dalmatian dog", kao pas za pratnju, jer je nevjerojatnom upornošću slijedio svog gospodara, bilo da je hodao, jahao ili se vozio u kočiji.

 

Danus & Cadmus


Sudan - Chad

Diodorus Siculus is a rich source of traditional information concerning the mythology and history of the Dorians, especially the Library of History.

Diodorus quoting from an earlier historian Hecataeus of Abdera details that during the Exodus many Israelites went into the islands of Greece and other places.

"All the foreigners were forthwith expelled, and the most valiant and noble among them, under some notable leaders, were brought to Greece and other places, as some relate; the most famous of their leaders were Danaus and Cadmus. But the majority of the people descended into a country not far from Egypt, which is now called Judaea and at that time was altogether uninhabited."

  • Chad - Cadmus
  • Sudan - Danus

 

Kingdom of Kush

The Kingdom of Kush or Kush was an ancient African kingdom situated on the confluences of the Blue Nile, White Nile and River Atbara in what is now the Republic of Sudan.

Established after the Bronze Age collapse and the disintegration of the New Kingdom of Egypt, it was centered at Napata in its early phase. After king Kashta ("the Kushite") invaded Egypt in the 8th century BC, the Kushite kings ruled as Pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt for a century, until they were expelled by Psamtik I in 656 BC.

When the Egyptians pulled out of the Napata region, they left a lasting legacy that was merged with indigenous customs forming the kingdom of Kush. Archaeologists have found several burials in the area which seem to belong to local leaders. The Kushites were buried there soon after the Egyptians decolonized the Nubian frontier. Kush adopted many Egyptian practices, such as their religion. The Kingdom of Kush survived longer than that of Egypt, invaded Egypt (under the leadership of king Piye), and controlled Egypt during the 8th century, Kushite dynasty.

The Kushites held sway over their northern neighbors for nearly 100 years, until they were eventually repelled by the invading Assyrians. The Assyrians forced them to move farther south, where they eventually established their capital at Meroe. Of the Nubian kings of this era, Taharqa is perhaps the best known. Taharqa, a son and the third successor of King Piye, was crowned king in Memphis in c.690. Taharqa ruled over both Nubia and Egypt, restored Egyptian temples at Karnak, and built new temples and pyramids in Nubia, before being driven from Egypt by the Assyrians.

During Classical Antiquity, the Kushite imperial capital was at Meroe. In early Greek geography, the Meroitic kingdom was known as Ethiopia. The Kushite kingdom with its capital at Meroe persisted until the 4th century AD, when it weakened and disintegrated due to internal rebellion. The Kushite capital was subsequently captured by the Beja Dynasty, who tried to revive the empire. The Kushite capital was eventually captured and destroyed by the kingdom of Axum. After the collapse of the Kushite empire several states emerged in its former territories, among them Nubia.

 

Meroe

Meroe (800 BC - c. AD 350) in southern Nubia lay on the east bank of the Nile about 6 km north-east of the Kabushiya station near Shendi, Sudan, ca. 200 km north-east of Khartoum. The people there preserved many ancient Egyptian customs but were unique in many respects. They developed their own form of writing, first utilizing Egyptian hieroglyphs, and later using an alphabetic script with 23 signs.

Many pyramids were built in Meroe during this period and the kingdom consisted of an impressive standing military force. Strabo also describes a clash with the Romans in which the Romans were defeated by Nubian archers under the leadership of a "one-eyed" (blind in one eye) queen. During this time, the different parts of the region divided into smaller groups with individual leaders, or generals, each commanding small armies of mercenaries. They fought for control of what is now Nubia and its surrounding territories, leaving the entire region weak and vulnerable to attack. Meroe would eventually meet defeat by a new rising kingdom to their south, Aksum, under King Ezana.

At some point during the 4th century, the region was conquered by the Noba people, from which the name Nubia may derive (another possibility is that it comes from Nub, the Egyptian word for gold). From then on, the Romans referred to the area as the Nobatae.

Meroe was the base of a flourishing kingdom whose wealth was due to a strong iron industry, and international trade involving India and China. So much metalworking went on in Meroe, through the working of bloomeries and possibly blast furnaces, that it has even been called "the Birmingham of Africa" because of its vast production and trade of iron to the rest of Africa, and other international trade partners.

At the time, iron was one of the most important metals worldwide, and Meroitic metalworkers were among the best in the world. Meroe also exported textiles and jewelry. Their textiles were based on cotton and working on this product reached its highest achievement in Nubia around 400 BC. Furthermore, Nubia was very rich in gold. It is possible that the Egyptian word for gold, nub, was the source of name of Nubia. Trade in "exotic" animals from farther south in Africa was another feature of their economy.

It was found that the pyramids were commonly built over sepulchral chambers, containing the remains of bodies, either burned, or buried without being mummified.


More than fifty ancient pyramids and royal tombs rise out of the desert sands at Meroe.


They are Sudan's best-preserved pyramids.

The pyramids of Nubia have three important sections. These are: 1) an underground burial place symbolizing the underworld, where the mummy lies; 2) a massive steep pyramid above, symbolizing the ladder up to heaven; 3) a small chapel on the eastern side where sacrifices could bc placed, intended to sustain the dead king on his travels. Perhaps the doors to this chapel would be opened by a priest at sunrise so that the light could shine in on the stela that was placed against the rear wall. The chapel thus also functioned as a place of prayer connected with the cult of the dead.

The underground graves of the Nubian pyramids were richly decorated. The mummified kings and queens were laid upon beds in accordance with the ancient tradition of Kerma. So that the dead monarch would not have to work in the afterlife, their tombs were filled with shabtis, small statues of people which in a magical manner would come to life when summoned by the gods to perform tasks.


Ruins of the Merotic temple at Musawwarat es-Sufra.

A number of major sites dot the Sudanese map of great Kushite and Meroitic archaeological sites. Following the tarmac road that connects Khartoum to Atbara, one drives for no more than two or three hours before reaching Musawwarat Es Sufra. Musawwarat is an Arabic word that translates to depictions. Es Sufra begs two theories behind the naming. One school of thought believes it is an adaptation of Es Safra The Yellow as most of the remaining ruins are actually yellowish in color.

Alternatively, Es Sufra means The Dinning Table, an association to a table-like mountain located at a short distance. Regardless of the naming and its origin, Musawwarat Es Sufra is the largest temple complex dating back to the Meroitic Period. It consists of two main parts -- the Great Enclosure and the Lion Temple. The Great Enclosure is a vast structure consisting of low walls, a colonnade, two reservoirs and two inclined long ramps.

The purpose this enclosure had served is vague, perhaps a pilgrammage center or a royal palace. One proposes that it had been an elephant training camp. In addition to the two ramps that might have been used for the big animals to go up and down, and also in addition to the elephants' statues that can be found in the vicinity, the greatest collection of elephant carvings I have seen in Sudan is in the Great Complex.

On the other hand, the nearby Lion Temple might have been a place of pilgrimage and pilgrims used to be housed in the Great Complex. This is backed by ancient graffiti and carvings depicting Apedemak. A human body with a lion head, Apedemak was the most widely worshipped local deity throughout the entire Kushite Kingdom. Built by King Arnekhamani around 230 BC, the Lion Temple in Musawwarat Es Sufra is one of the most well preserved sites in Sudan. It was elegantly restored by the Humboldt University in Berlin in the 1960s.

 

The Lion Temple

Next to the Lion Temple is an unidentified edifice known as the Kiosk, reflecting an amalgam of different cultures. Kushite, Egyptian, along with Roman, have all left a distinctive mark on its architecture. A stroll away from the Lion Temple is another temple built by King Natakamani, this time dedicated to the Egyptian god Amun. As you might have noticed, most of the Kushite kings' names end with the syllable "amani" while the majority of the queens' start with it. "Amani" is a linguistic derivative from Amun, an indication of how widely the Egyptian deity was respected and worshipped in Kush. Built in the last century AD, the Temple of Amun in Naqa follows the same overall structure of other Amun temples, mainly Jabal Barrkal in Sudan and Karnak in Egypt. The carving of the rams in Sudan has a distinct style when compared to those in Karnak.

 

Delos

 

Delos je rodno mjesto Olimpijskih bogova; Apolona i Artemide. (saveznici Troje)


The Oracle Centers


Epirus

Dodona and Mount Ararat are on the same parallel and have the same latitude. It should be strongly emphasized that Dodona and Ararat are equidistant from Egyptian Thebes. The Greek ark landed at Dodona and the Hebrew ark landed at Ararat. The process of 'landing an ark', therefore, consists of starting at Thebes and going north to either of the two places which are 8 degrees of latitude northwards and which are joined to each other by a distance equal to their distances from Thebes.

The fact is that an equilateral triangle is formed by the lines joining Thebes with Dodona and Ararat. These facts cannot possibly be an accident. There cannot be supposedly separate Greek and Hebrew traditions giving the landing points of the ark in their respective regions of the world, which then both turn out by chance to be equidistant from Thebes and the same distance from each other, as well as on the same latitude.

Since Mount Tomaros at Dodona and Mount Ararat are both 'landing sites' for an ark, this must mean that the tip of the prow of the ark literally does touch either of them when projected on the globe from Thebes.

Dodona was founded from Thebes by flying doves, according to Herodotus,31 was the Oracle of Ammon in Libya, known to be at the Oasis of Siwa. In Figure below we may see a comparison of the line patterns made by joining Thebes, Dodona, and Siwa with each other, with the line patterns formed by joining certain stars in the constellation of Argo together. The pattern is seen to be identical.

The site of Siwa may have been chosen simply to display this. In both instances we have the helm of the Argo as the starting point: in the celestial pattern we start from the star Canopus, identified with the Argo's helm; and in the geodetic pattern we start with Thebes, which is the site for the global Argo's helm when projected either to Dodona or Ararat. But there is another means of projecting the Argo, using Behdet, to convey other meanings bearing in mind always the interconnecting relationships of the sites, with Behdet equidistant from both Siwa and Thebes, and also on the northernmost point of Egypt and on the prime meridian dividing Egypt as demonstrated by Livio Stecchini.

Behdet was a pre-dynastic capital of Egypt before the unification of Egypt and the transferring of the capital to Memphis further south.

When the helm of the Argo is placed at Behdet (near the geographical Canopus) rather than at Thebes, with the prow touching Mount Ararat, if we swing the prow across to Dodona through an arc of exactly 90 (a right angle).

In Herodotus, Book Two we find this significant tale:

At Dodona ... the priestesses who deliver the oracles have a ... story: two black doves, they say, flew away from Thebes in Egypt, and one of them alighted at Dodona, the other in Libya. The former, perched on an oak, and speaking with a human voice, told them that there, on that very spot, there should be an oracle of Zeus.

Those who heard her understood the words to be a command from heaven, and at once obeyed. Similarly the dove which flew to Libya told the Libyans to found the oracle of Amon -which is also an oracle of Zeus. The people who gave me this information were the three priestesses at Dodona - Promeneia the eldest, Timarete the next, and Nicandra the youngest - and their account is confirmed by the other Dodonaeans who have any connection with the temple.

We must note Stecchini's remarks about Delphi as follows:

The god of Delphi, Apollo, whose name means 'the stone', was identified with an object, the omphalos, 'navel', which has been found. It consisted of an ovoidal stone... The omphalos of Delphi was similar to the object which represented the god Amon in Thebes, the 'navel' of Egypt.

Historical accounts, myths, and legends, and some monuments of Delphi, indicate that the oracle was established there by the Pharaohs of the Ethiopian Dynasty. This is the reason why the Greeks portrayed Delphos, the eponymous hero of Delphi, as a Negro.

SUMMARY

If an Argo is projected on the globe with its rudder near the ancient Egyptian city Canopus on the coast of the Mediterranean (the star Canopus forms the rudder of the Argo in the sky) and with its prow at Dodona (from where the oak came which was placed in the Argo's prow), if we hold the stern firmly on Canopus but swing the ship eastwards at the top, so that the prow points towards Mount Ararat, where Noah's ark was supposed to have landed, we find that the arc thus described is a right-angle of 90.

Instead of Canopus we must really use the neighboring site of the now entirely vanished city of Behdet, which was the capital of pre-dynastic Egypt prior to the foundation of Memphis.

Dodona is exactly 8° of latitude north of Behdet. Delphi is exactly 7 deg. north of Behdet. Delos is exactly 6 deg. north of Behdet. Behdet was the Greenwich of the ancient world prior to 3200 b.c. and was used as a geodetic headquarters.

Associated with near-by Mount Ararat as a mystery-centre was the now little-known site of Metsamor. Mt Ararat is 8 deg. north of Behdet and on the same parallel as Dodona.

A site on Kythera is known to have connections with early dynastic Egypt as a religious centre and is about 5 deg. north of Behdet. The island of Thera may, however, have been an oracle centre. It was destroyed by a famous volcanic eruption in Minoan times.

All these sites were revealed as a pattern now termed a 'geodetic octave' by the projection on the globe of the Argo, which is connected with Sirius. Sirius was not only the element of the most sacred traditions of the Dogon and the ancient Egyptians, but apparently of the entire civilized and cosmopolitan Mediterranean world prior at least to 3000 b.c. and probably well before 3200 b.c.

The amphibious creature Oannes, who brought civilization to the Sumerians, is sometimes equated with the god Enki (Ea) who ruled the star Canopus of the Argo. Enki is a god who sleeps at the bottom of a watery abyss, reminiscent of Oannes who retired to the sea at night. Enki is also the god responsible for the ark in those early tales of the Sumerians and Babylonians from which the Biblical ark and deluge story was derived.

The 'Greek ark' was claimed to have landed at both Dodona and Delphi. An 'ark' was carried in procession at Delphi.

At Delphi and at Delos are surviving omphalos ('navel') stones. Omphalos near Knossos in Crete is 4 deg. north of Behdet. We know from the Homeric Hymn to Apollo that Minoans (before 1200 b.c.) 'from Knossos took Apollo to Delphi'.

Herodotus tells us that Dodona (according to its priestesses, whom he knew) was founded from Egypt - specifically Egyptian Thebes. Thebes is equidistant from both Dodona, where the Greek ark landed, and Mount Ararat, where the Hebrew ark landed. The three points, when joined, form an equilateral triangle on the globe. Also according to Herodotus, the Oasis of Siwa, with its oracle of Ammon, was founded from Thebes.

This oasis centre and Thebes are both equidistant from Behdet.

Geodetic surveys of immense accuracy were thus practiced in ancient Egypt with a knowledge of the Earth as a spherical body in space and projections upon it envisaged as part of the institutions embodying Sirius lore for posterity.

  • Plutarch mentions a legend that Deucalion and Pyrrha had settled in Dodona, Epirus.

 

Orion & Sirius

In Homer's Iliad Orion is described as a constellation, and the star Sirius is mentioned as his dog. In the Odyssey, In the Works and Days of Hesiod, Orion is also a constellation, one whose rising and setting with the sun is used to reckon the year.


This illustration of the late-5th century BC Greek vase artwork Blacas krater shows a mythological interpretation of the rising Sun and other astronomical figures-the large pair on the left are Cephalus and Eos; Cephalus appears to be in the form of Orion's constellation, and the dog at his foot may represent Sirius.

Orion, orjentacija..


Argive genealogy in Greek mythology

Cadmus, Cilix, Europa, Phoenix & Dionysus


Argives

Inachus Melia
Zeus Io Phoroneus
Epaphus Memphis
Libya Poseidon
Belus Achiroë Agenor Telephassa
Danaus Pieria Aegyptus Cadmus Cilix Europa Phoenix
Mantineus Hypermnestra Lynceus Harmonia Zeus
Polydorus
Sparta Lacedaemon Ocalea Abas Agave Sarpedon Rhadamanthus
Autonoë
Eurydice Acrisius Ino Minos
Zeus Danaë Semele Zeus
Perseus Dionysus
Colour key:

     Male
     Female
     Deity

 

Phoenician & Greek mythologies

In both Phoenician and Greek mythologies, Kadmos is a Phoenician prince, the son of Agenor, the king of Tyre in South Lebanon. Herodotus credits Kadmos for bringing the Phoenician alphabet to Greece.

So these Phoenicians, including the Gephyraians, came with Kadmos and settled this land, and they transmitted much lore to the Hellenes, and in particular, taught them the alphabet which, I believe the Hellenes did not have previously, but which was originally used by all Phoenicians.

Plato - Herodotus

In his Republic, Greek philosopher Plato contends that the love of money is a tendency of the soul found amongst Phoenicians and Egyptians, which distinguishes them from the Greeks who tend towards the love of knowledge. In his Laws, he asserts that this love of money has led the Phoenicians and Egyptians to develop skills in cunning and trickery (πανουργία) rather than wisdom (σοφία).

In his Histories, Herodotus gives the Persian and Greek accounts of a series of kidnappings that led to the Trojan War. While docked at a trading port in Argos, the Phoenicians kidnapped a group of Greek women including King Idacus's daughter, Io. The Greeks then retaliated by kidnapping Europa, a Phoenician, and later Medea. The Greeks refused to compensate the Phoenicians for the additional abduction, a fact which Paris used a generation later to justify the abduction of Helen from Argos. The Greeks then retaliated by waging war against Troy.

 

Argos

Argos is a city in Argolis, the Peloponnese, Greece and one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. It is the biggest town in Argolis and a major center for the area. - Argos

 

Thebes, Greece

Thebes (/ˈθbz/; Ancient Greek: Θῆβαι, Thēbai, Greek pronunciation: [tʰɛ̂ːbai̯]; Modern Greek: Θήβα, Thíva [ˈθiva]) is a city in Boeotia, central Greece. It played an important role in Greek myths, as the site of the stories of Cadmus, Oedipus, Dionysus and others. Archaeological excavations in and around Thebes have revealed a Mycenaean settlement and clay tablets written in the Linear B script, indicating the importance of the site in the Bronze Age. - Thebes, Greece

The Thebans told that the union of Ares and Aphrodite produced Harmonia.

  • Thebes, Egypt - Thebes, Greece
  • Khonsu - Knossos
  • Min - Minotaur

Phoenix (son of Agenor)

Phoenix or Phoinixx (Greek: Φοῖνιξ Phoinix, gen.: Φοίνικος), the eponym of Phoenicia. Phoenix was a son of Agenor and Telephassa (or Argiope), brother of Cadmus, Cilix and Europa.

Phoenice or Phoenike (Greek: Φοινίκη) was an ancient Greek city in Epirus and capital of the Chaonians.

We suggest; Land of Punt / Pwene (Puni) = po-ni-ki - Phoiníkē / Phoenike - Phoenicia, Phoenice (Epirus)

Cilix (son of Agenor)

When Europa was carried off by Zeus, Agenor sent his three sons out to find her, telling them not to return until they find her. The search was unsuccessful. Cilix eventually settled down in Asia Minor. The land was called Cilicia after him.

Europa (daughter of Agenor)

Europa (/jʊərˈrpə, jə-/; Greek: Εὐρώπη, Eurṓpē, Attic Greek pronunciation: [eu̯.rɔ̌ː.pɛː]) was the mother of King Minos of Crete, a woman with Phoenician origin of high lineage, and after whom the continent Europe was named.

Europa had two brothers, Cadmus, who brought the alphabet to mainland Greece, and Cilix who gave his name to Cilicia in Asia Minor, with the author of Bibliotheke including Phoenix as a third.

Cadmus (son of Agenor)

Cadmus was the founder and first king of Thebes. Cadmus was the first Greek hero and, alongside Perseus and Bellerophon, the greatest hero and slayer of monsters before the days of Heracles. Initially a Phoenician prince, son of king Agenor and queen Telephassa of Tyre and the brother of Phoenix, Cilix and Europa, he was originally sent by his royal parents to seek out and escort his sister Europa back to Tyre after she was abducted from the shores of Phoenicia by Zeus. Cadmus founded the Greek city of Thebes, the acropolis of which was originally named Cadmeia in his honour. - Cadmus

The city is named after Cadmus, who was a Phoenician prince known for introducing the original Alphabet or Phoenician alphabet—Φοινίκων γράμματα Phoinikōn grammata, "Phoenician letters"- to the Greeks. - Al-Qadmus

Chaldea was a Semitic-speaking nation which existed between the late 10th or early 9th and mid-6th centuries BC. It was located in the marshy land of the far southeastern corner of Mesopotamia.
During a period of weakness in the East Semitic speaking kingdom of Neo-Sumerian Empire, new tribes of West Semitic-speaking migrants arrived in the region from the Levant between the 11th and 9th centuries BC. The earliest waves consisted of Suteans and Arameans. The Hebrew Bible uses the term כשדים (Kaśdim) and this is translated as Chaldaeans in the Septuagint.

Cadmus = Qadmus

Followed by; Claudius, Chaldea, Chaldia, Kaldan-Iran, Dansar-Kaldan

 

Chaldea - Cadmus


Chaldean flag


Ur Kaśdim


Chaldia


Kaldan, Iran

Phoenix-Cadmus

 
Haplogroup T1a - Haplogroup R-V88 (Z2103)

 

Kadmo


Kadmo

Kadmo (starogrčki: Κάδμος) bio je, u grčkoj mitologiji, feničanski princ, sin tirskog kralja Agenora i kraljice Telefase te brat Fenika, Kilika i Europe. Kad je Zevs oteo Europu, Agenor je poslao svoje sinove u potragu za sestrom i naredio im da se bez nje ne vraćaju u Fenikiju. Tokom svojih lutanja Kadmo je u Grčkoj osnovao grad Tebu, čiji se akropolj njemu u čast isprva zvao Kadmeja.

Kadmu su stari Grci pripisivali zasluge za uvođenje prvobitnog alfabeta, tzv. feničanskih slova (phoinikeia grammata), koji su Grci zatim prilagodili svom jeziku i od njega napravili vlastiti grčki alfabet.

 

Dionysus

Tyr - Thracians

Dionysus (/daɪ.əˈnaɪsəs/; Greek: Διόνυσος Dionysos) is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility, theatre and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth. Wine played an important role in Greek culture, and the cult of Dionysus was the main religious focus for its unrestrained consumption. His worship became firmly established in the seventh century BC. He may have been worshipped as early as c. 1500–1100 BC by Mycenean Greeks; traces of Dionysian-type cult have also been found in ancient Minoan Crete. His origins are uncertain, and his cults took many forms; some are described by ancient sources as Thracian, others as Greek. In some cults, he arrives from the east, as an Asiatic foreigner; in others, from Ethiopia in the South. He is a god of epiphany, "the god that comes", and his "foreignness" as an arriving outsider-god may be inherent and essential to his cults. He is a major, popular figure of Greek mythology and religion, becoming increasingly important over time, and included in some lists of the twelve Olympians, as the last of their number, and the only god born from a mortal mother. His festivals were the driving force behind the development of Greek theatre.

 

Cadmus - Κάδμος

"Cadmus, in vain you travel round and round ... You seek a bull which no cow ever calved; you seek a bull which no mortal knows how to find ... Europa's bridegroom no drover knows how to drive ... he is ordered by no whip...he strains his neck for Love alone ..." (The Pythian priestess to Cadmus. Nonnos, Dionysiaca 4.293).

Cadmus, in search of his abducted sister Europa, settled in Boeotia, founding in this new land the city of Cadmea, later called Thebes. Cadmus is credited for having combined consonants with vowels, thus teaching the secrets of correct speech.

Lost princess

When the princess Europa disappeared from the coasts of Phoenicia on the back of a bull, her father Agenor, son of King Belus of Egypt and Anchinoe, the daughter of the river god Nilus, sent his sons in search of her, telling them not to return until they had found their sister.

Europa never found

However, nothing was ever found resembling the lost princess, except for the name of the land called Europa, which is that part of the inhabited world lying north of the Peloponnesus and beyond; for she, after having being conveyed through the sea by Zeus the bull, was set down by him, quite dry, upon the shore by Mount Dicte in Crete.


Europa. Roman mosaic

Brothers disperse as they search for her

Her brother Phoenix 1 gave up the search for Europa, and settled in some part of Phoenicia, which was called after him, and so did Cilix, who became king in Cilicia, the southeasternmost coastal region of Asia Minor, and so did Thasus, who also gave up the search and settled in an large island off Thrace, in the northern section of the Aegean Sea, founding a city Thasos. Also other relatives, brothers or perhaps cousins, went away in search of Europa. Cepheus, son of Belus 1 or of Phoenix and father of Andromeda, the wife of Perseus, settled in Ethiopia; and Phineus, whom the ARGONAUTS are said to have met though it sounds unlikely, became king of Salmydessus in Thrace.

Cadmus leaves settlers in famous island

When Cadmus, who some say was from the city of Tyros, sailing northwards from Sidon in Phoenicia, put ashore at Calliste, the island north of Crete later called Thera (Santorini), he left on this island a group of settlers under the leadership of Membliarus, son of Poeciles. Calliste came to be called Thera because many generations later Theras (son of Autesion, son of Tisamenus, son of Thersander, son of Polynices, son of Oedipus, son of Laius, son of Labdacus, son of Polydorus, son of Cadmus) came to the island to claim his rights. On Theras' arrival to Calliste, the descendants of Membliarus gave up the kingship to him of their own accord, for they considered that Theras' family went back to Cadmus himself. And so Theras, having become king, renamed the island, and called it Thera after himself.

Cadmus in Thrace and Samothrace

Having left Calliste then, Cadmus came, accompanied by his mother Telephassa, to Thrace, which is the region between the Black and Aegean seas, and settled there. Some have said that Cadmus was taught initiatory rites by Iasion when he, in search of her sister Europa, came to Samothrace, the island in the northern Aegean sea, and they suppose that it was here that Cadmus married Harmonia.

Cadmus in Delphi

After his mother's death, Cadmus came to Delphi to inquire about Europa, but the oracle told him no to worry about his sister and instead, letting himself be guided by a cow, found a city in the place where the animal should stop to rest. So Cadmus, obeying the oracle, journeyed through Phocis, which is the region bordering the northern coast of the Gulf of Corinth, and having met a cow, followed it behind until it fell down for weariness in that same spot in Boeotia where Cadmus founded the city of Cadmea, later called Thebes.

The Dragon of Ares

When the place for the new city, through such an amazing method, was determined, Cadmus decided to sacrifice the cow to the goddess Athena. With that purpose in mind, he sent some of his men to draw water from the spring later called Dirce (some have said Castalia), belonging to Ares, which happened to be guarded by a dragon said to be the offspring of the god, or sacred to him. This dragon, which had a golden crest, flashed fire from his eyes, had a triple tongue, teeth ranged in triple row, and the body swollen with poison, devoured Cadmus' companions. But when he discovered that the beast was the reason why those who were sent after water never returned, he confronted it and killed it, sowing, by the advice of Athena, its teeth in the earth.


Cadmus killing the Dragon of Ares. "But Cadmus follows him up and presses the planted point into his throat; until at last an oak-tree stays his backward course and neck and tree are pierced together." (Ov. Met. 3.90). Guillaume T. de Villenave, Les Métamorphoses d'Ovide (Paris, Didot 1806–07). Engravings after originals by Jean-Jacques François Le Barbier (1739–1826), Nicolas André Monsiau (1754–1837), and Jean-Michel Moreau (1741–1814).The SPARTI

Soon after he had sown the teeth, there rose from the ground armed men who are called SPARTI, brawling for nothing and killing each other, some say because of provocations staged by Cadmus himself, who flung stones at them inducing them to believe that they were being pelted by each other. Some of them, however, survived the massacre they had themselves produced, and it is said that in Cadmus' time the greatest power, next after his, was in the hands of the SPARTI, who also helped him to build the new city. But Cadmus, because of having slaughtered Ares' darling dragon, had to atone for it, being forced to serve the god for what was called an eternal year, which is equivalent to eight regular years.

Kingdom and bride

After having paid this penalty Cadmus, with Athena's help, became king, receiving Harmonia, daughter of Ares and Aphrodite, as wife from Zeus. She received, as a wedding present, a couple of interesting items, known as the Robe & Necklace of Harmonia, which provoked, through the ambitions, betrayals and other nonsensical behaviors of many men and women, a number of murders, wars and other tragedies including the utter ruin of the city that Cadmus founded, and that of those who possessed them. Cadmus was one of the greatest men of his time, and that is why his wedding was magnificent, many gods and goddesses attending, besides the parents of the bride. And on his wedding day, they say, Cadmus attained the highest honour and prosperity a mortal man can receive, for he, like later Achilles' father Peleus, was able to hear the MUSES sing.

Wedding gifts

Cadmus and Harmonia received a number of gifts from the gods: a jewelset throne from Hera, a lyre or perhaps a sceptre from Hermes, a crown from Hephaestus, a spear from Ares, the Robe & Necklace from Athena or perhaps Aphrodite or Hephaestus or even Europa, and sacred rites of the mother of the gods (Rhea) along with cymbals and kettledrums from Electra the Pleiad, who is said to have nursed Harmonia.

His initiated knowledge...

And being so closely acquainted with the gods, Cadmus also taught some of their mysteries to men. For some have believed that the excellent soothsayer who understood the language of birds and worms named Melampus, son of Amythaon, son of Cretheus, son of Aeolus, taught the name of Dionysus and the way of sacrificing to him, and the phallic procession to all Greeks, having learned all these things, along with the prophetic art, from Cadmus.

Cadmus, a liar in private matters, having no scientific merit

But there are those who deny this, saying that Cadmus' daughter Semele was violated in Egyptian Thebes, where Cadmus lived, and that Cadmus, in order to avert slander from his outraged daughter, said that her son was the son of Zeus, and not, as he really was, the son of an unknown rapist. And they add that, as this son was then identified with Osiris, the Egyptian god, many generations later Orpheus found it convenient to say that Osiris was Dionysus, thus instituting new rites for the son of Zeus and Semele. They also affirm that mankind forgets its own achievements because of various kinds of catastrophes, as for example the Flood, and that consequently Cadmus cannot be considered to be the first to bring the letters to Hellas, for the alphabet had existed before, and had been forgotten.

Laconian originality

And then again, the Laconians used to say that Semele, after giving birth to Dionysus by Zeus, was discovered by Cadmus, who put her together with her child into a chest, which was washed up by the waves in Laconia. They affirmed that Semele was already dead when they were found, but little Dionysus they brought up.

Cadmus helped to defeat Typhon

Some have said that Zeus gave Harmonia to Cadmus in recompense for having helped him to restore the harmony of the world, destroyed by Typhon's attack on heaven. For Pan, following Zeus' instructions, gave Cadmus a flute and disguised him as a shepherd, and Zeus asked Cadmus to bewitch Typhon's wits with a delusive tune. So when Cadmus tuned up, Typhon, attracted by the deceitful notes of the syrinx, appeared, and Cadmus, through a stratagem, convinced him to bring the sinews of Zeus that Typhon had in his power, thus leading him to his doom. And when Zeus recovered his power, they say, he also informed Cadmus of his sister's fate. (For Typhon see also Zeus.)

The nations Cadmus found in Boeotia

However, the land where Cadmus founded his city was not empty when he arrived, for a couple of nations, the Hyanteans and the Aonians, occupied Boeotia. Before them, it is said, the Ectenes, ruled by King Ogygus, lived in Boeotia, until they were decimated by pestilence and perished. Ogygus had two daughters, Aulis and Alalcomenia, after whom the Boeotian cities are called, and some say that Eleusinus, after whom the city of Eleusis in Attica is called, was his son. But according to others Eleusinus is the son of Hermes and Daira, one of the OCEANIDS.

Now, on his arrival Cadmus, with the help of his Phoenician army, defeated both Hyanteans and Aonians, expelling the former nation and assimilating the latter, and some say that he also defeated the Temmicans, who were early inhabitants of Boeotia as well.

Danaus 1 gave water and Cadmus written words

In the same way as Danaus, the father of the DANAIDS, is believed to have brought the gift of water by irrigating Argos, Cadmus is credited for having brought words and thoughts to the whole of Hellas, fashioning tools to echo the sounds of the tongue by mingling vowels and consonants in a connected and silent system. This, they say, he had learnt from the Egyptians, for his father Agenor had lived nine years in Memphis and founded Egyptian Thebes. And besides writing, Cadmus became acquainted in Egypt with astronomy, learning the course of the sun, the measure of the earth, and the phases of the moon.

Thebes built

The new city that Cadmus founded had, they say, many streets measured at right angles and was embellished with Phoenician art. It has been told that Cadmus planned the future seven gates of Thebes, said to correspond to the seven zones of heaven, but they were not built until the times of King Amphion.

The sun in the middle

The gates of Thebes were dedicated to the following celestial bodies: the first to the Moon, the second to Hermes (Mercury), the third to Aphrodite (Venus), the fourth, for being in the middle of the planets, to Helius (Sun), the fifth to Ares (Mars), the sixth to Zeus (Jupiter), and the seventh to Cronos (Saturn). For Cadmus considered the sun to be in the middle, whereas a couple of millennia after him some thought that not the sun but the earth was in the middle, and yet others coming after them thought again, as Cadmus did, that the sun is in the middle.

Name of the city


Cadmus and Harmonia turn into serpents. Drawing from the 17C AD.

Some say that the city was called Cadmea after Cadmus, and that only afterwards, during the reign of Amphion, was called Thebes after Thebe, the wife of Amphion's brother Zethus. But others say that Cadmus himself called the city Thebes after Egyptian Thebes, which was founded by his father.

Cadmus in Illyria

After having many children, Cadmus and Harmonia left Thebes in order to defend the Encheleans, a people leaving in southern Illyria, which is the region north of Epirus. During their absence, their son Polydorus became king, but it is also said that Pentheus, son of the Sparti Echion and Agave, daughter of Cadmus, succeeded him on the throne. Agave herself married King Lycotherses of Illyria, whom she murdered, handing the kingdom over to her father.

Cadmus still paying for the dragon of Ares

While they were in Illyria, Cadmus and Harmonia were turned into serpents as he had been warned after slaying the dragon of Ares:

"Why, Cadmus, do you gaze on the serpent you have slain? You too shall be a serpent for men to gaze on." (Athena to Cadmus. Ovid, Metamorphoses 3.97).

Immortal Cadmus

After this, Zeus sent them to the Elysian Fields, although some say that they dwell in the Islands of the Blest.

Family 

Parentage

Mates

Offspring

Notes

Agenor & Telephassa

Agenor & Argiope


Agenor is son of Belus, son of Libya, daughter of Epaphus, son of Io, one of the Three Main Ancestors. The pedigree of Telephassa is unknown.
Argiope is otherwise unknown.

Harmonia

Autonoe

Ino

Semele

Agave

Polydorus

Illyrius

Harmonia was daughter of Ares and Aphrodite, or of Zeus and the Pleiad Electra, who sometimes is called nurse of Harmonia.
Autonoe married Aristaeus, son of Apollo and Cyrene, daughter of Hypseus, son of the river god Peneus. Aristaeus is the discoverer of honey, a prophet and a healer. Autonoe left Thebes after the death of her beloved son Actaeon, who was devoured by his own dogs.
For Ino see Athamas.
Agave is mother of King Pentheus of Thebes.
Polydorus became king of Thebes, married Nicteis and fathered Labdacus, father of Laius, father of Oedipus.
Illyrius is the last child of Cadmus and Harmonia. He was born in Illyria.

 

Kadmo - Illyrians

Illyrius was the son of Cadmus and Harmonia who eventually ruled Illyria and became the eponymous ancestor of the whole Illyrian people.

 

Cadmus, the son of Phoenix or Agenor (king of Phoenicia) and brother of Europa. Europa was carried off by Zeus, king of the gods, and Cadmus was sent out to find her. Unsuccessful, he consulted the Delphic oracle, which ordered him to give up his quest, follow a cow, and build a town on the spot where she lay down. The cow guided him to Boeotia (Cow Land), where he founded the city of Thebes. Later, Cadmus sowed in the ground the teeth of a dragon he had killed. From these sprang a race of fierce armed men, called Sparti (meaning Sown). The Sparti fought one another until only five survived. These five assisted him in building the Cadmea, or citadel, of Thebes and became the founders of the noblest families of that city. Cadmus later took as his wife Harmonia, daughter of the divinities Ares and Aphrodite, by whom he had a son, Polydorus, and four daughters, Ino, Autonoë, Agave, and Semele. For her liaison with Zeus, Semele was destroyed by Hera’s plan. Ino was driven mad by Hera and jumped with her one surviving son into the sea. Autonoë’s son Actaeon was killed by his hounds, and Agave-with the help of Ino and Autonoë-unknowingly killed her son, Pentheus. After Pentheus’s death, Cadmus and Harmonia finally retired to Illyria. But when the Illyrians later angered the gods and were punished, Cadmus and Harmonia were saved, being changed into black serpents and sent by Zeus to the Islands of the Blessed (Elysian Fields).

Sons

  • Encheleus (Εγχελέα) of the Enchelaeae
  • Autarieus (Αυταριέα) of the Autariates
  • Dardanus (Δάρδανον) of the Dardani
  • Maedus (Μαίδον)
  • Taulas (Ταυλαντά) of the Taulantii
  • Perrhaebus (Περραιβόν) of the Perrhaebi

Daughters

  • Partho (Πάρθω) of the Partheni
  • Daortho (Δαορθώ) of the Daors
  • Dassaro (Δασσαρώ) of the Dassaretae

Grandsons

  • Pannonius or Paeon (son of Autarieus) of the Pannonians

Greatgrandsons

  • Scordiscus (son of Pannonius) of the Scordisci
  • Triballus (son of Pannonius) of the Triballi

 

Triballi - Trebinje - Tiberius


Triballia

  • Triballi = Tri-bali (Jabal, Jubal & Tubal)

Chronicles of Jerahmeel reproduces a more detailed legend taken from the earlier Josippon: Tubal's descendants, it says, camped in Tuscany and built a city called "Sabino", while the Kittim built "Posomanga" in neighboring Campania, with the Tiber river as the frontier between the two peoples. However, they soon went to war following the rape of the Sabines by the Kittim. This war was ended when the Kittim showed the descendants of Tubal their mutual progeny. A shorter, more garbled version of this story from Yosippon is also found in the later Book of Jasher, known from c. 1625, which additionally names Tubal's sons as Ariphi, Kesed and Taari.

  • Tiberius

Alba Longa was an ancient Latin city in Central Italy, 19 kilometres (12 mi) southeast of Rome, in the Alban Hills. Founder and head of the Latin League, it was destroyed by the Roman Kingdom around the middle of the 7th century BC, and its inhabitants were forced to settle in Rome. In legend, Romulus and Remus, founders of Rome, had come from the royal dynasty of Alba Longa, which in Virgil's Aeneid had been the bloodline of Aeneas, a son of Venus.

According to Livy, Roman patrician families such as Julii, Servilii, Quinctii, Geganii, Curiatii and Cloelii originated in Alba Longa.

  • Triballia - Trebinje
Amenmose Index Ramesses III