Ramesses III

Ramesses III, 1186 - 1155 BC

During his long tenure in the midst of the surrounding political chaos of the Greek Dark Ages, Egypt was beset by foreign invaders (including the so-called Sea Peoples and the Libyans) and experienced the beginnings of increasing economic difficulties and internal strife which would eventually lead to the collapse of the Twentieth Dynasty. In Year 8 of his reign, the Sea Peoples, including Peleset, Denyen, Shardana, Meshwesh of the sea, and Tjekker, invaded Egypt by land and sea. Ramesses III defeated them in two great land and sea battles. Although the Egyptians had a reputation as poor seamen, they fought tenaciously. Rameses lined the shores with ranks of archers who kept up a continuous volley of arrows into the enemy ships when they attempted to land on the banks of the Nile. Then, the Egyptian navy attacked using grappling hooks to haul in the enemy ships. In the brutal hand-to-hand fighting which ensued, the Sea People were utterly defeated. The Harris Papyrus states:

As for those who reached my frontier, their seed is not, their heart and their soul are finished forever and ever. As for those who came forward together on the seas, the full flame was in front of them at the Nile mouths, while a stockade of lances surrounded them on the shore, prostrated on the beach, slain, and made into heaps from head to tail.

Ramesses III claims that he incorporated the Sea Peoples as subject peoples and settled them in Southern Canaan, although there is no clear evidence to this effect; the pharaoh, unable to prevent their gradual arrival in Canaan, may have claimed that it was his idea to let them reside in this territory. Their presence in Canaan may have contributed to the formation of new states in this region such as Philistia after the collapse of the Egyptian Empire in Asia. Ramesses III was also compelled to fight invading Libyan tribesmen in two major campaigns in Egypt's Western Delta in his Year 5 and Year 11 respectively.

The heavy cost of these battles slowly exhausted Egypt's treasury and contributed to the gradual decline of the Egyptian Empire in Asia. The severity of these difficulties is stressed by the fact that the first known labour strike in recorded history occurred during Year 29 of Ramesses III's reign, when the food rations for the favoured and elite royal tomb-builders and artisans in the village of Set Maat her imenty Waset (now known as Deir el-Medina), could not be provisioned. Something in the air (possibly the Hekla 3 eruption) prevented much sunlight from reaching the ground and also arrested global tree growth for almost two full decades until 1140 BC. The result in Egypt was a substantial increase in grain prices under the later reigns of Ramesses VI–VII, whereas the prices for fowl and slaves remained constant. Thus the cooldown affected Ramesses III's final years and impaired his ability to provide a constant supply of grain rations to the workmen of the Deir el-Medina community.

These difficult realities are completely ignored in Ramesses' official monuments, many of which seek to emulate those of his famous predecessor, Ramesses II, and which present an image of continuity and stability. He built important additions to the temples at Luxor and Karnak, and his funerary temple and administrative complex at Medinet-Habu is amongst the largest and best-preserved in Egypt; however, the uncertainty of Ramesses' times is apparent from the massive fortifications which were built to enclose the latter. No temple in the heart of Egypt prior to Ramesses' reign had ever needed to be protected in such a manner. - Ramesses III

Papyrus Harris I

Its historical section mentions that Setnakhte, Ramesses III's father and predecessor, restored order and stability to Egypt after a time of internal civil conflict, expelling Asiatic followers of Irsu. Ramesses III himself reorganized the state bureaucracy and the army. He fought wars against the Peoples of the Sea and claims to have subdued them and made them subjects of Egypt. The Edomites too were subjugated. In the west he stopped the incursions of the Libyans and Meshwesh and settled them in the western Nile delta. His economic activities included the digging of a great well at Ayan, an expedition to Punt, an ill-defined region in the Horn of Africa, the importation of copper from Atika, and an expedition to the Sinai peninsula which returned with precious stones. Improving the quality of life of the ordinary Egyptian he had trees planted for shade, he protected women so they might go freely wherever they wanted, and, when Egypt was at peace, its foreign mercenaries lived with their families in garrison towns. Overall, he was convinced of having greatly bettered the lot of all inhabitants of Egypt, natives or foreigners. - Papyrus Harris I

Karkisha = Kohen, Arsu /Great Harris Papyrus) = Aaron

Irsu (alt. Arsu, Iarsu, Yarsu) = Aaron, Argo, Argonauts


Mycenae final collapse, 1180 BC

None of the defence measures appear to have prevented the final destruction and collapse of the Mycenaean states. A second destruction struck Mycenae in ca. 1190 BC or shortly thereafter. This event marked the end of Mycenae as a major power. The site was then reoccupied, but on a smaller scale. The palace of Pylos, in the southwestern Peloponnese, faced destruction in c. 1180 BC. The Linear B archives found there, preserved by the heat of the fire that destroyed the palace, mention hasty defence preparations due to an imminent attack without giving any detail about the attacking force.

As a result of this turmoil, specific regions in mainland Greece witnessed a dramatic population decrease, especially Boeotia, Argolis and Messenia. Mycenaean refugees migrated to Cyprus and the Levantine coast. Nevertheless, other regions on the edge of the Mycenaean world prospered, such as the Ionian islands, the northwestern Peloponnese, parts of Attica and a number of Aegean islands. The acropolis of Athens, oddly, appears to have avoided destruction.

The fall of Mycenaean Greece was a result of internal disturbances which led to internecine warfare among the Mycenaean states or civil unrest in a number of states, as a result of the strict hierarchical social system and the ideology of the wanax.

Late Bronze Age collapse, Mycenae collapse, Trojan War, Exodus & Argonautica are associated events

Late Bronze Age collapse


Different tribes in ancient Egypt

Kompilacija od stakla i keramike sa prikazom tradicionalnih neprijatelja drevnog Egipta, nalazi se u hramu Medinet Habu, od vladavine Ramzesa III (1182-1151 BC).

Nubians, Phoenician, Amorite, Syrian And Hittite

Labu, Shekelesh, Amorite, Canaanite & Peleset - (Ramesses III)

Canaanite, Nubian & Meshwesh

Egyptian, Canaanite, Nubian & Labu


Sea Peoples - Ramesses III

1186 - 1155 BC

Date Narrative Source(s) Peoples named
c. 1150 BC Ramesses III Medinet Habu Denyen, Peleset, Shekelesh, Sherden, Teresh, Tjekker, Weshesh
Papyrus Harris I Denyen, Peleset, Sherden, Tjekker, Weshesh
Rhetorical Stela Peleset, Teresh

Sea Peoples, 1181 - 1178 - 1174 BC

U osmoj godini njegove vladavine srednji istok je opet proključao; bez dvojbe zbog nove selidbe naroda kao i nekoliko nerodnih godina koje su izazvale glad. Toliko je bio snažan udar tih masa, dovoljno očajnih i dobro naoružanih, da se urušio i egipatski stari neprijatelj: Hetitski imperij. Ova masa naroda sastojala se od plemena koje su Egipćani zvali Peleset (Filistejci), Tjeker (možda ovaj naziv ima veze s Teucrima), Shekelesh (možda Sikels sa Sicilije), Washesh (nepoznata porijekla) i Denyen ili Dardany (možda Danajci iz Homerove "Ilijade"). Svi skupa su sačinjavali konfederaciju koja se naziva "Narodi s mora", ili ponegdje: pomorski narodi.

The text before the King includes the following:

Thou puttest great terror of me in the hearts of their chiefs; the fear and dread of me before them; that I may carry off their warriors (phrr), bound in my grasp, to lead them to thy ka, O my august father, - - - - -. Come, to [take] them, being: Peleset (Pw-r'-s'-t), Denyen (D'-y-n-yw-n'), Shekelesh (S'-k-rw-s). Thy strength it was which was before me, overthrowing their seed, - thy might, O lord of gods.

The "Great Inscription on the Second Pylon", which includes the following text:

The foreign countries (ie. Sea Peoples) made a conspiracy in their islands, All at once the lands were removed and scattered in the fray. No land could stand before their arms: from Hatti, Qode, Carchemish, Arzawa and Alashiya on, being cut off [ie. destroyed] at one time. A camp was set up in Amurru. They desolated its people, and its land was like that which has never come into being. They were coming forward toward Egypt, while the flame was prepared before them. Their confederation was the Peleset, Tjeker, Shekelesh, Denyen and Weshesh, lands united. They laid their hands upon the land as far as the circuit of the earth, their hearts confident and trusting: "Our plans will succeed!"

Medinet Habu opisuje tri invazije naroda s mora:

U 5. godini vladavine Ramzesa III spominju se samo Peleset i Tjeker, ostali popis je izgubljen.
U 8. godini spominju se Peleset, Tjeker, Shekelesh, Denyen i Weshesh.
U 12. godini spominju se Tjeker, Peleset, Denyen, Weshesh i Shekelesh.

The invasions were not merely military operations, but involved the movements of large populations, by land and sea, seeking new lands to settle.
The Peleset and Tjekker warriors who fought in the land battle are accompanied in the reliefs by women and children loaded in ox-carts.

The land army was also routed within Egyptian controlled territory. Additional information is given in the relief on the outer side of the east wall. This land battle occurred in the vicinity of Djahy against "the northern countries". When it was over, several chiefs were captive: of Hatti, Amor and Shasu among the "land peoples" and the Tjeker, "Sherden of the sea", "Teresh of the sea" and Peleset or Philistines (in whose name some have seen the ancient Greek name for sea people; Pelasgians).

Papyrus Harris I of the period does not mention the date.

"I slew the Denyen (D'-yn-yw-n) in their isles" and "burned" the Tjeker and Peleset, implying a maritime raid of his own. He also captured some Sherden and Weshesh "of the sea" and settled them in Egypt.

A couple of Shasu are clearly represented as recruited (together some Sherden) in the Pharaoh Ramesses III army.

Egyptian name Original identification
People Trans - literation Theory Other theories
Denyen d3jnjw Danaoi Dardani, Tribe of Dan
Peleset prwsṯ Philistines Pelasgians
Shekelesh š3krš3 Siculi  
Sherden š3rdn Sardinians, tribe of Dan  
Teresh twrš3 Tyrrhenians  
Tjekker ṯ3k3r Teucrians  
Weshesh w3š3š3   Tribe of Asher

We suggest;

Peleset, Tjekker, Denyen (Dardany) = Trojans: Pelasgians, Teucrians, Dardani


Prisoners of Ramesses III

Meshwesh, Denyen?, Canaanite?, Peleset & Canaanite

Labu, Shekelesh?, 2 Canaanites & Denyen

Labu, Shasu, Canaanite, Meshwesh? & Denyen

During the reign of Rameses III, Philistines were allowed to resettle the coastal strip from Gaza to Joppa, Denyen (possibly the tribe of Dan in the Bible, or more likely the people of Adana, also known as Danuna, part of the Hittite Empire) settled from Joppa to Acre, and Tjekker in Acre. The sites quickly achieved independence, as the Tale of Wenamun shows.

Denyen (D-y-n-yw-n)


Based on New Kingdom Egyptian text, the Denyen are considered one of the major groups of the Sea Peoples and they were outstanding seamen, and warriors. The Denyen are known from Egyptian, Hittite, and classical sources. In the historical sources, the Denyen are known by many different names such as Danuna, Danunites, Danaoi, Danaus, Danaids, Dene, Danai, Danaian. The earliest Egyptian text is the El-Amarna letters (mid 14th c. BC), which tells of Pharaoh Amenhotep IV's vassal, the king of the Phoenician City of Tyre, Abimilki. The el-Amarna letter (no. 151) tells of the king of Denyen’s death and that his brother became king and his land is at peace. The Denyen next appear during the reign of Ramesses III eighth year (about 1191 or 1184 BC) at his mortuary temple of Medinet Habu. The relief tells that their was a confederation of Peleset, Tjekker, Shelelesh, Denyen, and Weshesh that united to attack Egypt.

The Denyen are also mentioned in the Papyrus Harris (where Ramesses III himself tell us about his victory over the Sea People), and in the text of the Onomasticon of Amenope which mentions the Dene and Gardiner suggests identifiying the Dene with the Danuna or Danaoi that may refer to a tribe living in the plain of Argos. 

There are several theories on where the Denyen came from: 1) Eastern Cilicia, 2) Mycenae, 3) Canaan. The first theory is that the Denyen came from Cilicia is based on the name of Adana, a city in the eastern part of Cilicia. Under the name Adaniya which, was named by Telepinus whose reign is now dated at 1525-1500 BC. According to Barnett, the Denyen lived in Cilicia in the ninth century BC, and caused alarm to their neighbors Amanus, Kalamu of Sam’al. Not only the Denyen of el-Amarna, but the Dan of the Egyptian sources as well were the inhabitants of the Cilician Adana. The Denyen are also known from the Karatepe inscription, which mentions the legendary Greek hero named Mopsus. Mopsus is said to have found Aspendos, which is identical to the town, that Azitawadda in Cilicia. The event according to the Greeks are supposed to happen after the fall of Troy in 1180 BC. A second theory associated with the Achaean world equating the Denyen with the Danaoi from mainland Greece.

The third theory that suggest the Denyen origins come from Canaan. The Denyen and other Sea Peoples return to the Levant as a counter migration. While many of the Denyen, went to the Aegean and Mycenae and became known as the Danaans. Others went to Asia Minor and some of the Sea Peoples return to the Levant. The Denyen were accepted into the confederation of the tribes of Israel called Dan. The Denyen were part of a confederation in the Levant with other groups of Sea People especially the Peleset. They were part of the sea battle against the Egyptians, which is depicted on the relief at Medinet Habu. The Biblical data shows that at a certain stage of its settlement the Tribe of Dan was very close to the People of the Sea. From the historical and mythological sources, it is possible to ascertain the following facts. The tribe of the Danai originated in the east, and the introduction of the alphabet to Greece is attributed to it. Its members were outstanding seamen. In conclusion, although the Denyen are known from many different sources, they were a major part of the confederation that attacked Egypt with the other group of Sea People.

  • Hyksos (Adana) > Edonia, Thrace > Dardani



A place called Adana is mentioned by name in a Sumerian epic, the Epic of Gilgamesh, but the geography of this work is too imprecise to identify its location.

According to the Hittite inscription of Kava, found in Hattusa (Boğazkale), Kizzuwatna was the first kingdom that ruled Adana, under the protection of the Hittites by 1335 BC. At that time, the name of the city was Uru Adaniyya, and the inhabitants were called Danuna.

According to numerous sources, the name Adana is derived from the Hittite URUAdaniya of Kizzuwatna, while others assert that it is related to the legendary character Danaus, or to the Danaoi, a mythological Greek tribe who came from Egypt and established themselves in the Greek city Argos. The earlier Egyptian texts for a country Danaja are inscriptions from Thutmosis II (1437 BC) and Amenophis III (1390–1352 BC). After the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization (1200 BC) some refugees from the Aegean area went to the coast of Cilicia. The inhabitants Dananayim or Danuna are identified as one group of the Sea Peoples who attacked Egypt in 1191 BC during the reign of Ramesses III. Denyen are identified as inhabitants of the city Adana. It is also possible that the name is connected with the PIE da-nu (river) Da-na-vo (people living by the river) water demons in Rigveda (Danavas).

An older legend relates the city's name to Adad (also known as Tesup or Ishkur), the Thunder God in the Akkadian, Sumerian, Babylonian, Assyrian and Hittite mythologies, who was believed to live in the nearby forest, and whose name was given to the region. The Hittites' names and writings have been found in the area, evidencing this possibility. The theory goes that since the Thunder God brought so much rain and this rain in turn brought such great abundance in this particular region, this god was loved and respected by its inhabitants and, in his honor, the region was called the "Uru Adaniyya"; in other words "the Region of Ada".

Followed by; Sherden, Edoni, Dardani


Ain Dara temple

Ain Dara

The Ain Dara temple, located near the village of Ain Dara, northwest of Aleppo, Syria, is an Iron Age Syro-Hittite temple noted for its similarities to Solomon's Temple, also known as the First Temple, as described in the Hebrew Bible. According to the excavator Ali Abu Assaf, it was in existence from 1300 BC until 740 BC and remained "basically the same" during the period of the Solomonic Temple's construction (1000 - 900 BC) as it had been before, so that it predates the Solomonic Temple. The temples of Emar, Munbaqa, and Ebla are also comparable. The surviving sculptures depict lions and sphinxes (comparable to the cherubim of the First Temple).



Cilicia was settled from the Neolithic period Middle Chalcolithic (correlated with Halaf and Ubaid developments in the east): c. 5400–4500 BC.

The area had been known as Kizzuwatna in the earlier Hittite era (2nd millennium BC). The region was divided into two parts, Uru Adaniya (flat Cilicia), a well-watered plain, and "rough" Cilicia (Tarza), in the mountainous west.

The Cilicians appear as Hilikku in Assyrian inscriptions, and in the early part of the first millennium BC were one of the four chief powers of Western Asia. Homer mentions the plain as the "Aleian plain" in which Bellerophon wandered, but he transferred the Cilicians far to the west and north and made them allies of Troy. The Cilician cities unknown to Homer already bore their pre-Greek names: Tarzu (Tarsus), Ingira (Anchiale), Danuna-Adana, which retains its ancient name, Pahri (perhaps Mopsuestia), Kundu (Kyinda, then Anazarbus) and Karatepe.

In the 13th century BC a major population shift occurred as the Sea Peoples overran Cilicia. The Hurrians that resided there deserted the area and moved northeast towards the Taurus Mountains, where they settled in the area of Cappadocia.

In the 8th century BC, the region was unified under the rule of the dynasty of Mukšuš, whom the Greeks rendered Mopsos and credited as the founder of Mopsuestia, though the capital was Adana. Mopsuestia's multicultural character is reflected in the bilingual inscriptions of the ninth and eighth centuries, written both in Indo-European hieroglyphic Luwian and West Semitic Phoenician.



Luwian language

Mopsuestia (Greek: Μοψουεστία Mopsou(h)estia. The founding of this city is attributed in legend to the soothsayer Mopsus, who lived before the Trojan war.

In the 8th century BC, the region was unified under the rule of the dynasty of Mukšuš, whom the Greeks rendered Mopsos and credited as the founder of Mopsuestia, though the capital was Adana. Mopsuestia's multicultural character is reflected in the bilingual inscriptions of the ninth and eighth centuries, written both in Indo-European hieroglyphic Luwian and West Semitic Phoenician.




Adonis is the Hellenized form of the Phoenician word "adoni", meaning "my lord". It is believed that the cult of Adonis was known to the Greeks from around the sixth century B.C., but it is unquestionable that they came to know it through contact with Cyprus. Around this time, the cult of Adonis is noted in the Book of Ezekiel in Jerusalem, though under the Babylonian name Tammuz.

Route for the Myrrha myth's spread: the red is certain, the orange uncertain.


Adana Cilicia

Cilicia, Adana Trajan Decius 251 – 253 A.D.
Obv.: Laur. bust of emperor Crown, Rev.: Zeus seated with eagle below.



The Edoni (also Edones, Edonians, Edonides) were a Thracian people who dwelt mostly between the Nestus and the Strymon rivers in southern Thrace, but also once dwelt west of the Strymon at least as far as the Axios. They inhabited the region of Mygdonia before the Macedonians drove them out. After that, they settled in the region of Edonis which was named after them.

Lycurgus, son of Dryas, was a mythical king of the Edoni, who drove Dionysus into exile in the Cyclades but was ultimately overthrown and killed by his own people. The conflict began with Lycurgus' opposition to either the drinking of wine or the worship of the new god. Lycurgus was based at the mouth of the Strymon River around Amphipolis. According to one version of the story, he was imprisoned at Mt. Pangaeum by the Edoni and then torn apart by his horses on Dionysius' orders. The Edoni were celebrated for their orgiastic worship of Bacchus (Dionysus). In Latin poems, the term Edonis signified a female Bacchanal. The Peresadyes, forerunners of the dynasty of Bardyllis that ruled over the Dardani, were most likely Edones.


Issus (Cilicia) - Issa (Vis)

Issus (Cilicia) - Issa (Vis)

Issus or Issos (Phoenician: Sissu, Ancient Greek: Ἱσσός or Ἱσσοί) is an ancient settlement on the strategic coastal plain straddling the small Pinarus river (a fast melt-water stream several metres wide) below the navigationally difficult inland mountains towering above to the east in the Turkish Province of Hatay, near the border with Syria.

Issa - U I. tisućljeću pr. Kr. otok su držali ilirski Liburni, a početkom IV. st. pr. Kr. (osnovana između 397. i 390. pr. Kr.) na području današnjega grada Visa (u predjelu Gradine i na poluotoku Prirovu) razvila se antička Issa (Ἴσσα), najvažnija grčka kolonija na tlu Hrvatske, osnutak koje se vezuje uz kolonizatorsku djelatnost sirakuškoga tiranina Dionizija Starijega.


Argive genealogy in Greek mythology


Inachus Melia
Zeus Io Phoroneus
Epaphus Memphis
Libya Poseidon
Belus Achiroë Agenor Telephassa
Danaus Pieria Aegyptus Cadmus Cilix Europa Phoenix
Mantineus Hypermnestra Lynceus Harmonia Zeus
Sparta Lacedaemon Ocalea Abas Agave Sarpedon Rhadamanthus
Eurydice Acrisius Ino Minos
Zeus Danaë Semele Zeus
Perseus Dionysus
Colour key:


Cilix (son of Agenor)

When Europa was carried off by Zeus, Agenor sent his three sons out to find her, telling them not to return until they find her. The search was unsuccessful. Cilix eventually settled down in Asia Minor. The land was called Cilicia after him.

Peleset (Pw-r-s-ty)

One of the most significant groups among the Sea Peoples who attacked Egypt in the fifth and eighth year of Ramesses III is the Peleset. This ethnonym, which has no earlier occurrence in the Egyptian sources, has been identified with the Biblical Philistines by Jean-François Champollion soon after his decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphic. Philistines settling in their pentapolis consisting of the towns Asdod, Askelon, Gaza, Ekron, and Gath at the time of the upheavals of the Sea Peoples. In the Medinet Habu relief Ramesses III fights against the Peleset both in the sea and in the land battles. Indeed in the battles against the Lybians some warriors which may be identified as Peleset have been recruited (together the Sherden) in the Ramesses III army. In the Papyrus Harris, Ramesses III claims to have settled the vanquished Sea Peoples, among which our Peleset or Philistines, in strongholds bound in his name. This has induced some scholars to assume that the settlement of the Philistines in Canaan took place under Egyptian supervision. Furthermore, the continuity of Egyptian influence in the hinterland of the Philistine pentapolis might suggest to us that the Egyptian pharaoh maintained a nominal claim on the land conquered by the Philistines and considered them as vassals guarding his frontiers. After their settlement in Palestine, the Philistines rose to a position of power in the region owing to their military superiority over the local population, as exemplified by the famous engagement between David and Goliath.

In the battle of Ramesses III against the Lybians both the Sherden and what seems to be the Peleset or the Denyen are fighting as mercenaries for the Faraoh's army. In this relief from Medinet Habu the Peleset or Denyen are represented with a medium size round shiled with several embossed elements on its surface. They are equipped with a light kiton, a long sword beared on the chest and a long spear. The helmet seems different from the typic "feathered" ones being its lower part similar to a rigid cap which covers the entire head including the ears.

In the Ramesess III land battle representation from Medinet Habu relief the Peleset are shown fighting against the Sherden mercenaries. The Peleset are always represented with the " feathered " headdress and mostly of them are equipped with medium size round shield small sword or dagger and long spear.

In the same land battle representation from Medinet Habu relief the Peleset are shown also fighting on six spooken wheeled Near East style chariots equipped with lateral quivers for bow and arrows.
This representation is very interesting being the Peleset on chariots represented only armed with spears and shields like mostly of the Aegean charioteers instead of bow and arrows which were instead the typic weaponry of the Near Eastern charioteers.

Interesting representation of a Peleset killed by an Egyptian warrior in the Medinet Habu temple relief.
The Peleset is equipped with the typic "feathered" helmet with embossed ring and a V banded corselet which seems in this case made of fabric, linen or other soft material.

An iron spear point dated about 1150 BC has been found in Abydos where a group of Sea Peples was settled during the reign of Ramesses IV. Based on these elements this specimen is though to have belonged to the Sea Peoples. As recorded by the Bible. The military superiority of the Philistines was in fact based on their monopoly of iron production in the region.

Several weapons dated around 1250-1150 BC have been also found in the cemetery at Tell Es-Sa 'Idiyeh. The presence of "double pithos" in the burials may indicate the presence of a group of the so-called Sea Peoples. Cronologically the Tell Es-Sa 'Idiyeh cemetery spans the transition between the Bronze and Iron Age and tools and weapons of both materials have been found in the greaves.

Very interesting Philistine-made decorated gold disc, Aegean in style from Ashdod dated around 1100-1000 BC. This is a possible sword's pommel cover.

The typic Peleset helmet was the as called "feathered headdress". This helmet was probably made by leather trips or straw hold by a metal ring. Indeed for some models the utilization of real feathers can't be excluded. During the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age this kind of headdress is attested from several locations in the Near East and East Mediterranean areas as well as Sardinia island.

Different variants of "feathered" helmets worn by Peleset, Denyen or Weshesh as represented in the Medinet Habu reliefs

Other type of helmets worn by Sea Peoples, as represented in Egyptian reliefs: A) Peleset, B) Tjekker, C-D) Shekelesh, E) Denyen?, F-G-H-I) Shasu.

In the naval battle between the Sea Peoples and the Egyptian army of Ramesses III the Peleset' ships are basically the same of the other seapeoples' ones. Also in this case the vessels have no oars (or no oars have been represented by the artist) and only the sail is shown. They have a single mast with a crow's-net and high stern and prow terminating in duck-heads whose "bills" serve as battering device. The ships are steered by a large paddle. In this representation the Peleset are equiped with long swords, large size round shield and " lobster style" cuirass or corselet.

Also in this case several hypothesis can made about one type of the " lobster style" or ribbons cuirass and corselet of the Sea Peoples represented in the Medinet Habu relief and identified as possible Peleset warriors. These have interpreted as full bronze armour, linen (or other perishable material) corselet or a cuirass made by a mix of metal and non metal elements.
A) This full bronze armour is composed by chest and back plates, lower bands and shoulder/upper arm protections. Its general design is based on some Achaean armour elements(see also the pages dedicated to the armour and corselet).
B) This bronze cuirass with chest/back plates and lower bands is worn over a linen or other perishable material kiton.
C) This composite cuirass is composed by a bronze chest and backplates, shoulder protection and quilted linen ribbons in the lower area.
D) This other hypothesis shows a non metalic corselet probably made of leather, or other perishable material.

In this other representation a possible Peleset warrior worn a type of defence which seems to be a plain cuirass with shoulder guards and plate reinforcements between them. Its general design could be thus similar to some Achaean bronze armours attested or represented in Crete and Greek mainland.

In this other representation a possible Peleset warrior worn a type of defence which seems to be very flexible and without sleeves or shoulder protections. This colud be interpreted as a light corselet made of quilted linen or other perishable material.

In another representation a possible Peleset warrior worn a type of defence which seems also very flexible and made with several small ribbons and sleeves. Also in this case it could be interpreted as a light corselet or short kiton made of quilted linen or other perishable material.

In this representation of the land battle from Medinet Habu relief some of the Sea Peoples warriors (Peleset or Denyen or Weshesh) seem just wearing a sort of protective belts which could be made both of perishable material or bronze.

Very interesting tentative isometric view of a Sea Peoples’ ship made by F. M. Hocker. The main elements represented in this reconstruction derived from the dead bodies position on one of the Peleset’ ship represented in the Medinet Habu relief.

In this relief from Medinet Habu a captive Peleset is shown. This representation is very interesting being several of the original color well preserved. It also clearly shows one of the methods used by Egyptian army to binds the prisoners.
In Odyssey Homer also tells of Pelasgians in Crete. Furthermore since many Biblical references refer to the Philistines origins as the Island of Caphtor, and since many scholars identify Caphtor with Crete, the idea more widely accepted is that the Peleset were originally Cretan. This theory is also well supported by the study of the pottery from Philistine sites which is closely related in ware, shape, paint and decorative concept to the one attested in Greece and Aegean islands of the LH IIIC period.

The teory that the Peleset were originally Cretans has been somewhat strengthened by the discovery in Crete of the still un-deciphered Phaistos disk dated around 1700 BC. One of the signs in the disk shows the head of a man crowned with feathers-very similar to the feather-topped helmets of the Peleset depicted at Medinet Habu.

From Crete is this beautiful example of bronze bucket-shape cylindrical helmet found in the tholos tomb at Praisos-Foutoula dated around 1200 BC.
It is composed by several horizontal ribs that alternate with single horizontal rows of ornamental rivets. The general design of this bronze tiara recalls some of the ones represented in the Medinet Habu relief . Similar tiara like helmets have been also found in some areas of the Greek mainland.

A very interesting object is also this Egyptian caricature doll, probably representing a philistine with a feather-topped helmet, found in the island of Malta.

The adornments of the heads of the deceased molded on these clay coffins are again reminescent of the Medinet Habu relief. The minor individual differences in the decoration of the helmet-circles, notches, and zigzags- may have suggested different tribes or clans.
The features on these grotesque coffins with their "calculated expressionism" which produced an effect of ",majestic calm, pride, and grave melancholy" had their parallel in the gold mask excavated in the royal tombs of Mycenae.

Mazar says:

... in Philistia, the producers of Mycenaean IIIC pottery must be identified as the Philistines. The logical conclusion, therefore, is that the Philistines were a group of Mycenaean Greeks who immigrated to the east ... Within several decades ... a new bichrome style, known as the "Philistine", appeared in Philistia ...


Although the Phaistos Disc is generally accepted as authentic by archaeologists, a few scholars believe that the disc is a forgery or a hoax.



What the language of the Pelasgi was I cannot say with any certainty. If, however, we may form a conjecture from the tongue spoken by the Pelasgi of the present day- those, for instance, who live at Creston above the Tyrrhenians, who formerly dwelt in the district named Thessaliotis, and were neighbours of the people now called the Dorians- or those again who founded Placia and Scylace upon the Hellespont, who had previously dwelt for some time with the Athenians- or those, in short, of any other of the cities which have dropped the name but are in fact Pelasgian; if, I say, we are to form a conjecture from any of these, we must pronounce that the Pelasgi spoke a barbarous language. If this were really so, and the entire Pelasgic race spoke the same tongue, the Athenians, who were certainly Pelasgi, must have changed their language at the same time that they passed into the Hellenic body; for it is a certain fact that the people of Creston speak a language unlike any of their neighbours, and the same is true of the Placianians, while the language spoken by these two people is the same; which shows that they both retain the idiom which they brought with them into the countries where they are now settled. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancie...us-history.txt Herodotus - History

  • Pelasgians, Pella, Palagruža, Pelješac


Hestia - Vesta


The first-born child of Saturn and Rhea was Hestia or Vesta, the virgin deity presiding over the sacred fire of the temple and over the household altar, the family hearth. She alone of the gods and goddesses possesses virtually no personal history; the only incident told of her is that, when Apollo and Poseidon both sought her hand in marriage, she placed it, instead, upon the head of Zeus, and vowed perpetual virginity; she, the supreme representative of celestial good, superior even to celestial truth, was to be conjoined to no inferior degrees of finite truth, for her virgin heart was an altar devoted exclusively to the sacred fire of celestial love.

The feast of Hestia being anciently celebrated annually in each family by a special meal, in a reunion around the hearth.

The statues of Hestia are extremely rare and of comparatively recent dates, her worship being conducted without any images at all, longer than that of any other divinity, the altar alone with its sacred flame being considered sufficient to evoke the idea of her presence. Her chief temple, the one in Rome, never contained her image. The few Greek statues and bas-reliefs represent her as a chaste and stately virgin, with a veil covering her head and shoulders; she is sometimes holding a lighted torch or lamp in one hand, and a sacrificial bowl in the other; more often she has no symbols whatever, but simply points upward with her hand and finger. The chief characteristics of her images are those of simplicity, tranquillity, and repose; as Plato says, ''Hestia alone stays at rest in the house of the gods.'' (Phaedro, 247). This is as it should be; simplicity and tranquillity are the marks of celestial love.

The worship of Hestia is found in hoariest antiquity, and was well established among the Pelasgians, the common ancestors of Etruscans, Greeks, Latins and Illyrians (Serbs, kućne slave). An ancient Homeric hymn says that "to her was given to sit in the centre of the mansion, receiving the first and choicest portions of all offerings; she is honored in all the temples of the Gods, and she is to mortals the most venerable of the goddesses." In Olympia the altars of Hestia and Zeus were in the inmost sanctuary, and the invocations were addressed, and the sacrifices offered, first to Hestia and then to Zeus. And no deity received such universal homage as she, every domestic hearth being regarded as an altar of Hestia, where the father of the family offered his daily sacrifices and prayers when conducting the family worship.

As the hearth was the center and altar of every household, so the Prytaneum, (pyr-taneum), or altar to Vesta, was the central shrine of every city and village in Greece and Italy, and the safety of the city was regarded as depending upon the conservation of the sacred fire which must be perpetually burning there.

The Worship of Vesta was especially honored in Rome, where, she had a famous temple and was served by the College of vestal virgins,—the most sacred institution in the city. This, also, is consistent with the Roman character, which was of a celestial rather than spiritual nature. There is the same difference between the Greeks and the Romans, as, in Greece itself, between Athens and Sparta; the Athenians were intellectual, philosophical, of the spiritual genius; the Spartans, and in primitive times the Romans, were more devoted to the cultivation of moral virtue, sublime patriotism, the good of life,—in other words, they were more of the celestial genus. In Athens, and in Greece as a whole, the love of the world reigned in the later days; in Sparta, and afterwards in Italy, the love of dominion. We may thus see the internal reason for the special worship of Vesta by the Romans. There was also an historical reason: the founders of the city, Romulus and Remus, were the sons of Rhea Sylvia, a vestal virgin, beloved of Mars.

The vestal virgins, six in number, were chosen from the loveliest and noblest of the Roman maidens, and the service was an honor eagerly sought for. They entered the service when between six and ten years of age, and were bound to it for thirty years, after which time they were at liberty to marry if they so chose. If in the meantime any vestal violated her vow of chastity, she was buried alive in the execrated field called "campus sceleratus," while her paramour was scourged to death in the Forum, but during one thousand years of Roman history only eighteen cases of this fearful punishment were recorded. The daily duties of these priestesses consisted in watching and feeding the sacred fire by day and night, and keeping guard over the '' Palladium,'' a most ancient statue of Pallas, which was said to have been brought by AEneas from the burning Troy; this was considered the holy of holies by the Romans, and was never shown to the eyes of the "ignobile vulgus." The extinction of the sacred fire was regarded as the sure precursor of some dreadful public calamity, and a heavy punishment fell upon any vestal who by carelessness allowed it to go out; in this case it had to be kindled anew directly from the sun, by means of mirrors and burning-glasses.

  • Hestia, Esti = Jesti (Na ognjištu se blaguje - jede u čast boginje Estie)
  • Hestia, Esti = Jeste, jest (da, istina, tako je, istina je)
  • Hestia, Esti = Asti Boga
  • Hestia, Esti = Istok

Vesta ili Vestia je božica djevica, božica vatre, zaštitnica ognjišta, doma i porodice u rimskoj mitologiji.

  • Vesta, djevica - Ne Vesta = Nevesta, Nevjesta (ona koja se udala)

Tjekker (T-k-k(r))

The Greek story of Teucer, one of the heroes of the Trojan War, it is said that Teucer and his men settled Crete and Cyprus and then set out on many voyages that took them through Canaan and Phoenician cities such as Sidon.

Sandars also suggests a connection to the hero Teucer, the traditional founder of Salamis on Cyprus. It is suggested that the Tjekker may have come to Cannan from Troad by way of Cyprus. The archaeological evidence leads to the conclusion that these people were not simply raiders, plundering established cities, but instead a group looking for a place to settle.

The Tjekker people took part in the battle against the Egyptians in year eight of Ramesses III. They, along with the Peleset, were a major group depicted in the reliefs at Medinet Habu, portraying the battle. The Tjekker are also mentioned in the Wen-Amon story of the 11th century BC. The author recalls visiting the city of Dor, which he calls "…a town of the Tjekker…" in Dor, Wen-Amonis forced to deal with Beder, the rular of the city, about gold stolen from his ships. An individual identified as a Tjekker chief is illustrated in a Medinet Habu relief. He is bearded and wears a strange cap which remind even if un-crested some of the late Achaean helmets. The Tjekker warriors fight with short, straight swords, long spears, and rounded shields.

Archaeological evidence from Dor supports Wen-Amon’s claim of Tjekker settlement. Stern’s excavations discovered quantities of Philistine style bi-chrome pottery on the site. In addition, the excavations found cow scapulae and bone-handled iron knives similar to those found at Philistine sites. Stern believes this is evidence of a Tjelkker. The evidence may not prove a massive Sea People settlement, but does prove at least some presence at Dor.


King Teucer

In Greek mythology, King Teucer or Teucrus (Greek: Τεῦκρος) was said to have been the son of the river Scamander and the nymph Idaea. Before the arrival of Dardanus, the land that would eventually be called Dardania was known as Teucria and the inhabitants as Teucrians, after Teucer.

According to Virgil, Teucer was originally from Crete but left the island during a great famine with a third of its inhabitants. They settled near the Scamander river, named after Teucer's father, not far from the Rhaetean promontory. However, Dionysius of Halicarnassus states that Teucer had come to the Troad from Attica where he was a chief of the Xypetȇ region. In both cases he ended up in the region which would be known as the Troad. Teucer is said to had a felicitous reign as he was successful in all of his undertakings. He was said to have been the first to build a temple to Apollo. Batea (also known as Batia or Arisba), King Teucer's daughter and only child, was given in marriage to Dardanus. In Lycophron's Alexandra, Dardanus was said to wed Arisba from “Crete's royal house”. Dardanus received land on Mount Ida from his father-in-law when Teucer died since he did not have a biological son. There Dardanus founded the city of Dardania. After Teucer's death, his kingdom was incorporated in that of Dardanus and the entire region came to be known as Dardania. Yet in later times, the people of Troy often referred to themselves as "Teucrians". For example, Aeneas is called the “great captain of the Teucrians”. In most myths mentioning King Teucer, he is described as being a distant ancestor of the Trojans. Diodorus states that Teucer was “the first to rule as king over the land of Troy” while in the Aeneid, Anchises recalls him being the Trojans' “first forefather”.


Herodotus Greek "father of history" of the fifth century BC, however, identified the Trojans with the Teucrians..

Teucrians, according to Strabo [the first-century-B.C. Greco-Roman geographer], were Cretans who settled in the Troad, perhaps after the fall of Cnossus. Both Crete and the Troad had a sacred Mt. Ida" (Vol.2: The Life of Greece, 1966, p. 35).

"According to tradition ... Dardanus fled from Arcadia across the sea to Samothrace. When that island was visited by a flood, he crossed over to the Troad ... Being hospitably received by Teucer, he married Teucer‘s daughter Bateia and became the founder of the royal house of Troy" "Dardanus," Encyclopaedia Britannica, Micropaedia, 1985, Vol. 3, p. 884.

Dardanus fled across the sea. He first stopped at Samothrace, and, when the island was visited by a flood, crossed over to the Troad. Being hospitably received by Teucer, he married his daughter Batea and became the founder of the royal house of Troy. - 1943 edition. Vol. 7, p. 56.


Tjekker (Paeonians) - Dorians

The Tjekker or Tjeker were one of the Sea Peoples and are known mainly from the story of Wenamun ... they are thought to be the people who developed the port of Dor during the 12th century BCE from a small Bronze Age town to a large city. ...

In Greek mythology, King Teucer (also Teucrus) was said to have been the son of the river Scamander and of the nymph Idaea. Before the arrival of Dardanus, the land that would come to be called Dardania (and later still the Troad) was known as Teucria and the inhabitants as Teucrians, after Teucer. Batea, King Teucer's daughter, was given in marriage to Dardanus, and after Teucer's death the land came to be known as Dardania. Yet in later times, the people of Troy often referred to themselves as "Teucrians". http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_Teucer

King Darius was full of wonder both at what they who had watched the woman told him, and at what he had himself seen. So he commanded that she should be brought before him. And the woman came; and with her appeared her brothers, who had been watching everything a little way off. Then Darius asked them of what nation the woman was; and the young men replied that they were Paeonians, and she was their sister. Darius rejoined by asking, "Who the Paeonians were, and in what part of the world they lived? and, further, what business had brought the young men to Sardis?" Then the brothers told him they had come to put themselves under his power, and Paeonia was a country upon the river Strymon, and the Strymon was at no great distance from the Hellespont. The Paeonians, they said, were colonists of the Teucrians from Troy. When they had thus answered his questions, Darius asked if all the women of their country worked so hard? Then the brothers eagerly answered, Yes; for this was the very object with which the whole thing had been done. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancie...us-history.txt Herodotus - History

  • Paeonians origin from Teucer
  • Tjekker (Teucer) = Dorani


Apollo - Pileus (hat)

The Tetrarchs, a porphyry statue on Venice's Basilica di San Marco, shows the emperor Diocletian and his three imperial colleagues.
All wear the woollen "Pannonian" pileus caps worn by officers in the late army.

The pileus was a brimless, felt cap worn in Pannonia.


Arheološki nalazi sa južnih ilirskih teritorija ukazuju na kult zmije, dok oni sa sjevernih teritorija naseljenih Ilirima upućuju na astralne kultove, prvenstveno na kult Sunca.

Mnoge predmete za koje se vjerovalo da donose sreću i slično, vješali su Iliri kao amulete oko vrata. Ti su amuleti štitili njihovog vlasnika od neprijatelja, od zlog pogleda, itd. Tadašnji je čovjek izgradio u obliku raznovrsnih amuleta cijeli odbrambeni sistem protiv vidljivih i nevidljivih sila.



God of the Sun, the Light, the Music and Prophecy


Apollo is one of the most complex and important gods, and is the god of many things, including: music, poetry, art, oracles, archery, plague, medicine, sun, light and knowledge. He is the son of Zeus and the Titan Leto, and was born in the Greek island of Delos, along with his older twin sister Artemis – goddess of the hunt.

Apollo is the ideal of the kouros, which means he has a beardless, athletic and youthful appearance. He is also an oracular god as a patron of Delphi and could predict prophecy through the Delphic Oracle Pythia.

Both medicine and healing are associated with Apollo and were thought to sometimes be mediated through his son, Asclepius. However, Apollo could also bring ill-health and deadly plague.

Apollo also became associated with dominion over colonists, and as the patron defender of herds and flocks. He was the leader of the Muses (also known as Apollon Musegetes) and was director of their choir – functioning as the patron god of music and poetry.

The god Hermes create the lyre for Apollo and this instrument became a known attribute for him. When hymns were sung to Apollo they were called paeans

At the drinking parties held on Olympus, Apollo accompanied the Muses on his cithara, while the young goddesses led the dance. Both Leto and Zeus were proud of their son, who was radiant with grace and beauty.

Apollo was one of the few gods that the Romans kept the same name.  In Greek mythology, he was most widely known as the god of light. Within Roman mythology, he wasn’t known as much as the god of light and was focused mainly as the god of healing and prophecy.

Facts about Apollo:

  • Apollo was the son of Leto and Zeus. He was born on the island of Delos.
  • He and his twin sister Artemis, also an Olympian, shared an aptitude for archery.
  • His forename, Phoebus, means “bright” or “pure” and connects him to his grandmother, the Titan Phoebe.
  • Apollo, a masterful magician, was known for delighting Olympus with tunes played on his golden lyre. His lyre, a stringed instrument that resembles a small harp, was made by Hermes.
  • The nine Muses were companions of his; they were goddesses known for inspiring art and music.
  • Apollo taught men the art of medicine, so he is often referred to as “The Healer.”
  • Apollo is alternately referred to as the God of Light and the God of Truth.
  • Apollo served as an intermediary between the gods and men.
  • Because of his truthfulness and integrity, he was granted the gift of prophecy and oracles.
  • Apollo defended the oracle at Delphi against Hercules, who was angry at the priestess for having denied him a prophecy.
  • Apollo killed a serpent named Python as a result of a contest; it was conquered by a single arrow.
  • According to Homer’s Illiad, Apollo played a major part in the Trojan War. He infected the Greek encampment with a plague and aided Paris in killing Achilles.
  • Ironically, Apollo was also a purifier, able to cleanse even those stained with the blood of their relatives.
  • The dolphin and swan were the animals sacred to him.
  • The laurel, used in Greece as a status symbol, was Apollo’s tree.
  • Apollo accidentally killed his dearest companion, Hyacinthus, in a discus throwing contest.
  • Apollo is credited with killing the Cyclops in retaliation for arming Zeus with the thunderbolt.
  • He had many love affairs with both mortals and goddesses. Perhaps the most famous of these women was a mortal named Hecuba, who was married to the King of Troy. The union between Apollo and Hecuba produced a son named Troilus.
  • Apollo’s affections were rejected by Cassandra, yet another mortal, so he punished her by arranging it so that her prophecies would never be believed.
  • Asclepius is probably Apollo’s most well-known son, although he had many offspring.

Nergal - Aplu - Apaliunas - Apollo

Aplu isrelated with Apaliunas who is considered to be the Hittite reflex of *Apeljōn, an early form of the name Apollo.

Hittite Apaliunas (dx-ap-pa-li-u-na-aš) is attested in the Manapa-Tarhunta letter, perhaps related to Hurrian (and certainly the Etruscan) Aplu, a god of plague, in turn likely from Akkadian Aplu Enlil meaning simply "the son of Enlil", a title that was given to the god Nergal, who was linked to Shamash, Babylonian god of the sun. The role of Apollo as god of plague is evident in the invocation of Apollo Smintheus ("mouse Apollo") by Chryses, the Trojan priest of Apollo, with the purpose of sending a plague against the Greeks (the reasoning behind a god of the plague becoming a god of healing is of course apotropaic, meaning that the god responsible for bringing the plague must be appeased in order to remove the plague).

Apaliunas is the name of a god, attested in a Hittite language treaty as a protective deity of Wilusa. Apaliunas is considered to be the Hittite reflex of *Apeljōn, an early form of the name Apollo, which may also be surmised from comparison of Cypriot Ἀπείλων with Doric Ἀπέλλων.


The words containing Lu, as in the word Lugh itself, or lo or le have appeared for millennia always meaning light or sun or sun god. Luwian Apaliunas, Hurrian Aplu, Etruscan Apulu, Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, that is, (λω), Latin Apollo.

  • Apollo (God of Light and the God of Truth) = Korijen PL = Plamen, plavo (bijelo), plemenit..


Surya - Apollo

Left: Surya on a quadriga, Bodh Gaya relief, India. Right: Classical example of Phoebus Apollo on quadriga.

Weshesh (W-s-s)

The Weshesh were part of a combined force of Sea Peoples which attacked Egypt during the reign of Ramesses III. The Medinet Habu inscription attested "They were coming forward toward Egypt, while the flame was prepared before them. Their confederation was the Peleset, Tjeker, Shekelesh, Denyen and Weshesh, lands united. They laid their hands upon the land as far as the circuit of the earth, their hearts confident and trusting: Our plans will succeed!..."The Sea peoples did not learn any lessons from this defeat, as they repeated their mistake in the Year 8 with a similar result. The campaign is recorded more extensively on the inner northwest panel of the first court. It is possible but not generally believed that the dates are only those of the inscriptions and both refer to the same campaign. In Ramesses' Year 8, the Nine Bows appear again as a "conspiracy in their isles." This time they are revealed unquestionably as sea peoples: the Peleset, Tjeker, Shekelesh, Denyen and Weshesh, which are classified as "foreign countries" in the inscription. They camped in Amor and sent a fleet to the Nile. The campaign of the Year 12 is attested by the Sudstele found on the south side of the temple. It mentions the Tjeker, Peleset, Denyen, Weshesh and Shekelesh. Furthermore the Weshesh together other sea peoples are mentioned in the Papyrus Harris I which suggests a wider campaign against the sea peoples, but does not mention the date. In it the persona of Ramesses III says: "I slew the Denyen in their isles and burned the Tjeker and Peleset...", implying a maritime raid of his own. He also captured some Sherden and Weshesh of the sea and settled them in Egypt. As he is called the "Ruler of Nine Bows" in the relief of the east side, these events probably happened in Year 8; i.e., his majesty would have used the victorious fleet for some punitive expeditions elsewhere in the Mediterranean. Little is known about the Weshesh, though even here there is a tenuous link to Troy. Some have theorized that they, like the Denyen, became part of the Israelite confederacy (as the tribe of Asher). The Tribe of Asher is one of the tribes of Israel.

"Asshur son of Shem" verses "Asshur (Assyria) god of Assyrians.

  • Asshur is the builder of Nineveh, and nearby cities (Gen 10:11 JB, KJV).
  • He comes from the kingdom of Nimrod, a descendant of Ham, but may not be of his race, for in Genesis 10:22 and 1 Chronicles 1:17 Asshur is a descendant of Shem.
  • In Balaam's prophecy (Num 24:22, 24) Asshur appears to be Assyria.


Ninurta is the god Aššur's trusted one

Ashur - Ninurta

In the late second millennium BC, Assyrian kings frequently held names which included the name of Ninurta, such as Tukulti-Ninurta ("the trusted one of Ninurta"), Ninurta-apal-Ekur ("Ninurta is the heir of [Ellil's temple] Ekur"), and Ninurta-tukulti-Ashur ("Ninurta is the god Aššur's trusted one"). Tukulti-Ninurta I (ruled 1243–1207 BC) declares in one inscription that he hunts "at the command of the god Ninurta, who loves me." Similarly, Adad-nirari II (ruled 911–891 BC) claimed Ninurta and Aššur as supporters of his reign, declaring his destruction of their enemies as moral justification for his right to rule. In the ninth century BC, when Ashurnasirpal II (ruled 883–859 BC) moved the capital of the Assyrian Empire to Kalhu, the first temple he built there was one dedicated to Ninurta. The walls of the temple were decorated with stone relief carvings, including one of Ninurta slaying the Anzû bird. Ashurnasirpal II's son Shalmaneser III (ruled 859–824 BC) completed Ninurta's ziggurat at Kalhu and dedicated a stone relief of himself to the god. On the carving, Shalmaneser III's boasts of his military exploits and credits all his victories to Ninurta, declaring that, without Ninurta's aid, none of them would have been possible. When Adad-nirari III (ruled 811–783 BC) dedicated a new endowment to the temple of Aššur in Assur, they were sealed with both the seal of Aššur and the seal of Ninurta. Assyrian stone reliefs from the Kalhu period show Aššur as a winged disc, with Ninurta's name written beneath it, indicating the two were seen as near-equals.


Ezekielova zagonetka

Ninurta symbol

Tribe of Dan

"Velik orao, velikih krila, duga perja, gusta, šarena paperja, doletje na Libanon i zgrabi cedrov vrh; odlomi mu najvišu grančicu, odnese je u zemlju trgovaca i spusti je u grad prodavača. Onda uze izdanak iz zemlje, u plodnu ga njivu posadi, kraj obilnih voda stavi, kao vrbu usadi.  Izdanak proklija, bujan izbi čokot, onizak izraste, mladice mu k orlu segnuše, a pod njim mu žilje bješe; u bujan se razvi čokot, potjera izdanke, mladice razgrana."

Drugi orao:

"Bijaše i drugi orao, velik i velikih krila, gusta perja. I gle, čokot k njemu žilje pruži, k njemu upravi grančice svoje da ga natapa bolje od tla u koje bi zasađen. Na plodnoj njivi, kraj obilnih voda, bješe zasađen: mogao je tjerat' mladice, uroditi rodom, k'o veličanstveni trs izrasti ...
... Gle, zasađen je! Hoće l' uspijevati? Čim ga takne istočnjak, neće l' sav usahnuti? Da, na lijehama iz kojih niče uvenut će. ...
... Eto, dođe kralj babilonski u Jeruzalem, zarobi mu kralja i sve knezove, odvede ih k sebi u Babilon."

Zagonetka o "prvom orlu" govori nam o Kraljevstvu Izrael (heb. מַלְכוּת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Malḫut Jisraʼel), o deset izgubljenih (raseljenih) Izraelskih plemena, "orao" će ih uzesti i posaditi u plodnu njivu kraj obilnih voda i razviti će se u bujan čokot.

A zagonetka o "drugom orlu" je priča o Kraljevstvu Juda - Judeji (heb. מַמלְכת יְהוּדָה Mamlekut Jehuda) koje će babilonski kralj zarobiti i odvesti u Babilon.


Ninurta (Saturn) - Double-headed eagle

Ninurta's double-seed, or double-headed eagle symbol, today is oldest crest on Earth; Ningishzidda, mixed-breed earthling, & Ninurta in Mesopotamia.

Turkey Alaja Huyuk Hittite temple carving of two headed eagle with two rabbits in its claws.

Ninurta's symbol, Byzantine Double-Headed Eagle, symbolizing when the gods came down from Heaven & establish a colony on Earth, then created man in their image, & in their likeness, to do the work for the gods.

Imperium Romanum Sacrum
Ova nakupina koja se zvala i još samu sebe zove Sveto rimsko carstvo niti je sveto, niti rimsko a niti carstvo. - Voltaire

Trojedna Kraljevina

Ninurta's symbol in Yugoslavia, the symbol of power, the heir to Heaven & Earth Colony.


Phoenician Cronus (Saturn)

When Hellenes encountered Phoenicians and, later, Hebrews, they identified the Semitic El, by interpretatio graeca, with Cronus. The association was recorded c. AD 100 by Philo of Byblos' Phoenician history, as reported in Eusebius' Præparatio Evangelica I.10.16. Philo's account, ascribed by Eusebius to the semi-legendary pre-Trojan War Phoenician historian Sanchuniathon, indicates that Cronus was originally a Canaanite ruler who founded Byblos and was subsequently deified. This version gives his alternate name as Elus or Ilus, and states that in the 32nd year of his reign, he emasculated, slew and deified his father Epigeius or Autochthon "whom they afterwards called Uranus". It further states that after ships were invented, Cronus, visiting the 'inhabitable world', bequeathed Attica to his own daughter Athena, and Egypt to Taautus the son of Misor and inventor of writing.

Ninurta - Cronus - Saturn (Santa Claus)

Santa Claus (Djed Mraz) - anagram Satan Lucas (lucis = svjetlo)

  • Ninurta is the son of the god Enlil (Ashur)


Tribe of Ašer & Tribe of Dan

Argives tribe - Cadmus & Danus

Postavlja se pitanje: gdje je nestalo deset Izraelskih plemena?

Po pjesmi Debore i Baraka u ratu sa Filistejima ne sudjeluju sva Izraelska plemena: "Kod Rubenovih potoka dugo se savjetuju. Gilead osta s onu stranu Jordana. A zašto je Dan na stranim lađama? Zašto na obali mora Ašer sjedi, mirno prebiva u svojim zaljevima?" (Suci 5:16-17)

Tribe of Asher


Liburni & Aserija

Liburni (grč. Libyrnides) su antička pomorska etnoskupina koja je živjela na jugozapadu Hrvatske uz sjeveroistočni Jadran između rijeke Raše i Krke, tj. uglavnom u Kvarneru i sjevernoj Dalmaciji do velebitskog primorja. Zapadno od njih bili su Histri.

U brončano doba prapovijesti tj. u II. tisućljeću pr. Kr., na kasnijem ozemlju klasičnih Liburna živjelo je ranokvarnersko prapučanstvo koje su prvi grčki moreplovci na Jadranu zapisali pod imenom Hythmites. Istodobno su rani pretci Liburna vjerojatno još boravili na Levantu između Mezopotamije i Anatolije, tj. u Siriji, gdje je prije dolaska Asiraca zapisan rani grad Libbur. S početkom željeznog doba, pri velikim pomorskim selidbama tzv. "Naroda s mora" u 12. i 11. st. pr. Kr. sudjelovali su jamačno i rani Liburni, koji bi tada doplovili iz obala Levanta na Jadran (Yoshamya 2005, Lovrić i sur. 2007), gdje se zato već od prvih vijesti uvijek pojavljuju kao pomorci.

Liburni su bili suvremenici italskih Etruščana i levantskih Feničana, pa je to na hrvatskom ozemlju najranija jasno potvrđena i opisana etnogrupa, koja se tu navodi već od 9. stoljeća pr.Kr.

Bribir (Skradin, Scardona, Sardona) - Varvaria (Barbaria) je antičko naselje na mjestu današnjega Bribira kod Skradina.

Barbar; Ilirsko bra = srpsko bre = bosansko ba = brate (naziv barbar nastalo je od uzrečice brate)

Sherden = Sardona, Scardona, Skradin; Sardeates or Sardiotai (Latin Sardeates) was an Illyrian tribe close to Jajce. Sardeates were later settled in Dacia.

  • Asseriates tribe (Asseria) = Tribe of Asher (Serb)
  • Sardona, Nedino = Tribe of Dan
  • Liburni = Libanon
  • KninCanaan

Serbinum on Ptolemaic map - Serbinum in Pannonia in the 2nd century - Srb (Gračac)


Asseria - Claudius

Asseria was an important centre in south Liburnia for the Asseriates tribe.

It is mentioned by Pliny the Elder as being exempted by Rome from the payment of tribute. It was probably granted municipium status under Claudius and enrolled in the tribus Claudia.

The greatest number of the preserved Roman-era portraits in Liburnia belongs to the Julio-Claudian period. They are represented in all categories: imperial (official), private (civil) and sepulchral (funerary) sculpture. Imperial portraits from Liburnia are represented by examples from the dynastic groups in Nin (Aenona) and Osor (Apsorus).

The richest dynastic group of the Julio-Claudian period in Liburnia is definitely the one found in the excavations in Nin in the second half of the 18th century.

Emperor Augustus wears the most widespread hairstyle of the Prima Porta type. A new way of combing and presenting the hairstyle was created in 27 B.C. when Octavian got the title Augustus from the Senate.


Megaliti i cipusi u Aseriji

Megaliti i neobični nadgrobni spomenici iz doba antike – cipusi – nalaze se u selu Podgrađe, pet kilometara istočno od Benkovca. Tu su ostaci starog grada Aserije (Asseria), jedne od atraktivnijih arheološko-turističkih lokacija Dalmacije i Hrvatske. Arheološka istraživanja tog iznimno značajnog i svjetski vrijednog lokaliteta, nakon stogodišnje pauze, započela su 1998. godine. Aserija je u središtu Ravnih kotara, "svetog" prostora Hrvata, na pola puta između Knina i Nina, odnosno Biograda, na cesti koja se u starim ispravama naziva Velika cesta. Sudbeno sjedište Hrvata u srednjovjekovnoj hrvatskoj državi  bilo je u Aseriji.

Da smo prije dvije tisuće godina odlučili otići u Aseriju - dobro bi nam došao "Agripin turistički vodić", danas poznat kao "Peutingerova karta". Karta je iz 1508. (ukupna dužina karte je 6,75 m, a širina 34 cm!), a zapravo je srednjovjekovna kopija (načinjena u 12. ili ranom 13. stoljeću) Agripine antičke cestovne karte iz doba rimskog cara Augusta. Karta pokazuje glavne ceste, s naznakom gradova i udaljenosti među njima, rijeke, planine.

Na karti je prikazana i antička Liburnija: uočava se poluotok Iadera (Zadar, lijeva strelica) i dvije ceste. Prva ide uz Jadransko more do mjesta Sardona (tj. Scardona, Skradin, srednja strelica) i nastavlja prema Saloni (Solin). Druga cesta iz rimskog Zadra vodi do postaje Nedino (Nadin), udaljene 12 (XII) rimskih milja (18 km), nakon daljnjih 12 milja dolazi novo koljeno(oznaka za naselje) s natpisom Aserie (Asseria, desna strelica).

Aserijate, stanovnike Aserije, spominje i Gaj Plinije "Stariji" (poginuo u erupciji Vezuva 79. god. po Kr.) u Prirodopisu (Naturalis historia) prigodom opisa provincije Ilirika/Dalmacije.

U Aseriji se iščitava vrhunac liburnske civilizacije u vrijeme helenizma. U vremenu stvaranja provincije Ilirika, još je uvijek liburnska, i kao rimska saveznica uživa prilično povlašten položaj, a aserijatski teritorij (općina) imao je oko 190 četvornih kilometara površine. Raspolažući s preko 5100 ha obradivih površina, bila je među najplodnijima od 35 općina u Liburniji.

Južni ulaz u Aseriju - lijeva strelica;  Sjeverni ulaz - desna strelica

Aserija, grad dug 850 i širok 150 metara, okružen je s oko 2,5 kilometara kamenih zidina visokim do 7 metara i širokim 3 metra. Ova liburnska gradina, u tlorisu jajolika, s koje se pruža pogled prema moru i na Ravne kotare, je tek djelomice očišćena i istražena, a pronađena antička keramika datirana je u razdoblje petog stoljeća prije Krista. Dalje se nije istraživalo. Teško je pretpostaviti što se sve krije pod velikom neistraženom površinom, i koliko je doista stara Aserija.

Pogled sa sjeveroistoka na sjeverni ulaz u grad.

Aserija je, od brončanog/željeznog doba do konca 6. stoljeća po Kristu, bila središte jednog od 12 liburnskih bratstva (savez bratstava činio je pleme). Ističe se svojim bedemima, kao i Varvarija (Bribirska glavica ), izgrađenim pod utjecajem megalitičkog graditeljstva. 

Ostaci megalitičkog gradinskog zida, prvotnog obrambenog sustava Aserije.

Megalitička kultura pojavila se u Europi tek oko 2000. pr. Kr., a u megalitske spomenike ubrajamo i gradine. Mnogi megalitički spomenici ("kameni prsteni") izvedeni su kao zatvorene krivulje, od kružnice i elipse do simetričnog jajolikog oblika kakvoga ima i gradina u Aseriji.

Visina i ukupna dužina gradinskog zida u koji su posloženi megaliti (1- 4 m dugački, 0.5 – 1 m visoki, 1- 2 metra široki i 500 – 5000 kg teški), govore o vještini i bogatsvu Liburna. Oni od 9. – 8. st. pr. Kr. pa sve do pomorske bitke s Grcima, negdje kod otoka Raba 365. pr. Kr., kontroliraju i gospodare cijelim Jadranskim morem i njegovim obalama, sve do Otranta. Ravni kotari i Kvarner je sve što im je ostalo nakon izgubljenog rata s Grcima.

Najmanje 2000 željezničkih vagona bilo je potrebno za prijevoz kamenih blokova koji su ugrađeni u zidine Aserije. Koliko dugo su gradili Aseriju, i s koliko ljudi to ne znamo. Nekropola još nije pronađena.

Južni ulaz - jedan od sedam ulaza u Aseriju zorno prikazuje debljinu bedema.

U rimskom razdoblju (od kraja 1. stoljeća pr. Kr. do 4. stoljeća po Kr.) nadograđen je na liburnske zidove novi obrambeni bedem (nazvan kasnorepublikanski, odnosno ranocarski). Naknadno je ispred bedema podignut i tzv. kasnoantički zid. Aserija je preuređena: forum, kupalište i vodovod - koji je išao od izvorišta u Lisičiću do Aserije. 

Zapadni ulaz

Kod zapadnog ulaza u grad rimski bedem ima izgled zakošene kule (druga pol. 1. st. pr. Krista ili sam početak 1. st.), a ispred njega podignut je kasnoantički zid.

Zapadni ulaz (pogled iznutra)

Glavni ulaz u grad nalazio se sa zapadne strane, a kasnije njegovu ulogu preuzima "Trajanov slavoluk" na sjevernom obodu masivnih bedema, podignut 113. godine u čast caru Trajanu, prilikom njegova posjeta Aseriji u drugom pohodu na Dačane (današnja Rumunjska).

Sjeverni ulaz

Kroz "Trajanov slavoluk" je prolazila rimska vojska u svojim karakterističnim crvenim odorama, a danas kroz njegove ostatke crvena Toyota.

Ostaci "Trajanovog slavoluka"

Bedem iz doba cara Augusta i kasnoantički zid.

Narod Liburna je na hrvatskom ozemlju najranije jasno potvrđena i opisana etnogrupa (Zadar je od IX stoljeća pr. Kr. stalno naseljen); arheonalazi upućuju na moguću trgovinsku razmjenu s Feničanima i Etruščanima; kao saveznici Cezara u rimskom građanskom ratu dolaze u tjesniji doticaj s rimskom civilizacijom, a Liburni postaju glavni graditelji rimske flote pa u Rimskom carstvu flota Naves Liburnae kontrolira cijelo Sredozemlje.

Iako su Liburni vjerojatno bili nepismeni prije dolaska Rimljana, njihova tehnička znanja bila su iznimno razvijena i napredna, naročito u brodogradnji i proizvodnji stakla, npr. brod s bočnim kotačima na lopatice (Liburnae Rotatae), koje su pokretali volovi na palubi, a u Aseriji je pronađena i jedna od najvrjednijih antičkih figura ljevača stakla.

Razbacani elementi grobne i urbane arhitekture, kao i nadgrobni spomenici, bili su ugrađeni u kasnoantički zid koji je napadaču otežao i usporio približavanje glavnom obrambenom bedemu.

Pogled na sjeverni bedem s kontraforima

Između bedema i kasnoantičkog zida otkriveno je nekoliko antičkih grobova (zidane rake od priklesanog kamenja s ukopom djece u amfori, te dječji grob od kamenih ploča uz koji je pokopan i djetetov pas).

Grob i ukop su za arheologa otvorena knjiga iz koje iščitava podatke o načinu života i običajima, te o odnosu živih prema mrtvima. Jer, grobna arhitektura asocira na stambenu: grob je kuća za vječnost.  

Aserijatska skupina liburnskih cipusa ispred zidina Aserije.

Hekatej iz Mileta i neki drugi grčki pisci već od 7. st. pr. Kr. pišu o Liburnima i pojedinim plemenima (koja se kasnije neopravdano ubrajaju u Illyrioi - Ilire!), ali ne daju nikakve podatke o njihovoj religiji i mitologiji. Pseudo-Skilaks piše kako Liburnima vladaju žene.

Iz arheoloških nalaza stečena su neka saznanja o vjerovanjima Liburna, no o svetilištima i mjestima žrtvovanja (tumuli) malo se zna. Uglavnom se radi o astralnim kultovima (prvenstveno kult Mjeseca) i lokalnim božanstvima. Po predmetima koje su stavljali uz pokojnike u grobove znamo da su vjerovali u zagrobni život. Kamene humke (gomile) bile su nadgrobni spomenici. 

Matrijarhat se kod Liburna ogleda i u religiji, jer sva dosad poznata liburnijska božanstva nose samo ženska imena! Naglašen je kult plodnosti. U postavi Lošinjskog muzeja nalazi se liburnijska figurica Velike majke (7. st. pr. Kr.) - božice plodnosti (Anzotika ili Latra), a njoj je u rimskom razdoblju pridodan rimsko-grčki bog Prijap.

Među različitim tipovima kamenih nadgrobnih spomenika antičkog doba osobito su zanimljivi "liburnski cipusi" – kojim se obilježavaju grobovi liburnskih starosjedilaca u već romaniziranom okružju prvog stoljeća nakon Krista. Takav nadgrobni spomenik nemaju ostali «Iliri» na teritoriju Rimske provincije Ilirik (Illyricum), a i po tipu grobova (»zgrčenac«) Liburni se jasno razlikuju od susjeda: njihovi kosturi uvijek leže bočno u skvrčeno-sjedećem položaju.  

Cipusi imaju falusoidan oblik, na čijem vrhu je isklesan prikaz borove šišarke (simbol sjemena vječnoga života). Najvjerojatnije je da su bili u uporabi od 1. do početka 3. st. po Kr. Njihova geneza nam je nepoznata, no s obzirom da su uz Veliku majku u to vrijeme štovali i Prijapa…

U Aseriji su iskopana 44 cipusa, koji se od zadarskih i krčkih razlikuju prije svega po svojoj monumentalnosti: promjeri cilindrične baze iznose im od 55 do 65 cm, a visina cjelovitih cipusa, bez šišarki (rijetko su sačuvane), iznosi od 110 do 150 cm. 

Tipični primjerci aserijatske skupine liburnskih cipusa.

Kalota je pokrivena fino isklesanim ljuskama (skvamama) s vrhovima okrenutim prema gore, a šišarka je bila na njezinom vrhu (na ovim cipusima su odlomljene); natpisna polja (tabula ansata) su omeđena sa sve četiri strane.

Od ova dva cipusa jedan sigurno nije završen (izrada teksta čeka naručitelja), dok je drugi bio u nadgrobnoj uporabi.

Nalazi nedovršenih cipusa potvrđuju da se ovaj tip nadgrobnih spomenika izrađivao u Aseriji, odnosno da je lokalni proizvod aserijatskih klesara. 

Stoga, nema dvojbe, Aserija je epicentar podržavanja ideje i tradicije o cilindričnom cipusu kao nadgrobnom spomeniku, bez obzira na to ima li on duhovnu, odnosno religijsku, kulturološku ili samo eshatološku pozadinu. 

Kasnoantička grobnica na svod uz sjeverni bedem.

Kasnoantičke grobnice na svod poput ove pronađene u Aseriji javljaju se u Dalmaciji od 4. do 7. stoljeća, uvijek uz ranokršćanske crkve. Grobnica je pravokutnog oblika, zidana loše klesanim kamenom, ima bačvasti svod od lomljenog kamena i vezanog debelim slojem žbuke. Na pročelnoj strani grobnice je pravokutni otvor i kamena nadgrobna ploča (tegula).

Aserija danas izgleda kao velika posuda za cvijeće napunjena zemljom.

Unutar zidina svuda su kamene gomile i manje ili više uzdignuta zemljana područja koja čekaju arheologe.

Sva ondašnja plemena u Dalmaciji poznavala su strelice s otrovnim vrškom, i taj otrov nazivali su 'ninum', a dobivali su ga od otrova tamošnjih zmija.

Grci su svojim sjevernim susjedima, jednom malom plemenu između Skadarskog jezera i rijeke Mati, nadjenuli ime Illyrioi – Iliri ili narod-zmija, jer je zmija u njihovoj mitologiji imala važnu ulogu: obavila je mitskog junaka Illyriosa i dala mu magičnu moć.

  • Asseriates tribe = Tribe of Asher


Asseria i Varvaria, hrvatski megaliti

Setnakhte Index Ramesses V