Ramesside period

Ramesses II, 1279 - 1212 BC

Ramzes II & neprijatelji - Labu, Nubian, & 3 Canaanites?

Pithom & Pi-Ramesses

Flinders Petrie hatte 1905 bei Tell er-Retaba (Nähe heutiges al-Qaṣṣāṣīn), etwa 15 km westlich von Tell el-Maschuta, eine Festung aus dem Neuen Reich freigelegt. Ramses II. hatte dort einen Tempel für den Kult des „Atum als Herr von Tjeku“ errichtet. Eine Stele und Statue zeigen ihn mit Atum. Ramses III. errichtete ebenso an diesem Ort Denkmäler und verstärkte die Festung. Während der Zeit des Neuen Reiches wurde das Gebiet unter anderem auch von den Schasu-Stämmen genutzt:

„Die Schasu-Stämme aus Edom (šʒśw n jdwm) passierten das Fort des Merenptah in Tjeku, um bei den Teichen des Atum-Tempels ihr Vieh weiden zu lassen. Ich habe sie am Tag des Geburtstags von Seth (3. Heriu-renpet) zu dem Ort gebracht, wo sich auch bereits die anderen Schasu-Stämme aufhalten, die vor Tagen das Fort des Merenptah in Tjeku passierten. Bericht eines ägyptischen Grenzbeamten“

Die Aussage im Alten Testament (Gen 47,11), dass „sich Josephs Familie im Lande Ramses ansiedelte“, ist von der Tradierung des Auszugmotivs beeinflusst, das eine Mitwirkung beim Bau der Städte Pi-Ramesse und Pithom voraussetzt. Alan Gardiner hatte vorgeschlagen, Tell er-Retaba mit Pithom gleichzusetzen, während Tjeku als Ortsbezeichnung sowohl ein größeres Gebiet als auch eine bestimmte Stadt benennen kann und mit Tell el-Maschuta gleichzusetzen ist.

This name comes from Hebrew פיתום Pithom which was taken from the Late Egyptian name *Pi-ʔAtōm (< *Par-ʔAtāma ) 'House of Atum '. Atum, a solar deity, was one of the major gods of ancient Egypt, and a sun-god of Heliopolis.

I postaviše nad njima nadglednike da ih tlače teškim radovima. Tako su faraonu sagradili gradove-skladišta: Pitom i Ramses. - Izlazak


Aliens And Space Crafts in Ancient Egyptian Temple

According to many UFO-logists, within the Temple of Seti I in Abydos there exists glyphs which depict highly developed crafts, specifically a helicopter, a submarine, some form of flying saucer, and a jet plane.

What do these hieroglyphs really represent?


Ramesses II - Hyksos

Čini se da postoje prilično jasni dokazi da su vladari devetnaeste dinastije imali neke veze s Hiksima.

  • Ramzes I. imao je nasljedna imanja u blizini Avarisa.
  • Seti I. proslavio je 400. obljetnicu štovanja Seta (Hiksi su Seta poistovjećivali s Baalom).
  • Ramzes II.dao je semitsko ime jednoj od svojih najdražih kćeri (Bint Anath).
  • Svi rani Ramesidi davali su Azijatima istaknute položaje u civilnoj upravi.
  • Vrijeđanje Hiksa, prisutno tijekom prvog dijela osamnaeste dinastije, gotovo potpuno nestaje.
  • Faraon Ramzes II. premjestio je svoju prijestolnicu natrag u Avaris - i dao joj ime po sebi (Pi-Ramesses).

Tuya (also called Tuy or Mut-Tuya) was the wife of Pharaoh Seti I of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt and mother of Tia, Ramesses II, Nebchasetnebet, and perhaps Henutmire. She was the daughter of Raia who was a military officer based on his title of Lieutenant of the chariotry.

Mut, which meant mother in the ancient Egyptian language, alternative spellings are Maut and Mout.

Bintanath was the firstborn daughter and later Great Royal Wife of the Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses II.

Bintanath was likely born during the reign of her grandfather Seti I. Her mother was Isetnofret, one of the two most prominent wives of Ramesses II. It is interesting to note that her name is Semitic, meaning Daughter of Anath, referring to the Canaanite goddess Anath. She had at least three brothers, Ramesses, Khaemwaset and Merneptah and a sister who was named Isetnofret after their mother.


The Case for Rameses II

Rameses II

In 1975 the Egyptian government asked French scientists to attempt preservation of the mummy of Ramesses. It was shipped to Paris where the work was done. This event offered an opportunity for forensic examination to determine his age, body condition, health, diet, and so on. After the work was complete the mummy was returned in a hermetically sealed casket, and it has remained hidden from public view ever since, concealed in the bowels of the Cairo Museum. The results of the study were published in a lavishly illustrated work, edited by L. Balout, C. Roubet and C. Desroches-Noblecourt, and titled La Momie de Ramsès II: Contribution Scientifique à l'Égyptologie (1985).

Professor P. F. Ceccaldi, with a research team, studied some hairs from the mummy's scalp. Ramesses II was 87 years-old when he died, and his hair had turned white. Ceccaldi determined that the reddish-yellow color of the hair was due to a dye with a dilute henna solution. However, traces of the hair's original color remained in the roots. Microscopic examinations showed that the hair roots contained natural red pigments, and that therefore, during his younger days, Ramesses II had been a red head. Analysis concluded that these red pigments did not result from the hair somehow fading, or otherwise being altered after death, but did represent Ramesses' natural hair color. Ceccaldi also studied the cross-section of the hairs, and determined from their oval shape, that Ramesses had been "cymotrich" (wavy-haired). Finally, he stated that such a combination of features showed that Ramesses had been a "leucoderm" (white-skinned person).

Balout and the other forensic specialists were under no illusions as to the significance of this discovery. They concluded:

"After having achieved this immense work, an important scientific conclusion remains to be drawn: the anthropological study and the microscopic analysis of hair, carried out by four laboratories: Judiciary Medecine (Professor Ceccaldi), Société L'Oréal, Atomic Energy Commission, and Institut Textile de France showed that Ramses II was a 'leucoderm', that is a fair-skinned man, near to the Prehistoric and Antiquity Mediterranean's, or briefly, of the Berber of Africa."

The fact of red-headed Egyptians has not only anthropological interest however, but also great symbolic importance. In ancient Egypt, the god Seth was said to have been red-haired, and redheads were claimed to have worshipped the god devoutly. See G. A. Wainwright, The Sky-Religion in Egypt: Its Antiquity and Effects, Cambridge University Press, 1938, pgs 31, 33, 53. In the Ramesses study by the French, the Egyptologist Desroches-Noblecourt discussed the importance of Ramesses' rufous condition. She noted that the Ramessides (the family of Ramesses II), were devoted to Seth, with several bearing the name Seti, which means "beloved of Seth". She concluded that the Ramessides believed themselves to be divine descendants of Seth, with their red hair as proof of their lineage. She speculated that Ramesses II may have been descended from a long line of redheads.

Her speculations have been proved correct: Joann Fletcher, as a consultant to the British Bioanthropology Foundation, has proved that Seti I, the father of Ramesses II, had red hair. See L. Parks, "Ancient Egyptians Wore Wigs," Egypt Revealed, May 29, 2000. Other investigators have demonstrated that the mummy of Pharaoh Siptah, a great-grandson of Ramesses II, had red hair.


Aquiline nose - Roman nose

Aquiline (roman) nose

Yuyu / Ramesses II - Aquiline nose


A tall, brachycephalic type of intermediate pigmentation, usually planoccipital, and showing the facial and nasal prominence of Near Eastern peoples. The basic population of the whole Dinaric-Alpine highlands from Switzerland to Epirus, also in the Carpathians and Caucasus, as well as Syria and Asia Minor. Apparently a brachycephalized blend in which Atlanto-Mediterranean and Cappadocian strains are important, with Alpine acting as the brachycephalizing agent in mixture. Borreby and Corded elements, also Nordic, appear to be involved in some regions.

A very strongly differentiated type which is characterized by medium stature, exceptional brachycephaly, great narrowness and convexity of the nose, a high incidence of occipital flattening, and a tendency to light brown eye color in combination with dark brown hair. This type may be called Dinaric in the full or specific sense; most of the other Ghegs are Dinarics in a partial or a general sense. This ultra-Dinaric type is commonest in the tribe of Dibra.

Ramses II - Merneptah - Seti II - Titus Flavius Josephus


Dinaric race

The Dinaric race (or Adriatic race or Epirotic race) is one of the sub-categories of the Europid (White; Caucasian) race into which it was divided by physical anthropologists in the early 20th century.

Characteristics were defined as tall, mostly mesomorph bodily build, with relatively long legs and short trunk and a medium arm span. The overall anatomy of the head was said to be brachycephalic to hyperbrachycephalic (Cranial index: 81-86) whereby the condition is caused by both rather high breadth of the head and a medium length of the neurocranium, whose back part is often somewhat flattened (planoccipital).

The vertical height of the cranium is high. Eyes are set relatively close and the surrounding tissue defines them as wide open. The iris is most often brown, with a significant percentage of light pigmentation in the Dinaric population. The nose is large, narrow and convex. The face is long and orthognathic, with a prominent chin, and also wide. The form of the forehead is variable, but not rarely it is bulbous. The hair color is usually dark brown, with black-haired and blond individuals in minority, blondness being the characteristic of the more Central European, morphologically similar Noric race (a race intermediate between Nordic and Dinaric races). The skin is lacking the rosy color characteristic for Northern Europe as well as the relatively brunet pigmentation characteristic for the southernmost Europe and on a geographical plane it is of medium pigmentation and often it is variable.

Dinaric/Armenoid race - Haplogroups I2a & R-V88


Dinaric Armenoid

Dinaric is a full Europoid mutation of Armenoid and a sign of ancient West Asian ancestry in Europe

First "Dinarics", from North Bulgaria (Eneolitik)

Dinarics" Asia Minor/Caucas.

Bronze age Mesopotamia

From Lower Egypt or Anatolia.

Dinaric arrived with Mediterranid race nevertheless. Dates also coalescence nicely, 12th/11th century BC.

The European phenotypes with Dinarid nose are the follow:

- Dinarid (Balkans, Central Europe)
- Norid (light Dinarid, Central Europe)
- Carpathid (Central Europe)
- Keltic Nordid (Western Europe, esp. British Isles)
- Baskid (Western Europe)


Ramesses II = Zeus


Zeus is the child of Cronus and Rhea, the youngest of his siblings to be born, though sometimes reckoned the eldest as the others required disgorging from Cronus's stomach. In most traditions, he is married to Hera, by whom he is usually said to have fathered Ares, Hebe, and Hephaestus. At the oracle of Dodona, his consort was said to be Dione, by whom the Iliad states that he fathered Aphrodite. Zeus was also infamous for his erotic escapades. These resulted in many godly and heroic offspring, including Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Hermes, Persephone, Dionysus, Perseus, Heracles, Helen of Troy, Minos, and the Muses.

Zeus Dynasty

Uranus Gaia
Uranus' genitals Cronus Rhea

Hera Poseidon Hades Demeter Hestia
Ares Hephaestus
Apollo Artemis

Zeus was respected as an allfather who was chief of the gods and assigned the others to their roles: "Even the gods who are not his natural children address him as Father, and all the gods rise in his presence." He was equated with many foreign weather gods, permitting Pausanias to observe "That Zeus is king in heaven is a saying common to all men". Zeus' symbols are the thunderbolt, eagle, bull, and oak.

  • Ramsses II = Zeus

Ramesses II apparently made no distinctions between the offspring of his first two principal wives, Nefertari and Isetnofret. Both queens' firstborn sons and first few daughters had statues at the entrance of the Greater Abu Simbel temple, although only Nefertari's children were depicted in the smaller temple, dedicated to her. ..

.. Other than Nefertari and Isetnofret, Ramesses had six more great royal wives during his reign – his own daughters Bintanath, Meritamen, Nebettawy and Henutmire (who, according to another theory was his sister), and two daughters of Hattusili III, King of Hatti. Except the first Hittite princess Maathorneferure and possibly Bintanath, none are known to have borne children to the pharaoh.

Pharaoh Ramesses II had a large number of children: between 48 and 50 sons, and 40 to 53 daughters–whom he had depicted on several monuments.

  • Ramsses rˁ-ms-sw "Ra [is] the one who gave birth [to] him"

Assuwa league

Assuwa was a confederation (or league) of 22 ancient Anatolian states that formed some time before 1400 BC, when it was defeated by the Hittite Empire, under Tudhaliya I. The league was formed to oppose the Hittites. A successor state, in a similar area, was named Arzawa. The historian H. T. Bossert suggested that Assuwa may have been the origin of the name Asia (which was used initially only in reference to Asia Minor).

The member states are said to have included: a name ending in -ugga (or -luqqa), Kišpuwa, Unaliya, an obliterated name, Dura, Ḥalluwa, Ḥuwallušiya, Karakiša, Dunda, Adadura, Parišta, an obliterated name, a name probably ending in -wwa, Waršiya, Kuruppiya, a name ending in -luišša (or the whole name Luišša), a name that is probably Alatra, "the land of Mount Pahurina", Pasuhalta, an obliterated name, Wilušiya, and T[a]rui[s]ša. In most cases, these states are never (or seldom) mentioned in the few contemporaneous sources available. However, Karkiya has generally been identified with Caria, and Wilusiya with Wilusa. The historical Lycia and/or Lukka have frequently been identified with Warsiya and [L]ugga. For instance, in the Iliad, Homer refers to two separate areas as "Lycia": Sarpedon is a leader of "distant Lycia" (in 2.876-77, 5.479) and Pandarus is the leader of Lycians from around Mount Ida (2.824ff. 5.105). Likewise the Alaksandu Treaty identifies Warsiyalla with the Lukka.

We suggest; T[a]rui[s]ša - Taruiša = Teresh



Šemu - praocu svih sinova Eberovih i starijem bratu Jafetovu - rodili se sinovi. Šemovi su sinovi: Elam, Ašur, Arpakšad, Lud i Aram.

Lud - Indo-European languages

The name "Luwian" comes from the name of the land, Luwiya (also spelled Luwia or Luvia), where the speakers lived. It is mentioned in the Hittite laws.

Lud (hebrejski: לוּד, asirski: Luddu; grčki: Λυδία) sin Šemov i unuk Noe, prema Postanku 10 "Tablica naroda". Potomci Lud obično su povezani s narodima Anatolije.


The slaves of Athens that had "barbarian" origins were coming especially from lands around the Black Sea such as Thrace and Taurica (Crimea), while Lydians, Phrygians and Carians came from Asia Minor. Aristotle (Politics 1.2–7; 3.14) characterises barbarians as slaves by nature.


Carians - Lydians - Lycians

Luwian language

Marin Zaninović donosi listu Likijskih i Anatolskih imena u usporedbi s onima iz hrvatskog područja pokazujući direktne toponimičke i onomastičke poveznice između tih dviju, naizgled, potpuno izdvojenih zajednica. Herodot je pisao o zajednici Likijaca koji su istjerani iz Krete u Malu Aziju, a kod njih je prevladavala matrilinearnost koja se očituje i kod Liburna. Marin Zaninović navodi da su i Etruščani imali sličan ustroj, smatrajući da je njihovo podrijetlo zapravo iz Lidije.

U definiciji azijskog podrijetla Liburna važan argument sugerira zapis Gaja Julija Solina iz 3.st. koji je preuzeo taj podatak od Plinija Starijeg čiji je izvornik izgubljen: "Italicus excursus per Liburnos, quae gens Asiatica est, procedit in Dalmatiae pedem."


Uluburun Late Bronze Age Shipwreck Excavation

Uluburun Shipwreck Excavation

The Uluburun ship was transporting a bulk cargo of copper and tin ingots, in the usual ratio of 10:1 to produce bronze. Other cargo included pottery (used, unused, and also containing foodstuffs) and luxury items intended for a very specific and wealthy audience, such as carved ivory containers, jewelry of gold and semi-precious stones such as carnelian and agate. Raw materials from distant lands included glass ingots, unworked elephant tusks, ostrich eggshells, and faience beads. Personal effects such as weapons and galley wares, balance weights and musical instruments including lutes with tortoise-shell sound boxes suggest that the ship was operated by a Syro-Canaanite crew and carried several passengers from the Greek mainland. In addition to the precious cargo, many stone anchors and a tiny bit of the hull remained, both of which are equally important in the study of ancient shipbuilding and its development. The ship itself was built of Lebanese cedar, wood that was prized in antiquity, with the technique of pegged mortise-and-tenon joints, and possessed a proto-keel rather than a true keel.

Close study of the cargo and hull remains of the Uluburun wreck has provided a special glimpse into the Bronze Age, its material cultures, and aspects of construction, economic exchange, and transportation. In general, this degree of interconnection of the Mediterranean during this time could have only been achieved through the intense maritime activity that is exemplified by the ship that sank at Uluburun. - Uluburun shipwreck

Uluburun Shipwreck Excavation


Mycenaean Greece


Experts from the University of Washington, the Harvard Medical School and the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, together with archaeologists and other collaborators in Greece and Turkey, gathered data from the region.

The researchers analysed tooth DNA from the remains of 19 ancient individuals who could be definitively identified as Minoans of Crete, Mycenaeans of mainland Greece, and people who lived in southwestern Anatolia.

They compared the Minoan and Mycenaean genomes to each other and to more than 330 other ancient genomes and over 2,600 genomes of present-day humans from around the world.

The results showed that Minoans and Mycenaeans were genetically highly similar, but not identical.

The peoples of the Greek mainland also bred with ancient North Eurasians and peoples of the Eastern European steppe, both before and after the time of the Minoans and Mycenaeans.

This type of Ancient North Eurasian ancestry is one of the three ancestral populations of present-day Europeans.

It shows that there was genetic continuity in the Aegean from the time of the first farmers to present-day Greece, but not in isolation.



1250 BC

In c. 1250 BC, the first wave of destruction apparently occurred in various centers of mainland Greece for reasons that cannot be identified by archaeologists. In Boeotia, Thebes was burned to the ground, around that year or slightly later. Nearby Orchomenos shared the same fate, while the Boeotian fortifications of Gla were deserted. In the Peloponnese, a number of buildings surrounding the citadel of Mycenae were attacked and burned.

These incidents appear to have prompted the massive strengthening and expansion of the fortifications in various sites. In some cases, arrangements were also made for the creation of subterranean passages which led to underground cisterns. Tiryns, Midea and Athens expanded their defences with new cyclopean-style walls. The extension program in Mycenae almost doubled the fortified area of the citadel. To this phase of extension belongs the impressive Lion Gate, the main entrance into the Mycenaean acropolis.

It appears that after this first wave of destruction a short-lived revival of Mycenaean culture followed. Mycenaean Greece continues to be mentioned in international affairs, particularly in Hittite records. In c. 1220 BC, the king of Ahhiyawa is again reported to have been involved in an anti-Hittite uprising in western Anatolia. Another contemporary Hittite account reports that Ahhiyawan ships should avoid Assyrian-controlled harbors, as part of a trade embargo imposed on Assyria. In general, in the second half of 13th century BC, trade was in decline in the Eastern Mediterranean, most probably due to the unstable political environment there.


Narodi s mora u Egiptu

1277 BC 1208 - 1207 BC 1181 - 1178 - 1174 BC
Ramesses II Merneptah Ramesses III
Karkisha Ekwesh Denyen
Lukka Lukka Peleset
Sherden Shekelesh Shekelesh
  Sherden Sherden
  Teresh Teresh


Narodi s mora

Zbog nedostatka podataka, ni nama danas ne ostaje ništa drugo nego da pretpostavljamo o "narodima s mora". Možda i nisu, kao što se prvotno mislilo, odgovorni za uništavanje gotovo polovice tadašnje političke karte Starog istoka, ali njihovo postojanje i udio u povijesti ne dovode se u pitanje Prije nego što su se otisnuli na more, postojbina Serdena bila je Sardinija. Na slici je njihova neobična kamena građevina u Barùmini. Jedni su dolazili s mora, na dugim brodovima, nešto većim od gondola, drugi su išli kopnom, vodeći svoje obitelji sa sobom. Nosili su kiltove, koplja, kratke mačeve i okrugle štitove. Najneobičnije su im bile kacige: od platna ili isprepletenih pera, ali uvijek s rogovima poput onih vikinških.

Migracije Naroda s mora, Hram Medinet Habu  - Sherden

"Mračno doba" Starog istoka Kako bilježe novija istraživanja, oko 1200. godine prije naše ere politička karta Levanta (prostor današnjih država Izraela, Libanona, Jordana, Iraka i dijelom Sirije) pretrpjela je značajne promjene. Hetitske carstvo, do tada vrlo snažno, potpuno je nestalo, dok su mikenska Grčka, Cipar, kao i nekoliko okolnih jakih gradova, poput Ugarita i Emara, propali otprilike u isto vrijeme kad se i kraljevstvo Egipta svelo na najuže granice do tada, izgubivši vlast nad Nubijom i Sinaja. U kasnom brončanom dobu nestanak nekog naroda ili grada, ili čak i više njih odjednom, nije bio rijetka pojava.


Poljoprivreda, a samim tim i opstanak, ovisili su od prirode: nekoliko neuspjelih žetvi u nizu, prirodne katastrofe moglo je biti povod promjenama. Ipak, kad je nevolja prošla, javilo se nekoliko novih država i novih naroda što nas navodi na zaključak da je neka treća strana tu umiješala prste. "Gomila naroda, naoružanih najgorim namjerama, dolazila je s velikog zelenila, sa sjevera", govore egipatski izvori. "Zelenilo" je za Egipćane bilo more, pa ih zato i mi danas zovemo "narodi s mora". "Radi se o sredozemnim narodima, moreplovcima i ratnicima, a o njima nam govore neki zapisi između 14. i 10. stoljeća prije naše ere", A da su bili neustrašivi, potvrđuje i ugled koji su uživali: u 12. stoljeću prije naše ere hetitski kralj Šupiluliuma II pisao je Amurapiju, kralju Ugarita (Grad obali današnje Sirije) da se čuva "Šikalaja koji žive na barkama". Ništa nije vrijedilo: dokumenti Hetita iz nešto kasnijeg doba spominju pad antičkog sirijskog grada. Može li se pojavom ovih naroda objasniti mračno razdoblje Starog istoka? Prodor "naroda s mora" objašnjava Leonardo Melis, autor jedne knjige o porijeklu ovih naroda. "Silovitim naletima narodi s mora su 1200. godine prije naše ere potpuno izbrisali carstvo Hetita, Ugarit, Sidon, Biblos i Tir (sve na obali današnjeg Libanona) i nekoliko gradova grčkog poluotoka i Egipta, počistivši pred sobom i mikensko kraljevstvo", tvrdi Melis. Međutim, mnogi povjesničari ne misle tako: "Smatrati da su ovi ratnici, ma koliko sposobni, bili uzrok nestanaka čitavih gradova, pad hetitskog carstva, prekrajanje faraonove imperije, prosto nije prihvatljivo", tvrdi Raimondo Zuka. A što kažu povijesni podaci?


Reljef iz Tebe prikazuje vojnike plemena Pelešt koje su zarobili Egipćani. Njihovo postojanje bilježe, između ostalih, i dva egipatska faraona koja su vladala otprilike u vrijeme tih velikih političkih promjena. Merenptah (1224-1204? pr. Kr.) opisuje da je u bitci s Libijom pobijedio, pored Libijaca, i njihove saveznike koji su dolazili iz raznih zemalja. Pominje imena nekih od njih: Serdena, Ekveš, Teresa, Šekeleš i Luka. Nekoliko desetljeća kasnije, Ramzes III (1184-1150. pr. Kr.), pored spomenutih, navodi: Tjeker, Pelešt, Veses i Denjen. Ramzes se naveliko hvalio pobjedom nad njima, a da pobjedu nitko ne bi zaboravio, podigao je hram u blizini Tebe, u Medinet HABU, s brojnim natpisima, reljefima i slikama svojih pobjeda. Kitnjastim književnim jezikom, kao što je bio običaj kod faraona, kaže da su "narodi s mora" bili nezaustavljivi - sve dok nisu došli do Egipta. "Egipatske prikaze ne možemo uvijek uzimamo zdravo za gotovo", objašnjava Lanfranki. "Često se događa da protivničku stranu prikažu kao gubitnika, čak i kad je bitka imala neriješen ishod."Zanimljivo je, međutim, što su na hramu oslikani različito obučeni vojnici koji pripadaju jednoj strani. To nam ukazuje da je "narode s mora" činila šarolika skupina različitih kultura koje su se ponekad borile i na različitim stranama. Još od 14. stoljeća prije naše ere "narode s mora" spominju i kao sudionike bitke kod Kadeša (između Egipćana i Hetita) i to - na obje strane! Pošto su neki od njih nacrtani kako putuju s obiteljima u teretnim kolima koja vuku bikovi, može se zaključiti da su bili zemljoradnički narod, vjerojatno nomadi u potrazi za novim staništem.

Reljef iz Medinet Habua

Jedan opis Ramzesa III govori o njima kao o plaćeničkoj vojsci koju je čak i egipat unajmljivao. To objašnjava zašto su prikazivani u različitim (tuđim) ratovima na različitim stranama. Iz egipatskih izvora također može se zaključiti da su neke skupine naroda (nazvane "narodi s mora"), pogođene nizom ekonomskih poteškoća u trinaestom i dvanaestom stoljeću, postale najamnička vojska za sredozemne države. Neki od njih poveli su sa sobom i obitelji u potrazi za boljim staništem. Postoji i teorija da su sklapali saveze s okolnim narodima da bi dobili posjed koji žele, a onda bi izdali savez i uništavali čitave gradove. Današnji povjesničari uglavnom su oprezniji kad govore o udjelu koji "narodi s mora" imaju u lančanom kolapsu kod tadašnjih naroda, i to najviše zato što nema niti jedan pravi dokaz koji baš njih vezuje za bilo koji od ovih tajanstvenih nestanaka gradova i naroda. "Prenaseljavanje, iskorištavanje prirodnih rezervi i česti sukobi unutar vladarskih porodica ili sa susjedima, mogli bi imati utjecaja na pad ovih velikih i moćnih država", dodaje Lanfranki. "Ali, čak i ako nisu glavni sudionici propadanja istočnih kraljevstava, ne može se poreći da su "narodi s mora" sudjelovali u nekim sukobima koji su od početka 12. stoljeća prije naše ere zadali završni udarac velikim silama Istoka."

Peleset Filistejci, Hram Medinet Habu - Shardana, Hram Medinet Habu

Prapostojbina Naroda s mora

I kad govorimo o njihovom podrijetlu, stvar nije ništa jasnija. Ramzes III kaže da su to narodi koji su se kretali iz Sirije ka jugu, morem i kopnom. Postoje naznake koje nam ukazuju da potječu s istočnog Sredozemlja, možda iz današnje južne Turske ili s Levanta. Znanstvenici pokušavaju doći do njihovog porijekla tako što spajaju nazive zabilježene u egipatskim izvorima s narodima koje bilježi povijest. Po tome, Šekeleši bi mogli biti prastanovnici Sicilije. Teresa su Etruščani, Peleštet Filistejci iz Palestine, Luka stanovnici Likije (jedna od oblasti na sredozemnoj obali današnje Turske), a Serdena u stvari Sardi, ali neki ne isključuju ni mogućnost da mogu imati veze s Sarda, glavnim gradom kraljevstva Lidije (danas Turska). Akaivaša (Ekveš / Aikvaša) bi onda po nekima bili Ahajci (antički Grci s Peloponeza). Primjerice, po mišljenju drugih istraživača, Serdena su nastanjivali Sardiniju sve do 15. stoljeća prije naše ere, o čemu svjedoče Nuraga, kamene građevine iz tog doba. "Pored njihovog imena, koje podsjeća na ime sadašnjih stanovnika otoka, postoji još jedan razlog zbog koga istraživači smatraju da su Serdena naselili Sardiniju: vojnici prikazani na zidovima hrama kod Medinet HABU u mnogim crtama podsjećaju na brončane statue iz doba Nuraga", objašnjava Zuka. Doista, veliko koplje, okrugli štit i kacige s rogovima zbog kojih su Serdena ulijevali strah u kosti svojim neprijateljima, istovjetni su sa opremom ratnika koju su izradili od bronce oni isti majstori koji su podizali Nuraga od 9. do 8. stoljeća prije naše ere. "Moguće je, također, da su se ovi narodi selili sa zapada na istok privučeni lakom zaradom (kao plaćenička vojska) koju su nudila tamošnja kraljevstva. "Mislim da su došli s otoka zapadnog Sredozemlja koje je u to vrijeme bilo veliko tržište razmjene robe i kretanja ljudi", usuđuje se kaže Lanfranki.


Sea Peoples - Ramesses II, 1277 BC

Date Narrative Source(s) Peoples named
c. 1270 BC Ramesses II Kadesh Inscriptions Karkisha, Lukka, Sherden

Sea Peoples, 1277 BC

In his Second Year, an attack of the Sherden, or Shardana, on the Nile Delta was repulsed and defeated by Ramesses, who captured some of the pirates. The event is recorded on Tanis Stele II. An inscription by Ramesses II on the stela from Tanis which recorded the Sherden raiders' raid and subsequent capture speaks of the continuous threat they posed to Egypt's Mediterranean coasts:

"the unruly Sherden whom no one had ever known how to combat, they came boldly sailing in their warships from the midst of the sea, none being able to withstand them."

The Sherden prisoners were subsequently incorporated into the Egyptian army for service on the Hittite frontier by Ramesses, and were involved as Egyptian soldiers in the Battle of Kadesh.

Sherden in the Pharaoh Ramesses II army. (Battle of Kadesh)

People Egyptian name Original identification Other theories
Karkisha Karkisha Caria Kohen
Lukka row Lycians Tribe of Dan
Sherden š3rdn Sardinians, tribe of Dan  

We suggest;

Karkisha (Carians/Kohen), Lukka (Lycians, tribe of Dan), Sherden (Sardinians, tribe of Dan)


Karkisha - Caria


The first mentions of the Karkisa occur during the reigns of Ramesses II of Egypt and Muwatullis of the Hittite Empire. Both of these emperors mention the Karkisa. Ramesses mentions the Karkisa in his inscriptions regarding the battle of Kadesh. In both the Bulletin and the Poem about the battle of Kadesh, the Karkisa are mentioned as a tribe that has joined forces with the Hittites. The Hittite record of the Karkisa reinforces the idea that the Hittites and Karkisa were allied at the time. In the annals of Mursilis, he mentions a person whom he sent to the people of Karkisa. Muwatullis paid the Karkisa to protect this man from his own brothers. The man then sided with an enemy of Muwatullis, and was recaptured. He now begs for vassalage from the Hittite emperor. In this story the Karkisa are represented as an ally of the Hittites, which fits their description by Ramesses II. The Karkisa make one final appearance in ancient literature. In the Onamasticon of Amenope, the Karkisa are mentioned in reference to the Lukka. This reference is only geographical in nature and does not mention anything aside from the location of the people. The geographical location of the Karkisa people is based on their relation to the land of the Lukka. Some scholars places the Karkisa in southwest Asia Minor, Barnett mentions specifically that the Karkisa are associated with the Hittite area of Caria, which is on the south-western tip of Anatolia.


The Carians; Κᾶρες, Kares were the ancient inhabitants of Caria in southwest Anatolia.

The relationship between the Bronze Age "Karkiya" or "Karkisa" and the Iron Age Caria and the Carians is complicated, despite having western Anatolia as common ground, by the uncertainties regarding the exact location of the former on the map within Hittite geography. Yet, the supposition is suitable from a linguistic point-of-view given that the Phoenicians were calling them "KRK" in their abjad script and they were referred to as "krka" in Old Persian.

The Greek historian Herodotus recorded that Carians themselves believed to be aborigines of Caria but they were also, by general consensus of ancient sources, a maritime people before being gradually pushed inland.

According to Thucydides, it was largely the Carians who settled the Cyclades prior to the Minoans. The Middle Bronze Age (MMI–MMII) expansion of the Minoans into this region seems to have come at their expense. Intending to secure revenue in the Cyclades, Minos of Knossos established a navy with which he established his first colonies by taking control of the Hellenic sea and ruling over the Cyclades islands. In doing so, Minos expelled the Carians, many of which had turned to piracy as a way of life. During the Athenian purification of Delos, all graves were exhumed and it was found that more than half were Carians (identified by style of arms and the method of interment).

Homer records that Miletus (later an Ionian city), together with the mountain of Phthries, the river Maeander and the crests of Mount Mycale were held by the Carians at the time of the Trojan War and that the Carians, qualified by the poet as being of incomprehensible speech, joined the Trojans against the Achaeans under the leadership of Nastes, brother of Amphimachos ("he who fights both ways") and son of Nomion.

According to Strabo, Carians, of all the "barbarians", had a particular tendency to intermingle with the Greeks,

"This was particularly the case with the Carians, for, although the other peoples were not yet having very much intercourse with the Greeks nor even trying to live in Hellenic fashion or to learn our language ... yet the Carians roamed throughout the whole of Greece serving on expeditions for pay. ... and when they were driven thence [from the islands] into Asia, even here they were unable to live apart from the Greeks, I mean when the Ionians and Dorians later crossed over to Asia." (Strabo 14.2.28)

Throughout the 1950s, J.M. Cook and G.E. Bean conducted exhaustive archaeological surveys in Caria. Cook ultimately concluded that Caria was virtually devoid of any prehistoric remains. According to his reports, third millennium finds were mostly confined to a few areas on or near the Aegean coast. No finds from the second millennium were known aside from the Submycenean remains at Asarlik and the Mycenaean remains at Miletus and near Mylasa. Archaeologically, there was nothing distinguishing about the Carians since the material evidence so far only indicated that their culture was merely a reflection of Greek culture. Archaeologists also confirmed the presence of Carians in Sardis, Rhodes, and in Egypt where they served as mercenaries of the Pharaoh.

An important evidence of the Carians' own belief in their blood ties and cultural affinity with the Lydians and Mysians is the admittance, apart from theirs, exclusively of Lydians and Mysians to the temple of the "Carian Zeus" in their first capital that was Mylasa.

One of the Carian ritual centers was Mylasa, where they worshipped their supreme god, called 'the Carian Zeus' by Herodotus. Unlike Zeus, this was a warrior god.

Language history

Carian is closely related to Lycian and Milyan (Lycian B), and both are closely related to, though not direct descendants of, Luwian. Whether the correspondences between Luwian, Carian, and Lycian are due to direct descent (i.e. a language family as represented by a tree-model), or are due to dialect geography, is disputed.

The Achaean Greeks arriving in small numbers on the coasts of Anatolia in the Late Bronze Age found them occupied by a population that did not speak Greek and were generally involved in political relationships with the Hittite Empire. After the fall of the latter the region became the target of heavy immigration by Ionian and Dorian Greeks who enhanced Greek settlements and founded or refounded major cities. They assumed for purposes of collaboration new regional names based on their previous locations: Ionia, Doris.

The writers born in these new cities reported that the people among whom they had settled were called Carians and spoke a language that was "barbarian", "barbaric" or "barbarian-sounding." No clue has survived from these writings as to what exactly the Greeks might mean by "barbarian." The reportedly Carian names of the Carian cities did not and do not appear to be Greek. Such names as Andanus, Myndus, Bybassia, Larymna, Chysaoris, Alabanda, Plarasa and Iassus were puzzling to the Greeks, some of whom attempted to give etymologies in words they said were Carian. For the most part they still remain a mystery.

Writing disappeared in the Greek Dark Ages but no earlier Carian writing has survived. When inscriptions, some bilingual, began to appear in the 7th century BCE it was already some hundreds of years after the city-naming phase. The earlier Carian may not have been exactly the same.

The local development of Carian excludes some other theories as well: it was not widespread in the Aegean, is not related to Etruscan, was not written in any ancient Aegean scripts, and was not a substrate Aegean language. Its occurrence in various places of Classical Greece is due only to the travel habits of Carians, who apparently became co-travellers of the Ionians. The Carian cemetery of Delos probably represents the pirates mentioned in classical texts. The Carians who fought for Troy (if they did) were not classical Carians any more than the Greeks there were classical Greeks.

Being penetrated by larger numbers of Greeks and under the domination from time to time of the Ionian League, Caria eventually Hellenized and Carian became a dead language. The interludes under the Persian Empire perhaps served only to delay the process. Hellenization would lead to the extinction of the Carian language in the 1st century BCE or early in the Common Era.


Kos Island - Koans

A person from Kos is called a "Koan" in English.

In Homer's Iliad, a contingent of Koans fought for the Greeks in the Trojan War.

Koans = Kohen


The Origins of the Kohen Priesthood

The word Kohen, or Cohen (Kohain; Hebrew: כֹּהֵן, "priest", pl. כֹּהֲנִים Kohanim or the English Koan) is the name of a priesthood that is one of the oldest still alive today. They are the ancient priests who had worshiped the God Asclepius; the God of wisdom, medicine, healing, rejuvenation and physicians, with his serpent-entwined Tau staff. The Kohens (Koans) of the House of Asklepios (iEsculapius) come from the Island of Kos.

The island of Kos is where the Father of Medicine, Hippocrates  (Greek: Ἱπποκράτης; Hippokrátēs; c. 460 BC – c. 370 BC) was born, and also where he had operated his world-famous school of medicine. Soranus said that Hippocrates learned medicine from his father and grandfather, and studied other subjects with Democritus and Gorgias. (Wikipedia) This learning from grandfather to father, and father to son would follow in the ancient Kohen family tradition. Pliny had written; Hippocrates learned medicine by writing down the successful cures that had been recorded by patients on the walls of Asklepios's Kohen (Koan) temple.

Ptolemy II CoinThe Ptolemies of the Greco Egyptian period had continued the ancient tradition of the high priests of Ptah from Egypt and were connected to the islands of Kos and Crete, which was part of the Ptolemaic Kingdom that had stretched from Egypt and spread along the Eastern Mediterranean from Cyprus, Crete, to almost all  islands of the Aegean and even Thrace. Some members of the Ptolemy family were born on Kos, such as Ptolemy II in 308 B.c.e. In the time of Ptolemy Philadelphos, who was the son of Cleoptatra; Kos enjoyed great relations with the Alexandrian court, and is where some of the greatest literary men of the time from Alexandria would often want to escape the busy atmosphere of the city and travel to Kos for a spiritual and health retreat. Some of them would also attend the Hippocrates' School of Medicine, which would have been the finest in all the world from the 5th century, down to the time of the destruction of the temple.

Herodas (Greek: Ἡρώδας) was a Greek poet who was also a Kohen (Koan) from the island of Kos. An account of Kos, down to, and during the time of Herodas is given in the book, The Mimes of Herodas by Herodas;

Next to Rhodes, Kos is the largest of the Dorian Sporades. Its Geocircumference is given by Strabo as 550 stades, by Pliny the elder as 100 Roman miles. The island falls into three divisions (i)the eastern district, bounded on the south by a high range of mountains; upon these mountains are the healing springs, which are still famous; (2) a plateau furrowed by watercourses, and for the most part desolate and barren; (3) the mountainous western district, with a distinct range of its own.

Most of the island is remarkably fertile, and noted for its wines. Kos is badly supplied with harbours. Its people were of a sober, steadfast character, as befitted their Doric origin. The youths of Kos were famous for their beauty1. They adhered faithfully to ancient ritual, especially in regard to the worship of Asklepios, which came to them from the mainland of Greece*. In the fifth century the Koan school of medicine, which continued famous for a considerable period, was founded by Hippokrates; he based his observations on the votive models in the temple of Asklepios, which constituted a kind of anatomical and pathological museum.

The history of the settlements on the island is as follows. In the Early Homeric catalogue we find Kos, with its dependent islands (Nisyros, J^yj? Krapathos, Kasos, and the Kalydnian group), sending a contingent island, of thirty ships to help the Greek cause. The contingent is led by Pheidippos and Antiphos, the sons of Thessalos, a Herakleid. In the Iliad we also hear twice6 of Herakles having been carried to Kos by contrary winds through the anger of Hera, on his way from the sack of Troy. He is attacked by the natives of Kos, according to the fuller form of the legend, and slays the king of the island, Eurypylos, marries his daughter Chalkiope, and begets a son, Thessalos. This legend is now seen to be referred to by Herodas *.

Thus, even before the Dorian migration and the colonization of Ionia there was a Dorian settlement in Kos. It is thought probable that these Dorians came from Argolis. Herodotos1 tells us that Kos and the adjacent islands were colonized from Epidauros, and in this way the old Dorian element was strengthened. The sterner features of the Dorian character were, however, mollified in Kos. The discipline (dyaryi;) of Sparta and Crete is not found there, though the population of the island was purely Dorian, and was divided into the three Dorian tribes, the Dymanes, Hylleis, and Pamphyli. Six of the cities in this region formed a religious league, the Doric Hexapolis. They were, besides Kos, Lindos, Ialysos, Kamiros, Knidos, and Halikarnassos. These states met at the temple of Apollo on the Triopian promontory, to take part in the worship of the god and also in games. Later on Halikarnassos was expelled, and the Hexapolis became a Pentapolis.

The dwellings of the earliest inhabitants of Kos were on the northeast coast, near the present town of Kos. The fountain Burinna*, which is alluded to by Theokritos *, and still remains, is situated in this region. The Dorian settlers saw the advantage of this side of the island, which brought them closer to the mainland; they did not, however, confine themselves to the east coast, but spread over the island Koto. In the sixth century the Lydo-Persian wars forced them to change the capital of the island to the opposite side, where they built 'Acmm-dXaia, which served as the capital until the fourth century.

It was on Crete and Kos where the royal family of the Ptolemies had intermarried with various princesses of the ancient priesthood blood of the island, that which played a prominent role in the building of the Ptolemy dynasty. Author, Theodore Arthur Buenger explains more of this connection between Crete and Egypt in his book, "Crete in Greek Tradition." He relates the story of the Egyptian God Ammon fleeing to Crete that was originally told by the 1st Century B.C. Greek historian, Diodorus Siculus who was also from the same Holy Island of Crete, or quite possibly a Kohen from Kos;

An odd story is told by Diodorus about Rhea and Ammon. Rhea quarreled with the other Titans, went away from them, and married Ammon in Egypt. After a time she deserted him and married Cronus, who then waged war against the Egyptian god. Ammon, fleeing from Cronus, went to Crete and married Crete, the daughter of one of the Curetes. If this story really represents an old tradition, it must be rated rather high, for it is practically the only one which links Crete and Egypt.

Hippocrates and Ptolemy II would have been of the priesthood of the original Kohen who trace their patrilineal descent from the Biblical Aaron. This is one of the methods, in which we can verify that there is a relationship in history between Crete, the Isle of Kos and Egypt, and that also ties in with the Kohen Priesthood.

Moses - Caduceus - Asclepius


The origin of the Leviticus - Aaron

The investigation of Levites found high frequencies of multiple distinct markers, suggestive of multiple origins for the majority of non-Aaronid Levite families. One marker, however, present in more than 50% of Eastern European (Ashkenazi) Jewish Levites, points to a common male ancestor or very few male ancestors within the last 2000 years for many Levites of the Ashkenazi community. This common ancestor belonged to the haplogroup R1a1.

Worship of "Scythian Ares"

Although Tabiti was apparently the most important deity in the Scythian pantheon, the worship accorded to the deity Herodotus refers to as "Ares" was unique. He notes that "it is not their custom [...] to make images, altars or temples to any except Ares, but to him it is their custom to make them". He describes the construction of the altar and the subsequent sacrifice as follows:

In each district of the several governments they have a temple of Ares set up in this way: bundles of brushwood are heaped up for about three furlongs in length and in breadth, but less in height; and on the top of this there is a level square made, and three of the sides rise sheer but by the remaining one side the pile may be ascended. Every year they pile on a hundred and fifty wagon-loads of brushwood, for it is constantly settling down by reason of the weather. Upon this pile of which I speak each people has an ancient iron sword set up, and this is the sacred symbol of Ares. To this sword they bring yearly offerings of cattle and of horses; and they have the following sacrifice in addition, beyond what they make to the other gods, that is to say, of all the enemies whom they take captive in war they sacrifice one man in every hundred, not in the same manner as they sacrifice cattle, but in a different manner: for they first pour wine over their heads, and after that they cut the throats of the men, so that the blood runs into a bowl; and then they carry this up to the top of the pile of brushwood and pour the blood over the sword. This, I say, they carry up; and meanwhile below by the side of the temple they are doing thus: they cut off all the right arms of the slaughtered men with the hands and throw them up into the air, and then when they have finished offering the other victims, they go away; and the arm lies wheresoever it has chanced to fall, and the corpse apart from it.

According to Tadeusz Sulimirski, this form of worship continued among the descendants of the Scythians, the Alans, through to the 4th century CE.


Žrtva ognjena, miris ugodan

Šimun i Levi braća su prava! Mačevi im oruđe nasilja. (6) Na njihova vijećanja ja ne silazio, u njihovim zborovima udjela ne imao! U srdžbi su svojoj ljude ubijali; u obijesti bikove sakatili. (7) Prokleta im srdžba, jer je prežestoka! Prokleta im obijest, jer je preokrutna! - Postanak

Dovedi zatim junca pred Šator sastanka, pa neka Aron i njegovi sinovi stave ruke juncu na glavu. Onda pred Jahvom, na ulazu u Šator sastanka, junca zakolji. Uzmi junčeve krvi i svojim je prstom stavi na rogove žrtvenika. Ostatak krvi izlij podno žrtvenika. Uzmi sav loj oko droba, privjesak na jetri i oba bubrega s lojem oko njih, pa spali na žrtveniku. Meso od junca, njegovu kožu i njegovu nečist spali na vatri izvan taborišta. To je žrtva okajnica.

Poslije toga uzmi jednoga ovna, pa neka Aron i njegovi sinovi stave na njegovu glavu svoje ruke. Onda ovna zakolji, uhvati mu krvi i zapljusni njome žrtvenik sa svih strana. Isijeci zatim ovna u komade, operi mu drobinu i noge i položi ih na njegove ostale dijelove i glavu. I onda cijeloga ovna spali na žrtveniku. Žrtva je to paljenica u čast Jahvi, miris ugodan, žrtva ognjena.

Uzmi onda drugoga ovna, pa neka Aron i njegovi sinovi stave svoje ruke ovnu na glavu. Sad ovna zakolji; uzmi mu krvi i njome namaži resicu desnoga Aronova uha, resicu desnog uha njegovim sinovima, palac na njihovoj desnoj ruci pa palac na njihovoj desnoj nozi. Ostatkom krvi zapljusni žrtvenik naokolo. Uzmi onda krvi što je ostala na žrtveniku i ulja za pomazanje i poškropi Arona i njegovo odijelo, njegove sinove i njihova odijela. Tako će biti posvećen on i njegovo odijelo, njegovi sinovi i odijela njegovih sinova." - Izlazak


I za Aronove sinove napravi haljine, pasove i turbane, njima na čast i ukras.

Shasu - turban

Onda dovedi njegove sinove; obuci ih u košulje; opaši ih u pasove i obvij im turbane. Svećeništvo neka im pripada vječnom uredbom. Tako posveti Arona i njegove sinove!"

For the Achaemenids, there were three types of Scythians: the Sakā tayai paradraya ("beyond the sea", presumably between the Greeks and the Thracians on the Western side of the Black Sea), the Sakā tigraxaudā (“with pointed caps”), the Sakā haumavargā ("Hauma drinkers", furthest East). Reliefs depicting the soldiers of the Achaemenid army, Xerxes I tomb, circa 480 BCE.

Lukka - Lycia

Tribe of Dan - Danaans

Lycians - Tribe of Dan

Lycian rock cut tombs of Dalyan

Demre - Ruins of Myra - Theatre

Detail of a bull's horns on a tomb with an arched facade at Pinara

Lycian tomb relief at Myra, 4th century BC.

The earliest ethnic group later considered among the Sea Peoples is believed to be attested in Egyptian hieroglyphics on the Byblos obelisk found in the Obelisk Temple at Byblos. The inscription mentions kwkwn son of rwqq, transliterated as Kukunnis, son of Lukka, "the Lycian". The date is given variously as 2000 or 1700 BC.

Ancient Egyptian records describe the Lycians as allies of the Hittites. Lycia may have been a member state of the Assuwa league of ca. 1250 BC, appearing as 'Lukka or Luqqa. After the collapse of the Hittite Empire, Lycia emerged as an independent "Neo-Hittite" kingdom. According to Herodotus, Lycia was named after Lycus, the son of Pandion II of Athens. The region was never unified into a single territory in antiquity, but remained a tightly-knit confederation of fiercely independent city-states.

The eternal fires of Chimera in Lycia which provides the setting for the Chimera myth.

Lycia was frequently mentioned by Homer as an ally of Troy. In Homer's Iliad, the Lycian contingent was said to have been led by two esteemed warriors: Sarpedon (son of Zeus and Laodamia) and Glaucus (son of Hippolochus). Elsewhere in Greek mythology, the Lycian kingdom was said to have been ruled by another Sarpedon, a Cretan exile and brother of the king Minos; Sarpedon's followers were called Termilae, and they founded a dynasty after their conquest of a people called the Milyans. As with the founding of Miletus, this mythical story implies a Cretan connection to the settlement of Asia Minor. Lycia appears elsewhere in Greek myth, such as in the story of Bellerophon, who eventually succeeded to the throne of the Lycian king Iobates (or Amphianax).

What Did the Lycians Look Like?

We don't have much of a record of physical descriptions, but one interesting aspect of the Lycians may have been their hairstyles, at least in earlier times.  Polyaenus notes that a man named Charimenes managed to escape across Lycia by putting on false hair.  Oeconomica tells a story of Mausolos' hyparch taxing the hair lenght of the Lycians.  Long-haired Lycians are also depicted in some relief sculptures, on a sacrophagus from Limyra, on some coins and on a silver-head vase in the British Museum.  These are the only descriptions and depictions we have of long-haired Lycians, however.

In 480 BC the Lycians joined the Persian king Xerxes's invasion of Greece with 50 ships. Heredotus gives us this description of the Lycian crew:

"The wore greaves and corslets; they carried bows of cornel wood, cane arrows without feathers, and javelins. They had goatskin slung round their shoulders, and hats stuck round with feathers. They also carried daggers and rip-hooks."

This description tells us that the Lycians had a very different appearance from other troops from Asia Minor, who wore Greek armor.


Argive genealogy in Greek mythology


Inachus Melia
Zeus Io Phoroneus
Epaphus Memphis
Libya Poseidon
Belus Achiroë Agenor Telephassa
Danaus Pieria Aegyptus Cadmus Cilix Europa Phoenix
Mantineus Hypermnestra Lynceus Harmonia Zeus
Sparta Lacedaemon Ocalea Abas Agave Sarpedon Rhadamanthus
Eurydice Acrisius Ino Minos
Zeus Danaë Semele Zeus
Perseus Dionysus
Colour key:



According to Herodotus, the Lycians originally came from Crete and were the followers of Sarpedon .They were expelled by Minos and ultimately settled in territories belonging to the Solymoi (or Milyans) of Milyas in Asia Minor. The Lycians were originally known as Termilae before being named after Lycus who was the son of Pandion. Their customs are partly from Crete and partly from Caria.


Lycia - Dalman - Sirbes

Dalman River

Strabo - Sirbes

Strabo reports the original name of the river as Sibros or Sirbis. During the Persian invasion the river is called Sirbe.

Lika - Srb (Gračac)

Y-DNA I2a1 & J2b1

  • Lycia, Dalman, Sirbes - Y-DNA I2a1 & J2b1
  • Lika, Dalmatia, Srb (Gračac) - Y-DNA I2a1 & J2b1


Lika - Zemlja vukova

Vuk i Mjesec

Vuk je bio totemska životinja starih Slovena. U srpskom folkloru vuk zauzima veoma važnu ulogu, a isto je i sa mitologijom. Magijska praksa Srba takođe je vezana za vukove, bilo da se radi o ritualima zaštite, astralnoj ili eteričnoj projekciji, ili pak o ritualima vezanim za kult predaka. Neki od ovih rituala praktikuju se i dan-danas.

Slovenska mitologija spominje jedno božastvo koje je u neraskidivoj vezi sa vukom. To je Dažbog (Dajbog), bog Sunca i sin Svaroga, dakle, jedan od Bogova koji se nazivaju Svarožićima. Dažbog je kao i većina božanstava teriomorfan a njegov životinjski oblik je beli hromi vuk.

Međutim, bela boja vučjeg krzna odnosi se, pre svega, na htonični aspekt Dažboga ali i htoničnost samog vuka. Dažbog je kao što znamo, božanstvo podzemnog sveta u kome borave mrtvi. Njegova htonična funkcija manifestuje se u i verovanju da je on bog rudnika, dakle, božanstvo koje obitava u podzemnom svetu.

Bele životinje u evropskom folkoru inače predstavljaju bića koja povezuju naš svet sa svetom duhova tako da nje čudo što životinjski oblik jednog htonog božanstva ima krzno bele boje. Hromost Dažbogovog vuka takođe je vezana je za htoničnu prirodu ove životinje a ovaj njegov atribut ima svoju osnovu u povezanosti vuka i Meseca.


Lycaonia and Lukkawana "Wolf Land"

A Greek silver obol from Lycaonia (probably c.324/3 BC), showing Herakles on the obverse and a wolf and a star on the reverse (with legend: "ΛΑ-ΡΑΝ" and monogram ΠΑΡ). The wolf here symbolised the country. But why? For some, the name has merely similarities with the Greek word for wolf, lykos. On the other hand, already in Hittite times (2nd millenium BC) we learn of the "wolf land", Lukkawana ("lukka" is Hittite for "wolf", similar to Greek lykos and Latin lupos). The association with wolves might therefore be more ancient than some people think...

Wolf; Greek lykos and Latin lupos (Lika, vlk > lykos & vuk)



The sculpture shows a she-wolf suckling the mythical twin founders of Rome, Romulus and Remus.

Lupercalia was an ancient, possibly pre-Roman pastoral annual festival, observed in the city of Rome between 13–15 February to avert evil spirits and purify the city, releasing health and fertility. Lupercalia was also called dies Februatus, after the instruments of purification called februa, which gave February (Februarius) its name.

  • Lupercalia = Maha Shivaratri

The name Lupercalia was believed in antiquity to evince some connection with the Ancient Greek festival of the Arcadian Lykaia, a wolf festival (Greek: λύκος, lýkos; Latin: lupus), and the worship of Lycaean Pan, assumed to be a Greek equivalent to Faunus, as instituted by Evander. Justin describes a cult image of "the Lycaean god, whom the Greeks call Pan and the Romans Lupercus," as nude, save for a goatskin girdle. It stood in the Lupercal, the cave where tradition held that Romulus and Remus were suckled by the she-wolf (Lupa). The cave lay at the foot of the Palatine Hill, on which Romulus was thought to have founded Rome.

Lupercalia most likely derives from lupus, "wolf
(bronze wolf's head, 1st century AD)

The Februa was of ancient and possibly Sabine origin. After February was added to the Roman calendar, Februa occurred on its fifteenth day (a.d. XV Kal. Mart.). Of its various rituals, the most important came to be those of the Lupercalia. The Romans themselves attributed the instigation of the Lupercalia to Evander, a culture hero from Arcadia who was credited with bringing the Olympic pantheon, Greek laws and alphabet to Italy, where he founded the city of Pallantium on the future site of Rome, 60 years before the Trojan War.

Mount Lykaion

Mount Lykaion is a mountain in Arcadia, Greece. Lykaion has two peaks: Stefani to the north and St. Ilias (Άγιος Ηλίας, Agios Īlías) to the south where the altar of Zeus is located.

The northern peak is higher, 1,421 m, than the southern, 1,382 m (4,662 and 4,534 ft). Mount Lykaion was sacred to Zeus Lykaios, who was said to have been born and brought up on it, and was the home of Pelasgus and his son Lycaon, who were said to have founded the ritual of Zeus practiced on its summit. This seems to have involved a human sacrifice and a feast in which the man who received the portion of a human victim was changed to a wolf, as Lycaon had been after sacrificing a child.

Religious worship

Pan Lýkaios - slavic Veles / Silvan - Shiva

Mt. Lykaion was an important site of religious worship in ancient Greece. Pausanias describes a sanctuary of Pan surrounded by a grove of trees. At the sanctuary were bases of statues, which by Pausanias’ time had been deprived of the statues themselves, as well as a hippodrome, where the athletic games had once been held. References to Lykaian Pan are especially abundant in Latin poetry, as for instance in Virgil's epic, the Aeneid: “Lupercal / Parrhasio dictum Panos de more Lycaei,” “...the Lupercal, named after the Parrhasian worship of Lykaian Pan,” and in Horace's Odes: “Velox amoenum saepe Lucretilem / mutat Lycaeo Faunus,” “Often swift Faunus [Pan] exchanges Lykaion for pleasant Lucretilis.”

Zeus Lykaios - slavic Perun - Parjanya

Pausanias records the presence of a mound of earth on the highest point of the mountain, an altar to Zeus Lykaios. He describes two pillars near the altar which had once been topped by golden eagles. Although Pausanias alludes to secret sacrifices which took place on this altar, he explains that he was reluctant to inquire into these rites due to their extreme antiquity. Pausanias also discusses the temenos of Zeus, a sacred precinct which humans were forbidden to enter. He notes the common belief that any person entering the temenos would die within a year, along with the legend that all creatures, human and animal alike, cast no shadow while inside the sacred area.

Recent excavations of a 30-meter ash altar on Mount Lykaion in Greece, once worshipped as the birthplace of Zeus, have revealed a 3000-year-old skeleton of an adolescent boy thought to be a human sacrifice, The Boston Globe reports. The altar is not a cemetery, the researchers note, and the skeleton was lined with stones, showing that it was not a typical human burial. Plato and other ancient writers linked Mount Lykaion specifically to human sacrifices to Zeus—the legends say a sacrificed boy would be cooked with sacrificed animal meat and those who consumed the human portion would become a wolf for 9 years.

In the founding myth, of Lycaon's banquet for the gods that included the flesh of a human sacrifice, perhaps one of his sons, Nyctimus or his grandson, Arcas, Zeus overturned the table and struck the house of Lycaon with a thunderbolt; his patronage at the Lykaia can have been little more than a formula. Long afterward, in the late 3rd century CE, the philosopher Porphyry reported that Theophrastus had compared the sacrifice "at the Lykaia in Arcadia" with Carthaginian sacrifices to Moloch.

The ritual was nocturnal, to judge from the name of Nyctimus (nyx, "night") that was given to the son of Lycaeus who was killed and served up as part of the feast to Zeus. Rumors of the ceremony that circulated among other Greeks revolved around the theme of human sacrifice and cannibalism: according to Plato, a particular clan would gather on the mountain to make a sacrifice every nine years to Zeus Lykaios, and a single morsel of human entrails would be intermingled with the animal's. Whoever ate the human flesh was said to turn into a wolf, and could only regain human form if he did not eat again of human flesh until the next nine-year cycle had ended. The traveller Pausanias told of an Olympic boxing champion Damarchus of Parrhasia, who had "turned into a wolf at the sacrifice to Zeus Lykaios, and changed back into a man again in the ninth year thereafter"


Pan - Faunus

Pan - Faunus - Sylvanus

Pan is the god of the wild, shepherds and flocks, nature of mountain wilds, rustic music and impromptus, and companion of the nymphs. He has the hindquarters, legs, and horns of a goat, in the same manner as a faun or satyr. With his homeland in rustic Arcadia, he is also recognized as the god of fields, groves, wooded glens and often affiliated with sex; because of this, Pan is connected to fertility and the season of spring. The ancient Greeks also considered Pan to be the god of theatrical criticism. The word panic ultimately derives from the god's name.

Pan's counterpart was Faunus, a nature god who was the father of Bona Dea, sometimes identified as Fauna; he was also closely associated with Sylvanus, due to their similar relationships with woodlands. Pan was identified with the Hindu Pashupati.

Being a rustic god, Pan was not worshipped in temples or other built edifices, but in natural settings, usually caves or grottoes such as the one on the north slope of the Acropolis of Athens. These are often referred to as the Cave of Pan.

Faunus is the horned god of the forest, plains and fields; when he made cattle fertile he was called Inuus. He came to be equated in literature with the Greek god Pan.

Faunus was one of the oldest Roman deities, known as the di indigetes. According to the epic poet Virgil, he was a legendary king of the Latins. His shade was consulted as a goddess of prophecy under the name of Fatuus, with oracles in the sacred grove of Tibur, around the well Albunea, and on the Aventine Hill in ancient Rome itself.

Marcus Terentius Varro asserted that the oracular responses were given in Saturnian verse. Faunus revealed the future in dreams and voices that were communicated to those who came to sleep in his precincts, lying on the fleeces of sacrificed lambs. Faunus is very probably of Indo-European origin, which he shares with the Vedic god Rudra.

The origin of the name Faunus

According to D. Briquel ("Le problème des Dauniens" in MEFRA 1974) it is likely that the Luceres, one of the three tribes of Rome, were Daunians from Ardea, as well as the characters of the Aeneis Mezentius, Messapus and Metabus, who show a Daunian origin. A. Pasqualini agrees on the presence of a Daunian connection in the towns of Latium claiming a Diomedean descent. Moreover, it would seem that there is a sizable presence of Daunians in Latium and Campania (Liternum, Nola). Festus 106 L records a king Lucerus who helped Romulus against Titus Tatius. Moreover, Oscan epithet Leucesius (present also in the Carmen Saliare) and Lucetius (Servius Aen. IX 570 "a luce") should be interpreted as related to the Luceres. He also lists the Leucaria mother of Romos (Dionysius of Halicarnassus I 72), Jupiter Lucetius, toponyms Leucasia /Leucaria (Pliny III 8 (13) 85; Dion. Hal. I 53) near Paestum, the ethnonym Lucani. Though Briquel is apparently unaware that the etymology of both "Luceres", Lucera, Leucaria, Lucani and Dauni is from a word meaning wolf and therefore different from that of Leucesius/Lucetius, i.e. from IE from *luq (wolf), not from *leuk light: compare also Hirpini and Dauni. Daunos according to Walde Hoffmann is from IE root *dhau to strangle, meaning the strangler, epithet of the wolf: cfr. Greek thaunos, thērion Hes., Phrygian dáos, lykos Hes., Latin F(f)aunus. According to Alessio Latins and Umbrians both did not name the wolf because of a religious taboo, thence their use of loanwords such as lupus in Latin (which is Sabine, instead of the expected *luquos) and the Umbrians hirpos (cfr. Hirpini) originally male goat instead of expected *lupos, whence also herpex for hirpex tool in the shape of wolf teeth.

In fable Faunus appears as an old king of Latium, grandson of Saturnus, son of Picus, and father of Latinus by the nymph Marica.

In Justin's epitome, Faunus is identified with Lupercus ("he who wards off the wolf"), otherwise a priest of Faunus. Livy named Inuus as the god originally worshiped at the Lupercalia, February 15, when his priests (Luperci) wore goat-skins and hit passers-by with goatskin whips.


Daunians - Tribe of Dan (Danaans)

Japodes/Lika/Illyria > Iapygians/Apulia

Illyrian colonization of Italy

The Daunians (Greek: Δαύνιοι, romanized: Daúnioi; Latin: Daunii) were an Iapygian tribe that inhabited northern Apulia in classical antiquity. Two other Iapygian tribes, the Peucetians and the Messapians, inhabited central and southern Apulia respectively. Towards the late Bronze Age (11th-10th centuries BC), Illyrian populations from the eastern Adriatic arrived in Apulia.


Pan - Pannonia


Julius Pokorny believed the name Pannonia is derived from Illyrian, from the Proto-Indo-European root *pen-, "swamp, water, wet" (cf. English fen, "marsh"; Hindi pani, "water").

Others believe that the name is related to the god of the nature, goats and shepherds Pan and/or pan, the Proto-Indo-European word for lord/master, which could mean Pan's Land or Land of the Master(s), which is more probable due the fact the Ionian fleet supplied Pannonia via the Black Sea and Danube, and Panionium festivities were also well known in the region to its Celtic, Adriatic Veneti and Scythian inhabitants.



ΦΑΝΕΟΣ ΕΜΙ ΣΗΜΑ, I am the badge of Phanes


Greek word "Phanes" also means light (or lamp).

The coins bearing the name are to be associated with Apollo-Phanes and, due to the Deer, with Artemis (twin sister of the god of light Apollo-Phaneos).



Leto - Letoon

Phoebe (/ˈfiːbi/; Greek: Φοίβη Phoibe, associated with Phoebos or "shining") was one of the first generation of Titans, who were one set of sons and daughters of Uranus and Gaia. Her consort was her brother Coeus, with whom she had two daughters, Leto, who bore Apollo and Artemis, and Asteria, a star-goddess who bore an only daughter Hecate.

  • Leto - Ljeto

The Letoon (Ancient Greek: Λητῶον), sometimes Latinized as Letoum, was a sanctuary of Leto near the ancient city Xanthos in Lycia. It was one of the most important religious centres in the region. The site is located south of the village Kumluova in the Fethiye district of Antalya Province, Turkey. It lies approximately four kilometres south of Xanthos along the Xanthos River.

Archaeological finds at the site, which was never a fully occupied settlement, but remained essentially a religious centre, date back to the late sixth century BCE, before the Greek cultural hegemony in Lycia, which began in the early fourth century. In earlier times, the site was probably already sacred to the cult of an earlier mother goddess - she is Eni Mahanahi in Lycia - which was superseded by the worship of Leto, joined by her twin offspring.

In Greek mythology, a claim for an early cult of Apollo in the valley of the Xanthus was provided by two myths, each connected to an eponymous "Lycus". One sprang from the autochthonous Telchines of Rhodes and would have colonized the region at the time of Deucalion's flood; the other Lycus was an Athenian brother of Aegeus driven from Athens, a seer who introduced the cult of Lycaean Apollo, which a folk etymology connected with Lycia and therefore made him its Athenian colonizer.

Kuku Lele!

Lela, Leila, Ljelja.. je ime stare slavenske boginje proljeća i šume, pandan grčkoj Artemidi i rimskoj Dijani… Pronalazimo je u toponimima – planina Lelija, selo Lelić..

The Soviet archaeologist Boris Rybakov proposed that Lada and her daughter Leila were goddesses of spring, representing Slavic versions of the Greek Leto and her daughter Artemis, goddess of the hunt.


Artemis - Diana


Artemis one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities. Her Roman equivalent is Diana. Artemis was often described as the daughter of Zeus and Leto, and the twin sister of Apollo. She was the Hellenic goddess of the hunt, wild animals, wilderness, childbirth, virginity and protector of young girls, bringing and relieving disease in women; she often was depicted as a huntress carrying a bow and arrows. The deer and the cypress were sacred to her. In later Hellenistic times, she even assumed the ancient role of Eileithyia in aiding childbirth.

Diana was an ancient goddess common to all Latin tribes. Therefore, many sanctuaries were dedicated to her in the lands inhabited by Latins. The first one is supposed to have been near Alba Longa before the town was destroyed by the Romans.

Latini jedan od italskih naroda, nastanjivali su prvobitno relativno ograničenu teritoriju južno od Tibra, po njima nazvanu Lacij (Latium), koja je u povijesno doba bila dodatno smanjena invazijom Volska u područje između Albanskih brda (Albanus mons) i Aurunskih planina (tzv. Latium Novum ili Latium adiectum). Latino-Falisci su obitavali na nevelikom području sjeverno i istočno od Rima i pod jakim utjecajem Etruraca, dok su njihovih gradovi Falerii, Faliscus i Ferentinus kolonizirani od Rimljana. Već početkom nove ere jezik ovog naroda je nestao. Latini, njihovi poznatiji srodnici živjeli su u 10. i 9. stoljeću prije Krista na lijevoj obali Tibera. Klasični latinski koji se javlja u 6. stoljeću prije Krista nestat će do 4. ili 5 stoljeća nove ere. On vulgarizira i nastaje tradicionalni latinski jezik koji se širi preko cijele Europe.


Narodna nošnja iz Prizrena - Artemis

Artemis - Narodna nošnja iz Prizrena

Narodna nošnja iz Prizrena

Narodna nošnja iz Prizrena


Hram božice Dijane na Marjanu

Na rimskoj karti Tabula Peutingeriana iz razdoblja prije gradnje Dioklecijanove palače, označen je na zapadnom rtu Marjana hram božice Dijane

Sherden (S'-r'd-n)


The Sherden were among the first of the peoples now categorized as "Sea Peoples" to appear in the historical record. The first appearance of people called Srdn-w occur in the Amarna letters (about 1350 BC), serving as part of an Egyptian garrison in Byblos, where they provided their services to the king, Rib Hadda. They appear again during the reign of Ramesses II, in the mid-13th century BC. In the Kadesh battle some of the Sherden were assimilated into Ramesses II own personal guard. The Sherden showed up in Egypt again during the reign of Merenptah, when they fought Egypt as part of a coalition of Sea Peoples , and again in the reign of Ramesses III, where they are well represented in the Medinet Habu reliefs as fighters alongside the Peleset. In these reliefs they are depicted both among the Sea Peoples and as allies of the Egyptians, as a mercenary troops for Ramesses III During the final period of the Bronze Age the Sherden appear in a list of Sea Peoples occupying the Phoenician Coast in a text dating from c. 1100 BC, the Onomasticon of Amenemope.

The role that the Sherden played with relation to Egypt varies from one text to another. They appear as a contingent of the Egyptian army in a wide array of sources, including the battle inscriptions of Ramesses II, the Anastasi Papyrus, and the Papyrus Harris of Ramesses III, and as an enemy of the Egyptians for the first time under Ramesses II, in the Tanis and Aswan Stelae, dated to year 2 of Ramesses II ( about 1278 BC). Ultimately, they seem to have been mercenaries with no fixed alliances, who would fight either with or against Egypt.

In this relief from Abydos (about 1280 BC) a Sherden skirmisher is cutting off the hand of a slain Hittite charioteer during the battle of Kadesh. In this representation the Sherden warrior is equipped with a light tunic a medium size round shield and a simple low profile helmet with two horns and the central disk.

These two possible Sherden warriors represented in the "Sea battle" relief from Medinet Habu (about 1190 or 1180 BC) are depicted with medium size round shields handled by a central handgrip, helmet with two horns, a very long "rapier style" sword and "lobster style" cuirasses or corselets. This type of long sword shows closer similarity with specimens attested in the Aegean, Anatolian, Near Eastern areas and in the Sardinia Island.

The sword above represented was more likely similar in shape to this specimen long 90 cm found at Beth Dagan near Jaffa dated about 2000 BC. This huge blade on analysis has been shown to consist of almost pure copper with a small addition of arsenic.

A remarkable quantity (about 30) of similar swords date around 1600 BC have been also found in a cave grave near S. Iroxi in the Sardinia Island. Also in this case the material composition was the same of the above mentioned specimen.

Some Scholars identify the long swords represented in the Medinet Habu as the Achaean B Type attested in the Aegea area from 1600 BC to about 1300 BC.

Three example of Late Bronze Age swords found in Egypt which have not Egyptain origin and recall in general shape and design some of the ones handled by the Sea Peoples.

A very interesting bronze sword has been found in Ugarit Syria. This sword is inscribed with the cartouche of Merneptah and it displays a general typological affinity with central European bronzework. However, features such as the grooved blade and the royal cartouche imply Near Eastern production based on a foreign model.

Several different types of possible Sherden's helmets are attested in the Egyptian reliefs in Luxor, Abu Simbel and Medinet Habu. These helmets seem to have had only horns when the Sherden are fighting against the Egyptians, being the central disk not added until after the Sea Peoples were defeated or recruit in the Pharaoh's army.

In this well preserved representation of Sherden warrior from Luxor the bronze color of the helmet is still visible.
The horn is painted in light blue color so it was very likely made of different material like for instance ivory or tin or lead.

Even if in the Medinet Habu inscription the presence of Sherden between the invaders groups of the Sea Peoples is not mentioned, the chief of the "Sherden of the sea" is represented between the prisoners. This image is very interesting being this captive Sherden wearing the horned helmet with the central disk which normally identify the Sherden warriors already recruit in the Pharaoh's army. This image of Sherden chief closely resembles that of Semites as the Egyptians habitually portrayed them, and also suggests that Sherden were native to the East with its ancient Semitic population.
As already mentioned also the Sherden together the Ekwesh, and Sheklesh were circumcised as states in the Great Karnak inscription of the Pharaoh Merneptah.

Of special importance in this relief from Medinet Habu is the portrayal among the Egyptian forces of a mixed group of mercenaries drawn from the Sea Peoples. They include Sherden wearing disk-and-horns-topped helmets and probably the Peleset with their feather-topped helmets.In this rare relief, details remain of the small round shields of the Sherden with small round metal studs embroidered on the leather and wood of which the shield was more likely made. These shields and the bosses show similarity with the ones attested in some very Late Bronze Age Achaeans graves or represented on LH IIIC pottery.

A group of Sherden mercenaries for Ramesses II are shown in this relief from Medinet Habu. They are equipped with light tunic, small shield with central handgrip, simple conical helmet with horns and disk and short sword or dagger. Also in this case the general shape of these daggers show correspondence with Bronze Age specimens attested in the Aegean, Anatolia and Near Eastern areas.

The above represented daggers were more likely similar in shape to this specimen 30 cm long found in the Near Easter area dated about 2000 BC. Also for this blade the analysis has been shown to consist of almost pure copper with a small addition of arsenic.

Some scholars identify as the Aegean H Type some of the short sword, with upward shoulders, handled by the Sherden in the land battle scene represented in the Egyptian relief at Medinet Habu dated around 1190 or 1180 BC.

This kind of late Aegean Bronze Age swords (H Type) are attested in Pergamon Anatolia and in Greece mainland.

The left image shows two Sherden warriors equipped with large and medium size shields, bonnet like helmets, swords, and two javelins. Note the first warriors represented with beard, earings and what seems to be a light corselet with ribbons. The right images shows a possible Sherden wearing a " lobster style" cuirass, full head helmet and large round shield. The shield seems to be reinforced by two long elements placed on the inside, but looking better at the complete relief the two elements are very likely the ropes hanging from the ship sail.


In the naval battle between the Sea Peoples and the Egyptian army of Ramesses III both the possible Sherden and Peleset ships are well represented. The Sea Peoples' vessels have no oars (or no oars have been represented by the artist) and only the sail is shown. They have a single mast with a crow's-net and high stern and prow terminating in duck-heads whose "bills" serve as battering device. The ships are steered by a large paddle. These type of vessels show close similarity with the ship depicted on a stirrup jar from Skyros, on a krater sherd from Tiryns both dated LH IIIC and some Central Europe Urnfield ornament representing double bird headed boats as well as Early Iron Age ship models from Sardinia. In this representation the possible Sherden are equiped with long swords, large and medium size round shield and " lobster style" cuirass.

Several hypothesis have been made about the " lobster style" or ribbons cuirass and corselet of the Sea Peoples represented in the Medinet Habu relief in this case worn by the possible Sherden warriors. These have interpreted as full bronze armour, linen (or other perishable material) corselet or a cuirass made by a mix of metal and non metal elements.
A) This full bronze armour is composed by chest and back plates, lower bands and shoulder/upper arm protections. Its general design is based on some Achaean armour elements.
B) This bronze cuirass with chest/back plates and lower bands is worn over a linen or other perishable material kiton.
C) This composite cuirass is composed by a bronze chest and backplates, shoulder protection and quilted linen ribbons in the lower area.
D) This other hypothesis shows a non metalic corselet probably made of leather, or other perishable material.

A very interesting and fully functional bronze reconstruction of a possible segmental Late Bronze Age armour similar to the one worn by the Sherden has been made by Katsikis Dimitrios.
This reconstruction and other bronze and leather armours, corselets, helmets, shields, greaves, swords, axes, etc.. from Bronze Age till Bizantine period are displayed and available from Katsikis Dimitrios.

A very interesting bronze mask dated 1400-1150 BC found in an unknow Near Estern area.
Mask of this sort were also produced in pottery and they were possibly used as insets for large statues made of wood. This example has two holes at the top on either side and it is possible that these held two horns, the resulting face representing that of a Sherden warrior. The general features of this mask remind the aspect of the warriors represented in the bronze statuettes from Sardinia.

Having reviewed the history of Sherden in the Near East, a question remains to be answered: where did they come from? The Egyptian sources only inform us that they came overseas. Four main propositions have been put forward as to the origin of the Sherden: the region of Sardis in western Anatolia, East Semitic area, the Ionian coast, and the island of Sardinia in the central Mediterranean.

The first one argued that, on the analogy of the fact that the original homeland of the Tyrsenians is traced back to Lydia by ancient authors, the Sherden are more likely to originate from western Anatolia as well, where the name of the capital of the Lydians, Sardis, and related toponyms like mount Sardena and the Sardanion plain and an ethnonym like Sardonians would be reminiscent of their presence. Accordingly, the Sherden were considered to be on their way from their original home in Lydia to their later home in Sardinia at the time of the upheavals of the Sea Peoples. In the case of the Sherden, however, the literary evidence from ancient authors to back up their eastern origin is absent: here this thesis rests upon nothing more than a likeness in names, which might be spurious.

Evidence favour the second hypothesis is the dirk sword such as the Sherden used which is illustrated in cylinder seals of the East centuries before the first encounter of the Sherden with Egypt, and was among the weapons of the Hittite. What is known of the Aegean or Illirian does not suggest that they favored that sword. The dirk sword indicateds the East, the Semitic and Hurrian regions, as possible places of origin of the Sherden. Sherden personal name may support that origin. The father of the Sherden of the Ugarit table bears a Semitic name: Mut-Baal. Also the image of one captured Sherden chief represented in the Medinet Habu temple closely resembles that of Semites as the Egyptians habitually portrayed them, and also suggests that Sherden were native to the East with its ancient Semitic population.

According to the third thesis the Sherden can be equated with the Sardonians of the classical era, a people from the Ionian coast who were skilled in fightings In the 14th-13th centuries BC, the Sherden also had a reputations for the activities of other groups of Sea Peoples. However, this idea is tied to the theory that the primary factor in Late Bronze Age-Iron Age transition was massive pillaging and piracy on the part of certain groups in Aegean.

More revealing is the archaeological evidence presented for the forth theory which drew our attention to some similarities of the Egyptian depictions of Sherden with statue-menhirs from southern Corsica, depicting so-called Torre-builders, who are identical with the Nuraghe-builders from Sardinia. These entail: (1) the helmet with horns, the latter element of which can be reconstructed for some statue-menhirs on the basis of shallow holes once holding another material; (2) the corselet with five ribbons; and (3) the long sword. The statue-menhirs in question are assigned on the basis of C14 datings to the period between 1400 and 1000 BC, with a margin of error of 200 years.

They give the impression of a society of which the members are proud of their martial qualities and hence excellently fit for service as mercenaries, in which capacity we encountered the Sherden in the Egyptian and Levantine sources. Furthermore several similarity with the Egyptian depictions of Sherden are also present in some of the XI to VI century BC bronze statuette attested in Sardinia as well as ships representation and some Bronze Age weapons found in the island settlements. Worthy to be mentioned is also a stele from the ancient Sardinia city of Nora where the word Srdn in Phoneicians symbols (dated between 9th and 8th century BC) seems to be the oldest so far attested in the west Mediterranean area.
Even if on the basis of the combined evidence from Corsica and Sardinia, the one presenting the closest parallels for Sherden as depicted in the Egyptian memorials and the other furnishing evidence for contacts with the eastern Mediterranean during the later Bronze Age.


Sarus River - Adana

Sarus-Adana (Sar-Dan) = Sardan

Sarus River

The Seyhan River (ancient name: Σάρος, Sarus) is the longest river in Turkey that flows into the Mediterranean Sea. The river is 560 km and flows southwest from its headwaters in the Tahtalı-Mountains (in Sivas and Kayseri provinces) in the Anti-Taurus Mountains to the Mediterranean Sea via a broad delta. Its main tributaries are Zamantı and Göksu, which unite in Aladağ, Adana to form the Seyhan River.

  • Hyksos (Sarus-Adana) > Sarden


Maritime colonization of Europe

Sardinian warrior figure - Model of Nuragic ship


Çineköy inscription

The Çineköy inscription is a Hieroglyphic Luwian-Phoenician bilingual inscription, uncovered in 1997 in Çineköy, Adana Province, Turkey (ancient Cilicia). The village of Çineköy lies 30 km south of Adana.

The inscription is dated to the 8th century BC. It was originally published by Tekoglu and Lemaire (2000). Another important inscription of the same type is known as the 'Karatepe inscription', which was known earlier. Both of these inscriptions trace the kings of ancient Adana from the "house of Mopsos" (given in Hieroglyphic Luwian as Moxos and in Phoenician as Mopsos in the form mps). He was a legendary king of antiquity.

The object on which the inscription is found is a monument to the Storm God Tarhunza.

The inscription was authored by the man known as Urikki in Assyrian texts, which is equivalent to Warika, or Awariku in Luwian. He was the vassal king of Quwê (Assyrian name), the modern Cilicia. In Luwian this region was known as 'Hiyawa'.

In this monumental inscription, Urikki made reference to the relationship between his kingdom and his Assyrian overlords.

The Çineköy inscription was the subject of a 2006 paper published in the Journal of Near Eastern Studies, in which the author, Robert Rollinger, lends support to the age-old debate of the name "Syria" being derived from "Assyria".

The Luwian inscription reads "Sura/i" whereas the Phoenician translation reads ’ŠR or "Ashur" which, according to Rollinger (2006), "settles the problem once and for all".

The examined section of the Luwian inscription reads:

§VI And then, the/an Assyrian king (su+ra/i-wa/i-ni-sa(URBS)) and the whole Assyrian "House" (su+ra/i-wa/i-za-ha(URBS)) were made a fa[ther and a mo]ther for me,

§VII and Hiyawa and Assyria (su+ra/i-wa/i-ia-sa-ha(URBS)) were made a single “House.”

The corresponding Phoenician inscription reads:

And the king [of Aššur and (?)]the whole “House” of Aššur (’ŠR) were for me a father [and a]mother, and the DNNYM and the Assyrians (’ŠRYM)were a single “House.”

Part of Çineköy inscription in Adana Archaeology Museum


Karatepe Bilingual

I am really Azatiwada, Man of my Sun, the servant of Thunder God, Rendered superior by Avaricus, and the ruler of Adanava, Thunder God rendered me Mother and Father of Adanava city, and I am the one, who developed Adanava city, And I expanded Adanava country, both westward and eastward, And during my reign, I made Adanava city tastes prosperity, satiety and comfort, and I filled the grain warehouses, I added horse to horse, shield to shield, army to army, everything for Thunder God and the deities, I defeated the feint of the feinters, I expelled country's bad men, I built palaces for myself, made my family comfortable, and ascended my father's throne, I made peace with all the kings, Also the kings respected me as ancestor for my justice, my wisdom and my kind heart, I built strong fortifications at all my borders, where bad men and gang leaders are, I, Azatiwada, trod all the people, who did not obey the House of Mopsus, I destroyed the fortifications there, I built fortifications so that people of Adanava can live in peace and comfort, I bet strong kingdoms in the west my predecessors were not able to, I, Azatiwada, bet them, made them vassal to me, and resettled them within my borders in the east, And during my reign, I expanded the borders of Adanava both westward and eastward, So that women nowadays wander spindling on the isolated trails, where men in the past feared to go, And during my reign, there was prosperity, satiety, peace and comfort, And Adanava and Adanava country were living in peace, And I built this fortress, and named it Azatiwadaya, Thunder God and the deities directed me to do this so that this fortress becomes protector of Adana Plains and the House of Mopsus, During my reign, there was prosperity and peace in the territory of Adana Plains, no one of Adanava people was sabred during my reign, And I built this fortress, and named it Azatiwadaya, I placed Thunder God there, and offered it sacrifices, I sacrificed an ox every year, a sheep in the ploughing time and a sheep in the fall, I blessed Thunder God, it endowed me long days, countless years and huge power over all kings, And the folk, which settled in this country, owned ox, herd, food and drink, had plenty issue, and became servant to Azatiwada and the House of Mopsus thanks to Thunder God and the deities, When a king among the kings, a prince among the princes or a nobleman among the noblemen erases the name of Azatiwada from this gate, carves any other name; furthermore covets this city, destroys this gate built by Azatiwada, builds another gate in its place, and carves his own name on it, destroys this gate with the purpose of greed, hatred or insult then Sky deity, Nature deity and Sun of the universe and generations of all deities will wipe out this king, this prince or this nobleman from the earth, Only the name Azatiwada is eternal, forever like the name of the Sun and the Moon.

Phoenician script

Luwian hieroglyphs


Sherden - Tribe of Dan (Danaans)

Anu - An


Haplogroups R1b1a2 (R-V88) - I2a

(Confederacy Sher-Den), Sher = Sard - (Sparta & Sard-Lydia); Dan = Danaans

  • Sardona (Skradin)
  • Sardeates or Sardiotai (Latin Sardeates) was an Illyrian tribe close to Jajce. Sardeates were later settled in Dacia.


Serbonian Bog - Sherden

Lower Egypt - Serbonian Bog

The name of the Serbonian Bog (Arabic: مستنقع سربون‎) applied to the lake of Serbonis (Sirbonis or Serbon) in Egypt relates to the Sea Peoples. When sand blew onto it, the Serbonian Bog appeared to be solid land, but was in fact a bog. The term is now applied metaphorically to any situation in which one is entangled from which extrication is difficult.

The Serbonian Bog has been identified as Sabkhat al [Bardawil], one of the string of "Bitter Lakes" to the east of the Nile's right branch. It was described in ancient times as a quagmire, in which armies were fabled to be swallowed up and lost.


Silk Road - Sherden

Silk Road


Sogdiana - Sherden


Haplogroups I


Seres (Gr. Σῆρες, Lat. Sērēs) was the ancient Greek and Roman name for the inhabitants of eastern Central Asia, but could also extend to a number of other Asian people in a wide arc from China to India. It meant "of silk," or people of the "land where silk comes from." The country of the Seres was Serica.

Pliny also reports a curious description of the Seres made by an embassy from Taprobane to Emperor Claudius, suggesting they may be referring to the ancient Caucasian populations of the Tarim Basin, such as the Tocharians:

"They also informed us that the side of their island (Taprobane) which lies opposite to India is ten thousand stadia in length, and runs in a south-easterly direction--that beyond the Emodian Mountains (Himalayas) they look towards the Serve (Seres), whose acquaintance they had also made in the pursuits of commerce; .." (Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, Chap XXIV "Taprobane")


Serica, the land of the Seres, was the name by which the Greco-Romans referred to a country in Central Asia. Ancient Mediterranean knowledge of this nation was indistinct and distorted by fables and myths. Ptolemy and Pliny the Elder present more precise descriptions. Serica was described by Ptolemy as bordering "Scythia beyond the Imaum mountains (Tian Shan)" on the West, "Terra Incognita" to the North-East, the "Sinae" or Chinese to the East and "India" to the South. This would correspond with modern Xinjiang province in North-Western China.

Tocharian languages - Centum branch

Tocharian, also spelled Tokharian, is an extinct branch of the Indo-European language family. It is known from manuscripts dating from the 6th to the 8th century AD, which were found in oasis cities on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin (now part of Xinjiang in northwest China). The discovery of these languages in the early 20th century contradicted the formerly prevalent idea of an east–west division of Indo-European language family on the centum–satem isogloss.



Dandan Oilik - Sherden

Dandan_Oilik (Chinese: 丹丹乌里克; pinyin: Dāndānwūlǐkè), also Dandān-Uiliq, lit. "the houses with ivory", is an abandoned historic oasis town and Buddhist site in the Taklamakan Desert of China, located to the northeast of Khotan in what is now the autonomous region of Xinjiang, between the Khotan and Keriya rivers.




Amarna Period Index Merneptah