Ramesses V

Ramesses IV
Ramesses IV

Ramesses IV, 1155 - 1149 BC

Ramesses IV came to the throne in difficult circumstances. A plot by one of his father's secondary wives, Tiye, to establish her own son, Pentawer, on the throne led to an assassination attempt on Ramesses III. The king was badly wounded, and died soon after. Ramesses IV, however, was able to secure himself on the throne, and had the conspirators arrested and executed.

At the start of his reign, the pharaoh initiated a substantial building program on the scale of Ramesses II by doubling the size of the work gangs at Deir el-Medina to a total of 120 men and dispatching numerous expeditions to the stone quarries of Wadi Hammamat and the turquoise mines of the Sinai. The Great Rock stela of Ramesses IV at Wadi Hammamat records that the largest expedition—dated to his Year 3, third month of Shemu day 27—consisted of 8,368 men alone including 5,000 soldiers, 2,000 personnel of the Amun temples, 800 Apiru and 130 stonemasons and quarrymen under the personal command of the High Priest of Amun, Ramessesnakht. The scribes who composed the text also noted that this figure included 900 men "who are dead and omitted from this list." Consequently, once this omitted figure is included to the tally of 8,368 men who served in the Year 3 quarry expedition, a total of 900 men out of an original expedition of 8,368 men perished during this endeavour for a mortality rate of 10.7%. Some of the stones which were dragged 60 miles to the Nile from Wadi Hammamat weighed 40 tons or more. Other Egyptian quarries including Aswan were located much closer to the Nile which enabled them to use barges to transport stones long distances.

Part of the king's program included the extensive enlargement of his father's Temple of Khonsu at Karnak and the construction of a large mortuary temple near the Temple of Hatshepsut. Ramesses IV also sent several expeditions to the turquoise mines the Sinai; a total of four expeditions are known prior to his fourth year. The Serabit el-Khadim stela of the Royal Butler Sobekhotep states: "Year 3, third month of Shomu. His Majesty sent his favoured and beloved one, the confident of his lord, the Overseer of the Treasury of Silver and Gold, Chief of the Secrets of the august Palace, Sobekhotep, justified, to bring for him all that his heart desired of turquoise (on) his fourth expedition." This expedition dates to either Ramesses III or IV's reign since Sobekhotep is attested in office until at least the reign of Ramesses V. Ramesses IV's final venture to the turquoise mines of the Sinai is documented by the stela of a senior army scribe named Panufer. Panufer states that this expedition's mission was both to procure turquoise and to establish a cult chapel of king Ramesses IV at the Hathor temple of Serabit el-Khadim. The stela reads:

Year 5, second month of Shomu [i.e., summer]. The sending by His Majesty <to> build the Mansion of Millions of Years of Ramesses IV in the temple of Hathor, Lady of Turquoise, by Panefer, the Scribe of the Commands of the Army, son of Pairy, justified.

Ramesses V, 1149-1145 BC

A period of domestic instability also afflicted his reign since Turin Papyrus Cat. 2044 states that the workmen of Deir el-Medina periodically stopped work on Ramesses V's KV9 tomb in this king's first regnal year out of fear of "the enemy", presumably Libyan raiding parties, who had reached the town of Per-Nebyt and "burnt its people." Another incursion by these raiders into Thebes is recorded a few days later.

The mummy of Ramesses V was recovered in 1898 and seems to indicate that he suffered from smallpox due to lesions found on his face and this is thought to have caused his death. He is thought to be one of the earliest known victims of the disease.


Deir el-Medina

Deir el-Medina (Arabic: دير المدينة ‎‎) is an ancient Egyptian village which was home to the artisans who worked on the tombs in the Valley of the Kings during the 18th to 20th dynasties of the New Kingdom period (ca. 1550–1080 BC) The settlement's ancient name was "Set Maat" (translated as "The Place of Truth"), and the workmen who lived there were called “Servants in the Place of Truth”.

In about the 25th year of the reign of Ramses III (c. 1170 BCE) the laborers were so exasperated by delays in supplies they threw down their tools and walked off the job in what may have been the first sit-down strike in recorded history. They wrote a letter to the Vizier complaining about lack of wheat rations. Village leaders attempted to reason with them but they refused to return to work until their grievances were addressed. They responded to the elders with "great oaths". "We are hungry", the crews claimed; "eighteen days have passed this month" and they still had not received their rations. They were forced to buy their own wheat. They told them to send to the Pharaoh or Vizier to address their concerns. After the authorities had heard their complaints they addressed them and the workers went back to work the next day. There were several strikes that followed. After one of them, when the strike leader asked the workers to follow him they told them they had had enough and returned to work. This was not the last strike but they soon restored the regular wheat supplies and the strikes came to an end for the remaining years of Ramesses III. However, since the chiefs supported the authorities the workers no longer trusted them and chose their own representatives. Further complaints by the artisans are recorded forty and fifty years after the initial dispute, during the reigns of Ramesses IX and Ramesses X.

After the reign of Ramses IV the conditions of the village became increasingly unsettled. At times there was no work for fear of the enemy. The grain supplies became less dependable and this was followed by more strikes. Gangs of tomb robbers increased often tunnelling in through the back so they wouldn't break the seal and be exposed. A tomb robbing culture developed that included fences and even some officials who accepted bribes. When the Vizier checked the tombs if the seals were undisturbed they wouldn't report it as being opened. When they finally did catch tomb robbers they used limb twisting tactics to interrogate the tomb robbers and obtain information about where the plunder was and who their accomplices were.

Deir el-Medina - The tomb of Kha
Deir el-Medina - The tomb of Kha


Deir el-Medina - Timna Valley, c. 1155 - 1147 BC

Deir el-Medina was home to the artisans who worked on the tombs in the Valley of the Kings. The settlement was home to a mixed population of Egyptians, Nubians and Asiatics who were employed as labourers, (stone-cutters, plasterers, water-carriers), as well as those involved in the administration and decoration of the royal tombs and temples.

After the reign of Ramses IV (c. 1155–1149 BCE) the conditions of the village became increasingly unsettled. At times there was no work for fear of the enemy. The grain supplies became less dependable and this was followed by more strikes. Gangs of tomb robbers increased often tunnelling in through the back so they wouldn't break the seal and be exposed. A tomb robbing culture developed that included fences and even some officials who accepted bribes.

Shrine of Hathor - Timna Valley

When the Egyptians left the area in the middle of the 12th century BCE, the Midianites continued using the temple. They erased the evidence of the Egyptian cult, effaced the images of Hathor and the Egyptian hieroglyphics, and built a row of stelae and a bench of offerings on both sides of the entrance. They turned the temple into a tented desert shrine and filled it with Midianite pottery and metal jewelry. There was also a bronze serpent found nearby the sanctuary.


Exodus, 1147 BC

Israelites - Twelve Tribes

Druga grupa (trojanci), drugi izlazak, 40 godina poslije

Egipatski neprijatelji - Narodi s mora, Esau - Twelve tribes - Israelites
Ramzesovi neprijatelji - Narodi s mora, Esau - Twelve tribes - Israelites

heraldic emblems israel


Jahve daje blagoslov i uspostavlja službu

Izlazak: "Ovako govori Jahve, Bog Izraela: 'Neka svatko pripaše mač o bedro i pođe taborom od vrata do vrata pa neka ubije tko svoga brata, tko svoga prijatelja, tko svoga susjeda.'" Sinovi Levijevi izvršiše Mojsijev nalog, i toga dana pade naroda oko tri tisuće ljudi. "Danas ste se posvetili Jahvi za službu", reče Mojsije, "tko uz cijenu svoga sina, tko uz cijenu svoga brata, tako da vam danas daje blagoslov."

Izraelci koji su ušli u Sinajsku pustinju, iz nje nisu izašli.

Suci: Tako ja živ bio, objavljuje Jahve, kako ste na moje uši govorili, tako ću vam i učiniti. U ovoj pustinji popadat će vaša mrtva tijela: svih vas koji ste ubilježeni u bilo koji vaš popis od dvadeset godina pa naprijed, koji ste rogoborili protiv mene. Nećete ući u zemlju na koju sam svoju ruku digao da vas u njoj nastanim, osim Kaleba, sina Jefuneova, i Jošue, sina Nunova. A vašu djecu, o kojoj kažete da bi postala roblje, njih ću uvesti da nastane zemlju što ste je vi prezreli. A vi? Neka vam tjelesa popadaju u ovoj pustinji! Vaši sinovi neka lutaju pustinjom četrdeset godina, neka trpe zbog vaše nevjere dok vam ne ispropadaju tjelesa u ovoj pustinji.

Exodus - Nina Paley

Ponovljeni zakon: Sjećaj se svega puta kojim te Jahve, Bog tvoj, vodio po pustinji ovih četrdeset godina da te ponizi, iskuša i dozna što ti je u srcu: hoćeš li držati zapovijedi njegove ili nećeš. Ponižavao te i glađu morio, a onda te hranio manom - za koju nisi znao ni ti ni tvoji oci - da ti pokaže kako čovjek ne živi samo o kruhu nego da čovjek živi o svemu što izlazi iz usta Jahvinih. Tvoja se odjeća na tebi nije izderala niti su ti noge oticale ovih četrdeset godina.


Osvajanje Kanaana

Arheološka nalazišta iz željeznog doba (oko. 1200. pr. Kr.-900. pr. Kr.) svjedoče o novoj društveno-gospodarskoj prekretnici na području Kanaana. Krajem brončanog doba dio gradova je uništen, a civilizacija se uglavnom nastavlja izvan gradova. Broj planinskih sela povećao se sa 25 na više od 300, a stanovnici udvostručili na 40.000. Za ovo su razdoblje tipične kuće sastavljene su od po četiri prostorije, kameni silosi, te cisterne za vodu izdubene u stijeni (npr. u Hazoru). Počinje uporaba željeza, a zemlja se obrađuje na terasastim površinama. Prema biblijskom izvještaju ovdje bi trebalo smjestiti dolazak Židova u Kanaan i osvajanje zemlje, no nema arheoloških dokaza o nasilnom prekidu civilizacije mlađeg brončanog doba ili o širokim razaranjima. Usto, nema niti pisanih izvora, izuzme li se Merneptin natpis. Znanstvenici općenito drže da se više ne može govoriti o stvarnom nasilnom osvajanju Kanaana, pa su preostale druge dvije teorije. Prva pretpostavlja sedentariziranje nomadi, koje je moglo pristići i iz Transjordanije, a druga pretpostavlja da je bila riječ o unutarnjoj pobuni seoskog, već sedentariziranog, stanovništva.

Ponovljeni zakon: A kad te Jahve, Bog tvoj, dovede u zemlju za koju se zakleo tvojim ocima, Abrahamu, Izaku i Jakovu, da će je tebi dati - u velike i lijepe gradove kojih nisi zidao; u kuće pune svakog dobra kojih nisi punio; na iskopane čatrnje kojih nisi kopao; u vinograde i maslinike kojih nisi sadio - i sit se najedeš: pazi da ne zaboraviš Jahvu koji te izveo iz zemlje egipatske, iz kuće ropstva.

Jošua: Dao sam vam zemlju za koju se niste trudili i gradove koje niste gradili i u njima se nastaniste; i vinograde vam dadoh i maslinike koje niste sadili, a danas vas hrane.'


This Land Is Mine - Nina Paley


Confederation of twelve tribes

Brojevi: Neka Izraelci logoruju svatko kod svoje zastave, pod znakovima svojih pradjedovskih domova,

Četiri zastave - Četiri naroda - Jedna nacija
Četiri zastave - Četiri naroda - Jedna nacija

Sprijeda, s istočne strane, zastava Judina tabora...  Do njega neka taboruje Jisakarovo pleme... Onda pleme Zebulunovo.
S juga je zastava tabora Rubenova... Do njega neka taboruje pleme Šimunovo... Onda pleme Gadovo.

  • Ruben, Šimun, Zebulun, Jisakar & Juda = Rbn, Sm't, Wrbr, Pysps & Yhw - (Lea) = Shasu / Shutu / Suteans - (G2a)
  • Gad - (Sluškinja Zilpa) - Glavar je Gadovih potomaka Elijasaf - Brojevi. - Illyrius was the youngest son of Cadmus and Harmonia who eventually ruled Illyria and became the eponymous ancestor of the whole Illyrian people. Cad = Gad, bezvučnu K = zvučni G; ozvučavanje (druKčijī druGačijī..), obezvučavanje (svaGda svaKi..) - (R-V88)

Potom neka ide Šator sastanka, tako da tabor levitski bude usred drugih tabora.

  • Levi - (Lea) Carians (Koans) - (R1a1)

Sa zapada, zastava tabora Efrajimova... Do njega je pleme Manašeovo. Onda je pleme Benjaminovo.
Sa sjevera, zastava tabora Danova... Do njega neka se utabori pleme Ašerovo... Onda pleme Naftalijevo.

  • Benjamin - (Rahela) = Ahlamu / Amorites, Ben Oni; ali ga otac prozva Benjamin.- (J2)
  • Dan - (Sluškinja Bilha) = Tribe of Dan, Bilha, (Blasius = Vlasius, B = V), (Ha-vilah = Valac-hie), Valachie, (Bilha = Bilić), (sveti Blaž = sveti Vlaho) - (I2a)
  • Naftali - (Sluškinja Bilha) = Natali je izvorno latinsko ime, izvedenica od muškog oblika Natalis i znači rođen, rodni; dies natalis - dan rođenja, rođendan. Drugi oblici ovog imena su Nataša, Natalie, Natalija, Natalia, Nata i Natka. Naftali je košuta lakonoga koja krasnu lanad mladi. - Postanak - (T1a)
  • Ašer - (Sluškinja Zilpa) = Weshesh - (R-V88)

Tako su taborovali pod svojim zastavama i tako išli, svatko prema svom rodu i porodici.

  • Lea = G2a & R1a1
  • Zilpa = R-V88
  • Rahela = J2
  • Bilha = I2a & T1a




The Exodus Confederation, in the Sinai desert, became a Jewish nation

The Exodus Confederation
The Exodus Confederation

A nation is distinct from a "people", and is more abstract, and overtly political than an ethnic group.

The nation has been described by Benedict Anderson as an "imagined community" and by Paul James as an "abstract community". It is an imagined community in the sense that the material conditions exist for imagining extended and shared connections. It is an abstract community in the sense that it is objectively impersonal, even if each individual in the nation experiences him or herself as subjectively part of an embodied unity with others.


Habiru - Hebreji

Habiru - Hebreji

Haplogroup G2a-L293 - Haplogroup R1a1a

Habiru ili Apiru (egipatski: ˁpr.w) su skupine ljudi koji žive kao nomadi u područjima plodnog polumjeseca u sjeveroistočnoj Mezopotamiji i do granica Egipta u Kanaan. Ovisno o izvoru i epohi Habiru različito opisuju kao nomadi ili polu-nomadi, pobunjenici, odmetnici, pljačkaši, plaćenici i strijelci, sluge, robovi, odmetnici, najamni radnici...

Habiru nije etnička identifikacija i odnosi se na semite i ne-semite. Habiru su identificirani kao rani Hebreji. Habiru su više socijalna klasa nego etnička skupina. Jedna analiza pokazuje da su osim semita bili i Hurriani, Kassiti  Luwian.

Iberians (Caucasian Iberians) - Iberians (Iberian Peninsula) - Habiru (Fertile Crescent), Abraham, Brahma, Great Britain, rijeka Ibar..


Shasu / Edom

Egipatski izraz Shasu (Shsw = lutalica), koji zamijenio je odmetnik "Apiru" (klinasto pismo SA.GAZ) spominju se kao glavni izvor nestabilnosti na južnom levantu iz vladavine Tutankhamona pa nadalje.

Shasu su stočari nomadi sa Levanta od kasnog brončanog do starijega željeznog doba. Organizirani su u klanove pod plemenskim starješinama, te su opisani kao razbojnici koji djeluju do Aškelona do Sinaja.

Ime se razvilo iz egipatske riječi š3sw, što znači "oni koji lutaju pješice". Pojam je nastao u 15. stoljeću pne. u Transjordanu kao izraz za nomade lutalice. Postoje dva egipatska teksta, iz razdoblja Amenophis III i Ramzesa II, na kojem se spominju "Yahu u zemlji Šosū-beduina", (t3 š3św jhw3). Koristi se u popisu neprijatelja upisanih u hramu Soleb.koji spominje šest skupina Shasu: Shasu od S'rr, Shasu od Rbn, Shasu od Sm't, Shasu od Wrbr, Shasu od Yhw i Shasu od Pysps.


"Shasu u Yhw" vrlo precizno odgovara hebrejskom YHWH ili Jahve, i prethodi dosad najstarijoj pojavi tog imena - na "Moabac Stone".

Jedna hipoteza tvrdi da se demonim 'Izrael' sa "Merneptah Stele" odnosi na enklave Shasu, budući da je kasnija Biblijska tradicija prikazivala Jahvu koji "silazi sa Se'ir" što je Shasu, koji su podrijetlom iz Edoma. Shasu su predstavljali "Izrael", i kasnije su utvrdili kraljevstvo Izrael.

Anson Rainey dolazi do sličnog zaključka te zaključuje;

"Do 14. stoljeća prije Krista, prije nego što je kult Jahvin stigao u Izrael, skupina Edomita i Midjanaca štovala je Jahvu kao svog boga."

Postoje prigovori na predloženu vezu. Shasu i Izraelci se razlikuju jedni od drugih, u "Merneptah Stele" Shasu su prikazani kao nomadi, a Izraelci kao sjedilački narod.

Na "Merneptah Karnak" reljefu Shasu se razlikuju od Izraelaca, nose različite odjeće, frizure, a egipatski pisari ih opisuju drugačije.

Edomci ili Shasu, Shutu su nomadi spomenuti u egipatskim izvorima. Pismo egipatskog pisara na graničnoj tvrđavi u "Wadi Tumilat" za vrijeme vladavine Merneptah, izvještava o kretanju nomadskih "Shasu plemena iz Edoma" do bunara na egipatskom teritoriju.

Semitski beduini - Edom - Edomci - Yah (Vlah)

  • Shasu - Esau Edomci


Jah - Yah

The abbreviated form Jah (/dʒɑː/) or Yah (/jɑː/; יהּ, Yahu) appears in the Psalms and Isaiah. It is a common element in Hebrew theophoric names such as Elijah and also appears in the forms yahu ("Jeremiah"), yeho ("Joshua"), and yo ("John", ultimately from the biblical "Yohanan" and Jonathan, "God gives". It also appears 24 times in the Psalms as a part of Hallelujah ("Praise Jah").

ʾIlāh = Vlah (Shining One Yah)

Edonia, Paeonia, Macedonia, Dalmatia.. Sufiks IA = Yah (/jɑː/ (listen); יהּ, Yahu)


Jakov i Ezav

Došlo vrijeme da rodi, kad gle - blizanci u njezinoj utrobi. Pojavi se prvi. Bio je crven; sav runjav kao ogrtač. Stoga mu nadjenuše ime Ezav. Potom se pojavi njegov brat. Rukom se držao Ezavu za petu. Zato mu nadjenuše ime Jakov.

Kad su dječaci odrasli, Ezav postane vješt lovac, čovjek pustare. Jakov je bio čovjek krotak i boravio je u šatorima.

Ezav stigne s polja, gladan. Reče Ezav Jakovu: "Daj mi toga crvenog variva da pojedem jer sam izgladnio." Stoga mu je ime Edom.

Blagoslovi i mene, oče moj!" Ezav jecaše na sav glas. Tada otac njegov Izak progovori i reče: "Daleko od plodna tla dom tvoj će biti, daleko od rose s neba. Od mača svoga ćeš živjeti, brata svoga ćeš služiti. Ali jednom, kada se pobuniš, jaram ćeš njegov stresti sa svog vrata."

Jakov pošalje pred sobom glasnike svome bratu Ezavu u zemlju Seir, u Edomsku pustaru,

Neka moj gospodar ide ispred svoga sluge, a ja ću ići polako, uz korak marve pred sobom i uz korak djece, dok ne stignem k svome gospodaru u Seir." Onda reče Ezav: "Da ti barem ostavim nekoliko ljudi koji se sa mnom nalaze." Ali on odgovori: "Čemu to? Neka ja samo nađem milost u očima svoga gospodara!" Tako se Ezav onog dana zaputi natrag u Seir,

Došavši tako iz Padan Arama, Jakov sretno stigne u grad Šekem, koji se nalazi u zemlji kanaanskoj, i postavi svoj šator pred gradom. A komad zemlje na kojoj je postavio svoj šator kupi od sinova Hamora, Šekemova oca, za stotinu kesita. Tu podiže žrtvenik i nazva ga "El, Bog Izraelov".

Ezav uzme svoje žene, svoje sinove, svoje kćeri, svu čeljad svoga doma; svoju stoku - krupnu i sitnu; svu imovinu što ju je namakao u zemlji kanaanskoj, pa ode u zemlju seirsku, daleko od svog brata Jakova.

Tako se Ezav - Edom nazvani - naseli u brdskom kraju Seiru.

  • Hebrejski naziv za crvenu boju (adom) potječe od riječi koja označava krv. (ruddy skin)


Edonia - Idomenae Thrace

Tračani ljudi "plamene kose" (crvene ili plave kose) prema Ksenofanu

Map of the Kingdom of Macedon with Edonis located in the eastern districts of the kingdom.
Map of the Kingdom of Macedon with Edonis located in the eastern districts of the kingdom.


Edonis or Edonida (Ancient Greek: Ἠδωνίς, Ἠδωνίδα), also transliterated as Edonia, was an ancient region of Thrace which later became a district of Macedon. Edonis and especially mount Pangaio was one of the oldest worship places of the gods Apollo, Dionysus and Orpheus.

Idomenae or Idomenai (Ancient Greek: Ἰδομεναί, possibly from Ἰδομενεύς - Idomeneues), also known as Idomene (Ἰδομένη), or Eidomenae or Eidomenai, or Idomenia, was a town of ancient Macedonia which the Tabular Itinerary places at 12 M. P. from Stena. Sitalces, on his route from Thrace to Macedonia, crossed Mount Cercine, leaving the Paeones on his right, and the Sinti and Maedi on his left, and descended upon the Axius at Idomenae. It is included by Ptolemy in Emathia, and was near Doberus, next to which it is named by Hierocles among the towns of Consular Macedonia under the Byzantine Empire. Idomenae is documented from the 5th century BCE.

It is now an archaeological site located near the village of Marvinci, near Valandovo, modern North Macedonia.


At its beginning, Idomenae was about 5,000 km2 big. An acropolis with defensive walls was built, a pottery building was also built, and so were other buildings. The people in this town traded a lot with the Asia Minor, which is evidenced by the facts that much of the material found on pottery here was used in graves in Asia Minor. There are also many amphoras from the islands of Thassos and Rhodes.

Idomeneus of Crete

Idomeneus was a Cretan commander, father of Orsilochus, Cleisithyra and Iphiclus, son of Deucalion and Cleopatra, grandson of Minos and king of Crete. He led the Cretan armies to the Trojan War and was also one of Helen's suitors as well as a comrade of the Telamonian Ajax. Meriones was his charioteer and brother-in-arms.

In Homer's Iliad, Idomeneus is found among the first rank of the Greek generals, leading his troops and engaging the enemy head-on, and escaping serious injury. Idomeneus was one of Agamemnon's trusted advisors. He was one of the primary defenders when most of the other Achaean heroes were injured, and even fought Hector briefly and repulsed his attack. Like most of the other leaders of the Greeks, he is alive and well as the story comes to a close. He was one of the Achaeans to enter the Trojan Horse. Idomeneus killed twenty men and at least three Amazon women, including Bremusa, at Troy.

A later tradition, preserved by the mythographer Apollodorus of Athens, continues the story as follows: after the war, Idomeneus's ship hit a terrible storm. He promised Poseidon that he would sacrifice the first living thing he saw when he returned home if Poseidon would save his ship and crew. The first living thing was his son, whom Idomeneus duly sacrificed. The gods were angry at the murder of his own son and sent a plague to Crete. The Cretans sent him into exile in Calabria (ancient name of the Salento in Apulia), Italy and then Colophon in Asia Minor where he died. According to Marcus Terrentius Varro, the gens Salentini descended from Idomeneus, who had sailed from Crete to Illyria, and then together with Illyrians and Locrians from Illyria to Salento.


I Jiftah se zavjetova Jahvi: "Ako mi predaš u ruke Amonce, tko prvi iziđe na vrata moje kuće u susret meni kada se budem vraćao kao pobjednik iz boja s Amoncima bit će Jahvin i njega ću prinijeti kao paljenicu." Jiftah krenu protiv Amonaca da ih napadne i Jahve ih izruči u njegove ruke. I porazi ih Jiftah od Aroera do blizu Minita - u dvadeset gradova - i sve do Abel Keramima. Bijaše to njihov veliki poraz; i Amonci bijahu poniženi pred Izraelom. Kada se Jiftah vratio kući u Mispu, gle, iziđe mu u susret kći plešući uza zvuke bubnjeva. Bijaše mu ona jedinica, osim nje nije imao ni sina ni kćeri. Ugledavši je, razdrije svoje haljine i zakuka: "Jao, kćeri moja, u veliku me tugu bacaš! Zar mi baš ti moraš donijeti nesreću! Zavjetovah se Jahvi i ne mogu zavjeta poreći."


Darron - Darzalas

Darron is a name for the ancient Macedonian god of healing. (Achileas Samothrakes, Thrakikon Lexikon) that Darron is related to, or possibly even is the same deity as Darzalas, a Thracian God, known to us mostly from the Black Sea Greek city of Odessos / Οδησσος (not the Odessa built by Catherine the Great in Russia/Ukraine, but the original ancient Greek Odessa, in today's Bulgaria, now called Varna). The Greeks of Odessos accepted the Thracian God Darzalas / Δαρζάλας, also known as Derzelates / Δερζελάτης and Derxelates / Δερξελάτης and incorporated him into their pantheon as their own deity and called him Derdelaxes Theos Megas / Δερξελάτης Θεος Μεγας / Derdelaxes Great God. An inscription on a carving from Moesia speaks of a thanks giving to lord Darzalas by a parliamentarian (vouleutes): Thrace and Moesia Inferior υρίῳ Δαρζαλᾳ̣ Τ̣ούρβωνβου(λευτὴς) ∙ εὐχαριστήριν ἀνέ-to lord Darzalas, a vouleutes (elected official) of the Tourboi(dedicated) this thanks giving offering Like most deities everywhere, Darzalas too has some characteristics of a healing God. Though he definitely has some healing and chthonian (earthy, subterranean) attributes, when we look at his depictions, in coins or marble carvings, we always see him holding a cornucopia, a symbol of land fertility, wealth and plenty. He has been addressed as Θεος Μεγας/Theos Megas, a Great God, which of course makes him much more than simply a specialized minor deity. In some more unusual depictions, he is also shown as a Thracian Hero, the Thracian horseman, cornucopia in hand, where we would expect the Thracian hero to he brandishing a spear, attaching the boar, symbol of agricultural destruction.On a coin from the Roman empire, we see Darzalas the Great God in a depiction almost identical to the Greco-Egyptian god Serapis with a kalathos/καλαθος (basket) headgear on his head. Most interestingly, the place to his right is taken by Tyche/Τυχη/Fortune, goddess of good fortune and luck, holding Darzalas' (and Serapis') trademark, the cornucopia. Darzalas, in other words, being a Great God/Theos Megas, has taken over more and more attributes, but he is primarily identified with plenty, wealth, fertility and fortune, in a typical for that era mix of Greek, Thracian and Egyptian religious syncretism. On an Odessan commemorative coin of the Roman times, we read the imperial name "Augustus Antoninus Gordianus" written in Greek. The emperor is to the left facing a Serapis looking Darzalas with kalathos on his head and cornucopia next to him. On the reverse side we have a basket of plenty with the inscription Darzaleia/ Δαρζαλεια, a reference to the annual festival games in honor of the Great God Darzalas.


Dársioi - Aegean Thracia

Looking into the Thracian onomastics we do find some Thracian names starting with Dar- / Δαρ-. On an inscription from Moesia Inferior, we read the name: Daros / Δαρος: Thrace and Moesia Inferior Ἥρωι] Ζ̣υδεηνῳ Δαρος] τραλεοςto Hero Zydeenos Darosson of tralisIn far away Egypt where a sizable Hellenized Thracian community has been documented during the Hellenistic period of the Ptolemaic dynasty, we find the Hellenised Thracian name Darsideus / Δαρσίδευς. Egypt, Nubia and Cyrenaïca Egypt and Nubia Δαρσίδευς Ἀγριανίου. Darsideus son of AgrianiosIn the 5th century BC Herodotus speaks of a Thracian tribe between Strymon and Nestos, called Dersaeoi / Δερσαι̂οι:ταύτας μεν δη τας πόλιας τας παραθαλασσίας τε καὶ Ελληνιδας ἐξ εὐωνύμου χειρος απέργων παρεξήιε: εθνεα δε Θρηίκων δι' ων της χώρης οδον ἐποιέετο τοσάδε, Παιτοι Κίκονες Βίστονες Σαπαιοι Δερσαιοι ̓ Ηδωνοι Σατραι. τούτων οἱ μεν παρα θάλασσαν κατοικημένοι εν τη̂σι νηυσι ειποντο: οἱ δε αὐτων την μεσόγαιαν οἰκέοντες καταλεχθέντες τε υπ' εμευ, πλην Σατρέων, οἱ αλλοι πάντες πεζη αναγκαζόμενοι ειποντο. Xerxes marched past these Greek cities of the coast, keeping them on his left. The Thracian tribes through whose lands he journeyed were the Paetoi, Cicones, Bistones, Sapaeoi, Dersaeoi/Δερσαίοι, Edonoi, and Satrae. Of these, the ones who dwelt by the sea followed his army on shipboard; the ones living inland, whose names I have recorded, were forced to join with his land army, all of them except the Satrae.Ηροδοτου Ιστοριαι ζ' 110/Herodotus vii 110 (transl. A. D. Godley) We also have coins called Derronikon / Δερρωνικον from a tribe in a land close to the Bisaltai / Βισαλται called Derrones Δερρονες, though a high probability exists that they are the same tribe as the Dersaioi.



Edomci - Judejci

A ovo su potomci Ezavova sina Reuela: knez Nahat, knez Zerah, knez Šama i knez Miza

Juda ih prepozna pa reče: "Ona je pravednija nego ja, koji joj nisam dao svoga sina Šelu." Ali više s njom nije imao posla. Kad joj je došlo vrijeme da rodi, pokaže se da nosi blizance. Dok je rađala, jedan od njih pruži ruku van. Nato babica priveže za njegovu ruku crven konac govoreći: "Ovaj je izišao prvi." Ali baš tada on uvuče ruku te iziđe njegov brat. A ona reče: "Kakav li proder napravi!" Stoga mu nadjenu ime Peres. Poslije iziđe njegov brat koji je oko ruke imao crveni konac. Njemu dadoše ime Zerah.

Judini potomci

Judini sinovi: Er, Onan i Šela. Ta mu je tri rodila Kanaanka, Šuina kći. Ali Er, Judin prvenac, bijaše nevaljao u Jahvinim očima i Jahve ga pogubi. (4) Njegova nevjesta Tamara rodi mu Peresa i Zeraha. U svemu je bilo pet Judinih sinova. (5) Peresovi su sinovi bili: Hesron i Hamul. (6) Zerahovi su sinovi bili: Zimri, Etan, Heman, Kalkol i Dara; u svemu pet.



Crveni konac

"Crveni konac" pronalazimo kod Srba, Jevreja (posebno kabalista), budista i hindusa (sveti konac koji štiti, ispunjava duhovnu želju ili snaži zavet).

Za crveni konac se veruje kako "odvraća" lošu sreću koju čoveku može doneti urok zla oka. Na hebrejskom jeziku on se naziva "rojte bindele" i obično je napravljen od tanke vunice. Nosi se na levoj ruci povezan kao narukvica.

Neki od tih crvenih konaca se donose iz Izraela. Ponekad je crveni konac u ogromnim količinama obavijan oko groba jevrejske biblijske mučenice Rahele u blizini Vitlejema. Smatra se da crveni konac ima ogromne moći i da donosi dobru sreću i da garantuje onome ko ga nosi božansku zaštitu.

Neki Jevreji, koji se plaše negativnih uticaja uroka, imaju staru tradiciju da vežu crveni konac na bebin krevetić u nadi da će time odvratiti uroke i prizvati milost Boga pa će beba biti zaštićena od svakoga zla.

Kalava je sveti hinduistički konac, koji se takođe zove i "mauli" na hindu jeziku. Nosi se u toku obavljanja hinduističkih rituala kao što su Jajna ili Puja odnosno sankalpa. Veže se od strane sveštenika na ruke vernika koji prisustvuju obredu molitve. Kalava se veže na desnoj ruci muškarca i neudatih žena, a na levoj ruci udatih žena. Takav konac je najčešće simbolički čin namere u umu osobe da joj se ispuni željeni duhovni zavet.

Red string   Red string
Red string (Kabbalah)

Još od davnina je ustaljeno verovanje ako crveni konac vežete oko ruke, može da vas spase i zaštititi od bilo kog uroka.

Kao zaštitu od uroka konac se veže oko ruke. Veruje se da odmah po izlasku iz porodilišta detetu treba vezati crveni konac, a narednih 40 dana nije poželjno da se beba iznosi iz kuće, da bi se zaštitila od urokljivih očiju, dok "ne ojača"

Za crveni konac se veruje kako odvraća lošu sreću koju čoveku može doneti urok zla oka. Mnogi roditelji deci skinu crveni konac kad ojačaju, ali ima onih koji ga ne diraju, pa tako deca i kad odrastu u ozbiljne ljude, imaju crven končić oko ruke.

Interesantno je da se crvena boja u tom kontekstu pojavljuje i u mnogim srpskim pesmama.

Pošao Sveti Jovan na crvenom konju, crvena mu glava, ruke...da istera crveni vetar (vrsta bolesti) ili vezaće mu moja ruka crven konac oko struka...



Darda & Dan = Dardanus - Thraco-Illyrian tribe

Provinces in the Balkans in the 6th century.
Provinces in the Balkans in the 6th century.

The Dardani or Dardanians were an Indo-European tribe which settled in the Thraco-Illyrian contact zone.

Sir William Smith’s Dictionary of the Bible notes that the first-century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus used Dardanus as the Greek form of a biblical name: "Darda ... Joseph.[us] Dardanos; Darda ..." (1863, Vol. 1, p. 397). Darda, or Dara, is listed in Scripture as a son of Judah‘s son Zerah-the same Zerah who had received the scarlet thread upon his wrist in Genesis 38.

In 1 Kings 4:31, he is called Darda: "For [Solomon] was wiser than all men-than Ethan the Ezrahite [i.e., Zerahite or Zarhite], and Heman, Chalcol, and Darda, the sons of Mahol; and his fame was in all the surrounding nations."

In Genesis 46:12, the sons of Zarah are not mentioned in the genealogy of Zarah-Judah. Pharez and his sons are mentioned however. Why aren't they mentioned? For the simple reason that these Israelites of Zarah-Judah did not stay in the land of Egypt with their family, but left soon after arriving there.

Israel went to Goshen, Zarah's sons and tribe of Dan went to Greece! Joseph was appointed Ruler of Egypt, and this gave the Israelites the freedom to explore, trade and build. During that time there was trade with Egypt and the islands of Greece. Zarah's sons and tribe of Dan split up with the rest of Israel.

Israel went to Goshen, once settled; the sons of Israel were engaged in many activities. Darda requested Joseph to give him ships to sail to Greece. History shows that the Zarah-Judah line and tribe of Dan left Egypt and went to Greece.

Genealogical websites state that the Biblical person Zerah (Zarah) was called Zeus in Greek. In I Ch 2:6: the sons of Zerah were: Zimri, Ethan, Heman, Calcol and Dara.

From the above, some would cite Homer and Sanchuniathon as testifying that Dardanus (who founded the Trojan kingdom) was a descendant of Jehud (Judah) whose father was Israel. (Hence: Jacob (Kronus), Judah (Jehud) and Zerah (Zeus)).


Darda, son of Zarah

“DARDANUS, in Greek legend... mythical FOUNDER OF DARDANUS and ANCESTOR OF THE DARDANS of the Troad and, through AENEAS, of THE ROMANS.


CROSSED OVER TO THE TROAD. Being hospitably received by Teucer, he married his daughter Batea and became THE FOUNDER OF THE ROYAL HOUSE OF TROY.” – Britannica Ency.1943 edition. Vol. 7, p. 56.

Britannica bases their evidence on two sources -- the writings of a 4th Century Greek Historian, Hecataeus of Abdera, who was quoting Egyptian history and the familiar Greek epic of Homer “Iliad and the Odyssey ”. In this epic Homer records the story of the founding of Troy and calls Dardanus Illium.

But Who was Dardanus?

Dardanus was the first Trojan King.
According to Jewish historian Josephus, Dardanus was Darda listed in the Bible as one of the son’s of Zarah.

ZARA'S DESCENDANTS FLED OUT OF EGYPT under the leadership of DARDA. The Jewish historian Josephus calls him DARDANUS. There, under the rule of DARDA (DARDANUS) they established a Kingdom, later called TROY.

The Biblical account begins in Genesis Chapter 38. Judah had three sons – Er, Onan and Shelah. Er married Tamar.

God was displeased with Er and slew him. Judah gave Tamar to Onan who refused to have children with her. As a result God slew him also. Judah would not give his last son to Tamar because he was too young and he also feared he would die also. At that time in history it was very important for a woman to have a son. There was no social security system and the mothers needed their sons to take care of them. Tamar had a plan. She dressed as a prostitute and waited for Judah knowing his wife had recently died. She conceived and bore two sons from her union with Judah – Phares and Zarah.

Who wore the Scarlet Thread?

Gen 38:28 And it came to pass, when she travailed, that the one put out his hand: and the midwife took and bound upon his hand a scarlet thread, saying, This came out first.
Gen 38:29 And it came to pass, as he drew back his hand, that, behold, his brother came out: and she said, How hast thou broken forth? this breach be upon thee: therefore his name was called Pharez.
Gen 38:30 And afterward came out his brother, that had the scarlet thread upon his hand: and his name was called Zarah.

So what is the importance of the Scarlet thread?

In Genesis 46:12 Pharez had his own two sons with him, but Zerah went to Egypt without children.
Yet while the records of the census in the desert mention of the sons of Pharez (Num. 26:21), Zerah’s sons are not mentioned.
God had a special purpose for Zarah. His son Dara (Dardanus) was the founder of Troy and began the line of the Trojan Kings.

According to E. Raymond Capt, "Darda, "the Egyptian," (son of Zarah) was "DARDANUS," the EGYPTIAN FOUNDER OF TROY." (Jacob's Pillar. Artisan Sales, Thousand Oaks, CA. 1977, p. 25).


David DWD


David = DWD = D VD = Sveti Vid

Svetovit (Svetovid, Swiatowit, Sutvid, Vid) povezivan s ratovima i proricanjem. Opisivan je kao četveroglavi bog čije su glave gledale na četiri strane. Ovako udruženih glava, on može obuhvatiti pogledom sve strane svijeta (Svevid). Njegov konj bijele boje čuvan je u njegovom hramu i o njemu su se brinuli svećenici. Vjerovalo se da Svetovit ratuje protiv neprijatelja jašući na ovom konju. Isti konj služio je i za gatanje. O Svetovitu su ovisili uspjesi ratnih pohoda, trgovačkih putovanja, bogatstvo žetve. U isto vrijeme on je držao jedan luk ili mač, kao simbol rata, i rog za piće. Baltički Slaveni su ga prihvaćali kao prvog ili najvišeg boga. Vjeruje se da je dolaskom kršćanstva Svetovit i dalje ostao u slavenskom narodu kroz lik svetoga Vida.


Jezikoslovac Mate Šimundić smatra da je izvorni naziv topuskog Vidasusa bio Vid i da je to praslavensko ime. Mate Suić prihvatio je mišljenje da bi Vidasus mogao značiti iscjelitelj. "Autohtono ime Silvana na topuskom spomeniku kao Vidasus moglo bi također imati značenje 'iscjelitelja' kao što je promišljao prof. dr. Mate Suić (nažalost ne i napisao), odnosno moglo bi se dovoditi u vezu s praslavenskim korijenom vido, ved. Prema P. Skoku .. . taj korijen se nalazi u glagolu vidati (se), što znači 'liječiti', odnosno vidar='ljekar'. Prema tome bi vidati kao i 'liječiti' prvobitno značilo 'liječiti viđenjem, pogledom, magijom'. Kod glagola vidjeti (se) opet je veza s praslavenskim korijenom ved-, i u tijesnoj je vezi s izvuvidim=istražiti; vedenie (crkveni jezik) = vizija; vidovit, odnosno vidjelac; usp. lat. video.'"


Vid·asus - aSU$ je keltski sufiks, ali nije isključivo keltski, jer se nalazi u topografskim nazivima naše zemlje, a naročito je čest u nazivima mesta u Maloj Aziji..

N. Nodilo davno je točno zaključio da se pučko i uvelike razgranato osobno ime Vid, Vidak, Vidač, Vidoje, Vidojko, Vitko, Vićan, Vidosav, Vida, Vidna, Vidojka, Vidosava, Ljudovid ne može protumačiti ako se ne prihvati daje ono pozajmljeno od vrhovnoga boga. Ne smije se zanemariti ni podatak da postoji i ptica vidak, koju nazivaju "božja ptičica" ili "božji pivčić"

Shvaćanje prvobitnog značenja riječi Vid nije jedinstveno. Glagol vidati znači "liječiti" i u tom značenju i obliku poznat je samo u hrvatskom i srpskom jeziku. "Vrlo je vjerojatno mišljenje Mažuranićevo, koji dovodi u vezu s praslav. korijenom vido, ved-, koji je u vidovita trava, 'Ijekovita trava za oči, euphrasia officialis, vidac, gen. vica (Vuk, Dubrovnik) herbae genus' = deminutiv vidi čak, gen. očka = vidovčevica. U por. u Sireni Zrinjskoga: Kako vidovinski dar mu konj letiše. Prema tome bi vidati kao i liječiti prvobitno značilo 'liječiti viđenjem, pogledom, magijom' . Upor. polj. widywać i vidjeti.") Da navedeno mišljenje ima temelja, potvrđuje i shvaćanje biljke vid (vidac, vidovka, vidova trava, vid ovčica) kao biljke za gatanje i liječenje očiju. Veselin Čajkanović ističe da naziv biljke vid "ima možda veze sa starinskim istoimenim božanstvom". On naglašava da sva "Vidova vrela" liječe na Vidovdan ili inače od očnih bolesti." Narod se nije obraćao Vidu samo kao iscjelitelju vida. "Samo ime ovog svetitelja, Vid, odredilo je najvećim delom i prirodu rituala koji su izvođeni na njemu posvećen dan. Bilo je, na primer, veoma važno šta će se toga dana videti. Ono što bi čovek tada video, u tome bi -po opštem uverenju -kasnije imao uspeha ... Na Vidovdan se mogla videti i budućnost. Toga dana se mnogo gatalo i proricalo ... Veza Vidovdana s vidom manifestovala se i u narodnoj medicini.

Vlasi su bili najvećim dijelom pastiri, ali su u određenom etničkom smislu u velikom broju bili i balkanski starosjeditelji, koji su u svojim pastirskim kretanjima mogli prenositi kult Vida gdje on nije već otprije postojao.

  • "Sveti Vide koji vidiš; sveti Luka koji lučiš, Sveti Paravia koji tatu ruke vežeš i vuku zube pobiješ ti uščuvaj ovce moje.."
  • "Sveti Vide! -Ti sahrani ovo sime, da do sutra ne pogine."

Sveti Vid

Štovanje Sv. Vida zahvatilo je snažno slavenske zemlje gdje je, čini se, zbog sličnosti imena nadomjestio stari slavenski poganski kult Sventovida. Stoga su crkve Sv. Vida u pravilu sagrađene na uzvisinama, odakle Sv. Vid "sve vidi". U našim krajevima Sv. Vid bio je zaštitnik očiju, odnosno ljudskog vida, a to je bilo moguće samo u južnoslavenskim jezicima, gdje sveti Vid "vidi" gdje njegovo ime glasi Vid, a ne Vit, Veit, Vito, Guido ili Guy. Ikonografija ga prikazuje kao mladića s palmom, u kotlu, katkad s gavranom i lavom. Svetog Vida zazivaju u pomoć padavičari, histerici, opsjednuti. Njegova se zaštita moli za vrijeme grmljavine, nevremena, požara, neplodnosti i jalovosti, kad valja izvesti neke teške zadatke. Kao svoga zaštitnika slave ga ljekarnici, pivari, gostioničari, podrumari, kazandžije, vinogradari, glumci. Preporučuju mu se i ljudi slabog sluha i vida.

Sabazios = Svevid; Saba-Zios = Sve-Vid

  • VID = DIV (Zeus)


A ti, začetniče svake zloće protiv Hebreja, nipošto nećeš izbjeći ruci Božjoj. (32) Mi trpimo zbog svojih grijeha. (33) Pa ako se živi Gospodin na trenutak na nas i razgnjevio, da nas pokara i pouči, on će se opet i pomiriti sa svojim slugama. (34) A ti, bezbožniče, od svih ljudi najpoganiji, ludo se ne uznosi i ne uljuljavaj se ispraznim nadama dižući ruku protiv sinova Neba, (35) jer još nisi izbjegao sudu Boga Svevladara, Svevida. - 2. Makabejci


Sabazios (Hypsistarians) = Tzevaot = Svetovid

The first Jews who settled in Rome were expelled in 139 BCE, along with Chaldaean astrologers by Cornelius Hispalus under a law which proscribed the propagation of the "corrupting" cult of "Jupiter Sabazius", according to the epitome of a lost book of Valerius Maximus:

Gnaeus Cornelius Hispalus, praetor peregrinus in the year of the consulate of Marcus Popilius Laenas and Lucius Calpurnius, ordered the astrologers by an edict to leave Rome and Italy within ten days, since by a fallacious interpretation of the stars they perturbed fickle and silly minds, thereby making profit out of their lies. The same praetor compelled the Jews, who attempted to infect the Roman custom with the cult of Jupiter Sabazius, to return to their homes.

The Romans identified the Jewish YHVH Tzevaot ("sa-ba-oth", "of the Hosts") as Jove Sabazius.

Sabazios = Svetovid

Hypsistarians, i.e. worshippers of the Hypsistos (Greek: Ὕψιστος, the "Most High" God), is a term that appears in documents that date from around 200 BC to around AD 400, referring to various groups mainly in Asia Minor (Cappadocia, Bithynia and Pontus) and the Black Sea coasts that are today part of Russia.

In the Septuagint the root word "hypsisto-" occurs more than fifty times as a substitution for the Tetragrammaton (the name of God) or in direct relation to Him (most often in the Psalms, Daniel, and Sirach).

It is possible that the native Cappadocian cult of Zeus Sabazios slowly integrated into the cult of Jahve Sabaoth practiced by the numerous and intellectually predominant Jewish colonies.

Tzevaot, Tsebaoth or Sabaoth in reference to armies or armed hosts of men in Exodus but is not used as a divine epithet in the Torah, Joshua, or Judges. In the First Book of Samuel, David uses the name YHWH Tzavaot and immediately glosses it as "the God of the armies of Israel". The same name appears in the prophets along with YHWH Elohe Tzevaot, Elohey Tzevaot, and Adonai YHWH Tzevaot.

Frigijska kapa - Sabazios, Iliri


Silvanus, Sabazios = Shiva

Shiva bhasma

Head of Silvanus crowned with pine   Sabazios with pine  
Head of Silvanus crowned with pine - Sabazios with pine (Third Eye) - Shiva bhasma


Saba-Zios = Shiva-Dios

Sabazios   Sabazios  
Sabazios - Shiva

Shiva Attributes

Crescent moon: Shiva bears on his head the crescent moon. The epithet Candraśekhara (Sanskrit: चन्द्रशेखर "Having the moon as his crest" – candra = "moon"; śekhara = "crest, crown") refers to this feature. The placement of the moon on his head as a standard iconographic feature dates to the period when Rudra rose to prominence and became the major deity Rudra-Shiva. The origin of this linkage may be due to the identification of the moon with Soma, and there is a hymn in the Rig Veda where Soma and Rudra are jointly implored, and in later literature, Soma and Rudra came to be identified with one another, as were Soma and the moon.

Crescent moon - Nandī

Nandī, also known as "Nandin", is the name of the bull that serves as Shiva's mount (Sanskrit: vāhana). Shiva's association with cattle is reflected in his name Paśupati, or Pashupati (Sanskrit: पशुपति), translated by Sharma as "lord of cattle" and by Kramrisch as "lord of animals", who notes that it is particularly used as an epithet of Rudra.

  • Silvanus = Sivan, Shiva
  • Sabazios = Shiva Zios = Shiva Dios
  • Sveti Sava se smatrao zaštitnikom pastira i stoke


Silvan - Nataraja

Silvan je prikazan u profilu, kao da pleše, s lijevom nogom naprijed zakoračenom, desna mu je ruka podignuta na razini ramena. (Danilo Gornje) - Shiva as Nataraja, god of dance.




Triskelion of Sicily

Srebrni novac plemena Deroni koji je pronadjen u Vranju.

Novac antičkog plemena Deroni, prikazan je čovjek na kolima koja vuče vol.
Na aversu svakog novčića prikazan je triskelion.

Amphictyonic League

Hellenes - Twelve Tribes

Egipatski neprijatelji - Narodi s mora, Esau - Twelve tribes - Hellenes
Narodi s mora, Esau - Twelve tribes - Hellenes

In the Archaic period of Greek history, an amphictyony, a "league of neighbors", or Amphictyonic League was an ancient religious association of Greek tribes formed in the dim past, before the rise of the Greek polis.

It had twelve founders and was organized to protect the great temples of Apollo in Delphi (Phocis) and of Demeter near Thermopylae (Locris). The twelve founders enumerated by Aeschines were the Aenianes or Oetaeans (Αἰνιᾶνες, Οἰταῖοι), the Boeotians (Βοιωτοί) of Thebes, the Dolopes (Δόλοπες), the Dorians (Δωριείς) of Sparta, the Ionians (Ἴωνες) of Athens, the Phthian Achaeans (Ἀχαιοί), the Locrians (Λοκροί) (Opuntians, Ὀπούντιοι and Ozolians, Ὀζολαί), the Magnesians (Μάγνητες), the Malians (Μαλιεῖς), the Perrhaebians (Περραιβοί), the Phocians (Φωκεῖς), the Pythians (Πύθιοι) of Delphi, and the Thessalians (Θεσσαλοί). Among the descendants of Hellen are mentioned Aeolus, Ion, Achaeus, Dorus, Graecos and Makedon. - Amphictyonic League

Delphic Amphictyonic League Coin
Delphic Amphictyonic League Coin

The Delphic Amphictyonic League coin shows the veiled head of Demeter with a wheat wreath and one wheat ear. The reverse is a serpent coiled around a net-covered omphalos which was a sacred religious stone (or baetylus) in the shape of a navel. In Greek lore, Zeus sent two eagles across the world to meet at its center, the “navel” of the world. Omphalos stones marking the center were erected in several places around the Mediterranean Sea; the most famous of those was at Delphi.

In ancient Greece an amphyictyony was an association of neighboring states formed around a religious center. The most important was the Great Amphictyonic League  or Delphic Amphictyony. Originally composed of 12 tribes dwelling around Thermopylae, the league was centered first on the shrine of Demeter and later became associated with the Temple of Apollo at Delphi. Member states sent two kinds of deputies (pylagorai and hieromnēmones) to a council (pylaia) that met twice a year and administered the temporal affairs of the shrines and their properties, supervised the treasury, and conducted the Pythian Games. In the 4th century BC the league rebuilt the Delphic temple. Although primarily religious, the league exercised a political influence through its membership oath, forbidding destruction of member cities or the cutting off of water supplies; the hieromnēmones could punish offenders and even proclaim a sacred war against them.

Dodecapolis (Greek: Δωδεκάπολις) confederation of twelve cities.


Amfiktionija = Vrijeme Sudaca

Amfiktionija (grč. ἀμφıϰτυονία), savez grčkih plemena i polisa oko nekoga zajedničkog svetišta. Najpoznatija je pilejsko-delfska amfiktionija oko Demetrina hrama u Anteli (Termopilama), poslije i Apolonova hrama u Delfima. Tomu savezu pripadalo je 12 grč. plemena: Tesalci, Perebljani, Magnećani, Ftioćani, Dolopljani, Maljani, Etejani, Lokrani, Fočani, Beoćani, Dorani, Jonjani. Svaki član imao je po dva glasa u skupštini, koja se održavala dvaput na godinu. Zadaća amfiktionije bila je, među ostalim, briga o posjedima svetišta, održavanje puta u Delfe, pripremanje hrama za svečanosti, nadzor nad graničnim kamenjem svetoga zemljišta. Amfiktionija je rješavala i sporove među pojedinim polisima.


Twelve Patriarchs

Twelve Hittite gods

Twelve Olympians

Twelve Israel tribes


Mount Olympus

Mt Olympus was historically also known as Mount Belus

Mount Olympus
Mount Olympus

In antiquity, the Olympus massif forms the border between Thessaly and Macedon.


Hellenes - Helios (Belios), Beli, Bili, Bijeli.. (Sunce)

Before the Trojan war there is no indication of any common action in Hellas, nor indeed of the universal prevalence of the name; on the contrary, before the time of Hellen, son of Deucalion, no such appellation existed, but the country went by the names of the different tribes, in particular of the Pelasgian. It was not till Hellen and his sons grew strong in Phthiotis, and were invited as allies into the other cities, that one by one they gradually acquired from the connection the name of Hellenes; though a long time elapsed before that name could fasten itself upon all. The best proof of this is furnished by Homer. Born long after the Trojan War, he nowhere calls all of them by that name, nor indeed any of them except the followers of Achilles from Phthiotis, who were the original Hellenes: in his poems they are called Danaans, Argives, and Achaeans. He does not even use the term barbarian, probably because the Hellenes had not yet been marked off from the rest of the world by one distinctive appellation. It appears therefore that the several Hellenic communities, comprising not only those who first acquired the name, city by city, as they came to understand each other, but also those who assumed it afterwards as the name of the whole people, were before the Trojan war prevented by their want of strength and the absence of mutual intercourse from displaying any collective action. - Thucydides - The History of the Peloponnesian War

Greece   Pelasgians
Greece - Pelasgians

In Homer's Iliad, the Greek allied forces are described under three different names, often used interchangeably: Argives (in Greek: Argeioi, Ἀργεῖοι; used 29 times in the Iliad), Danaans (Δαναοί, used 138 times) and Achaeans (Ἀχαιοί, used 598 times).

Danaos is the name attributed to a Greek mythological character, twin brother of Aegyptus and son of Achiroe and Belus.

The Greeks later called the autochthonous or Proto-Greek speaking people by the names:

  • Pelasgians who have uncertain origins and lived mainly in Thessaly and Epirus
  • Eteocretans who lived in Crete
  • Minyans who lived in Boeotia


Greek Heroic Age

The Greek Heroic Age, in mythology, is the period between the coming of the Greeks to Thessaly and the Greek return from Troy.

Many of the early Greek heroes were descended from the gods, and were part of the founding narratives of various city-states. They also became the ancestors of later heroes. The Phoenician prince Cadmus, was the first Greek hero. The grandson of Poseidon (through his father Agenor), he founded Thebes.

Perseus, famous for his exploits well before the days of his great-grandson, Heracles, was the son of Zeus. Perseus beheaded the Medusa, saved Andromeda from the sea monster Cetus, and was the legendary founder of Mycenae.

It seems that the myth of Hellen, the patriarch of Hellenes was invented when the Greek tribes started to separate from each other, and stressed their common origin. The name "Hellenes" was probably used by the Greeks with the establishment of the Great Amphictyonic League, an ancient association of Greek tribes. According to legend it was founded after the Trojan War, by the eponymous Amphictyon, brother of Hellen.


Dark Age Greece, c. 1100 – c. 800 BC

Dark Age Greece
Dark Age Greece

Followed by: Archaic Greece


Archaic Greece, c. 800 BC

Archaic Greece

Archaic Greece was the period in Greek history lasting from the eighth century BC to the second Persian invasion of Greece in 480 BC


Stari Grci su ostaci vojnih trupa Ramzesovih

We cannot refer to this confederation of Sea Peoples as Greek, that would be a misnomer. The older term was Hellenes. The Term Greek/Greece does not appear until the 8th century BCE. It was originally used by the Illyrians (Iapygians) or modern day Apulians, to describe a group of immigrants. The Illyrians called the place that they had immigrated from Graia and the immigrants themselves Graeki.


Greeks - Γραικοί

Graea is listed under Boeotia in Homer's Catalogue of Ships in the Iliad.

The German historian Georg Busolt suggested that the name Graeci was given initially by the Romans to the colonists from Graia who helped the Euboeans to establish Cumae in southern Italy, and was then used for all Greeks. The classicist Robin Lane Fox states that Oropus was either located in or identical with the city Graia, and writes:

If men from Oropos-Graia were among the early Greek visitors to Capua or Veii and even early Rome, we can better understand an age-old puzzle: why Greeks were called "Greeks" in the Latin West. Such people told their first contacts in the Latin region that they were "Graikoi," that is, people from Graia. They were thus called "Graeci" by the people whom they met.


Graeae, Graiai and Graiae

The Graeae (alternatively spelled Graiai (Γραῖαι) and Graiae), also called the Phorcides ("daughters of Phorcys") were three sisters who shared one eye and one tooth among them.


Archaic Greece - Hittites & Amorites

Y-chromosome T1a & J2

Haplogroup T-L206  
Y-chromosome T1a - Y-chromosome J2

Per research by Di Giacomo 2004, J-M172 haplogroup spread into Southern Europe" from either the Levant or Anatolia, likely parallel to the development of agriculture. As to the timing of its spread into Europe, Di Giacomo points to events which post-date the Neolithic, in particular the demographic floruit associated with the rise of the Ancient Greek world. Semino et al. derived older age estimates for overall J2 (having used the Zhivotovsky method c.f. Di Giacomo), postulating its initial spread with Neolithic farmers from the Near East. However, its subclade distribution, showing localized peaks in the Southern Balkans, southern Italy, north/central Italy and the Caucasus, does not conform to a single 'wave-of-advance' scenario, betraying a number of still poorly understood post-Neolithic processes which created its current pattern.


Grčki izgovor - grčka slova


Centum and satem languages

Languages of the Indo-European family are classified as either centum languages or satem languages according to how the dorsal consonants (sounds of "K" and "G" type) of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) developed. An example of the different developments is provided by the words for "hundred" found in the early attested Indo-European languages. In centum languages, they typically began with a /k/ sound (Latin centum was pronounced with initial /k/), but in satem languages, they often began with /s/ (the example satem comes from the Avestan language of Zoroastrian scripture).

The canonical centum languages of the Indo-European family are the "western" branches: Hellenic, Celtic, Italic and Germanic. They merged Proto-Indo-European palatovelars and plain velars, yielding plain velars only ("centumisation") but retained the labiovelars as a distinct set.

The Anatolian branch probably falls outside the centum–satem dichotomy; for instance, Luwian indicates that all three dorsal consonant rows survived separately in Proto-Anatolian. The centumisation observed in Hittite is therefore assumed to have occurred only after the breakup of Proto-Anatolian.

The satem languages belong to the Eastern sub-families, especially Indo-Iranian and Balto-Slavic (but not Tocharian).


The Ancient Greek DNA

Ever since the days of Homer, Greeks have long idealized their Mycenaean “ancestors” in epic poems and classic tragedies that glorify the exploits of Odysseus, King Agamemnon, and other heroes who went in and out of favor with the Greek gods. Although these Mycenaeans were fictitious, scholars have debated whether today’s Greeks descend from the actual Mycenaeans, who created a famous civilization that dominated mainland Greece and the Aegean Sea from about 1600 B.C.E. to 1200 B.C.E., or whether the ancient Mycenaeans simply vanished from the region.

Now, ancient DNA suggests that living Greeks are indeed the descendants of Mycenaeans, with only a small proportion of DNA from later migrations to Greece. And the Mycenaeans themselves were closely related to the earlier Minoans, the study reveals, another great civilization that flourished on the island of Crete from 2600 B.C.E. to 1400 B.C.E. (named for the mythical King Minos).

The Lion Gate was the main entrance to the Bronze Age citadel of Mycenae, the center of the Mycenaean civilization
The Lion Gate was the main entrance to the Bronze Age citadel of Mycenae, the center of the Mycenaean civilization.

The ancient DNA comes from the teeth of 19 people, including 10 Minoans from Crete dating to 2900 B.C.E. to 1700 BCE, four Mycenaeans from the archaeological site at Mycenae and other cemeteries on the Greek mainland dating from 1700 B.C.E. to 1200 B.C.E., and five people from other early farming or Bronze Age (5400 B.C.E. to 1340 B.C.E.) cultures in Greece and Turkey. By comparing 1.2 million letters of genetic code across these genomes to those of 334 other ancient people from around the world and 30 modern Greeks, the researchers were able to plot how the individuals were related to each other.

The ancient Mycenaeans and Minoans were most closely related to each other, and they both got three-quarters of their DNA from early farmers who lived in Greece and southwestern Anatolia, which is now part of Turkey, the team reports today in Nature. Both cultures additionally inherited DNA from people from the eastern Caucasus, near modern-day Iran, suggesting an early migration of people from the east after the early farmers settled there but before Mycenaeans split from Minoans.

The Mycenaeans did have an important difference: They had some DNA—4% to 16%—from northern ancestors who came from Eastern Europe or Siberia. This suggests that a second wave of people from the Eurasian steppe came to mainland Greece by way of Eastern Europe or Armenia, but didn’t reach Crete, says Iosif Lazaridis, a population geneticist at Harvard University who co-led the study.

This image shows a woman dancing in a Minoans fresco fragment that dates from 1600 to 1450 BC

Not surprisingly, the Minoans and Mycenaeans looked alike, both carrying genes for brown hair and brown eyes. Artists in both cultures painted dark-haired, dark-eyed people on frescoes and pottery who resemble each other, although the two cultures spoke and wrote different languages. The Mycenaeans were more militaristic, with art replete with spears and images of war, whereas Minoan art showed few signs of warfare, Lazaridis says.

When the researchers compared the DNA of modern Greeks to that of ancient Mycenaeans, they found a lot of genetic overlap. Modern Greeks share similar proportions of DNA from the same ancestral sources as Mycenaeans, although they have inherited a little less DNA from ancient Anatolian farmers and a bit more DNA from later migrations to Greece.

The results also show it is possible to get ancient DNA from the hot, dry landscape of the eastern Mediterranean, Renfrew says. He and others now have hope for getting DNA from groups such as the mysterious Hittites who came to ancient Anatolia sometime before 2000 B.C.E. and who may have been the source of Caucasian ancestry in Mycenaeans and early Indo-European languages in the region. Archaeologist Kristian Kristiansen of the University of Gothenburg in Sweden, who was not involved in the work, agrees. “The results have now opened up the next chapter in the genetic history of western Eurasia—that of the Bronze Age Mediterranean.”


Greek Art

Greek Art

Greek Art

Greek Art

Greek Art

Greek Art

Greek Art
New Ideas Ancient Greek Art And Religious Ceremony In Ancient Greece Francis Oliver Finch

Fresco of Greek Battle


Gaia - Uranus

Gaia   Uranus
Gaia - Uranus (symbol: zodiac, wheel)

Uranus (/ˈjʊərənəs, jʊˈreɪnəs/; Ancient Greek Οὐρανός, Ouranos [oːranós] meaning "sky" or "heaven") was the primal Greek god personifying the sky.

Gaia, Hesiod's Theogony tells how, after Chaos, "wide-bosomed" Gaia (Earth) arose to be the everlasting seat of the immortals who possess Olympus above, and the depths of Tartarus below. He then tells that Gaia brought forth her equal Uranus (Heaven, Sky) to "cover her on every side" and to be the abode of the gods. Gaia also bore the hills (ourea), and Pontus (Sea), "without sweet union of love" (i.e., with no father). Afterwards with Uranus she gave birth to the Titans, as Hesiod tells it:

She lay with Heaven and bore deep-swirling Oceanus, Coeus and Crius and Hyperion and Iapetus, Theia and Rhea, Themis and Mnemosyne and gold-crowned Phoebe and lovely Tethys. After them was born Cronos [Cronus] the wily, youngest and most terrible of her children, and he hated his lusty sire.

In the Olympian creation myth, as Hesiod tells it in the Theogony, Uranus came every night to cover the earth and mate with Gaia, but he hated the children she bore him. Hesiod named their first six sons and six daughters the Titans, the three one-hundred-handed giants the Hekatonkheires, and the one-eyed giants the Cyclopes.

Uranus imprisoned Gaia's youngest children in Tartarus, deep within Earth, where they caused pain to Gaia. She shaped a great flint-bladed sickle and asked her sons to castrate Uranus. Only Cronus, youngest and most ambitious of the Titans, was willing: he ambushed his father and castrated him, casting the severed testicles into the sea.

For this fearful deed, Uranus called his sons Titanes Theoi, or "Straining Gods." From the blood that spilled from Uranus onto the Earth came forth the Giants, the Erinyes (the avenging Furies), the Meliae (the ash-tree nymphs), and, according to some, the Telchines. From the genitals in the sea came forth Aphrodite.

The Greek creation myth is similar to the Hurrian creation myth. In Hurrian religion Anu is the sky god. His son Kumarbis bit off his genitals and spat out three deities, one of whom, Teshub, later deposed Kumarbis. In Sumerian mythology and later for Assyrians and Babylonians, Anu is the sky god and represented law and order.

  • Uranus; akkadian "Uru-Anna" (light of heaven)
  • Gaia (Earth) = Ki was the earth goddess in Sumerian mythology, chief consort of the sky god An. Ki and An were brother and sister.


Uranus's family tree - Titans

The Earth
The Sky
Erinyes Gigantes Meliae Aphrodite Hecatonchires Cyclopes Echidna
Pleione Atlas
Zeus Hera Poseidon Hestia Hades Demeter
Semele Maia Leto
Dionysus Hermes Apollo Artemis Athena Ares Hephaestus

Hermes, Zeus & Athena
Hermes, Zeus & Athena

  • Hyperion-Theia - Amarna (Akhenaton & Nefertiti..) - Trojans
  • Oceanus-Tethys (Dardanians..) - Trojans
  • Coeus-Phoebe (Luwians) - Trojans
  • Cronus-Rhea (Eighteenth & Nineteenth Dynasty); Yuya (Poseidon), Ramesses II (Zeus) - Argead dynasty, greek forces opposed to the Trojans


The Sons of Cronus - Hades, Poseidon & Zeus

Zeus, Poseidon & Hades

Hades, the god of the underworld, was the first-born son of the Titans Cronus and Rhea. He had three older sisters, Hestia, Demeter, and Hera, as well as a younger brother, Poseidon, all of whom had been swallowed whole by their father as soon as they were born. Zeus was the youngest child and through the machinations of their mother, Rhea, he was the only one that had escaped this fate. Upon reaching adulthood, Zeus managed to force his father to disgorge his siblings. After their release, the six younger gods, along with allies they managed to gather, challenged the elder gods for power in the Titanomachy, a divine war. The war lasted for ten years and ended with the victory of the younger gods. Following their victory, according to a single famous passage in the Iliad (Book XV, ln.187–93), Hades and his two brothers, Poseidon and Zeus, drew lots for realms to rule. Zeus received the sky, Poseidon received the seas, and Hades received the underworld, the unseen realm to which the souls of the dead go upon leaving the world as well as any and all things beneath the earth. Some myths suggest that Hades was dissatisfied with his turnout, but had no choice and moved to his new realm.

  • Hadad (Rammanu, Rama, Ram) je dobio podzemlje, te postaje Hades bog podzemlja
  • Yuya (Paneah Safenat) je dobio more, te postaje Poseidon bog mora i oluja
  • Ramsses je dobio nebo, te postaje Div/Zeus, bog neba i grmljavine


Hellenes - Patriarch Hellen

In Greek mythology, the perceived cultural divisions among the Hellenes were represented as legendary lines of descent that identified kinship groups, with each line being derived from an eponymous ancestor. Each of the Greek ethne were said to be named in honor of their respective ancestors: Achaeus of the Achaeans, Danaus of the Danaans, Cadmus of the Cadmeans (the Thebans), Hellen of the Hellenes (not to be confused with Helen of Troy), Aeolus of the Aeolians, Ion of the Ionians, and Dorus of the Dorians. Cadmus from Phoenicia, Danaus from Egypt, and Pelops from Anatolia each gained a foothold in mainland Greece and were assimilated and Hellenized. Hellen, Graikos, Magnes, and Macedon were sons of Deucalion and Pyrrha, the only people who survived the Great Flood; the ethne were said to have originally been named Graikoi after the elder son but later renamed Hellenes after Hellen who was proved to be the strongest. Sons of Hellen and the nymph Orseis were Dorus, Xuthos, and Aeolus. Sons of Xuthos and Kreousa, daughter of Erechthea, were Ion and Achaeus.


Genealogy of Hellenes



Aeolus - Aeolian Islands

Map of the Aeolian Islands
Map of the Aeolian Islands

The Aeolian Islands (/ˈliən/ ee-OH-lee-ən; Italian: Isole Eolie [ˈiːzole eˈɔːlje]; Sicilian: Ìsuli Eoli; Greek: Αιολίδες Νήσοι, romanized: Aiolídes Nísoi), sometimes referred to as the Lipari Islands or Lipari group (/ˈlɪpəri/ LIP-ə-ree, Italian: [ˈliːpari]) after their largest island, are a volcanic archipelago in the Tyrrhenian Sea north of Sicily, named after the demigod of the winds Aeolus. The islands' inhabitants are known as Aeolians (Italian: Eoliani).

Lipar (Serbian Cyrillic: Липар) is a village in the Kula municipality, in the West Bačka District, Vojvodina province, Serbia.


Aeolic dialect - Ilirsko-slavenski jezik

Konstantinos Oikonomos
Konstantinos Oikonomos

Oće naš
Oće naš

In Plato's Protagoras, Prodicus labelled the Aeolic dialect of Pittacus of Mytilene as "barbarian" (barbaros), because of its difference from the Attic literary style: "He didn't know to distinguish the words correctly, being from Lesbos, and having been raised with a barbarian dialect".


Knot of Inanna - Aeolic order

Aeolian order

Aeolic column with half-capital

Ionic order - Knot of Inanna
Aeolic order - Knot of Inanna

Knot of Inanna
Knot of Inanna

Stećci - Knot of Inanna
Stećci - Knot of Inanna

Stećci - Illyrians
Stećci - Illyrians

Stećci - Illyrians
Stećci - Illyrians

Stećci - Illyrians   Stećci - Illyrians
Stećci - Illyrians

Stećci - Illyrians
Stećci - Illyrians

Vinalia Rustica (August 19), originally a rustic Latin festival of wine, vegetable growth and fertility. This was almost certainly Venus' oldest festival and was associated with her earliest known form, Venus Obsequens. Kitchen gardens and market-gardens, and presumably vineyards were dedicated to her.

  • Venera - Vino



Jonsko more
Jonsko more


Ionians   Ionians


  • "Šimune, sine Jonin" - bar Jona, znači sin goluba


Thana - Atena

Boginja Thana ili Dana. Oko glave ima krunu sa sedam svjetlosnih zraka.
(Roman bronze votive plaque, The Danube, 2nd-3rd Century AD)
Boginja Thana ili Dana. Oko glave ima krunu sa sedam svjetlosnih zraka.
(Roman bronze votive plaque, The Danube, 2nd-3rd Century AD)

THANA (DANA) je pratilja boga Vidasusa. Njoj odgovara grčka boginja ATENA (ATINA), rimska Minerva. Pogledajmo srbska narodna imena sa korijenom TAN-:

  • Tân (velški/vlaški) = vatra: TANASIJA, TANASKO, TANKOSA, TANA, TANJA; Kad plamen vatre nestane i vidimo samo sjaj žara, kažemo da vatra TINJA.
  • Dân (velški/vlaški) = DANKO, DANILO, DANA, DANICA, DANIJELA; Danica (Venera), izlazi pred zoru prije izlaska Sunca i donosi DAN.

U mikenskom Knososu nađen je najstariji zapis imena boginje ATENE (Linear B tablets from the Late Minoan II-era, "Room of the Chariot Tablets"): A-TA-NA PO-TI-NI-JA (Athana potiniya). Takođe je mikenskim lineranim pismom nađeno je zapisano A-ta-no-dju-wa-ja (ATANO DJUWAJA). Po korijenu TAN- riječ ATANO znači VATRENA, SVJETLOSNA, a riječ DJUWAJA (ĐUVAJA, ĆUVAJA) nalazimo u riječi ČUVETA:

"čuveta f (16. v., Dubrovnik, Marin Držić, Hrvatsko Primorje, Dalmacija) = čuvita (Marulić, Kavanjin, Rab, Vrbnik, Rava) = deminutiv na -ica čuvitica = (c mjesto č) ćuvita (Nin) = ćuveta (Hrvatsko Primorje) 'sova, soja, jejić, uhaljka'. Od mlet. tsoveta, zveta, tal. civetta, ciovetta, (Abruzzi)" (P. Skok, Etimologijski rjecnik hrvatskoga ili srpskoga jezika, JAZU, zagreb, 1971).

Ćuk i Atena sa ćukom
Ćuk i Atena sa ćukom

Dakle je mikensko DJUWAJA isto kao i ĆUVAJA, tj. ĆUK, ĆUVAJA (SOVA). Srpsko-hrvatska riječ ĆUK nastala je od DJUWAJA (DJUVAJA) sljedećim putem: glasovi DJ prvo daju Đ: ĐUVAJA, a poslije pri izgovoru Đ prelazi u Ć, te tako nastaje i oblik ĆUVAJA (izgovorite to i uvjerićete se). Od oblika ĆUVAJA vremenom nastaje ČUVAJA, ČUVITICA, ČUVITA, što je u našem primorju ime SOVE. Sve ovo je jedan od dokaza da drevni Mikenci i mikenska kultura izvorno ne pripadaju Grcima, jer i riječ ATINA (ATENA) i riječ DJUWAJA (DJUVAJA) nisu riječi nastale od grčkog jezika, niti ih Grci imaju u svom jeziku.


Athena was originally the Aegean goddess of the palace, who presided over household crafts and protected the king. A single Mycenaean Greek inscription a-ta-na po-ti-ni-ja /Athana potnia/ appears at Knossos in the Linear B tablets from the Late Minoan II-era "Room of the Chariot Tablets"; these comprise the earliest Linear B archive anywhere. Although Athana potnia is often translated Mistress Athena, it could also mean "the Potnia of Athana", or the Lady of Athens. A sign series a-ta-no-dju-wa-ja appears in the still undeciphered corpus of Linear A tablets, written in the unclassified Minoan language.

  • A-ta-no-dju-wa-ja  = A-te-na-ču-va-ja

Owl of Athena - a-ta-no-dju-wa-ja
Owl of Athena - a-ta-no-dju-wa-ja

Nilsson and others have claimed that, in early times, Athena was either an owl herself or a bird goddess in general. "Athena, by the time she appears in art," Jane Ellen Harrison remarks, "has completely shed her animal form, has reduced the shapes she once wore of snake and bird to attributes, but occasionally in black-figure vase-paintings she still appears with wings.


Inanna   Ereshkigal
Inanna - Ereshkigal


Knot of Inanna - Ionic order

Ionic order
Ionic order


Knot of Inanna - Ionic order
Knot of Inanna - Aeolic order

Since Vitruvius a female character has been ascribed to the Ionic, in contrast to the masculine Doric.
Since Vitruvius a female character has been ascribed to the Ionic, in contrast to the masculine Doric.

Doric order - Ionic order   Doric order - Ionic order
Doric order - Ionic order


Egg and dart

The Ionic order forms one of the three classical orders of classical architecture, the other two canonic orders being the Doric and the Corinthian. The Ionic capital is characterized by the use of volutes. The Ionic columns normally stand on a base which separates the shaft of the column from the stylobate or platform; the cap is usually enriched with egg-and-dart.

Egg-and-dart molding at the top of an Ionic capital
Egg-and-dart molding at the top of an Ionic capital


Hemsut / Neith - Athena

Hemsut were the Goddesses of Fate, destiny and protection in Ancient Egypt and Ancient Libya. They were closely associated with the concept of the ka (life force or spirit) and could be seen as the female personification of the masculine ka. They could also be seen as the personification of the creative potential in the primeval water from which everything was created.

Hemsut   Neith   Athena
Hemsut - Neith - Athena

They were generally depicted as women bearing a egg with two crossed arrows above it (the symbol of Neith). Occasionally, they were also depicted as kneeling women holding a child in their arms. According to the Memphite Theology they were created by Ptah but in Sais they were closely connected with Neith who was said to have drawn them from the waters of Nun.

Neith is the goddess of:

  1. hunting and war
  2. wisdom, weaving and fate
  3. mothers, rivers, water, childbirth

Neith is the goddess of hunting, wisdom & childbirth
Neith is the goddess of hunting, wisdom & childbirth

The Greek historian Herodotus (c. 484–425 BC) noted that the Egyptian citizens of Sais in Egypt worshipped Neith and that they identified her with Athena. The Timaeus, a dialogue written by Plato, mirrors that identification with Athena, possibly as a result of the identification of both goddesses with war and weaving.

Latopolis or Letopolis or πόλις Λάτων (Polis Laton) or Λάττων (Latton); Latin: Lato, is a city in Egypt. It is located on the west bank of the River Nile, some 55 km south of Luxor. The name "Latopolis" is in honor of the Nile perch, Lates niloticus, the largest of the 52 species which inhabit the Nile, which was abundant in these stretches of the river in ancient times, and which appears in sculptures, among the symbols of the goddess Neith, associated by the ancient Greeks as Pallas-Athene, surrounded by the oval shield or ring indicative of royalty or divinity. Held sacred, the Lates niloticus was buried in a cemetery west of the town.

Ancient Libya is identified as a possible source of the deity, Neith, who also was a creation deity in Ancient Egypt and, when the Greeks occupied Egypt, they said that Neith was called Athene in Greece.


Neith - Yoni - Ionians


Neith (/nθ/ or /nθ/; also spelled Nit, Net, or Neit) is an early goddess in the Egyptian pantheon, said to be the first and the prime creator. She is the patron deity of Sais, where her cult was centered in the Western Nile Delta of northern Egypt and attested as early as the First Dynasty.The Ancient Egyptian name of this city was Zau. She is the creator of the universe and all it contains and she governs how it functions, "I am the things that are, that will be, and that have been..."

Neith also is one of the three tutelary deities of the ancient Egyptian southern city of Ta-senet or Iunyt known as Esna (Arabic: إسنا), Greek: Λατόπολις (Latopolis), or πόλις Λάτων (polis Laton), or Λάττων (Laton); Latin: Lato), which is located on the west bank of the River Nile, some 55 km south of Luxor, in the modern Qena Governorate.

Neith is a far more complex goddess than is generally known, however, and of whom ancient texts only hint of her true nature. A religious silence was imposed by ancient Egyptians for secrecy, employing euphemisms and allusions and often relying on symbols alone.

As a deity, Neith is normally shown carrying the was scepter (symbol of rule and power) and the ankh (symbol of life). She is also called such cosmic epithets as the "Cow of Heaven", a sky-goddess similar to Nut, and as the Great Flood, Mehet-Weret (MHt wr.t), as a cow who gives birth to the sun daily. In these forms, she is associated with creation of both the primeval time and daily "re-creation". As protectress of the Royal House, she is represented as a uraeus, and functions with the fiery fury of the sun, In time, this led to her being considered as the personification of the primordial waters of creation. She is identified as a great mother goddess in this role as a creator. She is the personification of the primeval waters, able to give birth (create) parthenogenetically (without the opposite gender). Among the pairs of deities usually noted by the later ancient Egyptians, she is pared with Ptah-Nun. In the same manner, her personification as the primeval waters is Mehetweret (MHt wr.t), the Great Flood, conceptualized as streaming water, related to another use of the verb sti, meaning 'to pour'.

Her first anthropomorphic representations occur in the early dynastic period, on a diorite vase of King Ny-Netjer of the Second Dynasty, found in the Step Pyramid of Djoser (Third Dynasty) at Saqqara. That her worship predominated the early dynastic periods is shown by a preponderance of theophoric names (personal names which incorporate the name of a deity) within which Neith appears as an element. Predominance of Neith's name in nearly forty percent of early dynastic names, and particularly in the names of four royal women of the First Dynasty, only emphasizes the importance of this goddess in relation to the early society of Egypt, with special emphasis upon the Royal House.

In the very early periods of Egyptian history, the main iconographic representations of this goddess appear to have been limited to her hunting and war characteristics, although there is no Egyptian mythological reference to support the concept that this was her primary function as a deity.

Neith symbol
Neith symbol

Neith symbol - Merneith stele
Neith symbol - Merneith stele


Yoni - Lingam-Varanasi
Yoni - Lingam-Varanasi


Uttu - Athena

Uttu = Athena
Uttu = Athena

Uttu is an ancient Sumerian goddess associated with weaving. The same cuneiform symbol used to write her name was also used to write the Sumerian word for "spider", indicating that Uttu was probably envisioned as a spider spinning a web. She appears primarily in the myth of Enki and Ninsikila, in which she resists the sexual advances of her father Enki by ensconcing herself inside her web, but he convinces her to let him in using a gift of fresh produce and the promise that he will marry her. Enki then intoxicates her with beer and rapes her. She is rescued by Enki's wife Ninhursag, who removes Enki's semen from her vagina and plants it in the ground, resulting in the growth of eight new plants, which Enki later eats.

Minerva Symbols Owl of Minerva, olive tree, serpent of Jupiter, the Parthenon, the spear, the spindle, spiders and Hellebore


Tanit - Athena



Tanit was a Punic and Phoenician goddess, the chief deity of Carthage alongside her consort Baal-Hamon.

The origins of Tanit are to be found in the pantheon of Ugarit, especially in the Ugaritic goddess Anat (Hvidberg-Hansen 1982).

In Egyptian, her name means 'Land of Neith', Neith being a war goddess. Her symbol (the sign of Tanit), found on many ancient stone carvings, appears as a trapezium closed by a horizontal line at the top and surmounted in the middle by a circle; the horizontal arm is often terminated either by two short upright lines at right angles to it or by hooks.

Tanit   Tanit   Tanit   Tanit

Several apparent tophets have been identified, chiefly a large one in Carthage, dubbed the Tophet of Salammbó, after the neighbourhood where it was unearthed in 1921. Soil in the Tophet of Salammbó was found to be full of olive wood charcoal, probably from the sacrificial pyres. It was the location of the temple of the goddess Tanit and the necropolis. Animal remains, mostly sheep and goats, found inside some of the Tophet urns, strongly suggest that this was not a burial ground for children who died prematurely. The animals were sacrificed to the gods, presumably in place of children (one surviving inscription refers to the animal as "a substitute"). It is conjectured that the children unlucky enough not to have substitutes were also sacrificed and then buried in the Tophet. The remains include the bodies of both very young children and small animals, and those who argue in favor of child sacrifice have argued that if the animals were sacrificed then so too were the children. The area covered by the Tophet in Carthage was probably over an acre and a half by the fourth century BCE, with nine different levels of burials. About 20,000 urns were deposited between 400 BCE and 200 BCE. The urns contained the charred bones of newborns and in some cases the bones of fetuses and two-year-olds. These double remains have been interpreted to mean that in the cases of stillborn babies, the parents would sacrifice their youngest child.

Dama iz Elchea

Španjolski znanstvenici su otkrili jednu nevjerojatnu stvar, na leđima biste, ispod gotovo nevidljivog poklopca zalijepljenog prirodnim gipsom, su pronađene ljudske kosti i pepeo, ti ostaci su datirani na peto i četvrto stoljeće prije nove ere.

Pozadina dame iz Elchea s otvorom u kojem su se nalazili ljudski ostaci i pepeo.
Pozadina dame iz Elchea s otvorom u kojem su se nalazili ljudski ostaci i pepeo.

Znanstvenike zbunjuje i znakovita razlika u količinama fosfora, kalcija i silicija u ljudskim kostima i pepelu, no za sada su tu enigmu objasnili različitim načinima kremacije. Drugim riječima dama iz Echea nikako nije bila obična urna jer su u nju položeni ljudski ostaci s različitih lokacija i iz različitih vremenskih perioda.

Dama iz Elchea   Tanit
Dama iz Elchea - Tanit

  • Uttu > Anat & Neith > Tanit & Athena (Atint-anes, Atint-ani)

Atintanes or Atintanians (Greek: Ἀτιντάνες, Atintánes, Latin: Atintani) was an ancient Greek tribe in Epirus. It inhabited a region inland of the Epirote coast which was called Atintania.

Thucydides listed them among the “barbarians” living north-west from the Greek lands. Strabon presented them as Epirote people.

In the lexicon "Ethnika" of Stephanus of Byzantium, Atintania appears as a region of Macedonia, named after Atintan, a son of Makednos in the version of Lycaon.

Atintani were a tribe in Illyria, north of Via Egnatia. Appian (95 – 165 AD) mentions them close to Epidamnus. During the Illyrian Wars, the Atintani went over to the Romans and, according to Appian, Demetrius of Pharos tried to detach them from Roman authority. The Atintani seem to have originated from the obscure, perhaps Thracian Tynteni, only attested in coins. The Atintani were ruled by the Thracian dynasty of the Peresadyes.

  • Atintanes, Atin-tanes (Athena + Tanit)

The Athenians, who were certainly Pelasgi - Herodotus History

Ramesses III Index Dorians