Sargon of Akkad

Akkadian Empire c. 2334 - 2154 BC

The Akkadian Empire was the first ancient empire of Mesopotamia, centered in the city of Akkad and its surrounding region, also called Akkad in ancient Mesopotamia in the Bible. The empire united Akkadian and Sumerian speakers under one rule. The Akkadian Empire exercised influence across Mesopotamia, the Levant, and Anatolia, sending military expeditions as far south as Dilmun and Magan (modern Bahrain and Oman) in the Arabian Peninsula.

Akkadian Empire
Akkadian Empire

During the 3rd millennium BC, there developed a very intimate cultural symbiosis between the Sumerians and the Akkadians, which included widespread bilingualism. Akkadian gradually replaced Sumerian as a spoken language somewhere between the 3rd and the 2nd millennia BC.

During the Akkadian period, the Akkadian language became the lingua franca of the Middle East, and was officially used for administration, although the Sumerian language remained as a spoken and literary language. The spread of Akkadian stretched from Syria to Elam, and even the Elamite language was temporarily written in Mesopotamian cuneiform. Akkadian texts later found their way to far-off places, from Egypt (in the Amarna Period) and Anatolia, to Persia (Behistun).

The Akkadian Empire reached its political peak between the 24th and 22nd centuries BC, following the conquests by its founder Sargon of Akkad. Under Sargon and his successors, the Akkadian language was briefly imposed on neighboring conquered states such as Elam and Gutium. Akkad is sometimes regarded as the first empire in history.


Akadska kultura i religija razvila se iz sumerskih predaja i vjerovanja

Jedno od najvećih otkrića akadskih tekstova bile su ruševine knjižnice koju je u Ninivi sakupio Asurbanipal. Nalazište sa 25.000 pločica, a mnoge od njih su drevni pisari opisali kao kopije "starih tekstova." Grupa od 23 pločice završavala je izjavom: "dvadeset i treća pločica: jezik Šumera nije izmijenjen". Drugi tekst sadržavao je izjavu samog Asurbanipala:

Bog rukopisa podario mi je dar poznavanja njegovog umijeća.
Bio sam iniciran u tajne pisanja.
Mogu čak čitati zamršene ploče na Šumerskom:
Razumijem tajanstvene riječi uklesane u kamenu u danima prije Potopa.

Gerra (god)

Gerra is the Akkadian god of fire, derived from the earlier Sumerian deity Gibil. He is the son of Anu and Antu.

  • Gerra = garav, žar, žera, žerava, užareno.. Sunce žarko.. Žarko..

Gerra was closely associated with Šamaš (see for example Abusch 2002: 140).


Akkad - Cadmus - Gad

The identification of Akkad with Sippar ša Annunîtum (modern Tell ed-Der), along a canal opposite Sippar ša Šamaš (Sippar, modern Tell Abu Habba) was rejected by Unger (1928) based on a Neo-Babylonian text (6th century BC) that lists Sippar ša Annunîtum and Akkad as separate places.

Sargon of Akkad

Sargon of Akkad (Sharru-kin = "legitimate king", possibly a title he took on gaining power) defeated and captured Lugal-zage-si in the Battle of Uruk and conquered his empire. The earliest records in the Akkadian language date to the time of Sargon. Sargon was claimed to be the son of La'ibum or Itti-Bel, a humble gardener, and possibly a hierodule, or priestess to Ishtar or Inanna.

A Neo-Assyrian text from the 7th century BC purporting to be Sargon's autobiography asserts that the great king was the illegitimate son of a priestess. Only the beginning of the text (the first two columns) are known, from the fragments of three manuscripts. The first fragments were discovered as early as 1850.

"My mother was a high priestess, my father I knew not. The brothers of my father loved the hills. My city is Azupiranu, which is situated on the banks of the Euphrates. My high priestess mother conceived me, in secret she bore me. She set me in a basket of rushes, with bitumen she sealed my lid. She cast me into the river which rose over me. The river bore me up and carried me to Akki, the drawer of water. Akki, the drawer of water, took me as his son and reared me. Akki, the drawer of water, appointed me as his gardener. While I was a gardener, Ishtar granted me her love, and for four and ... years I exercised kingship."

Similarities between the Sargon Birth Legend and other infant birth exposures in ancient literature, including Moses, Karna, and Oedipus, were noted by psychoanalyst Otto Rank in 1909. The legend was also studied in detail by Brian Lewis, and compared with a number of different examples of the infant birth exposure motif found in European and Asian folk tales. He discusses a possible archetype form, giving particular attention to the Sargon legend and the account of the birth of Moses. Joseph Campbell has also made such comparisons.

Displacing Ur-Zababa, Sargon was crowned king, and he entered upon a career of foreign conquest. Four times he invaded Syria and Canaan, and he spent three years thoroughly subduing the countries of "the west" to unite them with Mesopotamia "into a single empire".

Sargon took this process further, conquering many of the surrounding regions to create an empire that reached westward as far as the Mediterranean Sea and perhaps Cyprus (Kaptara); northward as far as the mountains (a later Hittite text asserts he fought the Hattian king Nurdaggal of Burushanda, well into Anatolia); eastward over Elam; and as far south as Magan (Oman) - a region over which he reigned for purportedly 56 years, though only four "year-names" survive. He consolidated his dominion over his territories by replacing the earlier opposing rulers with noble citizens of Akkad, his native city where loyalty would thus be ensured.

Akkadian Empire

Trade extended from the silver mines of Anatolia to the lapis lazuli mines in modern Afghanistan, the cedars of Lebanon and the copper of Magan. This consolidation of the city-states of Sumer and Akkad reflected the growing economic and political power of Mesopotamia. The empire's breadbasket was the rain-fed agricultural system of Assyria and a chain of fortresses was built to control the imperial wheat production.

Sea shell of a murex bearing the name of Rimush, king of Kish, c. 2270 BC, Louvre, traded from the Mediterranean coast where it was used by Canaanites to make a purple dye.
Sea shell of a murex bearing the name of Rimush, king of Kish, c. 2270 BC, Louvre, traded from the Mediterranean coast where it was used by Canaanites to make a purple dye.

Images of Sargon were erected on the shores of the Mediterranean, in token of his victories, and cities and palaces were built at home with the spoils of the conquered lands. Elam and the northern part of Mesopotamia (Assyria/Subartu) were also subjugated, and rebellions in Sumer were put down. Contract tablets have been found dated in the years of the campaigns against Canaan and against Sarlak, king of Gutium. He also boasted of having subjugated the "four quarters" - the lands surrounding Akkad to the north (Assyria), the south (Sumer), the east (Elam), and the west (Martu). Some of the earliest historiographic texts (ABC 19, 20) suggest he rebuilt the city of Babylon (Bab-ilu) in its new location near Akkad.

Sargon, throughout his long life, showed special deference to the Sumerian deities, particularly Inanna (Ishtar), his patroness, and Zababa, the warrior god of Kish. He called himself "The anointed priest of Anu" and "the great ensi of Enlil" and his daughter, Enheduanna, was installed as priestess to Nanna at the temple in Ur.

As Sargon extended his conquest from the "Lower Sea" (Persian Gulf), to the "Upper Sea" (Mediterranean), it was felt that he ruled "the totality of the lands under heaven", or "from sunrise to sunset", as contemporary texts put it. Under Sargon, the ensis generally retained their positions, but were seen more as provincial governors. The title šar kiššati became recognised as meaning "lord of the universe". Sargon is even recorded as having organised naval expeditions to Dilmun (Bahrain) and Magan, amongst the first organised military naval expeditions in history. Whether he also did in the case of the Mediterranean with the kingdom of Kaptara (possibly Cyprus), as claimed in later documents, is more questionable.

With Naram-Sin, Sargon's grandson, this went further than with Sargon, with the king not only being called "Lord of the Four Quarters (of the Earth)", but also elevated to the ranks of the dingir (= gods), with his own temple establishment. Previously a ruler could, like Gilgamesh, become divine after death but the Akkadian kings, from Naram-Sin onward, were considered gods on earth in their lifetimes. Their portraits showed them of larger size than mere mortals and at some distance from their retainers.

Victory stele of Naram-Sin
Victory stele of Naram-Sin

One strategy adopted by both Sargon and Naram-Sin, to maintain control of the country, was to install their daughters, Enheduanna and Emmenanna respectively, as high priestess to Sin, the Akkadian version of the Sumerian moon deity, Nanna, at Ur, in the extreme south of Sumer; to install sons as provincial ensi governors in strategic locations; and to marry their daughters to rulers of peripheral parts of the Empire (Urkesh and Marhashe). A well documented case of the latter is that of Naram-Sin's daughter Tar'am-Agade at Urkesh.

The kings of Akkad were legendary among later Mesopotamian civilizations, with Sargon understood as the prototype of a strong and wise leader, and his grandson Naram-Sin considered the wicked and impious leader (Unheilsherrscher in the analysis of Hans Gustav Güterbock) who brought ruin upon his kingdom.


Povezane kulture

Povezane kulture
Povezane kulture


Kokain i nikotin u egipatskim mumijama


Sumer - Bolivia

A figure on the Fuente Magna bowl. (Courtesy of Bernardo Biados’s research team)
A figure on the Fuente Magna bowl. (Courtesy of Bernardo Biados’s research team)

The Fuente Magna Bowl was found to have two types of scripts engraved on the inside. (Courtesy of Bernardo Biados’s research team)
The Fuente Magna Bowl was found to have two types of scripts engraved on the inside. (Courtesy of Bernardo Biados’s research team)


The Sumerians mention a land in the West called Kuga-Ki where they mined valuable metals. Dr. A.H. Sayce said that Tin-land in Sumerian was KUGA-KI. Sayce made it clear that Sumerians claimed that they obtained tin from this land.

The ancient Sumerians were great navigators. Sumerian Ships sailed to Egypt, Northeast Africa, and the Indus Valley in search of metals and goods to support their industry and popular demands for goods by the people. Samuel N. Kramer in The Sumerians, said that Egypt in the Sumerian inscriptions was Magan, and the Indus Valley was called Dilmun.

King Sargon in 2300 BC mentions that Kuga-Ki was part of  his Empire. Prof. Sayce,  in a paper named  “Geography of Sargon of Akkad”, published in the journal Ancient Egypt, translated a document written by a 8th Century B.C., Assyrian official. The document stated that Sargon I, Empire included  "the countries from the rising to the setting of the sun, which Sargon the... king conquered with his hand," included amongst many other lands "the Land of Gutium," "the land of the Muru (or Amorites)" and (Kuga-Ki) "the Tin-land country which lies beyond the Upper Sea (or Mediterranean)."


Sayce believed that Kuga-Ki was probably located in Spain. The presence of the Fuente Magna Bowl suggests that Kuga-Ki was in South America instead of Spain. Since Kuga-Ki was west of the Mediterranean it was probably the name for some region in North or South America, because the Americas lie west of the Meditteranean Sea, while Spain lies on the Meditterranean.

A.H Verrill and R. Verrill, in Americas Ancient Civilizations , and J. Bailey in Sailing to Paradise , maintain that the area around Lake Titicaca may have been called Lake Manu by the Sumerians. According to the Verrills and Bailey, traditions claim that Sumerians made many visits to the land west of the Mediterranean, which they called the Kuga-ki. The traditions make it clear that Sumerians sailed to Kuga-ki in their Magur ships. Cuneiform tablets make it clear the Magur ships could carry 18.5 metric tons of precious metals.

Mining Operations

The Sumerians probably first made contact with Kuga-kivia, the Atlantic currents that take you from Africa to Brazil. Prospectors probably reached Brazil, and sailed down the Amazon river until they found large tin deposits in Bolivia-Peru. The major center for mining in Bolivia-Peru is and was Potosi.

Map of the Amazon River
Map of the Amazon River

Once they established mining operations in Kuga-ki, local people probably began to work in the mining operations and adopted many Sumerian customs, linguistic terms and the social technology of writing, i.e., the Proto-Sumerian script. This means that writing has a long tradition among the people of Bolivia-Peru as Clyde Winters writes in Ancient Scripts in South America .

Kingdom of the Antis

The Andes may have been the Tin land or Kuga-Ki of the Sumerians. The Andes mountains were originally called Antis. This area was formerly called Antisuyo, Kingdom of the Antis. This was also the homeland of the Antis Indians. In the Quechua language spoken by many Indians in the area, antis means copper. Antis was also the name for the native peoples who formerly lived in this part of South America.

Antis is probably of non-Quechua origin. The Chipaya language, another Native American language spoken in the area, is different from Quechua and Aymara. Some researchers claim Chipaya is closely related to the Maya languages which are spoken in Mexico.

This part of Bolivia is famous for the rich minerals found in the area. Many of these metals are found at the Bolivian Altiplano, near Lake Poopo, an inland sea, which was formerly connected to the Pacific Ocean by rivers now dried up.

The Bolivian Altiplano is the largest plain in the world. It contains two inland seas: Lake Titicaca and Lake Poopo. This area high in the Andes mountains makes it an apt location for Lake Manu or the ‘Cloud Lake’ of the Sumerians, where metals were mined in the Mountains of Sunset, the land situated west of the Mediterranean Sea.

Lake Poopo is fifty miles (80 km) long. The lake was surrounded by mountains on all sides and canals. Satellite pictures indicate that deep canals formerly existed near Lake Poopo. It is a shallow sea a few feet deep. Lake Poopo is a salty sea, sometimes known to dry up.

Kuga-Ki, The western Tin Land of the Sumerians
Kuga-Ki, The western Tin Land of the Sumerians

Lake Titicaca and Lake Poopo are connected by the River Desagua dero. The companion Lake of Poopo, was Lake Uru. The city of Oruro is located near Lake Uru.

Rich Mountain

The metals found near Lake Poopo include copper, tin, gold and silver. Here we find metals being extracted in the cities of Oruro and Corocoro where gold and copper were mined. In Sumerian the name for city is uru. The suffixes –oro for the cities around Lake Poopo, is strikingly similar to uru.

It is also interesting to note that a major center in this area for mining is Potosi. Potosi is famous for its tin deposits. At Potosi we find the Potosi mountain which is made of solid tin and was called Mount Catavi.

The Potosi area was a major center of mining. In the 1550’s, the Spanish began to exploit the silver found at Potosi Hill. The Spanish called Potosi Hill, Cerro Rico or “Rich Mountain”. As a result of the Spanish attempt to fully exploit the riches in this area “a horrific” number of Indians died in the mines. Hugh Thompson in The White Rock: An Exploration of the Inca Heartland , vividly describes this tragedy.

Thompson says that “the mine consumed the labor-force of Bolivia’s Altiplano. If they didn’t die, they were ground down by the apology for a wage that was paid to them. Within a generation, the population of those parts of the Altiplano used for mine conscription was halved. Within another generation it had halved again. And still Potosi continued to exact its quota”. 


In modern history Potosi has been a center for the mining of tin, copper, lead and silver. Located near Tihuanaca, Potosi may have been a center of Sumerian settlement in ancient times like the cities of Oruro and Corocoro. Bailey suggests that Potosi may relate to the Sumerian term Patesi, the Sumerian term for ‘priest king’.

The metals mined on the Altiplano were transported along the Pilcomyo River (or Rio de la Planta today). The Sumerians may have transported metals from Bolivia across the Atlantic to ancient Sumer. A great route for the shipment of tin from Kuga-ki was down the River Plate, eastward across the Atlantic, past the Cape of Good Hope, via the Indian Ocean to enter the Persian Gulf and Red Sea.


In addition to affinity between the symbols found on the Pokotia monolith, Fuente Magna bowl, and Incan weaving, we also find that these symbols are identical to signs engraved on Moche bricks.  A common feature of Huanca or carved Inca stones are steps cut into the rock.

Clyde Winters in Ancient Scripts in South America: The Sumerians in South America , has shown that the Inca Throne, an immaculately carved set of shallow steps, is similar to Proto-Sumerian signs. Other signs from huacas or carved stones at Rodadero Hill and the White Stone at Chuquipalta relate strikingly to the writing found on the Pokotia and Fuente Magna bowl.

In addition to Sumerian influence on South American writing systems, it is interesting to note that the Pokotia statue and Tiahuanaco monuments share similar headdresses and rib impressions along the chest area. This indicates a relationship between the builders of these monuments.

Pokotia statue, left and Tiahuanaco statue, right.
Pokotia statue, left and Tiahuanaco statue, right.

In the region where Kuga-ki probably existed in South America we have the Aymara language. Aymara terms relate to Sumerian terms. This is not surprising given the decipherment of the Pokotia statue and the Magna Fuente bowl. These documents indicate that the Sumerians had established many aspects of their religion in Bolivia.

The linguistic evidence supports the view that the Sumerians living in Kuga-ki were miners. The Sumerian term for copper was urudu; this term agrees with the Aymara terms for gold 'ouri' and copper 'anta, yawri'. The similarity between urudu and, yawri and ouri suggest that the Sumerians may have been the first people in the area to exploit the metals found throughout the Titicaca area and Bolivia.



Viracocha - Quetzalcoatl - Votan

"Morska Pjena"

Glavno središte carstva Inka bio je grad Cuzco, čiji naziv na lokalnom narječju Quechua znači "pupak svijeta". Njega su, prema legendi, osnovala djeca Sunca - Manco Capac i Mama Occlo. Iako su Inke štovale boga Sunca Intija (Inti), u tome se gradu štovalo drugo, najsvetije od sviju božanstava. Bio je to Viracocha, "Morska Pjena", a legende kazuju da su crteže u Nazci stvorili njegovi imenjaci.

Zanimljivo je istaknuti da je grčka božica Afrodita, koja je rođena u moru, ime dobila upravo prema "pjeni [aphros] iz koje je nastala". Osim toga, Viracochu su narodi Anda oduvijek opisivali kao muškarca. Barem se toliko može pouzdano reći o njemu. Međutim, ni jedan povjesničar ne može reći koliko je zapravo bio star kult toga božanstva. Čini se da je taj kult oduvijek bio prisutan; zaista, dokazi upućuju na to da su, davno prije nego što su ga Inke uključile u svoju kozmogoniju i sagradile mu veličanstven hram u Cuzcu, Viracochu štovale sve civilizacije koje su postojale u dugoj povijesti Perua.

Bradati stranac

Čini se da je početkom 16. stoljeća, prije nego što su Španjolci posve uništili peruansku kulturu, kip Viracoche stajao u Svetinji nad Svetinjama u Coricanchi. U suvremenom tekstu, "Relation anonyma de los costumbres antiquos de los naturales del Piru", taj mramorni kip boga opisan je ovako: "kosa, put, crte lica, odjeća i sandale prikazani su na način na koji slikari prikazuju apostola sv. Bartolomeja". Na drugim se mjestima spominje da Viracocha nalikuje sv. Tomi. Proučio sam mnogo ilustriranih crkvenih rukopisa u kojima se prikazuju ta dva sveca; oba su redovito prikazivana kao postariji, pogrbljeni, bradati bijeli muškarci odjeveni u duge lepršave halje i obuveni u sandale. Kako ćemo poslije vidjeti, zapisi potvrđuju da su Viracochu njegovi štovatelji upravo tako opisivali. Dakle, tko god on bio, nije mogao biti američki Indijanac, jer su oni uglavnom tamne puti i uglavnom bez dlaka na licu. Po gustoj bradi i svijetloj puti Viracocha je gotovo kavkaski tip.

Na temelju svojih legendi i vjerskih uvjerenja Inke 16. stoljeća zaključile su da su bradati Španjolci koji su stigli na njihove obale bili upravo Viracocha i njegovi polubogovi. Prema legendi, Viracocha je obećao da će se vratiti. Bila je to sretna okolnost koja je Pizzarovim konkvistadorima omogućila odlučujuću stratešku i psihološku prednost nužnu za uspješno svladavanje brojčano nadmoćnijih Inka u bitkama koje su slijedile.

Ljudi zmije

Uronivši u predaje o Viracochi, bradatom bogu iz dalekih Anda, s odu­ševljenjem sam ustanovio kako je Quetzalcoatl, glavno božanstvo drevnog meksičkog Panteona, bio opisivan na meni veoma poznat način.

Na primjer, u jednom pretkolumbovskom mitu, koji je u 16. stoljeću u Meksiku zapisao španjolski ljetopisac Juan de Torquemada, Quetzalcoatl je opisan kao "muškarac svijetle puti, rumenih obraza i duge brade. Druga predaja o njemu govori: [bijeli čovjek, op. prev.]; visok, široka čela, velikih očiju, duge kose, guste i zaobljene brade. Ostale ga predaje ovako opisuju:

"Tajanstveni... bijeli čovjek snažne građe, široka čela, velikih očiju i duge brade. Bio je odjeven u dugu, bijelu halju koja mu je sezala do stopala. Osuđivao je žrtvovanja, osim ona u obliku voća i cvijeća i zvali su ga bogom mira. Govorilo se kako bi, kada bi ga zapitali o ratu, prstima zaklopio uši."

Prema jednoj osobito zanimljivoj predaji iz Srednje Amerike, taj je "mudri učitelj":

"stigao s mora u čamcu koji je plovio sam, bez vesala. Bio je visok i bradat, te je podučio ljude kako da se služe vatrom. Izgradio je kuće i pokazao parovima kako da zajedno žive kao muž i žena; a kako su se ljudi u to doba često svađali, podučio ih je životu u miru."

Viracochin meksički brat blizanac

Čitatelj će se prisjetiti kako se Viracocha na svojim putovanjima Andama služio različitim imenima. To je činio i Quetzalcoatl. U nekim dijelovima Srednje Amerike (osobito među Quiche Mayama) zvali su ga Gucumatz.

Drugdje, na primjer u Chichen Itzi, zvao se Kukulkan. Obje riječi prevedene na engleski znače isto: Pernata Zmija. To je bilo i značenje imena Quetzalcoatl.

Bilo je i drugih božanstava, osobito među Mayama, koji su imali mnogo sličnosti s Quetzalcoatlom. Jedan od njih bio je Votan, veliki prosvjetitelj koji je također opisivan kao svijetloput i bradat muškarac odjeven u duga­ čku halju. Znanstvenici nisu uspjeli prevesti njegovo ime, ali njegov osnovni simbol također je bila zmija. Osim njega, spominje se i Izamana, mayanski bog liječništva. I on je bio bradat muškarac odjeven u halju; njegov je simbol bila čegrtuša.

Vodeći autoriteti slažu se kako su meksičke legende, koje su prikupili i sačuvali španjolski ljetopisci iz doba osvajanja često bile nedosljedan i proturječan rezultat iznimno opširnih usmenih predaja. Međutim, u njima se zasigurno krije barem djelić povijesne stvarnosti. Sylvanus Griswold Morley, doajen studija o Mayama tvrdi:

"Veliki bog Kukulkan ili Pernata Zmija, bio je mayanska replika astečkoga Quetzalcoatla, meksičkoga boga svjetlosti, učenosti i kulture. U mayanskom Panteonu on je bio veliki organizator, osnivač gradova, utemeljitelj zakona i tvorac kalendara. Njegove osobine i životopis toliko su ljudski da nije nemoguće da je on zaista bio povijesna ličnost, slavni zakonodavac i organizator čija su dobročinstva ostala u sjećanju dugo poslije njegove smrti i koji je s vremenom konačno deificiran."

Sve legende jednoglasno tvrde da je Quetzalcoatl/Kukulkan/Gucumatz/Votan/Izamana stigao u Srednju Ameriku izdaleka (preko "Istočnoga mora") te da je, na veliku žalost, ponovno otplovio u smjeru iz kojega je nekada došao. Spominje se i to da je svečano prisegnuo kako će se jednoga dana vratiti - baš kao što je prisegnuo i Viracocha, što se ne može pripisati slučajnosti. Osim toga, Viracochin odlazak preko valova Tihoga oceana u andskim je predajama opisivan kao čudesan događaj. I Quetzalcoatlov odlazak iz Meksika obavijen je tajnom: govori se da je otplovio "na splavi od zmija".

Kako bilo, smatrao sam da je Morley imao pravo kada je u mitovima Maya i Meksika tražio stvarne povijesne činjenice. Predaje su zapravo upućivale na to da bradati, svijetloputi stranac zvan Quetzalcoatl (ili Kukulkan, ili nekako drugačije) nije bio jedna, nego više osoba koje su došle iz istoga mjesta i koje su pripadale istom, neindijanskom etničkom tipu (bradati, svijetloputi itd.). To ne proizlazi samo iz činjenice postojanja "obitelji" očito povezanih ali u nekim pogledima i međusobno različitih bogova, za koje se vezivao simbol zmije. Mnoge meksičke i mayanske predaje kazuju da su Quetzalcoatla/Kukulkana/Izamanu pratili sljedbenici, odnosno pomoćnici.

U nekim mitovima koji se spominju u drevnim religijskim tekstovima Maya, poput Chilama Balama (Chilam Balam, op. prev.), tvrdi se da su "prvi stanovnici Jukatana bili 'ljudi zmije'. Oni su stigli s istoka u čamcima, a predvodio ih je Itzaman, Zmija Istoka, iscjelitelj koji je liječio dodirom i oživljavao mrtve."

"Kukulkan" je, kazuje predaja, "stigao sa svojih devetnaest drugova od kojih su dvojica bili bogovi riba, dvojica bogovi poljoprivrede, bog groma ... na Jukatanu su ostali deset godina. Kukulkan je donio mudre zakone, a potom je otplovio i iščeznuo u smjeru izlazećeg sunca..."

Španjolski kroničar Las Casas pripovijeda: "Urođenici su potvrdili kako je u drevno doba u Meksiko stiglo dvadeset muškaraca čiji se vođa zvao Kukulkan ... Nosili su dugačke halje i sandale, imali su duge brade i bili su gologlavi... Kukulkan je poučio ljude kako da žive u miru, te je dao izgraditi mnoge značajne građevine."

Juan de Torquemada istodobno je zabilježio veoma značajnu predaju iz razdoblja prije osvajanja, koja spominje dostojanstvene strance koji su došli u Meksiko s Quetzalcoatlom:

"Bili su to ljudi uzvišena držanja odjeveni u lijepe dugačke halje od crnoga platna bez ogrtača, koje su sprijeda bile otvorene, plitkoga izreza oko vrata i kratkih rukava ... Ti sljedbenici Quetzalcoatla raspolagali su golemim znanjem i bili su spretni umjetnici u svim vještinama."

Poput davno izgubljenog Viracochina brata blizanca, svijetloputo i bradato andsko božanstvo Quetzalcoatl je, kazuju predaje, donio u Meksiko sve vje­štine i znanosti nužne za civiliziran život i ulazak u zlatno doba. Na primjer, vjeruje se da je on u Srednju Ameriku donio pismo i da je izumio kalendar, te da je bio vješt graditelj koji je uputio ljude u tajne zidarstva i arhitekture. Bio je otac matematike, metalurgije i astronomije, a navodno je "izmjerio zemlju". Utemeljio je djelotvornu i unosnu zemljoradnju, a tvrdi se da je otkrio i uveo sadnju kukuruza, koji u ovim područjima doslovno predstavlja temelj života. Bio je veliki liječnik te pokrovitelj iscjelitelja i vračeva, "koji je ljudima otkrio tajne o svojstvima bilja". Osim toga, štovali su ga kao zakonodavca, zaštitnika obrtnika i pokrovitelja svih umjetnosti.

Kako i dolikuje tako prosvijetljenoj i kultiviranoj osobi, tijekom svoje vladavine u Meksiku Quetzalcoatl je zabranio jezive obrede žrtvovanja ljudi, no oni su ponovno uvedeni poslije njegova odlaska. Pa ipak, čak su se i Asteci, najokrutniji i najgorljiviji pristaše krvavih obreda u dugoj povijesti Srednje Amerike, s nostalgijom prisjećali doba Quetzalcoatla. Jedna legenda kaže: "On je bio učitelj koji je propovijedao da se niti jedno živo biće ne smije povrijediti, te da se smiju žrtvovati samo ptice i leptiri, a nikako ljudi."

Kozmička bitka

Zašto je Quetzalcoatl otišao? Što je pošlo po zlu?

Meksičke legende pružaju odgovor na ta pitanja. U njima se govori da je prosvjetiteljsku i dobročiniteljsku vladavinu Pernate Zmije perkinuo Tezcatilpoca, zao bog čije je ime značilo "zrcalo koje se dimi" i čiji je kult zahtijevao žrtvovanja ljudi. Čini se da se u drevnom Meksiku dogodila kozmička bitka između sila svjetlosti i sila mraka, koje su konačno i pobijedile.

Vjeruje se da su se ti događaji zbili na području koje se danas zove Tula, a za koje se smatra da nije veoma stara - barem ne više od 1000 godina - iako je legende smještaju u mnogo dalju prošlost. U to pretpovijesno doba bila je poznata pod imenom Tollan. Sve predaje jednoglasno tvrde kako je upravo u Tollanu Tezcatilpoca pobijedio Quetzalcoatla i prisilio ga da napusti Meksiko.

Zmijsko Svetište

Santha i ja posjetili smo Tulu/Tollan zbog povezanosti toga mjesta s Quetzalcoatlom i njegovim zakletim neprijateljem Tezcatilpocom, "Zrcalom Koje Se Dimi". Uvijek mladolik, svemoćan, sveprisutan i sveznajući Tezcatilpoca u legendama se povezivao s noći, tamom i svetim jaguarom. Bio je "nevidljiv i bešćutan, a ljudima se prikazivao katkad u obliku sjene, katkad kao strašno čudovište." Često su ga prikazivali kao blještavu lubanju a govorilo se da je posjedovao tajanstveni predmet, zrcalo koje se dimi, po kojemu je poslije bio i nazvan, a kojim se služio kako bi iz daljine promatrao što rade ljudi i bogovi. Znanstvenici pretpostavljaju da je to bio opsidijan, obredni kamen: "Opsidijan je za Meksikance bio osobito svet kamen od kojeg su radili obredne noževe za svećenike. Bernal Diaz [španjolski ljetopisac] tvrdi kako su taj kamen zvali tezcat. Od njega su se izrađivala i zrcala, koja su služila vračevima kao božanski medij."

Legende navode da je Tezcatilpoca, koji je predstavljao sile tame i grabežljiva zla bio u neprekidnom i dugotrajnom sukobu s Quetzalcoatlom. Omjer pobjeda i poraza dugo je bio izjednačen. Kozmička bitka je završila kada je zlo konačno nadvladalo dobro i Quetzalcoatl je bio prisiljen napustiti Tollan. Pod utjecajem Tezcatilpocova strašnog kulta, u čitavoj je Srednjoj Americi ponovno uvedeno žrtvovanje ljudi.

Kako smo vidjeli, legende bilježe da je Quetzalcoatl otplovio na splavi od zmija. Jedna legenda pripovijeda: "Spalio je svoje kuće izgrađene od srebra i školjki, zakopao svoje blago i otplovio prema Istočnom moru slijedeći svoje pratitelje, pretvorene u šarene ptice."

Taj dojmljiv trenutak navodno se zbio u mjestu zvanom Coatzacoalos, što znači "zmijsko svetište". Prije odlaska, Quetzalcoatlje svojim sljedbenicima obećao da će se jednoga dana vratiti kako bi uništio kult Tezcatilpoce i uveo doba u kojemu će bogovi ponovno "prihvaćati cvjetne žrtve" i prestati zahtijevati ljudsku krv.

Izvor: Graham Hancock - Otisci bogova


Dinaric American

Dinaric/Armenoid race
Dinaric/Armenoid race

Sargon of Akkad   Sargon of Akkad
Sargon of Akkad

The vast majority of Dinarics are not found in southeastern Europe and Eurasia. They are found in southern Mexico, Guatemala, the rest of central America, Peru. Prior to the arrival of the Anglo they walked across a broad swath of the modern day United States, from Texas to Nebraska and beyond.


This photo of a Slovakian Dinaric compared to a nearly Native American of the same racial type.
This photo of a Slovakian Dinaric compared to a nearly Native American of the same racial type.


Sumer - Egypt - Titicaci


Izgradnja tradicionalnih brodova od trstike na otoku Suriqui na jezeru Titicaci. Gotovo identični brodovi, iako mnogo veći, upotrebljavali su se u Egiptu u Doba Piramida.

Gutian dynasty of Sumer, c. 2154 - 2047 BC

We suggest; Y-DNA G2a, R1b & R1a

Barbarian prisoner of the Akkadian Empire, nude, fettered, drawn by nose ring, with pointed beard and vertical braid. 2350-2000 BCE
Barbarian prisoner of the Akkadian Empire, nude, fettered, drawn by nose ring, with pointed beard and vertical braid. 2350-2000 BCE

Nakon pada Sargonovog carstva uslijedilo je Gutians razdoblje "Dark Ages".

Gutian people

According to the historian Henry Hoyle Howorth (1901), Assyriologist Theophilus Pinches (1908), renowned archaeologist Leonard Woolley (1929) and Assyriologist Ignace Gelb (1944) the Gutians were pale in complexion and blonde. This identification of the Gutians as fair haired first came to light when Julius Oppert (1877) published a set of tablets he had discovered which described Gutian (and Subarian) slaves as namrum or namrûtum, one of its many meanings being "light colored". This racial character of the Gutians as blondes or being light skinned was also claimed up by Georges Vacher de Lapouge in 1899 and later by historian Sidney Smith in his Early history of Assyria (1928).

Haplogroup R1a

  Y-DNA R1b
Y-DNA G2a-L293 - Y-DNA R1b-L23


Geographical distribution R-M343 (xM73, M269, V88)

In early research, because R-M269, R-M73 and R-V88 are by far the most common forms of R1b, examples of R1b (xM73, xM269) were sometimes assumed to signify basal examples of "R1b*". However, while the paragroup R-M343 (xM73, M269, V88) is rare, it does not preclude membership of rare and/or subsequently-discovered, relatively basal subclades of R1b, such as R-L278* (R1b1*), R-L389* (R1b1a1*), R-P297* (R1b1a1a*), R-V1636 (R1b1a1b) or R-PH155 (R1b1b).

The population believed to have the highest proportion of R-M343 (xM73, M269, V88) are the Kurds of southeastern Kazakhstan with 13%. However, more recently, a large study of Y-chromosome variation in Iran, revealed R-M343 (xV88, M73, M269) as high as 4.3% among Iranian sub-populations.

R1b subclades have also been found in Han Chinese from Shandong, Heilongjiang and Gansu provinces.


Distribution of R-V88, R-M73 and M269

Continent Region Sample size Total R1b R-V88 (R1b1a2) R-M269 (R1b1a1a2) R-M73 (R1b1a1a1)
Africa Northern Africa 691 5.9% 5.2% 0.7% 0.0%
Africa Central Sahel Region 461 23.0% 23.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Africa Western Africa 123 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Africa Eastern Africa 442 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Africa Southern Africa 105 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Europe Western Europeans 465 57.8% 0.0% 57.8% 0.0%
Europe North-west Europeans 43 55.8% 0.0% 55.8% 0.0%
Europe Central Europeans 77 42.9% 0.0% 42.9% 0.0%
Europe North Eastern Europeans 74 1.4% 0.0% 1.4% 0.0%
Europe Russians 60 6.7% 0.0% 6.7% 0.0%
Europe Eastern Europeans 149 20.8% 0.0% 20.8% 0.0%
Europe South-east Europeans 510 13.1% 0.2% 12.9% 0.0%
Asia West Asians 328 5.8% 0.3% 5.5% 0.0%
Asia South Asians 288 4.8% 0.0% 1.7% 3.1%
Asia South-east Asians 10 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Asia North-east Asians 30 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Asia East Asians 156 0.6% 0.0% 0.6% 0.0%


Relations Between The Language Of The Gutians And Old Turkish

The genetical dating suggests that Gutians belonged to the same Kurgan horse nomadic people that in waves flooded Europe starting at about 4400 BC. The fairly well studied Neolithic Europe experienced three major Kurgan overland migration waves, the dating of the migration waves, produced by archeologists using radiocarbon analysis, is in concert with the genetic dating: wave 1 at ca. 4400-4300 BC, wave 2 at ca. 3500 BC or somewhat later, and wave 3 soon after 3000 BC; Gutians and their nomadic kin tribes might be the southern prong of the westward waves. The insights provided by archeology and genetic, and their converging conclusions advance a contention that the Türkic (Proto-Türkic) linguistic field dominated the whole Eurasia reaching the Atlantic Ocean on one end and Pacific Ocean on another end, and the linguistic relicts may corroborate that the non-Indo-European Kurgan vernaculars were rooted in the Türkic (Proto-Türkic) linguistic field.

Relations Between The Language Of The Gutians And Old Turkish


Altaic languages - Aglutinativni jezik

Y-DNA Q & R1b

Altaic languages
Altaic languages


Thyssagetae - Massagetae - Getae - Tyragetae

Y-DNA R1a & R1b

Map depicting the world as described by Herodotus

Thyssagetae - Massagetae   Getae
Thyssagetae - Massagetae - Getae - Tyragetae

Getae and Daci are Iranian names of two Iranian-speaking Scythian groups that had been assimilated into the larger Thracian-speaking population of the later "Dacia". They might be related to Masagetae and Dahae people who used to live in central Asia in 6th century BC.

Gotski i Aramejski jezik

Goti - Izvorno ime Gotskog jezika kako su ga nazivali Goti, gutiska razda, rekonstruirano je prema Jordanesovoj povijesti Gota.
Riječ razda (govor) sačuvana je, npr. u Evanđelju po Mateju. "Doista, i ti si od njih! Ta govor te tvoj izdaje!" Matej 26:73

U Lici su se zadržali ostaci Gota zbog kojih je područje Gacke nazvano 'Gotska zemlja', a kada su se Goti postupno asimilirali i počelo se tamošnje stanovnike nazivati Gotjane pa je zbog toga franački izvor zabilježio Guduscani.


Eber, c. 2000 - 1800 BC

Negdje između 2000.-1800. prije Krista moglo bi biti naznaka prve pojave starih Hebreja.

Riječ "hebreji" dolazi od riječi "Ibri" (u množini "Ibrim"). Tradicionalno se podrazumijeva da ime potjeće od Abrahamova pretka, Ebera ("EBR" עבר na hebrejskom), spominje se u Knjizi Postanka 10:21. Ime se vjerojatno temelji na korijenu "ʕ-BR" (עבר) što znači "prijeći". Pojam "ʕibrim" preći, odnosi se na ljude koji su prešli preko rijeke Eufrata.

Habiru or Apiru (Egyptian: ˁpr.w) was the name given by various Sumerian, Egyptian, Akkadian, Hittite, Mitanni, and Ugaritic sources (dated, roughly, between 1800 BC and 1100 BC) to a group of people living as nomadic invaders in areas of the Fertile Crescent from Northeastern Mesopotamia and Iran to the borders of Egypt in Canaan.

Eber-Nari (Akkadian, also Ebir-Nari), Abar-Nahara עבר-נהרה (Aramaic) or 'Ābēr Nahrā (Syriac) was the name of a region of Western Asia and a satrapy of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911-605 BC), Neo-Babylonian Empire (612-539 BC) and Achaemenid Empire (539-332 BC). Eber-Nari roughly corresponded with the Levant (modern Syria), and was also known as Aramea.

It means "Beyond the River" or "Across the River" in both the Akkadian and Imperial Aramaic languages of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (that is, the Western bank of the Euphrates from a Mesopotamian and Persian viewpoint). It is also referred to as Transeuphratia (French Transeuphratène) by modern scholars. The province is also mentioned extensively in the Biblical books of Ezra and Nehemiah.


Arpakšad - Eber

Šemu - praocu svih sinova Eberovih i starijem bratu Jafetovu - rodili se sinovi. Šemovi su sinovi: Elam, Ašur, Arpakšad, Lud i Aram.

Arpakšad rodi Šelaha, Šelah rodi Ebera. Eberu su se rodila dva sina: jednomu bješe ime Peleg, jer se za njegova vijeka zemlja razdijelila. Njegovu je bratu bilo ime Joktan. Od Joktana se rodiše: Almodad, Šelef, Hasarmavet, Jerah, Hadoram, Uzal, Dikla, Obal, Abimael, Šeba, Ofir, Havila i Jobab. Sve su to sinovi Joktanovi. Njihova se naselja protezahu od Meše sve do Sefara, brdovitih krajeva na istoku. To su sinovi Šemovi prema svojim plemenima, jezicima i zemljama, po svojim narodima.


Arpakšad je predak Abrahama.


Hebreji potječu od Ebera (Heber), praunuk Šema. Šest generacija nakon Hebera rođen je Abram (Abraham).
Jišmael i Izak rođeni su od Abrahama. Međutim, Jišmael je rođen od Abrahama i egipatske sluškinje Hagar. (Postanak 16, Galaćanima 4) Sunniti Arapi (posebno arapski muslimani) smatraju da su potomci Jišmaela, često sebe nazivaju Jišmaelci.


Pelazgi ili Pelasgians je ime kojim su starogrčki pisci nazivali domorodačko stanovništvo koje je u Grčkoj živjelo prije samih Grka.


Od Joktana se rodiše: Almodad, Šelef, Hasarmavet, Jerah, Hadoram, Uzal, Dikla, Obal, Abimael, Šeba, Ofir, Havila i Jobab. (Šeba = Sava; Havila = Havale/Avala = Valachie)


Ibrahim Patriarch - Brahma Creator God

Ibranum Gutian king - Abraham/Saraja (Patriarch) - Brahma/Saraswati (God)

Abraham, po svim vjerskim knjigama, smatra se ocem monoteističke vjere. Brahma je vrhovni biće u Hinduizmu, u starom Egiptu, ABA RA-Hum „Otac svjetlih ljudi”.

1) Gutian dynasty of Sumer (22th century BC)

  • Arrapkha; Ancient Arrapkha was a part of Sargon of Akkad's Akkadian Empire (2335-2154 BC). Later the city was occupied around 2150 BC by Gutian people. Arrapkha was the capital of the Guti kingdom. - (Arpakšad)
  • Ibranum - Gutian ruler - IBRA-NUM - IBRA-HIM - (Ibrahim / Abraham)

2) Abraham & Saraja (c. 20th century BC)

3) Brahma & Saraswati (18-12th century BC)

  • Brahma (Sanskrit: ब्रह्मा, IAST: Brahmā) is a creator god in Hinduism. He has four faces. Brahma is also known as Svayambhu (self-born) or creative aspect of Vishnu, Vāgīśa (Lord of Speech), and the creator of the four Vedas, one from each of his mouths. Brahma is consort of Saraswati and he is father of Four Kumaras, Narada, and Daksha.

Rigveda is one of the oldest extant texts in any Indo-European language. Philological and linguistic evidence indicate that the Rigveda was composed in the north-western region of the Indian subcontinent, most likely between c. 1500 and 1200 BC-though a wider approximation of c. 1700-1100 BC has also been given. The initial codification of the Rigveda took place during the early Kuru kingdom (c. 1200 - c. 900 BCE).

One of the earliest mentions of Brahma with Vishnu and Shiva is in the fifth Prapathaka (lesson) of the Maitrayaniya Upanishad, probably composed in late 1st millennium BCE. Brahma is first discussed in verse 5,1, also called the Kutsayana Hymn, and then expounded in verse 5,2.

Najstarije od četiri Vede (osim mandale I. i X) trebale su biti sastavljene oko 1100 godine pne, a kodificirane oko 600 godina pne. Nije poznato kada su konačno bile predane pisanju, ali to je vjerojatno bilo u nekom trenutku nakon 300 pne.


Nergal - Kutha (Tell Ibrahim)

Nergal (arrow shooting god of II Kings 17:30) a Babylonian god and king of the Underworld "Lord of the great dwelling." When ejected from heaven he invaded the underworld with fourteen demons. His wife was Ereshkigal (possibly Gulu). During the great flood he tore away the mast of the ship in which Utanapishtim (the Babylonian Noah) escaped and was saved along with his family and specimens of all manner of animals. Nergal is also the god of plague with Namtar (evil god, negative aspect of fate, disease bringer), his symbols are a sword and a lion’s head. From the contract tablets found by Rassam at Tel-Ibrahim it appears that the ancient name of Cuthah was Gudua or Kuta. It’s ruins were 3,000 feet in circumference and 280 feet high. In it was a sanctuary dedicated to Ibrahim (Abraham). Both the city and its great temple, the later dedicated to Nergal, appear to date back to Sumerian times. Nergal (Heb. nereghal, a Babylonian deity of destruction and disaster, associated with the planet Mars (god of war and agriculture).

'Nekoć su oci vaši, Terah, otac Abrahamov i Nahorov, živjeli s onu stranu Rijeke (Eufrata) i služili drugim bogovima. - Jošua




Nergal, Nirgal, or Nirgali (Sumerian: DGÌR-UNUG-GAL Hebrew: נֵרְגַל , Modern Nergal, Tiberian Nērḡál; Aramaic ܢܹܪܓܵܐܠ; Latin: Nergel) was a deity worshipped throughout Mesopotamia (Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia) with the main seat of his worship at Cuthah represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim. Other names for him are Erra and Irra.

Nergal is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as the deity of the city of Cuth (Cuthah): "And the men of Babylon made Succoth-benoth, and the men of Cuth made Nergal" (2 Kings, 17:30). According to the Talmudists, his emblem was a cockerel and Nergal means a "dunghill cock", although standard iconography pictured Nergal as a lion. He is a son of Enlil and Ninlil, along with Nanna and Ninurta.


Nergal seems to be in part a solar deity, sometimes identified with Shamash, but only representative of a certain phase of the sun. Portrayed in hymns and myths as a god of war and pestilence, Nergal seems to represent the sun of noontime and of the summer solstice that brings destruction, high summer being the dead season in the Mesopotamian annual cycle. He has also been called "the king of sunset". Over time Nergal developed from a war god to a god of the underworld. In the mythology, this occurred when Enlil and Ninlil gave him the underworld.

Nergal was also the deity who presides over the netherworld, and who stands at the head of the special pantheon assigned to the government of the dead (supposed to be gathered in a large subterranean cave known as Aralu or Irkalla). In this capacity he has associated with him a goddess Allatu or Ereshkigal, though at one time Allatu may have functioned as the sole mistress of Aralu, ruling in her own person. In some texts the god Ninazu is the son of Nergal and Allatu/Ereshkigal.

Ordinarily Nergal pairs with his consort Laz. Standard iconography pictured Nergal as a lion, and boundary-stone monuments symbolise him with a mace surmounted by the head of a lion.

Nergal's fiery aspect appears in names or epithets such as Lugalgira, Lugal-banda (Nergal as the fighting-cock), Sharrapu ("the burner," a reference to his manner of dealing with outdated teachings), Erra, Gibil (though this name more properly belongs to Nusku), and Sibitti or Seven. A certain confusion exists in cuneiform literature between Ninurta (slayer of Asag and wielder of Sharur, an enchanted mace) and Nergal. Nergal has epithets such as the "raging king," the "furious one," and the like. A play upon his name-separated into three elements as Ne-uru-gal (light of the great Ûru; lord of the great dwelling)-expresses his position at the head of the nether-world pantheon.

In the late Babylonian astral-theological system Nergal is related to the planet Mars. As a fiery god of destruction and war, Nergal doubtless seemed an appropriate choice for the red planet, and he was equated by the Greeks to the war-god Ares (Latin Mars)—hence the current name of the planet. In Assyro-Babylonian ecclesiastical art the great lion-headed colossi serving as guardians to the temples and palaces seem to symbolise Nergal, just as the bull-headed colossi probably typify Ninurta.

Nergal's chief temple at Cuthah bore the name Meslam, from which the god receives the designation of Meslamtaeda or Meslamtaea, "the one that rises up from Meslam". The name Meslamtaeda/Meslamtaea indeed is found as early as the list of gods from Fara while the name Nergal only begins to appear in the Akkadian period. Amongst the Hurrians and later Hittites Nergal was known as Aplu, a name derived from the Akkadian Apal Enlil, (Apal being the construct state of Aplu) meaning "the son of Enlil". As god of the plague, he was invoked during the "plague years" during the reign of the Hittite king Suppiluliuma, when this disease spread from Egypt.

The worship of Nergal does not appear to have spread as widely as that of Ninurta, but in the late Babylonian and early Persian period, syncretism seems to have fused the two divinities, which were invoked together as if they were identical. Hymns and votive and other inscriptions of Babylonian and Assyrian rulers frequently invoke him, but we do not learn of many temples to him outside of Cuthah. The Assyrian king Sennacherib speaks of one at Tarbisu to the north of the Assyrian capital of Nineveh, but significantly, although Nebuchadnezzar II (606–586 BC), the great temple-builder of the neo-Babylonian monarchy, alludes to his operations at Meslam in Cuthah, he makes no mention of a sanctuary to Nergal in Babylon. Local associations with his original seat-Kutha-and the conception formed of him as a god of the dead acted in making him feared rather than actively worshipped.

Nergal and Ereshkigal

The gods have created a banquet for which all deities are invited. However, Ereshkigal is unable to leave the underworld. Instead, she sends her son Namtar to take a share of the feast. When Namtar arrives,the other deities rise out of respect except for Erra. Insulted, Namtar goes homes and tells his mother. Enki and other gods tell Nergal to enter the underworld. Nergal takes with him 14 demons. When he arrives the gatekeeper Neti gets orders from Ereshkigal to allow him through the seven gates, stripping him of everything until the throne room, where he would be killed. But at each gate, Nergal posts two demons. When he gets to the throne he knocks over Namtar and drags Ereshkigal to the floor. He is about to kill her with his ax when she pleads for her life, promising her as his wife and to share her power with him. He consents. However, Nergal must still leave the underworld for six months, so Ereshkigal gives him back his demons and allows him to traverse the upper world for that time, after which he returns to her. This myth shows how war is fought in seasons.

Cult places

The main cult centre of Nergal was Kutha, and also enjoyed patronage over Mashkan-shapir. Cults are also attested for Dilbat, Isin, Larsa, Nippur, Ur and Uruk.

Time periods attested

Earliest evidence on Nergal is as the god Meslamtaea in Kutha, in god-lists from Fara and Abu Salabikh. The name Nergal first appears in the Ur III period (22nd to 21st century BC). In the second millennium, Nergal comes to co-rule the underworld with Ereškigal. In the Neo-Assyrian period, he is attested as a significant figure in official Assyrian religious veneration.

In demonology

Because he was a god of fire, the desert, and the Underworld and also a god from ancient paganism, later Christian writers sometimes identified Nergal as a demon and even identified him with Satan. According to Collin de Plancy and Johann Weyer, Nergal was depicted as the chief of Hell's "secret police", and worked as "an honorary spy in the service of Beelzebub".

  • Nergal > Ares > Mars


Nergal (Ares) - Sparta

Ares (grč. Άρης, Arês ili Ἄρεως, Areôs) u grčkoj mitologiji bog je rata, najstariji sin Zeusa i Here. Opisan je kao snažan, kao silnik i svađalica. Aresov je pandan u rimskoj mitologiji Mars.

Ares je bio bog ratovanja koje je samo sebi svrhom, radovao se smrti i junaka i običnih smrtnika. Radovali su ga miris krvi, borba, zveket oružja, jauci. Aresa nije zanimao uzrok rata, čak ni ishod, bitno je bilo samo ratovanje. Mrzio je ostale bogove, a i svoje roditelje, a posebice božicu Atenu. Smatran je i praocem Amazonki, plemena ratobornih žena.

Dim i Fob (Deimos i Phobos) bili su njegova djeca s Afroditom, a označavali su užas i strah. Također je uz njega bio i Kidem, demon zveketa bitke. Homer u Ilijadi spominje da je sestra i društvo smrtonosnog Aresa boginja nesloge i razdora Erida, a također i Enija, boginja ratnog klanja.


Ares is the Greek god of war. He is one of the Twelve Olympians, and the son of Zeus and Hera. In Greek literature, he often represents the physical or violent and untamed aspect of war, in contrast to his sister the armored Athena, whose functions as a goddess of intelligence include military strategy and generalship.

The Greeks were ambivalent toward Ares: although he embodied the physical valor necessary for success in war, he was a dangerous force, "overwhelming, insatiable in battle, destructive, and man-slaughtering." His sons Phobos (Fear) and Deimos (Terror) and his lover, or sister, Enyo (Discord) accompanied him on his war chariot. In the Iliad, his father Zeus tells him that he is the god most hateful to him. An association with Ares endows places and objects with a savage, dangerous, or militarized quality. His value as a war god is placed in doubt: during the Trojan War, Ares was on the losing side, while Athena, often depicted in Greek art as holding Nike (Victory) in her hand, favoured the triumphant Greeks.

Ares plays a relatively limited role in Greek mythology as represented in literary narratives, though his numerous love affairs and abundant offspring are often alluded to. When Ares does appear in myths, he typically faces humiliation. He is well known as the lover of Aphrodite, the goddess of love, who was married to Hephaestus, god of craftsmanship. The most famous story related to Ares and Aphrodite shows them exposed to ridicule through the wronged husband's device.

Ares in Sparta

In Sparta, Ares was viewed as a model soldier: his resilience, physical strength, and military intelligence were unrivaled. An ancient statue, representing the god in chains, suggests that the martial spirit and victory were to be kept in the city of Sparta. That the Spartans admired him is indicative of the cultural divisions that existed between themselves and other Greeks, especially the Athenians.

Although Ares received occasional sacrifice from armies going to war, the god had a formal temple and cult at only a few sites. At Sparta, however, each company of youths sacrificed a puppy to Enyalios before engaging in ritual fighting at the Phoebaeum.[n 3] The chthonic night-time sacrifice of a dog to Enyalios became assimilated to the cult of Ares.

Founding of Thebes

One of the roles of Ares was expressed in mainland Greece as the founding myth of Thebes: Ares was the progenitor of the water-dragon slain by Cadmus, for the dragon's teeth were sown into the ground as if a crop and sprang up as the fully armored autochthonic Spartoi. To propitiate Ares, Cadmus took as a bride Harmonia, a daughter of Ares's union with Aphrodite. In this way, Cadmus harmonized all strife and founded the city of Thebes.

Jahve = Ares

Kad je Kovčeg Jahvin stigao u tabor, sav Izrael podiže gromki poklik, od kojega odjeknu zemlja. (6) Filistejci čuše taj gromki poklik i zapitaše: "Što znači taj gromki poklik u taboru Hebreja?" I shvatiše da je Kovčeg Jahvin stigao u njihov tabor. (7) Tada Filistejce obuze strah jer su govorili: "Bog je došao u tabor!" I povikaše: "Jao nama! Tako nije bilo dosad. (8) Jao nama! Tko će nas izbaviti iz ruke toga silnog Boga? To je onaj koji je udario Egipat svakojakim nevoljama. - Prva knjiga o Samuelu


Spartanci su od Abrahamova roda


Odgovor židovskog velikog svećenika na pismo spartanskih Grka:

... "Jonathan visoki svećenik židovskog naroda na ephori i Senat i narod u Lacedaemonians, poslati čestitku:

"Kada je u prijašnjim vremenima poslanica je donijeli do Onias, koji je tada bio naš veliki svećenik... U vezi roda koji je bio između nas i vas, primjerak koji je ovdje prisajedine, oboje smo radosno primili poslanicu... Jer mi bili su i zadovoljni zbog toga od svetim spisima, ali nije mi se ne misli stati, najprije početi zahtjev tog odnosa prema vama, slava koju nam sada daje vama. To je dugo vremena otkako ovoj vezi našeg vama bijaše obnovio, a kada smo, nakon svete i festivalskih dana ponuditi žrtve Bogu, molimo Ga za vaše očuvanje i pobjede.... Vi ćete, dakle, dobro da vas pišite nam, i pošaljite nam račun ono što stoji u potrebi od nas, jer smo u svemu sklon ponašati prema vašim željama " (starine Židova, XIII, 5, 8).

U drevnoj mitologiji, Bryant se odnosi na Stephanus Byzantium ukazuje da Alexander Polyhistor i Claudius Jolaus također govore o izravnoj vezi između spartanskih Grka i Izraelaca (vol. 5, str. 51-52, 60).

Prva knjiga o Makabejcima

Spartanski kralj Arije pozdravlja velikog svećenika Oniju. Našlo se u spisu o Spartancima i Židovima da su braća i da su od Abrahamova roda. Sad, kad to znamo, bit će nam drago ako nam pišete o vašem blagostanju. Mi vam pišemo ovako: vaša stada i vaša dobra naša su, a naša su vaša. Zato smo odredili da vam se u tom smislu donese poruka.


Nergal - Resheph

Resheph (also Rešef, Reshef; Canaanite ršp רשף; Eblaite Rašap, Egyptian ršpw) was a deity associated with plague (or a personification of plague) in ancient Canaanite religion. The originally Eblaite and Canaanite deity was adopted into ancient Egyptian religion in the late Bronze Age during the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt (late 15th century BC) as a god of horses and chariots.

In Biblical Hebrew, רֶשֶׁף resheph is a noun interpreted as "flame, lightning" but also "burning fever, plague, pestilence".

The name is found in the third millennium tablets from Ebla, as Rašap (Ra-ša-ap), listed as divinity of the cities of Atanni, Gunu, Tunip, and Shechem. Rasap was also one of the chief gods of the city of Ebla having one of the four city gates named in his honor.

References to ršp gn have been found at Ebla and Ugarit. These have been variously interpreted as associating Resheph with the shield and protection, or the city Gunu, or gardens, or the cemetery.


Ršp was an important Ugaritic deity. He had the byname of tġr špš "door-warden of the Sun". Sacrifices to Ršp (ršp gn) were performed in gardens.

Ugaritic Ršp was equated with Mesopotamian Nergal. Fauth (1974) argued that ršp in the later Canaanite period no longer referred to a specific god and could be used as a byname, as in Rešep-Mikal at Kition. Teixidor (1976) based on an epithet ḥṣ in Kition (interpreted as "arrow") identifies Ršp as a plague god who strikes his victims with arrows as Homeric Apollo (Iliad I.42–55), and argues for an interpretatio graeca of Ršp with Apollo in Idalium.

Resheph is mentioned in Ugaritic mythological texts such as the epic of Kirta and The Mare and Horon.

Although the iconography of Resheph shares the gazelle with that of the Egyptian-Canaanite Shed, Cornelius (1994) writes that "the rest of the attributes are totally different."


Resheph was adopted as an official deity in Egypt under Amenhotep II during the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt as god of horses and chariots. Originally adopted into the royal cult, Resheph became a popular deity in the Twentieth Dynasty while disappearing from royal inscriptions. In this later period, Resheph often appears with Qetesh and Min. In this time, however, most his stelae are found in Deir el-Medina, a settlement of Syrian (Levantine) craftsmen.

The theonym is usually written as hieroglyphic ršpw, where the final -w is added in analogy to other Egyptian divine names.

Egyptian limestone stele depicting Qetesh on a lion flanked by Min (left) and Resheph (right).
Egyptian limestone stele depicting Qetesh on a lion flanked by Min (left) and Resheph (right).

Hebrew Bible

In Biblical Hebrew, resheph רֶשֶׁף means "flame, firebolt", derived from שָׂרַף "to burn". Resheph as a personal name, a grandson of Ephraim, occurs in 1 Chronicles 7:25.

In Habakkuk 3:5, describing the procession of Eloah from Teman and Mount Paran, mention deber and resheph as going before him, in the King James Version translated as "pestilence" and "burning coals". Due to the discovery of both deber and resheph as theonyms in Ebla, this passage has been reinterpreted as describing a procession of the retinue of El going to war with Yam. In Job 5:7, there is mention of the "sons of resheph", translated in the Septuagint as νεοσσοὶ δὲ γυπὸς "the young of the vulture" and in the King James Version as "sparks".

Bog stiže iz Temana, a Svetac s planine Parana! Veličanstvo njegovo zastire nebesa, zemlja mu je puna slave. (4) Sjaj mu je k'o svjetlost, zrake sijevaju iz njegovih ruku, ondje mu se krije sila. (5) Kuga pred njim ide, groznica ga sustopice prati. - Habakuk


Nergal & Ereshkigal

Nergal & Ereshkigal   Nergal & Ereshkigal
Nergal & Ereshkigal

Shamash was the Mesopotamian deity of the sun. To the Akkadians, Assyrians, and the Babylonians he was synonymous with justice, generosity, and salvation.  However there was a second solar deity in the Mesopotamian pantheon, Nergal, who was not associated with such positive aspects of existence.  Nergal was the child of Enlil, god of the wind, who was exiled from earth for raping Ninlin, the goddess of the open fields. Ninlin followed Enlil into exile and gave birth to their son Nergal in the underworld. Nergal’s dark origins foreshadowed his nature. Unlike Shamash, who represented the life giving power of the sun and divine justice, Nergal was only associated with certain phases of the sun. To quote Wikipedia “Portrayed in hymns and myths as a god of war and pestilence, Nergal seems to represent the sun of noontime and of the summer solstice that brings destruction, high summer being the dead season in the Mesopotamian annual cycle.”

As a god of plague, drought, fire, and insufferable heat, Nergal quickly came to be associated with death and the underworld. He was portrayed either as a powerful man bearing a sickle-sword and a mace, or as a lion with a man’s head.


Although he was a terrible god of destruction, the main myth we have about Nergal is romantic in nature. Mesopotamian scholars have discovered and translated a poetic epic recounting Nergal’s tempestuous courtship of the dark goddess Ereshkigal (the queen of the underworld, who once gave Ishtar such a wretched time). After a passionate tryst, Nergal left Ereshkigal, who thereafter was overwhelmed by passionate longing for further intimacy. Hearing of her unhappiness and realizing how much he in turn missed her, Nergal abandoned his place in the heavens and traveled down through the seven gates of hell to rejoin Ereshkigal.  The two death gods then shared a bed for seven days and seven nights before marrying and jointly sharing rule of the underworld.

The main temple dedicated to Ereshkigal was located in Kutha. In the ancient Sumerian poem Inanna's Descent to the Underworld, Ereshkigal is described as Inanna's older sister. The two main myths involving Ereshkigal are the story of Inanna's descent into the Underworld and the story of Ereshkigal's marriage to the god Nergal.


Yahweh and his Asherah

Yahweh and his Asherah


Calah, Kalakh, Kalhu - Nergal

A lamassu at the North West Palace of Ashurnasirpal II before destruction in 2015.
A lamassu at the North West Palace of Ashurnasirpal II before destruction in 2015.

A lamassu at the North West Palace of Ashurnasirpal II before destruction in 2015.

Some of the most elaborate ivory works have been discovered in the Kalhu (present-day Nimrud). These objects were brought from Syrian and Phoenician workshops to the Neo-Assyrian court. Egyptianizing style and Egyptian motifs were quite popular among those artists. Large quantities of such ivory works were excavated in special store rooms in Nimrud, particularly in Fort Shalmaneser. This inlay displays a typical Egyptian motif, which may be related to Hathor, the Egyptian goddess who often took the form of a cow and suckled royal infants. The proportions and compact composition are characteristic of the ivory-carving schools of northern Syria.


Kuntillet Ajrud - Apollonia Illyria

Nergal was known as Aplu (Apollo)

Kuntillet AjrudApollonia coins
Kuntillet Ajrud - Apollonia coins

Apollo (God of Light and the God of Truth) = Korijen PL = Plamen, plavo (bijelo), plemenit..
Apollo (God of Light and the God of Truth) = Korijen PL = Plamen, plavo (bijelo), plemenit.. - Flavia (gens)

Plani bijesom ognja jarosnoga - Knjiga o Jobu


Origins Iran

According to the Book of Jubilees (9:5,6), the portion of the earth to be inherited by the descendants of Aram included all of the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers "to the north of the Chaldees to the border of the mountains of Asshur and the land of 'Arara."

"The mountains of Asshur in the north, and all the land of Elam, Asshur, and Babel, and Susan and Ma'edai" (Persia, Assyria, Babylonia, and Media, i.e. the Medes the sons of Madai) were apportioned to sons of Shem (Jubilees 8:21) and, consistent with the statement of the Book of Jubilees on Aram, the Arameans have historically been predominant in the north here, specifically central Syria, where Aramaic was the lingua franca, or common language, before the advent of Christianity.



Šemu - praocu svih sinova Eberovih i starijem bratu Jafetovu - rodili se sinovi. Šemovi su sinovi: Elam, Ašur, Arpakšad, Lud i Aram.

A Aramovi su sinovi: Us, Hul, Geter i Maš.

Aramejski je bio jezik Isusa i prvobitne zajednice, na kojem je iznešeno Isusovo učenje. Tekstovi na aramejskom jeziku, koji su sigurno postojali u prvotnoj palestinskoj kršćanskoj zajednici, nisu sačuvani. - Povijest kršćanske literature


East Semitic

East Semitic
East Semitic languages

The East Semitic languages are one of six divisions of the Semitic languages. The East Semitic group is attested by two distinct languages, Akkadian and Eblaite, both of which have been long extinct. They stand apart from other Semitic languages, traditionally called West Semitic, in a number of respects. Historically, it is believed that this linguistic situation came about as speakers of East Semitic languages wandered further east, settling in Mesopotamia during the third millennium BCE, as attested by Akkadian texts from this period. By the beginning of the second millennium BCE, East Semitic languages, in particular Akkadian, had come to dominate the region. They were influenced by the non-Semitic Sumerian language and adopted cuneiform writing. - East Semitic languages


Iram of the Pillars

Iram of the Pillars (Arabic: إرَم ذات العماد‎, Iram dhāt al-ʿimād), also called "Aram", "Irum", "Irem", "Erum", or the "City of the tent poles," is a lost city, region or tribe mentioned in the Qur'an.

The Qur'an, revealed in the 7th century CE according to Islamic belief, mentions Iram in connection with ‘imad (Arabic: عماد ‎, pillars) [Qur'an: The Dawn 89:7]:

The Quran, chapter 89 (Al-Fajr), verse 6 to 14:

6: Have you not considered how your Lord dealt with ‘Aad –
7: [With] Iram – who had lofty pillars, 8: The likes of whom had never been created in the lands 9: And [with] Thamud, who carved out the rocks in the valley? 10: And [with] Pharaoh, owner of the stakes? – 11: [All of] whom oppressed within the lands 12: And increased therein the corruption. 13: So your Lord poured upon them a scourge of punishment.
14: Indeed, your Lord is in observation.

"The identification of Wadi Rum with Iram and the tribe of ‘Ad, mentioned in the Qur’an, has been proposed by scholars who have translated Thamudic and Nabataean inscriptions referring to both the place Iram and the tribes of ‘Ad and Thamud by name."

According to some Islamic beliefs, King Shaddad defied the warnings of the prophet Hud and Allah smote the city, driving it into the sands, never to be seen again. Iram became known to Western literature with the translation of the story "The City of Many-Coloured Iram and Abdullah Son of Abi Kilabah" in The Book of One Thousand and One Nights.


Petra - Aram



Aramaic alphabet

Ancient Aramaic is like old Phoenician
Ancient Aramaic is like old Phoenician

Nora Stone

Nora Stone
Nora Stone



Hurrians, Third millennium BC

Origins Iran


The Hurrians (Ḫu-ur-ri; also called Hari, Khurrites, Hourri, Churri, Hurri or Hurriter) were a people of the Bronze Age Near East. They spoke a Hurro-Urartian language called Hurrian and lived in Anatolia and Northern Mesopotamia. The largest and most influential Hurrian nation was the kingdom of Mitanni, the Mitanni perhaps being Indo-Iranian speakers who formed a ruling class over the Hurrians. The population of the Indo-European-speaking Hittite Empire in Anatolia included a large population of Hurrians, and there is significant Hurrian influence in Hittite mythology. By the Early Iron Age, the Hurrians had been assimilated with other peoples. Their remnants were subdued by a related people that formed the state of Urartu.  The present-day Armenians are an amalgam of the Indo-European groups with the Hurrians and Urartians.

Hurrian names occur sporadically in northwestern Mesopotamia and the area of Kirkuk in modern Iraq by the Middle Bronze Age. Their presence was attested at Nuzi, Urkesh and other sites. They eventually infiltrated and occupied a broad arc of fertile farmland stretching from the Khabur River valley in the west to the foothills of the Zagros Mountains in the east. I. J. Gelb and E. A. Speiser believed East Semitic speaking Assyrians/Subarians had been the linguistic and ethnic substratum of northern Mesopotamia since earliest times, while Hurrians were merely late arrivals.


The Khabur River valley became the heart of the Hurrian lands for a millennium. The first known Hurrian kingdom emerged around the city of Urkesh (modern Tell Mozan) during the third millennium BCE. There is evidence that they were initially allied with the east Semitic Akkadian Empire of Mesopotamia, indicating they had a firm hold on the area by the reign of Naram-Sin of Akkad (c. 2254–2218 BCE). This region hosted other rich cultures (see Tell Halaf and Tell Brak). The city-state of Urkesh had some powerful neighbors. At some point in the early second millennium BCE, the Northwest Semitic speaking Amorite kingdom of Mari to the south subdued Urkesh and made it a vassal state. In the continuous power struggles over Mesopotamia, another Amorite dynasty had usurped the throne of the Old Assyrian Empire, which had controlled colonies in Hurrian, Hattian and Hittite regions of eastern Anatolia since the 21st century BCE. The Assyrians then made themselves masters over Mari and much of north east Amurru (Syria) in the late 19th and early 18th centuries BCE. Shubat-Enlil (modern Tell Leilan), was made the capital of this Old Assyrian empire by Shamshi Adad I at the expense of the earlier capital of Assur.


The Hurrians also migrated further west in this period. By 1725 BCE they are found also in parts of northern Syria, such as Alalakh. The mixed Amorite–Hurrian kingdom of Yamhad is recorded as struggling for this area with the early Hittite king Hattusilis I around 1600 BCE. Hurrians also settled in the coastal region of Adaniya in the country of Kizzuwatna, southern Anatolia. Yamhad eventually weakened vis-a-vis the powerful Hittites, but this also opened Anatolia for Hurrian cultural influences. The Hittites were influenced by both the Hurrian and Hattian cultures over the course of several centuries.


Among the Hurrian texts from Ugarit are the oldest known instances of written music, dating from c. 1400 BCE. Among these fragments are found the names of four Hurrian composers, Tapšiẖuni, Puẖiya(na), Urẖiya, and Ammiya. - Hurrian song


The Hurrian culture made a great impact on the religion of the Hittites. From the Hurrian cult centre at Kummanni in Kizzuwatna Hurrian religion spread to the Hittite people. Syncretism merged the Old Hittite and Hurrian religions. Hurrian religion spread to Syria, where Baal became the counterpart of Teshub. The later kingdom of Urartu also venerated gods of Hurrian origin. The Hurrian religion, in different forms, influenced the entire ancient Near East, except ancient Egypt and southern Mesopotamia.
The main gods in the Hurrian pantheon were:

  • Teshub, Teshup; the mighty weather god.
  • Hebat, Hepa; his wife, the mother goddess, regarded as the Sun goddess among the Hittites, drawn from the deified Sumerian queen Kubaba.
  • Sharruma, or Sarruma, Šarruma; their son.
  • Kumarbi; the ancient father of Teshub; his home as described in mythology is the city of Urkesh.
  • Shaushka, or Shawushka, Šauska; was the Hurrian counterpart of Assyrian Ishtar, and a goddess of fertility, war and healing.
  • Shimegi, Šimegi; the sun god.
  • Kushuh, Kušuh; the moon god. Symbols of the sun and the crescent moon appear joined together in the Hurrian iconography.
  • Nergal; a Babylonian deity of the netherworld, whose Hurrian name is unknown.
  • Ea; was also Babylonian in origin, and may have influenced Canaanite El, and also ים Yam, God of the Sea and River.

Hurrian cylinder seals often depict mythological creatures such as winged humans or animals, dragons and other monsters. The interpretation of these depictions of gods and demons is uncertain. They may have been both protective and evil spirits. Some is reminiscent of the Assyrian shedu.


The Hurrian urban culture was not represented by a large number of cities. Urkesh was the only Hurrian city in the third millennium BCE. In the second millennium BCE we know a number of Hurrian cities, such as Arrapha, Harran, Kahat, Nuzi, Taidu and Washukanni – the capital of Mitanni. Although the site of Washukanni, alleged to be at Tell Fakhariya, is not known for certain, no tell (city mound) in the Khabur Valley much exceeds the size of 1 square kilometer (250 acres), and the majority of sites are much smaller. The Hurrian urban culture appears to have been quite different from the centralized state administrations of Assyria and ancient Egypt. An explanation could be that the feudal organization of the Hurrian kingdoms did not allow large palace or temple estates to develop.

  • Hurrians = Aryan


Subartu (Assyria) - Armani

Origins Iran (Susa/Khuzestan)

The land of Subartu (Akkadian Šubartum/Subartum/ina Šú-ba-ri, Assyrian mât Šubarri) or Subar (Sumerian Su-bir4/Subar/Šubur) is mentioned in Bronze Age literature. The name also appears as Subari in the Amarna letters, and, in the form Šbr, in Ugarit.

The name Subartu is often regarded as the source of the later kingdom of Shupria (Shubria), which is mentioned as in records from the 13th millennium BC. The name Shupria was corresponding to modern eastern Anatolia and the Armenian highlands, and the Shuprians appear to have been a component of the ethnogenesis of the Armenian people.

The Sumerian mythological epic Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta lists the countries where the "languages are confused" as Subartu, Hamazi, Sumer, Uri-ki (Akkad), and the Martu land (the Amorites). Similarly, the earliest references to the "four quarters" by the kings of Akkad name Subartu as one of these quarters around Akkad, along with Martu, Elam, and Sumer.

Eannatum of Lagash was said to have smitten Subartu or Shubur, and it was listed as a province of the empire of Lugal-Anne-Mundu; in a later era Sargon of Akkad campaigned against Subar, and his grandson Naram-Sin listed Subar along with Armani. Ishbi-Erra of Isin and Hammurabi also claimed victories over Subar.

Subartu have been in the general sphere of influence of the Hurrians.


Elamite god Inshushinak = Sumerian god Iškur

Bull-man protecting a palmtree, Decorative brick panel from the outer wall of a temple to Inshushinak at Susa (12th century BC)
Bull-man protecting a palmtree, Decorative brick panel from the outer wall of a temple to Inshushinak at Susa (12th century BC)

The ziggurat at Choga Zambil, southeast of Susa, was built c. 1280 B.C. in honor of the otherwise Elamite god In-Shushinak (Iskur, Addad, Haddad, Rimmon, Rammon, Adonis, Baal in the Bible).


Sumerian god Iškur = Anatolia gods

Theispas, Teshub, Tarḫunz & Tarḫunna


Theispas (also known as Teisheba or Teišeba) of Kumenu was the Araratian (Urartian) weather-god, notably the god of storms and thunder. He was also sometimes the god of war. He formed part of a triad along with Khaldi and Shivini.

Tarhunta   Weather God

Teshub is depicted holding a triple thunderbolt and a weapon, usually an axe (often double-headed) or mace. The sacred bull common throughout Anatolia was his signature animal, represented by his horned crown or by his steeds Seri and Hurri, who drew his chariot or carried him on their backs.

Hetite God in Aleppo   Tarḫunz

Tarḫunz was the weather god and chief god of the Luwians, a people of Bronze Age and early Iron Age Anatolia. He is closely associated with the Hittite god Tarḫunna and the Hurrian god Teshub.



Tarḫunna was the Hittite weather god. He was also referred to as the "Weather god of Heaven" or the "Lord of the Land of Hatti".


Iškur/Adad (god)

Adad with his weapon of brilliance
Adad with his weapon of brilliance

Adad or Iškur are usually written with the logogram dIM the same symbol used for the Hurrian god Teshub.

In Akkadian, Adad is also known as Rammanu ("Thunderer") cognate with Aramaic: רעמא Raˁmā and Hebrew: רַעַם‎‎ Raˁam, which was a byname of Hadad.

Hadad was also called "Pidar", "Rapiu", "Baal-Zephon", or often simply Baʿal (Lord), but this title was also used for other gods. The bull was the symbolic animal of Hadad. He appeared bearded, often holding a club and thunderbolt while wearing a bull-horned headdress.

When Enki distributed the destinies, he made Iškur inspector of the cosmos. In one litany, Iškur is proclaimed again and again as "great radiant bull, your name is heaven" and also called son of Anu, lord of Karkara; twin-brother of Enki, lord of abundance, lord who rides the storm, lion of heaven.

Iškur is also sometimes described as the son of Enlil.

Adad with divine weapons not understood by earthlings
Adad with divine weapons not understood by earthlings

During the Middle Assyrian Empire, from the reign of Tiglath-Pileser I (1115–1077 BCE), Adad had a double sanctuary in Assur which he shared with Anu. Anu is often associated with Adad in invocations. The name Adad and various alternate forms and bynames (Dadu, Bir, Dadda) are often found in the names of the Assyrian kings.

Adad/Iškur presents two aspects in the hymns, incantations, and votive inscriptions. On the one hand he is the god who, through bringing on the rain in due season, causes the land to become fertile, and, on the other hand, the storms that he sends out bring havoc and destruction. He is pictured on monuments and cylinder seals (sometimes with a horned helmet) with the lightning and the thunderbolt (sometimes in the form of a spear), and in the hymns the sombre aspects of the god on the whole predominate. His association with the sun-god, Shamash, due to the natural combination of the two deities who alternate in the control of nature, leads to imbuing him with some of the traits belonging to a solar deity.

Hadad in Aram and ancient Israel

In the second millennium BCE, the king of Yamhad or Halab (modern Aleppo) received a statue of Ishtar from the king of Mari, as a sign of deference, to be displayed in the temple of Hadad located in Halab Citadel. The king of Aleppo called himself "the beloved of Hadad". The god is called "the god of Aleppo" on a stele of the Assyrian king Shalmaneser I.

The element Hadad appears in a number of theophoric names borne by kings of the region. Hadad son of Bedad, who defeated the Midianites in the country of Moab, was the fourth king of Edom. Hadadezer ("Hadad-is-help"), the Aramean king defeated by David. Later Aramean kings of Damascus seem to have habitually assumed the title of Ben-Hadad, or son of Hadad, just as a series of Egyptian monarchs are known to have been accustomed to call themselves sons of Ammon. An example is Ben-Hadad, the king of Aram whom Asa, king of Judah, is said to have employed to invade the northern kingdom, Israel. In the 9th or 8th century BCE, the name of Ben-Hadad 'Son of Hadad', king of Aram, is inscribed on his votive basalt stele dedicated to Melqart, found in Bredsh, a village north of Aleppo. A Hadad was also the seventh of the twelve sons of Ishmael.

As a byname we find Aramaic rmn, Old South Arabic rmn, Hebrew rmwn, Akkadian Rammānu ("Thunderer"), presumably originally vocalized as Ramān in Aramaic and Hebrew. The Hebrew spelling rmwn with Massoretic vocalization Rimmôn is identical with the Hebrew word meaning 'pomegranate' and may be an intentional misspelling and parody of the original.

The word Hadad-rimmon, for which the inferior reading Hadar-rimmon is found in some manuscripts in the phrase "the mourning of (or at) Hadad-rimmon", has been a subject of much discussion. According to Jerome and all the older Christian interpreters, the mourning is for something that occurred at a place called Hadad-rimmon (Maximianopolis) in the valley of Megiddo. The event alluded to was generally held to be the death of Josiah (or, as in the Targum, the death of Ahab at the hands of Hadadrimmon). But even before the discovery of the Ugaritic texts some suspected that Hadad-rimmon might be a dying-and-rising god like Adonis or Tammuz, perhaps even the same as Tammuz, and the allusion could then be to mournings for Hadad such as those which usually accompanied the Adonis festivals. T. K. Cheyne pointed out that the Septuagint reads simply Rimmon, and argues that this may be a corruption of Migdon (Megiddo), in itself a corruption of Tammuz-Adon. He would render the verse, "In that day there shall be a great mourning in Jerusalem, as the mourning of the women who weep for Tammuz-Adon". No further evidence has come to light to resolve such speculations.

In Sanchuniathon's account Hadad is once called Adodos, but is mostly named Demarûs. This is a puzzling form, probably from Ugaritic dmrn, which appears in parallelism with Hadad, or possibly a Greek corruption of Hadad Ramān. Sanchuniathon's Hadad is son of Sky by a concubine who is then given to the god Dagon while she is pregnant by Sky. This appears to be an attempt to combine two accounts of Hadad's parentage, one of which is the Ugaritic tradition that Hadad was son of Dagon. The cognate Akkadian god Adad is also often called the son of Anu ("Sky"). The corresponding Hittite god Teshub is likewise son of Anu (after a fashion).

In Sanchuniathon's account, it is Sky who first fights against Pontus ("Sea"). Then Sky allies himself with Hadad. Hadad takes over the conflict but is defeated, at which point unfortunately no more is said of this matter. Sanchuniathion agrees with Ugaritic tradition in making Muth, the Ugaritic Mot, whom he also calls "Death", the son of El.

Hadad was a dying-and-rising god

A palace is built for Ba‘al/Hadad with cedars from Mount Lebanon and Sirion and also from silver and from gold. In his new palace Ba‘al hosts a great feast for the other gods. When urged by Kothar-wa-Khasis, Ba’al, somewhat reluctantly, opens a window in his palace and sends forth thunder and lightning. He then invites Mot 'Death' (god of drought and underworld), another son of El, to the feast.

But Mot is insulted. The eater of human flesh and blood will not be satisfied with bread and wine. Mot threatens to break Ba‘al into pieces and swallow Ba‘al. Even Ba‘al cannot stand against Death. Gaps here make interpretation dubious. It seems that by the advice of the goddess Shapsh 'Sun', Ba‘al has intercourse with a heifer and dresses the resultant calf in his own clothes as a gift to Mot and then himself prepares to go down to the underworld in the guise of a helpless shade. News of Ba‘al's apparent death leads even El to mourn. ‘Anat, Ba‘al's sister, finds Ba‘al's corpse, presumably really the dead body of the calf, and she buries the body with a funeral feast. The god ‘Athtar is appointed to take Ba‘al's place, but he is a poor substitute. Meanwhile ‘Anat finds Mot, cleaves him with a sword, burns him with fire, and throws his remains on the field for the birds to eat. But the earth is still cracked with drought until Shapsh fetches Ba‘al back.

Seven years later Mot returns and attacks Ba‘al in a battle which ceases only when Shapsh tells Mot that El now supports Ba’al. Thereupon Mot at once surrenders to Ba‘al/Hadad and recognizes Ba‘al as king.

Cult Places

Iškur/Adad was worshipped all over Mesopotamia and beyond. In Babylonia an early centre of his cult was the temple é-u4-gal-gal(-la), 'House of Great Storms,' at Karkar, where he was head of the local pantheon; in the first millennium this role was played by the northern city of Zabban. He had a temple at Babylon - 'House of Abundance' - and sanctuaries in other cities including Sippar, Nippur, Ur, and Uruk (Schwemer 2001a: 129-61, 304-84, 638-49).

The important temple of Adad at Assur, the 'House which Hears Prayers', was converted into a double temple of Adad and Anu by king Šamši-Adad I (ca. 1808-1776 BCE). Adad's main cult centre during the Neo-Assyrian period was at Kurbaʾil, but temples for him existed in Kalhu, Nineveh and many other cities (Schwemer 2001a: 237ff, 577-81, 595-611).

Adad   Adad   Adad


Hadad - Hades

Adad symbol
Adad symbol


Hades, the god of the underworld, was the first-born son of the Titans Cronus and Rhea. He had three older sisters, Hestia, Demeter, and Hera, as well as a younger brother, Poseidon, all of whom had been swallowed whole by their father as soon as they were born. Zeus was the youngest child and through the machinations of their mother, Rhea, he was the only one that had escaped this fate. Upon reaching adulthood, Zeus managed to force his father to disgorge his siblings. After their release, the six younger gods, along with allies they managed to gather, challenged the elder gods for power in the Titanomachy, a divine war. The war lasted for ten years and ended with the victory of the younger gods. Following their victory, according to a single famous passage in the Iliad (Book XV, ln.187–93), Hades and his two brothers, Poseidon and Zeus, drew lots for realms to rule. Zeus received the sky, Poseidon received the seas, and Hades received the underworld, the unseen realm to which the souls of the dead go upon leaving the world as well as any and all things beneath the earth. Some myths suggest that Hades was dissatisfied with his turnout, but had no choice and moved to his new realm.

  • Hadad (Rammanu, Rama, Ram) je dobio podzemlje, te postaje Hades bog podzemlja


Baal (Hadad) & Anath (Inanna)

Baal (Hadad) is regularly denominated "the son of Dagan," although Dagan does not appear as an actor in the mythological texts. Baal also bears the titles "Rider of the Clouds," "Almighty," and "Lord of the Earth." He is the god of the thunderstorm, the most vigorous and aggressive of the gods, the one on whom mortals most immediately depend. Baal resides on Mount Zaphon, north of Ugarit, and is usually depicted holding a thunderbolt. He is the protagonist of a cycle of myths from Ugarit. These tell of a challenge from Yamm ("Sea"), to which Baal responds. Armed with magical weapons made by the craftsman god, Kothar, Baal manages to overcome Yamm. Another major episode is instigated by Baal's lack of a house. With the assistance of Asherah and Anath, Baal gets El's approval to build a house; Kothar accomplishes the construction; and Baal celebrates by inviting the gods to a feast. The other major story concerns Baal's relations with Mot ("Death"), whom he initially defies, but to whom he eventually succumbs. The attempt to find a god adequate to assume Baal's role fails. Anath disposes of Mot, and then El learns in a dream that Baal is again alive. Mot also reappears, and he and Baal fight until the sun goddess warns Mot of the consequences. After Baal is swallowed up by Mot, his sister Anath, called "the Maiden," longs for him like a mother. She finds Baal and buries him. She then defeats Mot and disposes of his body as if it were grain, grinding him up and scattering him over land and sea.

In story from Ugarit, the gods grant the childless Danel a son, Aqhat, on whom Danel confers a bow made by the craftsman god, Kothar. Anath offers Aqhat riches and immortality in exchange for the bow, but Aqhat refuses her offers. After bullying El into letting her have her way with Aqhat, she proceeds, with the aid of her henchman Yutpan, to have Aqhat killed. Danel performs various rites to try to remove the consequent blight on the land, until he is informed of his son's murder. He then seeks his remains and buries him, curses the towns closest to the site of the murder, and mourns for seven years, after which he gives his blessing to his daughter's proposed mission to avenge Aqhat's death. She sets out and comes to the camp of Yutpan, where the two of them start drinking--at which point the preserved portion of the tale ends. Anath is often associated with Athtart (later Hebrew Ashtoreth, Greek Astarte). Both are renowned for their beauty, and both are closely associated with Baal.


Adad/Anu - Adana

Adad symbol   Ra (sun) - Anu (star)
Adad - Anu

During the Middle Assyrian Empire, from the reign of Tiglath-Pileser I (1115–1077 BCE), Adad had a double sanctuary in Assur which he shared with Anu. Anu is often associated with Adad in invocations. The name Adad and various alternate forms and bynames (Dadu, Bir, Dadda) are often found in the names of the Assyrian kings. In Assyria, Adad was developed along with his warrior aspect.

Adad Anu - Ad-ana - Adana


HaThor (House of Thor)

Hathor Lady of Birth
Hathor Lady of Birth

Hathor (also spelled Athor) was the goddess of love, fertility, beauty, music, and mirth. She was represented either as a cow or as a woman with cow’s horns with the solar disk nested between them.

Hathor’s name means “house of Horus" - “house of Thor"

Najsjevernija luka Mediterana se zove Monfalcone (Mont je egipatski sokol kao i falcon).


Thor = Iškur

(Horus / Adad)

Mjölnir - Thors Hammer   Mjölnir - Thors Hammer
Mjölnir - Thors Hammer

Thor (/θɔːr/; from Old Norse: Þórr) is a hammer-wielding god associated with thunder, lightning, storms, oak trees, strength, the protection of mankind, and also hallowing and fertility.

The cult of Thor was linked up with men's habitation and possessions, and with well-being of the family and community. This included the fruitfulness of the fields, and Thor, although pictured primarily as a storm god in the myths, was also concerned with the fertility and preservation of the seasonal round. In our own times, little stone axes from the distant past have been used as fertility symbols and placed by the farmer in the holes made by the drill to receive the first seed of spring. Thor's marriage with Sif of the golden hair, about which we hear little in the myths, seems to be a memory of the ancient symbol of divine marriage between sky god and earth goddess, when he comes to earth in the thunderstorm and the storm brings the rain which makes the fields fertile. In this way Thor, as well as Odin, may be seen to continue the cult of the sky god which was known in the Bronze Age.

Thor and Týr

Thor is the main character of Hárbarðsljóð, where, after traveling "from the east", he comes to an inlet where he encounters a ferryman who gives his name as Hárbarðr (Odin, again in disguise), and attempts to hail a ride from him. The ferryman, shouting from the inlet, is immediately rude and obnoxious to Thor and refuses to ferry him. At first, Thor holds his tongue, but Hárbarðr only becomes more aggressive, and the poem soon becomes a flyting match between Thor and Hárbarðr, all the while revealing lore about the two, including Thor's killing of several jötnar in "the east" and berzerk women on Hlesey (now the Danish island of Læsø). In the end, Thor ends up walking instead.

Thor is again the main character in the poem Hymiskviða, where, after the gods have been hunting and have eaten their prey, they have an urge to drink. They "sh[ake] the twigs" and interpret what they say. The gods decide that they would find suitable cauldrons at Ægir's home. Thor arrives at Ægir's home and finds him to be cheerful, looks into his eyes, and tells him that he must prepare feasts for the gods. Annoyed, Ægir tells Thor that the gods must first bring to him a suitable cauldron to brew ale in. The gods search but find no such cauldron anywhere. However, Týr tells Thor that he may have a solution; east of Élivágar lives Hymir, and he owns such a deep kettle.

So, after Thor secures his goats at Egil's home, Thor and Týr go to Hymir's hall in search of a cauldron large enough to brew ale for them all. They arrive, and Týr sees his nine-hundred-headed grandmother and his gold-clad mother, the latter of which welcomes them with a horn. After Hymir-who is not happy to see Thor-comes in from the cold outdoors, Týr's mother helps them find a properly strong cauldron. Thor eats a big meal of two oxen (all the rest eat but one), and then goes to sleep. In the morning, he awakes and informs Hymir that he wants to go fishing the following evening, and that he will catch plenty of food, but that he needs bait. Hymir tells him to go get some bait from his pasture, which he expects should not be a problem for Thor. Thor goes out, finds Hymir's best ox, and rips its head off.

After a lacuna in the manuscript of the poem, Hymiskviða abruptly picks up again with Thor and Hymir in a boat, out at sea. Hymir catches a few whales at once, and Thor baits his line with the head of the ox. Thor casts his line and the monstrous serpent Jörmungandr bites. Thor pulls the serpent on board, and violently slams him in the head with his hammer. Jörmungandr shrieks, and a noisy commotion is heard from underwater before another lacuna appears in the manuscript.

After the second lacuna, Hymir is sitting in the boat, unhappy and totally silent, as they row back to shore. On shore, Hymir suggests that Thor should help him carry a whale back to his farm. Thor picks both the boat and the whales up, and carries it all back to Hymir's farm. After Thor successfully smashes a crystal goblet by throwing it at Hymir's head on Týr's mother's suggestion, Thor and Týr are given the cauldron. Týr cannot lift it, but Thor manages to roll it, and so with it they leave. Some distance from Hymir's home, an army of many-headed beings led by Hymir attacks the two, but are killed by the hammer of Thor. Although one of his goats is lame in the leg, the two manage to bring the cauldron back, have plenty of ale, and so, from then on, return to Týr's for more every winter.


Iškur / Jupiter Dolichenus = Thor

Hadad Iškur - God of Weather, Hurricanes, Storms, Thunder and Rain   Hadad Iškur - God of Weather, Hurricanes, Storms, Thunder and Rain
Hadad Iškur - God of Weather, Hurricanes, Storms, Thunder and Rain

Jupiter Dolichenus   Jupiter Dolichenus
Jupiter Dolichenus


Phoenicians in Scandinavia

Phoenicians in Scandinavia

This photograph shows an inscription located near an old silver mine at Kongsberg in Norway. Johan Jarnæs follows the Norwegian scholar Kjell Aartun in thinking that it is the Cretan Linear A script from the Bronze Age. Sven Buchholz has also added support to the idea, and he provides excellent pictures on his website, and these must not be overlooked. 

However, it is widely believed that no silver mining was done there before the Middle Ages, and if we invert the picture, and include the E-shaped engraving to the right of the letters, we might have the name of a European, ending in -LOS; or this is the initials of a name such as Lionel O'Sullivan, or Leif OlsSon. I am told that there are in fact Kilroy-type inscriptions there, and so I would have to take these presumed Phoenician/ Canaanian examples to be exceptions, and this is reasonable. But those are three-letter acronyms of personal names their 'initials'); this one has five letters, representing words.

And here is another interesting picture with a similar connection.

Phoenicians in Scandinavia

The inscription in Roman letters (and Latin language): PI AD ANNO 1742 Now notice other marks inside the circle, which are not necessarily from the same time.

The E-shaped boat, inscribed to the right of the ZQQ inscription, resembles the later Viking and Venetian vessels, and more significantly it may be compared with the Uluburun shipwreck from the Mediterranean and the Bronze Age. It was carrying a cargo of metal (copper and tin ingots).

Small but noteworthy were some amber beads of Baltic origin in the contents of the ship's hold, as well as a jar full of glass beads.

Ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian glass beads reached Scandinavia in the Bronze Age (3400 years ago), and have been found in graves in Denmark.

The evidence is piling up now: 3600-year-old Swedish Axes Were Made With Copper From Cyprus; Ancient rock carvings in Sweden evidently aren't of local boats but show ships bringing the metal from the Levant.

It is said that the Phoenicians went to Britain (Cornwall) for tin, and it now emerges that Mediterranean seafarers went northwards up the Atlantic Ocean as far as Scandinavia in the Bronze Age, and also westwards on the same route that Columbus took 3,000 years later.


Akkadian language

A large number of cuneiform writings, discovered mostly on clay tablets in the Middle East, made possible greater accuracy in the research of ancient languages of the region. Among them the Akkadian language occupies a unique position. C. Renfrew, the founder of the newest theory of the Anatolian origin of Indo-Europeans, compares Semitic languages (Akkadian is one of them) with Indo-European languages.

G. Semerano explained the Akkadian roots of a number of Greek and Latin words, which had no known etymology till now. At the same time, he drew attention to the ancient connections between the Baltic Sea region and the Middle East, corroborated by archaeological works, and also defined by the uncontested Amber Road. This road led from the Baltic Sea, through central Europe, and continued by boat on the Adriatic Sea to the Middle East.

Amber Road

The Mysteries Index Ur of the Chaldeans