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Artefacts found in Bolivia and South America suggest an ancient Sumerian connection

by Jim Allen, author "Atlantis: Lost Kingdom of the Andes"

Whilst looking for improved illustrations of the god who emerged from the sea called in Sumerian legend,
Oannes, above top left, I came across similar sculptures in the Father Crespi collection in Ecuador, above centre and right. Instead of having a "fish head" aspect, these sculptures portrayed instead an "eagle head" aspect.


Another sculpture in the Father Crespi collection, above left, is almost identical to a winged bull figure from Assyria, above right. There was said to have been a huge number of similar and other unidentificable artefacts in the Father Crespi colection, including gold sheets with an undecipherable language. But the question of these sculptures in particular is whether they are genuine and of a great antiquity, or more recent copies, i.e. "forgeries".
Although easy to dismiss them superficilally as forgeries, when we look at the subject in greater detail, there are other aspects which suggest there was indeed a Sumerian presence in Ancient South America.

If we look closely at the hand of the winged figure from the palace of Sargon of Akkad, in Assyria, he appears to be holding something which he has just plucked from a sacred plant or tree and has sometimes been described as a fir cone, a sponge, the spathe of a male date palm (G. Maspero History of Egypt, Chaldea) or a head of corn or maize, (Americas's Ancient Civilisations A. Hyatt Verrill and Rith Verrill who thought, P118 "It seems probable that maize was carried from America to Asia by the earliest Sumerian voyagers, but in its new home, where the people were unfamiliar with its proper cultivation and hybridisation, it deteriorated and died out, whereas, in America, where the Indians were familiar with the proper care of corn, it increased and improved.") That should surprise us, because corn or maize was not said to be imported into Europe, until after the "discovery" of the Americas by Christopher Columbus in 1492 although James Bailey (God Kings and Titans) tells us that maize was introduced into Spain by the Arabs in the thirteenth century.

above, spathe of male palm tree from G.Maspero, History of Egypt, Chaldea.


If we look at the above sculpture, this time from an ancient temple in India, the goddess is also holding in her hand what looks like a head of corn ...

Sargon of Akkad claimed to have been "Lord of the Four Quarters" (just like in the Andes, the Incas were "Lords of the Four Quarters, this being the name for the later Inca Empire called Tahuantinsuyo. It is usually assumed that the four quarters of Sargon were the territories bounding on his assyrian kingdom, but Sargon also claimed to have made a voyage to the far west, to obtain the metal tin. Again it is usually assumed that he went to Cornwall for his tin but there were also plentiful supplies in Bolivia so perhaps when he claimed to be lord of the Four Quarters of the World, that world did after all include Bolivia and South America.

The Fuente Magna, a large stone dish found on the shores of Lake Titicaca, is covered in proto sumerian writing, so prehaps Sargon's claim was true after all.

It has also been found that there are many Semitic words or roots underlaying the local Aymara laguage in Bolivia.

above, map from History of Egypt, Chaldea showing location of city of Uru in Mesopotamia.

Then there is the name of the oldest inhabitants of the Altiplano, who lived in reed houses and built reed boats just like the Sumerians. They were called the Uru, and in Mesopotamia, one of the oldest or first cities according to G.Maspero (History of ancient Egypt, Chaldea) was also called URU, later shortened to UR.

Assyrian eagled headed godAztec eagle head maskPersian headdress Indian high headdress
Above, Assyrian god with eagle head and feathered headdress, Amazonian feathered headdress,
Aztec warrior with eagle head mask, Elamite headdress 1000bc, Persian headgear, Indian headdress

Sea Peoples high headdress
Above, Sea Peoples with high feathered headdresses.

Discovery of square plots of 165ft in Tabasco, Mexico show plots of 100 x 100 Sumerian cubits in the Americas,
click for the Atlantis stade

At last the Altiplano gives up its secrets! These channels on the Bolivian Altiplano north of Peñas which is north west of La Paz region are in regular plots of 330ft or 200 x 200 Sumerian cubits confirming the use of the 330ft stade to describe the rectangular plain next to Lake Poopo.

Many measurements in Tiwanaku, Peru and Mexico can be related to Sumerian units.

Above, measurement of Puma Punku (Tiwanaku) by Alexei Vranich in Journal of Field Archaeology

Above, On this drawing of the Puma Punka I have superimposed the dimensions given of 167.36 metres wide along its north-south axis together with the 116.7 metres on the north and south sides shown in solid outline. The 167.36 metres comes to 100 Sumerian double yards or 500 Sumerian feet for the length of the platform, whereas the quoted 116.7 metres for north and south sides does not seem to represent anything special. On the other hand if the north and south side had been measured to include the dotted section, then they would measure 450 Sumerian feet, suggesting a platform of 100 Sumerian double yards by 90 Sumerian double yards or 500 x 450 Sumerian feet was originally intended. See also Tiwanaku cubits

The most ancient calendar found at Tiwanaku was based in divisions of the year into 20, and set out in Sumerian cubits.

Susa, Ecbatana, Firuzabad and Persepolis

There is a certain similarity between Plato's description of the city of Atlantis with its circular central island surrounded by concentric ring islands and cities which existed in ancient Persia, in particular with for example Susa and Ecbatana which Herodotus describes as being surrounded by concentric walls, each painted in differing colours and rising in height from the outside towards the centre and also for example with Firuzabad for which we have a record of the dimensions being 2000 metres in diameter (probably to exterior of ditch) according to Wikipedia or 1950 metres in diameter (probably to centre of ditch) according to Prof. Dietrich Huff

Now, 2,000 metres would be pretty close to 4,000 Sumerian cubits of 19.8" and since Prof. Huff tells us that the city was "divided into twenty sectors by a precise geometric system of twenty radial and several concentric streets." It tends to suggest that the interpretation of 4,000 Sumerian cubits in diameter is the correct one, the radius being therefore 2,000 cubits...

Firuzabad aerial view
Firuzabad aerial view

Wikipedias's account of Firuzabad – meaning "The Glory of Ardasher" - "is a city in and the capital of Firuzabad County, Fars Province, Iran.... Firuzabad is located south of Shiraz. The town is surrounded by a mud wall and ditch. Alexander of Macedonia destroyed the original city of Gor. Centuries later, Ardashir I, founder of the Sassanid Dynasty, revived the city before it was ransacked during the Arab invasion of the seventh century. Firuzabad is situated in a low-lying area of the region, so Alexander was able to drown the city by directing the flow of a river into the city. The lake he created remained until Ardashir I built a tunnel to drain it. He founded his new capital city on this site. Ardeshir's new city was known as Khor Ardeshir, Ardeshir Khurah and Shahr-i- Gor. It had a circular plan so precise in measurement that the Persian historian Ibn Balkhi wrote it to be "devised using a compass"."

Firuzabad satellite view
Firuzabad satellite view

Plato's city of Atlantis comprised a central island 5 stades in diameter surrounded by a ring of water 1 stade in diameter, ring of land 2 stades, water 2 stades, land 3 stades and water 3 stades making a total of 27 stades in diameter. The problem is, what were the original units used, if not Greek stades of 606 english feet (600 Greek feet) supposing they had been furlongs of 660ft (600 Sumerian feet) then the diameter would have been 27 x 660ft = 17,820ft = 10,800 Sumerian cubits. (5.43km) Had they been they been stades of 330ft such as described the rectanglur plain of the Bolivian altiplano, then the diameter would have been 27 x 330ft = 8,910ft = 5400 cubits of 19.8" (2.71km)which is about the size of the Pampa Aullagas site in Bolivia. And if we try a smaller stade of 100 Sumerian cubits (165ft or half of the 330ft stade) then the size of the circular complex at 27 stades would be 4455ft or 2700 cubits of 19.8" (1.36km) in diameter.

Firuzabad map

Firuzabad - the old city 2km in diameter and modern city of Firuzabad.
Note the radial spokes dividing it into 20 sectors.

The Firuzabad site was surrounded by a ditch 35 metres wide according to Prof Huff, or 50 metres wide according to Wikipedia, and again, 50 metres in Sumerian cubits would be 100 cubits which sounds more appropriate. And wikipedia also tell us "The royal capital's compounds were constructed at the center of a circle 450 m in radius. At the center point of the city was a Zoroastrian fire temple 30 m high and spiral in design" - a 450 metre radius circle would be 900 cubits giving a diameter of 1800 cubits - leaving 100 cubits each side for the surrounding ditch already described and a temple 30 metres high would be 60 cubits high in Sumerian cubits.

Firuzabad palace
Firuzabad palace sometimes incorrectly called the "fire temple"

Prof Huff also adds "This scheme continues the concentric and radiant pattern of the town, at first up to an enclosure wall, forming a twenty-cornered polygon of nearly 8 km in diameter. Beyond this, the radials, consisting of traces of canals, paths, walls, and field borders continue up to 10 km distance from the central tower. The two perpendicular main axes of the scheme, determined by the axes of the tower and the four main gates, which are marked by four wide breaches in the city wall, lead to ruined constructions, which obviously belong to Ardašîr's building program: a mud-brick ruin with a round moat and Sasanian surface pottery 9.5 km southeast of the city center was probably a fort, guarding the eastern entrance to the plain. Some 4.5 km northwest are traces of a garden designed with a circular pool and a building on a hill, also with Sasanian pottery. An arrangement of walls on a mountain plateau 6 km northeast could indicate a cemetery. About 10 km southwest, at the outlet of the river from the plain, are the remains of water conduits and of a single arched aqueduct. In an arid neighboring valley, beyond a mountain ridge, a wall, most probably of an aqueduct, runs exactly north-south in line with the tower beyond the ridge. The aqueduct was fed from springs in the eastern Fîrûzâbâd plain by a rock canal, penetrating the ridge by a rock tunnel (Huff, 1974, pp. 159-60)"

So the outer limits of the city were 10km from the centre, which would be 10,000 metres or 20,000 Sumerian cubits, or 100 stades of 330ft such as the stades of the Atlantis plain using the Bolivian Altiplano stade of 200 cubits or 50 stades using the Sumerian furlong of 660ft which is also closest to the Greek stade.

Plato's Atlantis scheme also included a circular "sea wall" at a distance of "50 stades from the outermost circle" which would compare to the outer limit of Firuzabad at 50 furlongs from the city centre, but in Furuzabad those limits describe not so much the city itself as the actual plain which instead of the 300 nautical miles described by Plato, only measures about 13km or 8 miles in length.

Firuzabad satellite view of the plain
Firuzabad and plain, satellite view, the plain measures about 13 km (8 miles) east-west and about 9 or 10km (6 miles) north to south.

location of Susa, Ecbatana and the royal road to Sardis.

There also existed in Persia two capital cities said by Herodotus to be surrounded by concentric ringed walls, one at Ecbatana (although in modern times no evidence of ringed walls have been found there), the other at Susa and these walls were also said to have been painted in decorative colours and rising higher on the interior towards the centre.

According to Herodotus, when the Medes appointed Deioces as king, he ordered them to build a city and palace (around the 8th century BC) and "The Medes were again obedient, and built the city now called Agbatana, the walls of which are of great size and strength, rising in circles one within the other. The plan of the place is that each of the walls should out-top the one beyond it by the battlements. The nature of the ground, which is a gentle hill, favours this arrangement in some degree, but it was mainly effected by art. The number of the circles is seven, the royal palace and the treasuries standing within the last. The circuit of the outer wall is very nearly the same with that of Athens. Of this wall the battlements are white, of the next black, of the third scarlet, of the fourth blue, of the fifth orange; all these are coloured with paint. The two last have their battlements coated respectively with silver and gold."

painted stone from Pampa Aullagas
The description of Ecbatana mentions how the walls were painted in different colours.
Although there are many naturally red coloured stones at Pampa Aullagas,
the above photo shows a stone from the mountain at Pampa Aullagas
which appears to have been painted red on the outside..

Polybius, a greek historian writing in a period later than Plato about 200BC (10.27.1-13), describes Ecbatana, "6 It lies on the skirts of Mount Orontes and has no wall, but possesses an artificial citadel the fortifications of which are of wonderful strength. 7 Beneath this stands the palace, .... The palace, however, is about seven stades in circumference, and by the magnificence of the separate structures in it conveys a high idea of the wealth of its original founders. 10 For the woodwork was all of cedar and cypress, but no part of it was left exposed, and the rafters, the compartments of the ceiling, and the columns in the porticoes and colonnades were plated with either silver or gold, and all the tiles were silver. 11 Most of the precious metals were stripped off in the invasion of Alexander and his Macedonians, and the rest during the reigns of Antigonus and Seleucus the son of Nicanor, 12 but still, when Antiochus reached the place, the temple of Aene alone had the columns round it still gilded and a number of silver tiles were piled up in it, while a few gold bricks and a considerable quantity of silver ones remained." (note, it is the palace which is 7 stades in circumferene, not the main citadel).

Izady (1992: 263) states, "The Assyrian bas relieves depicting Kurdish cities besieged by Assyrian forces all show a basic design of the cities, built on hills with many (usually seven) concentric walls sectioning the city all the way to top of the hill, where the palace/temple is located."

Another account says that both Ecbatana and Susa were built by King Memnon around the time of the Trojan war... "Memnon in Greek mythology, son of Tithonus (son of Laomedon, legendary king of Troy) and Eos (Dawn) and king of the Ethiopians. He was a post-Homeric hero, who, after the death of the Trojan warrior Hector, went to assist his uncle Priam, the last king of Troy, against the Greeks. He performed prodigies of valour but was slain by the Greek hero Achilles".
"But Memnon himself was, as Tithonus 1, related to the East, and he is said to have built a palace of many colored and shining white stones bound with gold in the city of Ecbatana. For Memnon, starting from Ethiopia, overrun Egypt and conquered the East as far as the city of Susa, which he surrounded by walls. So Memnon, although being king of the Ethiopians, came to Troy, not from what today is called Africa, but from Susa, not far away from the river Tigris, in the land that later became Persia. And when he made his march to the west, he subdued all the peoples that lived between Susa and Troy."

ecbatana plan
plan of Ecbatana, authenticity unknown as it is said that the circular walls there have never been found, however the drawing does show how walls on a given site may be adapted to the terrain of the site, thus in Pampa Aullagas it may have been feasible to have walls rising in height on the western side, but interconnected harbours at the same level on the eastern side.
See flooding dates page for illustrations of water levels at Pampa Aullagas.

pottery ectabana museum
a pot from Ecbatana shows the Atlantis symbol.

susa aerial photo
Susa aerial photo, the citadel in the foreground shows remarkable similarity to the site
at Pampa Aullagas as it exists today. The fort at the rear of the site was built by French archaeologists
and the "Tomb of Daniel" is marked by the pointed spire on the left of the photo.

Atlantis Pampa Aullagas oblique view
Oblique view of Atlantis mountain at Pampa Pullagas.

Underground water channels are found in ancient Persia where they are known as Qanats. With this system, water is conducted beneath a plain using artifically constructed channels and emerges via wells to irrigate cultivable land using surface channels. In Bolivia today some areas of the surface are barren and bare stones, but columns of stones cleared from the landscape illustrate (in Bolivia) how large areas once supported thriving and industrious agricultural communities.

qanat wells
illustration of construction of qanat from Scientific American.

Interestingly, the writer of the Qanat article says
"Written records leave little doubt that ancient Iran (Persia) was the birthplace of the qanat. As early as the 7th century BC, the Assyrian king Sargon II reported that during a campaign in Persia he had found an underground system for tapping water. His son, King Sennacherib, applied the "secret" of using underground conduits in building an irrigation system around Nineveh. During the period 550-331 BC, when Persian rule extended from the Indus to the Nile, qanat technology spread throughout the empire. The Achaemenid rulers provided a major incentive for qanat builders and their heirs by allowing them to retain profits from newly-constructed qanats for five generations. As a result, thousands of new settlements were established and others expanded. To the west, qanats were constructed from Mesopotamia to the shores of the Mediterranean, as well as southward into parts of Egypt. To the east of Persia, qanats were constructed in Afghanistan, the Silk Route oases settlements of central Asia, and Chinese Turkistan (ie. Turpan)........ Since the systems in South America may predate the Spanish entry into the New World, their development may have occurred independently from any Persian influence."

I find it curious that Sargon should be credited initally with distributing the Qanat system through the Middle East, North Africa, even as far as China, but when it comes to Peru and Chile, it is said to have been invented independently at more or less the same time.

Sargon of Akkad claimed to have been "Lord of the Four Quarters" (just like in the Andes, the Incas were "Lords of the Four Quarters, this being the name for the later Inca Empire called Tahuantinsuyo. It is usually assumed that the four quarters of Sargon were the territories bounding on his Assyrian kingdom, but Sargon also claimed to have made a voyage to the far west, to obtain the metal tin. Again it is usually assumed that he went to Cornwall for his tin but there were also plentiful supplies in Bolivia so perhaps when he claimed to be lord of the Four Quarters of the World, that world did after all include Bolivia and South America.

I have read previously about underground channels or conduits at Nazca, and an interesting page on Nazca channels mentions the use of wells as well as the undergound channels, so perhaps the trapezoidal areas in Nazca were flooded by water emerging from the wells, the wells are also similar to those which exist on the Bolivian Altiplano which is also rumoured to contain underground channels and is also criss-crossed in places by innumerable ancient now abandoned cultivations amd canals.

Nazca wells
Example of well or "ojo" from the above report about Nazca, Peru.

It is usually assumed there was no ancient sea route between the Americas and the Old World, but there are in fact artefacts which suggest an ancient connection, including this ceramic (below) which is a typical Nazca ceramic, but found in Cyprus and now in the University of Cambridge Fitzwilliam museum.

nazca pottery imported into cyprus
above, typical Nazca pottery found in Cyprus,
at one time part of the Persian empire.

Artefacts found in Bolivia and South America suggest an ancient Sumerian connection

Hopi Creation Myths

By Robert Morningside

The Hopi believe the Creator of Man is a woman.
The Sumerians believed the Creator of Man was a woman.

The Hopi believe the Father Creator is KA.
The Sumerians believed the Father Essence was KA.

The Hopi believe Taiowa, the Sun God, is the Creator of the Earth.
The Sumerians believe TA.EA was the Creator.

The Hopi believe two brothers had guardianship of the Earth.
The Sumerians believed two brothers had dominion over the Earth.

The Hopi believe Alo to be spiritual guides.
The Sumerians believed AL.U to be beings of Heaven.

The Hopi believe Kachinas (Kat'sinas) are the spirits of nature
and the messengers and teachers sent by the Great Spirit.
The Sumerians believed KAT.SI.NA were righteous ones sent of God.

The Hopi believe Eototo is the Father of Katsinas.
The Sumerians believed EA.TA was the Father of all beings.

The Hopi believe Chakwaina is the Chief of Warriors.
The Sumerians believed TAK.AN.U was the Heavenly Destroyer.

The Hopi believe Nan-ga-Sohu is the Chasing Star Katsina.
The Sumerians believed NIN.GIR.SU to be the Master of Starships.

The Hopi believe Akush to be the Dawn Katsina.
The Sumerians believed AK.U to be Beings of light.

The Hopi believe Danik to be Guardians in the Clouds.
The Sumerians believed DAK.AN to be Sky Warriors.

The Hopi believe Sotunangu is a Sky Katsina.
The Sumerians believed TAK.AN.IKU were Sky Warriors.

The Hopi name for the Pleaides is ChooChookam.
The Sumerians believed SHU. SHU.KHEM were the supreme Stars.

The Hopi believe Tapuat is the name of Earth.
The Sumerians believed Tiamat was the name of Earth.

The Hopi call a snake Chu'a.
The Sumerians called a snake SHU.

The Hopi word for "dead" is Mokee.
The Sumerians used KI. MAH to mean "dead."

The Hopi use Omiq to mean above, up.
The Sumerians used AM.IK to mean looking to Heaven.

The Hopi believe Tuawta is One Who Sees Magic.
The Sumerians believed TUAT.U was One from the Other World.

The Hopi believe Pahana was the Lost Brother who would
one day return to assist the Hopi and humankind.
The Sumerians would recognize PA.HA.NA
as an Ancestor from heaven who would return.

Myth 2

In the beginning there were only two: Tawa, the Sun God, and Spider Woman (Kokyanwuhti), the Earth Goddess. All the mysteries and the powers in the Above belonged to Tawa, while Spider Woman controlled the magic of the Below.
There was neither man nor woman, bird nor beast, no living thing until these Two willed it to be.
In time they decided there should be other gods to share their labors, so Tawa divided himself and there came Muiyinwuh, God of All Life Germs and Spider Woman divided herself and there came Huzruiwuhti, Woman of the Hard Substances (turquoise, silver, coral, shell,etc.).
Huzruiwuhti became the wife of Tawa and with him produced Puukonhoya, the Youth, and Palunhoya, the Echo, and later, Hicanavaiya, Man-Eagle, Plumed Serpent and many others.
Then did Tawa and Spider Woman have the Great Thought, they would make the Earth to be between the Above and the Below. As Tawa thought the features of the Earth, Spider women formed them from clay.
Then did Tawa think of animals and beasts and plants, all the while Spider Woman formed them from the clay. At last they decided they had enough, then they made great magic and breathed life into their creatures. Now Tawa decided they should make creatures in their image to lord over all the rest. Spider Woman again formed them from clay. Again the Two breathed life into their creations. Spider Woman called all the people so created to follow where she led.
Through all the Four Great Caverns of the Underworld she led them, until they finally came to an opening, a sipapu, which led to the earth above.

How the Great Chiefs Made the Moon and the Sun

Once upon a time, when our people first came up from the villages of the underworld, there was no sun. There was no moon. They saw only dreary darkness and felt the coldness. They looked hard for firewood, but in the darkness they found little.
One day as they stumbled around, they saw a light in the distance. The Chief sent a messenger to see what caused the light. As the messenger approached it, he saw a small field containing corn, beans, squash, watermelons, and other foods. All around the field a great fire was burning. Nearby stood a straight, handsome man wearing around his neck a turquoise necklace of four strands. Turquoise pendants hung from his ears.
"Who are you?" the owner of the field asked the messenger.
"My people and I have come from the cave world below," the messenger replied. "And we suffer from the lack of light and the lack of food."
"My name is Skeleton," said the owner of the field. He showed the stranger the terrible mask he often wore and then gave him some food. "Now return to your people and guide them to my field."
When all the people had arrived, Skeleton began to give them food from his field. They marvelled that, although the crops seemed so small, there was enough food for everyone. He gave them ears of corn for roasting; he gave them beans, squashes, and watermelons. The people built fires for themselves and were happy.
Later, Skeleton helped them prepare fields of their own and to make fires around them. There they planted corn and soon harvested a good crop.
"Now we should move on," the people said. "We want to find the place where we will live always."
Away from the fires it was still dark. The Great Chiefs, at a council with Skeleton, decided to make a moon like the one they had enjoyed in the underworld.
They took a piece of well-prepared buffalo hide and cut from it a great circle. They stretched the circle tightly over a wooden hoop and then painted it carefully with white paint. When it was entirely dry, they mixed some black paint and painted, all around its edge, completing the picture of the moon. When all of this was done, they attached a stick to the disk and placed it on a large square of white cloth. Thus they made a symbol of the moon.
Then the Great Chiefs selected one of the young men and bade him
to stand on top of the moon symbol. They took up the cloth by its corners and began to swing it back and forth, higher and higher. As they were swinging it, they sang a magic song. Finally, with a mighty heave, they threw the moon disk upward. It continued to fly swiftly, upward and eastward.
As the people watched, they suddenly saw light in the eastern sky. The light became brighter and brighter. Surely something was burning there, they thought. Then something bright with light rose in the east. That was the moon!
Although the moon made it possible for the people to move around with less stumbling, its light was so dim that frequently the workers in the fields would cut up their food plants instead of the weeds. It was so cold that fires had to be kept burning around the fields all the time.
Again the Great Chiefs held a council with Skeleton, and again they decided that something better must be done.
This time, instead of taking a piece of buffalo hide, they took a piece of warm cloth that they themselves had woven while they were still in the underworld. They fashioned this as they had fashioned the disk of buffalo hide, except that this time they painted the face of the circle with a copper-coloured paint.
They painted eyes and a mouth on the disk and decorated the forehead with colours that the Great Chiefs decided upon according to their desires. Around the circle, they then wove a ring of corn husks, arranged in a zig zag design. Around the circle of corn husks, they threaded a string of red hair from some animal. To the back of the disk, they fastened a small ring of corn husks. Through that ring they poked a circle of eagle feathers.
To the top of each eagle feather, the old Chief tied a few little red feathers taken from the top of the head of a small bird. On the forehead of the circle, he attached an abalone shell. Then the sun disk was completed.
Again the Great Chiefs chose a young man to stand on top of the disk, which they had placed on a large sheet. As they had done with the moon disk, they raised the cloth by holding its corners. Then they swung the sun disk back and forth, back and forth, again and again. With a mighty thrust, they threw the man and the disk far into the air. It travelled fast into the eastern sky and disappeared.
All the people watched it carefully. In a short time, they saw light in the east as if a great fire were burning. Soon the new sun rose and warmed the earth with its kindly rays.
Now with the moon to light the earth at night and the sun to light and warm it by day, all the people decided to pick up their provisions and go on. As they started, the White people took a trail that led them far to the south. The Hopis took one to the north, and the Pueblos took one midway between the two. Thus they wandered on to the places where they were to live.
The Hopis wandered a long time, building houses and planting crops until they reached the mesas where they now live. The ruins of the ancient villages are scattered to the very beginnings of the great river of the canyon--the Colorado.

How the Hopi Reached Their World

When the world was new, the ancient people and the ancient creatures did not live on the top of the earth. They lived under it. All was darkness, all was blackness, above the earth as well as below it.
There were four worlds: this one on top of the earth, and below it three cave worlds, one below the other. None of the cave worlds was large enough for all the people and the creatures.
They increased so fast in the lowest cave world that they crowded it. They were poor and did not know where to turn in the blackness. When they moved, they jostled one another. The cave was filled with the filth of the people who lived in it. No one could turn to spit without spitting on another. No one could cast slime from his nose without its falling on someone else. The people filled the place with their complaints and with their expressions of disgust.
Some people said, "It is not good for us to live in this way."
"How can it be made better?" one man asked.
"Let it be tried and seen!" answered another.
Two Brothers, one older and one younger, spoke to the priest- chiefs of the people in the cave world, "Yes, let it be tried and seen. Then it shall be well. By our wills it shall be well."
The Two Brothers pierced the roofs of the caves and descended to the lowest world, where people lived. The Two Brothers sowed one plant after another, hoping that one of them would grow up to the opening through which they themselves had descended and yet would have the strength to bear the weight of men and creatures. These, the Two Brothers hoped, might climb up the plant into the second cave world. One of these plants was a cane.
At last, after many trials, the cane became so tall that it grew through the opening in the roof, and it was so strong that men could climb to its top. It was jointed so that it was like a ladder, easily ascended. Ever since then, the cane has grown in joints as we see it today along the Colorado River.
Up this cane many people and beings climbed to the second cave world. When a part of them had climbed out, they feared that that cave also would be too small. It was so dark that they could not see how large it was. So they shook the ladder and caused those who were coming up it to fall back. Then they pulled the ladder out. It is said that those who were left came out of the lowest cave later. They are our brothers west of us.
After a long time the second cave became filled with men and beings, as the first had been. Complaining and wrangling were heard as in the beginning. Again the cane was placed under the roof vent, and once more men and beings entered the upper cave world. Again, those who were slow to climb out were shaken back or left behind. Though larger, the third cave was as dark as the first and second. The Two Brothers found fire. Torches were set ablaze, and by their light men built their huts and kivas, or travelled from place to place.
While people and the beings lived in this third cave world, times of evil came to them. Women became so crazed that they neglected all things for the dance. They even forgot their babies. Wives became mixed with wives, so that husbands did not know their own from others. At that time there was no day, only night, black night. Throughout this night, women danced in the kivas (men's "clubhouses"), ceasing only to sleep. So the fathers had to be the mothers of the little ones. When these little ones cried from hunger, the fathers carried them to the kivas, where the women were dancing. Hearing their cries, the mothers came and nursed them, and then went back to their dancing. Again the fathers took care of the children.
These troubles caused people to long for the light and to seek again an escape from darkness. They climbed to the fourth world, which was this world. But it too was in darkness, for the earth was closed in by the sky, just as the cave worlds had been closed in by their roofs. Men went from their lodges and worked by the light of torches and fires. They found the tracks of only one being, the single ruler of the unpeopled world, the tracks of Corpse Demon or Death. The people tried to follow these tracks, which led eastward. But the world was damp and dark, and people did not know what to do in the darkness. The waters seemed to surround them, and the tracks seemed to lead out into the waters.
With the people were five beings that had come forth with them from the cave worlds: Spider, Vulture, Swallow, Coyote, and Locust. The people and these beings consulted together, trying to think of some way of making light. Many, many attempts were made, but without success. Spider was asked to try first. She spun a mantle of pure white cotton. It gave some light but not enough. Spider therefore became our grandmother.
Then the people obtained and prepared a very white deerskin that had not been pierced in any spot. From this they made a shield case, which they painted with turquoise paint. It shed forth such brilliant light that it lighted the whole world. It made the light from the cotton mantle look faded. So the people sent the shield-light to the east, where it became the moon.
Down in the cave world Coyote had stolen a jar that was very heavy, so very heavy that he grew weary of carrying it. He decided to leave it behind, but he was curious to see what it contained. Now that light had taken the place of darkness, he opened the jar. From it many shining fragments and sparks flew out and upward, singeing his face as they passed him. That is why the coyote has a black face to this day. The shining fragments and sparks flew up to the sky and became stars.
By these lights the people found that the world was indeed very small and surrounded by waters, which made it damp. The people appealed to Vulture for help. He spread his wings and fanned the waters, which flowed away to the east and to the west until mountains began to appear.
Across the mountains the Two Brothers cut channels. Water rushed through the channels, and wore their courses deeper and deeper. Thus the great canyons and valleys of the world were formed. The waters have kept on flowing and flowing for ages. The world has grown drier, and continues to grow drier and drier.
Now that there was light, the people easily followed the tracks of Death eastward over the new land that was appearing. Hence Death is our greatest father and master. We followed his tracks when we left the cave worlds, and he was the only being that awaited us on the great world of waters where this world is now.
Although all the water had flowed away, the people found the earth soft and damp. That is why we can see today the tracks of men and of many strange creatures between the place toward the west and the place where we came from the cave world.
Since the days of the first people, the earth has been changed to stone, and all the tracks have been preserved as they were when they were first made.
When people had followed in the tracks of Corpse Demon but a short distance, they overtook him. Among them were two little girls. One was the beautiful daughter of a great priest. The other was the child of somebody-or-other She was not beautiful, and she was jealous of the little beauty. With the aid of Corpse Demon the jealous girl caused the death of the other child. This was the first death.
When people saw that the girl slept and could not be awakened, that she grew cold and that her heart had stopped beating, her father, the great priest, grew angry.
"Who has caused my daughter to die?" he cried loudly.
But the people only looked at each other.
"I will make a ball of sacred meal," said the priest. "I will throw it into the air, and when it falls it will strike someone on the head. The one it will strike I shall know as the one whose magic and evil art have brought my tragedy upon me."
The priest made a ball of sacred flour and pollen and threw it into the air. When it fell, it struck the head of the jealous little girl, the daughter of somebody-or-other. Then the priest exclaimed, "So you have caused this thing! You have caused the death of my daughter."
He called a council of the people, and they tried the girl. They would have killed her if she had not cried for mercy and a little time. Then she begged the priest and his people to return to the hole they had all come out of and look down it.
"If you still wish to destroy me, after you have looked into the hole," she said, "I will die willingly."
So the people were persuaded to return to the hole leading from the cave world. When they looked down, they saw plains of beautiful flowers in a land of everlasting summer and fruitfulness. And they saw the beautiful little girl, the priest's daughter, wandering among the flowers. She was so happy that she paid no attention to the people. She seemed to have no desire to return to this world.
"Look!" said the girl who had caused her death. "Thus it shall be with all the children of men."
"When we die," the people said to each other, "we will return to the world we have come from. There we shall be happy. Why should we fear to die? Why should we resent death?"
So they did not kill the little girl. Her children became the powerful wizards and witches of the world, who increased in numbers as people increased. Her children still live and still have wonderful and dreadful powers.
Then the people journeyed still farther eastward. As they went, they discovered Locust in their midst.
"Where did you come from?" they asked.
"I came out with you and the other beings," he replied.
"Why did you come with us on our journey?" they asked.
"So that I might be useful," replied Locust.
But the people, thinking that he could not be useful, said to him, "You must return to the place you came from."
But Locust would not obey them. Then the people became so angry at him that they ran arrows through him, even through his heart. All the blood oozed out of his body and he died. After a long time he came to life again and ran about, looking as he had looked before, except that he was black.
The people said to one another, "Locust lives again, although we have pierced him through and through. Now he shall indeed be useful and shall journey with us. Who besides Locust has this wonderful power of renewing his life? He must possess the medicine for the renewal of the lives of others. He shall become the medicine of mortal wounds and of war."
So today the locust is at first white, as was the first locust that came forth with the ancients. Like him, the locust dies, and after he has been dead a long time, he comes to life again-- black. He is our father, too. Having his medicine, we are the greatest of men. The locust medicine still heals mortal wounds.
After the ancient people had journeyed a long distance, they became very hungry. In their hurry to get away from the lower cave world, they had forgotten to bring seed. After they had done much lamenting, the Spirit of Dew sent the Swallow back to bring the seed of corn and of other foods. When Swallow returned, the Spirit of Dew planted the seed in the ground and chanted prayers to it. Through the power of these prayers, the corn grew and ripened in a single day.
So for a long time, as the people continued their journey, they carried only enough seed for a day's planting. They depended upon the Spirit of Dew to raise for them in a single day an abundance of corn and other foods. To the Corn Clan, he gave this seed, and for a long time they were able to raise enough corn for their needs in a very short time.
But the powers of the witches and wizards made the time for raising foods grow longer and longer. Now, sometimes, our corn does not have time to grow old and ripen in the ear, and our other foods do not ripen. If it had not been for the children of the little girl whom the ancient people let live, even now we would not need to watch our cornfields whole summers through, and we would not have to carry heavy packs of food on our journeys.
As the ancient people travelled on, the children of the little girl tried their powers and caused other troubles. These mischief-makers stirred up people who had come out of the cave worlds before our ancients had come. They made war upon our ancients. The wars made it necessary for the people to build houses whenever they stopped travelling. They built their houses on high mountains reached by only one trail, or in caves with but one path leading to them, or in the sides of deep canyons. Only in such places could they sleep in peace.
Only a small number of people were able to climb up from their secret hiding places and emerge into the Fourth World. Legends reveal the Grand Canyon is where these people emerged. From there they began their search for the homes the Two Brothers intended for them.
These few were the Hopi Indians that now live on the Three Mesas of northeastern Arizona.

Misterija Dogona

Naša se civilizacija bazira na tehnološkom razvoju i otkrićima iz znanosti, naročito nakon perioda prve industrijske revolucije. Globalnom kulturom i nekulturom uglavnom prednjače zapadnjački interesi i saznanja, no naši znanstvenici na mnoga pitanja iz prošlosti još uvijek nemaju odgovora i takva pitanja se u javnosti poznaju kao misterije. Jedna od takvih misterija je afrički narod Dogona koji zbunjuju svojim poznavanjem svemira.

Područje naseljeno Dogonima je smeđe boje.

Dogoni su etnička grupa koja obitava uglavnom na centralnom platou države Mali, južno od rijeke Niger, najviše u okolici grada Bandigara.
Broj pripadnika ovog naroda se procjenjuje na otprilike 300,000 ljudi. Dogoni su iznimno poznati po rukotovorinama; drvenim ritualnim maskama, drvenim skulpturama, originalnoj prastaroj plemenskoj arhitekturi i mnogobrojnim festivalima i plesovima.
Ovaj narod je u proteklim vjekovima prošao kroz brojne promjene socijalne organizacije, materijalnim dobrima i vjerovanjima no osebujna kultura Dogona je bila i ostala najveća turistička atrakcija Malija.

Nommo – bog riba Dogona.

No ono što Dogone zaista čini posebnim je njihova mitologija. Dogoni vjeruju kako je njihov spiritualni predak i stvaratelj Nommo ili bog riba, biće koje je na Zemlju došlo u svemirskom brodu i koje je njima udahnulo život i dalo znanje. Dogoni su najvećim dijelom animisti i još uvijek i te kako drže do prastarih mitova vezanih za Nommoa i njegovom svemirskom podrijetlu, dok su dvije manje skupine prešle na islam i krišćanstvo.

Dogon ispred muške kuće.

Sama socijalna struktura Dogona je iznimno interesantna, i orijentirana je ka harmoniji koja se reflektira u mnogim njihovim ritualima i svetkovinama u kojima obavezno žene zahvaljuju muškarcima, muškarci zahvaljuju ženama, djeca iskazuju zahvalnost starijima, a stariji prihvaćaju pomaganje mlađima i smatraju ih centrom svoje zajednice. Interesantno je i da Dogoni imaju elaborirani način ponavljanja kojeg ponavljaju sa svakom osobom kojom se sretnu, njima je potpuno uobičajeno da pitaju za sve članove obitelji i da im zažele sve najbolje na kraju pozdrava.

Svako se dogonsko selo smatra uvećanom obitelji, svi se međusobno pomažu i smatraju se ravnopravnima. Svaka dogonska zajednica ima svoga poglavara Hogona čiji je najvažniji savjetnik žena ili žene ako ih ima više. Hogon je i spiritualni lider mjesta i to mora biti najstariji muškarac u zajednici. Nakon što netko postane najstarijim čovjekom u mjestu njega se svejedno bira otvorenim glasanjem i ako se izabere za starješinu mora proći šest mjeseci pokusnog rada i inicijacije, o njemu se tada brine mlada djevica koja čisti i kuha za njega, no preko noći se vraća u svoju kuću, dok se Hogon obavezuje živjeti u celibatu za vrijeme inicijacije. Ako je selo s njim zadovoljno Hogon prima u svoju poglavarsku kuću svoje žene koje se nakon toga o njemu staraju.

Tipični dogonski plesači pod maskama.

Parovi se imaju pravo rastaviti do rađanja prvog djeteta nakon toga se smatra da roditelji imaju obavezu prema djetetu da ostanu skupa, razvod može inicirati muž ili žena i rastaju se jedno od drugoga sa zahvalnošću i bez svađe dijeleći sve što imaju na isti način kako to radi i cijelo selo.
Dogonska vjerovanja su prepuna čudesnih priča i mitova. Sekta Amma vjeruje u boga stvoritelja koji je muškarac i žena. Sigui je najvažnija svetkovina u Dogona koja se događa svakih 60. Godina, slijedeća će biti 2027. godine. Sigui simbolizira smrt prvog pretka, s kojim su ljudi počeli govoriti.
Sekta Lebe poštuje Lebe Seroua, prvo smrtno ljudsko biće, koji je po predanju transformiran u zmiju. Ova se svetkovina obavlja jedanput godišnje i traje tri dana uz ples, muziku i radost kao i u svim drugim dogonskim svetkovinama.

Dogonsko selo sa ženskim žitnicama.

Arhitektura Dogona je zanimljiva kao i ostale dogonske rukotvorine, centralno mjesto u selu zauzimaju muške i ženske žitnice, u kojima se osim poljoprivrednih dobara čuva sve što se smatra vrijedno, žene su ekonomski neovisne i imaju pravo i na svoju osobnu žitnicu koja im služi kao osobni sef ili banka. U dogonskim zajendica nema kriminala niti krađa i Dogoni ne mogu shvatiti kako je nešto tako moguće u stranom svijetu.

Togu, kuće za muškarce.

Togu na su interesantne kuće za muškarce gdje se oni skupljaju za vrijeme najtoplijih perioda kada se polja ne obrađuju. Ove zgrade imaju odličnu prirodnu klimu i u njima je temperatura gotovo uvijek ista jer su im krovovi debeli po četri metra, što služi kao odlična izolacija.

Toguna kuća za žene.

No istu takvu kući imaju i žene koju koriste za vrijeme menstruacije i trudnoće, one tada u tu kuću nose samo najmlađu djecu, a sve ostalo im daje selo. Ova kuća je također mjesto za okupljanje žena uvečer no njene domaćice su žene koje imaju mjesečnicu ili trudnice.
Na koncu obratimo pažnju na najvažniju nepoznanicu iz svijeta Dogona, a to je njihovo kozmičko znanje.

Snimka Siriusa.

Najvažniji element kosmogeneze i kosmologije Dogona je zvijezda Sirius, koju oni nazivaju Po Tolo. Dogoni opisuju svemir kao beskonačno ali ipak mjerljivo mjesto koje sadrži mnogo yalu ulo, odnosno mnogo spiralnih zvjezdanih sistema (galaktika). Prema njihovoj percepciji kosmosa, veći dio kosmosa pripada eksternom zvjezdanom sistemu dok je Zemlja sa svojom okolinom interni zvjezdani sustav.

Piktogram s kojim se opisuje kruženje Sirijusa B oko Sirijusa A, s desne strane vidite znanstvenu grafiku koja je nevjerojatno nalik dogonskom vjerovanju o kretanju Sirijusa.

Dogonsko znanje o Sirijusu je u biti fascinantno bez obzira na osporavanja skeptika, Dogonima je Sirijus najsjajnija zvijezda na nebu – kao što i jeste, oni su znali da Sirijus ima dva kompanjona no da je treći najmanji crveni patuljak koji je majušan kao nebesko zrno, također su znali frekvenciju bljeskanja Siriusa zbog prolaza zvijezda kompanjona u periodu od 50. godina kakav i jeste ciklus kroz koji Sirijus prolazi.

Rendgenska snimka Sirijusa koju je napravila Chandra.

Poznavanju mitologije Dogona umnogome su doprinijeli francuski antropolozi Marcel Griaule i Germaine Dieterlen koji su sa njima proveli 25. godina (od 1931. do 1956). Njih dvojica su izvijestili o dogonskom poznavanju svemirskih objekata koji se, po uobičajenom mišljenju, ne mogu vidjeti golim okom.
Sirijus B, Saturnovi prestenovi, Jupiterovi mjeseci su tada bili poznati Dogonima. Ovo njihovo znanje je predmet kontraverze, Robert Temple u knjizi The Sirius Mistery ga veže za drevne astronaute dok ga skeptici pripisuju europskim kolonizatorima.

Knjiga:  The Sirius Mistery.

1976., kada je Temple objavio spomenutu knjigu, nije mogao objasniti sasvim moderno astronomsko znanje ovog plemena, njegova teorija o antičkim astronomima je podiglo dosta prašine, naročito zbog činjenice da zvanična znanost ne priznaje takve opcije i odbija ih kao čiste izmišljotine.
Marcel Griaule je izučavao znanje Dogona cijele 33 godine najviše komunicirajući s mudracima Dogona ili Ogotemmelijima, čiji su zadaci bili da znaju porodične veze iz prošlosti, svu mitologiju i plemensko znanje, Dogoni nisu vjerovali pisanom jeziku – osim jednostavnih piktograma koji su više bili podsjetnici jer je jedan znak nosio dugačke poruke – zbog toga su imali živuće biblioteke, Marcel Griaule je s čuđenjem provjeravao njihovo znanje i često ih pitao iste stvari, oni su od riječi do riječi ponavljali odgovore ponekad ih recitirajući po nekoliko sati.

Marcel Griaule je zapisivao dogonska predanja 33. godine.

Noah Brosch je u knjizi Sirius Matters špekulirao da su Dogoni vjerojatno došli u doticaj s ekspedicijom koju je vodio Henri Alexandre Deslandres koji je izučavao solarnu eklipsu 16.04.1893. te da im je on prenio svoja astronomska znanja, što je u biti jako klimavo objašnjenje koje baš ne drži vodu jer Dogoni tvrde da su znanje dobili od svog boga ribe Nommoa koji ih je posjetio desetke tisuća godina prije nego li su vidjeli bijelce na svojoj zemlji. Osim toga Ogotemmeliji pamte čak i godine kada su ih posjećivali kršćanski i islamski propovjednici, zaista je čudno da se ne bi sjetili nekoga tko im je prenio znanje.

Kozmičko jaje s piktogramima koje su Marcelu Griauleu objasnili Ogotemmeliji.

James Clifford je smatrao kako je Griaule tražio priče iz folklora i to u plemenima koja su ostala na animističkoj originalnoj religiji, a naročito plemena koja su imala malo doticaja s bijelcima jer su takva izgubila najviše od svoje tradicjie, Clifford drži da je Griaule bio ozbiljan i detaljan istražitelj koji ničemu nije prilazio olako niti ga je bilo lako zadiviti s ičim.

Na koncu bih citirala riječi Jamesa Oberga koji je rekao slijedeće:
„Temple nam je ponudio rješenje koje mi nismo u stanju prihvatiti, no on je jasno stavio do znanja da se dogonski mitovi mogu staviti na kušnju koje jedino vrijeme može riješiti. Ako se kojim slučajem u budućnosti otkrije Sirius C, ako ta zvijezda slučajno bude crveni patuljak kako su ga opisali Dogoni, tada možemo zaključiti da su Dogonske informacije u potpunosti istinite.“

Hogon – poglavar dogonskog sela.

Oberg na kraju kaže:
„Kladim se da takva zvijezda nikada neće biti otkrivena.“
No 1995. gravitacijske studije su pokazale da je zaista moguće da oko Siriusa A orbitira mala ugasla zvijezda (Sirijus C), crveni patuljak ili smeđi patuljak i to s orbitom od šest godina. Zadnje studije su tu mogućnost proglasile vrlo malom no nisu je isključile, naročito zbog toga što su ispitali tek mali prostor oko Siriusa A, radijusa od 5AU (Astronomic Unit – udaljenist od Zemlje do Sunca koja iznosi:  149.597.870,7 kilometara).

Dogonsko selo s muškim žitnicama.

Misterija Dogona još uvijek nije riješena, pitanje je i kada će biti, nisam sigurna da će zvanična znanost uopće biti u stanju prihvatiti napredno znanje plemena koje izgleda kao da se zaustavilo u vremenu, sigurna sam da čak i ako bi se u dogledno vrijeme otkrio Sirius C, čak i ako bi bio crveni patuljak, bojim se da bi dogonske misterije svi nastavili ignorirati baš kao što to radimo već gotovo cijelo stolijeće.


Dogon People
Marcel Griaule
The Sirius Mystery