Paleolithic in Europe

Hominidae / Homo sapiens


Humans emerge in Europe

Kreacionisti nas uvjeravaju kako je planeta stara nepunih 6000 godina s precima Adamom i Evom koji su stvorili cijelu ljudsku vrstu, s druge strane imamo darwiniste koji su na muci jer se konstantno otkrivaju nove loze ljudskih vrsta koje zapravo niti ne bi trebale postojati jer su prestare i jednostavno se ne mogu objasniti Darwinovom teorijom evolucije.

Trenutačno važeća teorija ljudske evolucije tvrdi kako su se direktni preci ljudi nakon napuštanja Afrike miješali s Neandertalcima i Denisovancima stvarajući nove genetičke markere.

 

Out of Africa (OOA) / Multiregional continuity (MRC)

Prije sto tisuća godina svijetom su lutale tri različite skupine hominida: Homo neanderthaliensis u Europi, Homo erectus u Aziji te Homo Sapiens u Africi. Do prije 30 tisuća godina ta se raznolikost znatno smanjila. Svi ljudski fosili od prije 30 tisuća godina do danas dijele isti moderni anatomski oblik: specifičan oblik lubanje, veliki mozak (1350 cm²), izraženu kost brade, kostur nježnije grade. Što je točno uzrokovalo ovu korjenitu promjenu u jedinstveni ljudski oblik, predmet je žustrih rasprava među znanstvenicima. Dvije su međusobno suprotstavljene teorije: multiregionalnog kontinuiteta (MRC – multiregional continuity) i monogenska (OOA – Out of Africa) teorija.

Prema MRC teoriji, nakon prve migracije iz Afrike prije 1.8 milijuna godina, različite su grupe ljudi u različitim dijelovima svijeta polagano paralelno evoluirale, i sve su postupno postajale moderni ljudi (Wolporf i Caspari 1996). Prema ovoj se teoriji moderni čovjek nije pojavio u jednom području, već u različitim dijelovima svijeta, gdjegod su ljudi živjeli (odatle naziv multiregionalna). Multiregionalna evolucija različitih grupa u anatomski moderan ljudski oblik dogodila se, prema MRC teoriji, kao posljedica protoka gena između različitih grupa, koje su se dovoljno često parile da bi se izbjeglo razdvajanje u različite vrste.

Sasvim suprotno ovome, OOA drži da su moderni ljudi evoluirali prilično nedavno na jednoj lokaciji – u Africi – i zatim migrirali u Europu i Aziju, zamjenjujući sve prethodne I populacije, uključujući neandertalce (Stringer i I McKie, 1996). Drugim riječima, OOA tvrdi da su se svi moderni ljudi pojavili na jednom mjestu, ne u više područja, i zamijenili sve druge ljude, uključujući one koji su već živjeli u Aziji i Europi. Prema OOA teoriji, različite grupe koje su postojale istovremeno, poput neandertalaca i Homo sapiensa, evoluirale su u različite vrste, tako da je međusobno parenje bilo malo vjerojatno ili jako rijetko. Ukratko, OOA pretpostavlja jednu lokaciju porijekla modernog čovjeka u proteklih 100 tisuća godina, nasuprot MRC teoriji, koja smatra da ljudi vuku porijeklo iz različitih regija.

Znanstvenici su utvrdili tri temeljna izvora dokaza za provjeru točnosti ovih teorija: anatomske dokaze, arheološke dokaze i genetske dokaze.

Anatomski dokazi – pokazuju da su se neandertalci i Homo sapiens dramatično razlikovali. Neandertalci su imali veliki svod lubanje; izražene lukove obrva; masivni kostur lica; velike, vrlo istrošene sjekutiće; izbočeni središnji dio lica; donju vilicu bez izraženih kostiju brade; bili su niskoga rasta i nabijene, snažne tjelesne građe s debelim kostima. Nasuprot tome, rani je Homo sapiens izgledao poput modernog čovjeka: svod lubanje s okomitim (a ne kosim) čelom, manji kostur lica bez izbočenja srednjeg dijela, donja vilica s jasno izraženom bradom te kosti laganije, manje robusne građe. Ove velike anatomske razlike upućuju na to da su neandertalci i rani moderni ljudi bili izolirani i da se nisu međusobno parili te da je moguće da su evoluirali u dvije različite vrste. Ovi nalazi podupiru OOA teoriju.

Arheološki dokazi – oruđe i drugi pronađeni artefakti – pokazuju da su prije 100 tisuća godina neandertalci i Homo sapiens bili prilično slični. I jedni i drugi su imali kameno oruđe, no nije bilo oruđa od kostiju, slonovače ili rogova; lov je bio ograničen na manje opasne vrste; gustoća naseljenosti bila je niska; ognjišta su bila nerazvijena; nijedni nisu pokazivali sklonost za umjetnost ili ukrašavanje. Zatim se, prije 40 do 50 tisuća godina, dogodila velika preobrazba, koja se ponekad opisuje kao „kreativna eksplozija” (Johanson, 2001; Klein, 2000; Tattersall, 2000). Oruđa postaju raznolika i prilagođena različitim svrhama, a izrađuju se ne samo od kamena, već i od kostiju, rogova i slonovače. Sahrane postaju složene, a s pokojnikom se u grob stavljaju različiti predmeti. Lovci počinju loviti opasne velike životinje. Gustoća populacije buja. Dolazi do procvata umjetnosti i ukrašavanja. Nitko ne zna točno zašto se pojavila ta korjenita promjena kulturnih artefakata. Možda je nova adaptacija mozga dovela do eksplozije umjetnosti i tehnologije. No jedno znamo s priličnom sigurnošću: neandertalci nisu bili dio toga. „Kreativna eksplozija“ je bila gotovo isključivo ograničena na Homo sapiensa. Ukratko, arheološki dokazi podupiru OOA teoriju.

Genetski dokazi – nove genetske tehnike omogućavaju testove koji nisu bili mogući još prije deset godina. Danas možemo npr. doslovno proučavati DNK iz kostura neandertalaca i Homo sapiensa, kao i uspoređivati obrasce genetskih varijacija između različitih suvremenih populacija. Najstariji neandertalac čija je DNK izvađena živio je prije 42 tisuće godina u Hrvatskoj. Prvo, DNK dokazi otkrivaju da se neandertalska DNK razlikuje od one modernog čovjeka, što podrazumijeva da su se ove dvije linije vjerojatno razdvojile prije 400 tisuća godina ili ranije. Ovaj nalaz upućuje na to da je parenje većih razmjera između ovih dviju grupa malo vjerojatno. Drugo, suvremene ljudske populacije pokazuju izuzetno nizak stupanj genetskih varijacija, što bi značilo da svi potječemo od relativno male populacije genetski homogenih predaka. Četvrto, postoji više genetskih varijacija među suvremenim afričkim populacijama nego među populacijama u drugim dijelovima svijeta. To je u skladu sa stajalištem da je moderni Homo sapiens prvo evoluirao u Africi, gdje je imao više vremena za akumulaciju genetske raznolikosti, a tada je jedna podskupina migrirala i naselila nove teritorije. Ukratko, većina genetskih nalaza podupire OOA teoriju.

Većina znanstvenika, iako ne svi, danas daje prednost nekoj od verzija OOA teorije o jedinstvenom porijeklu. Čini se da svi moderni ljudi dijele zajedničko porijeklo s Afrikancima koji su vjerojatno živjeli prije 120 do 220 tisuća godina. Riječima jednog istaknutog OOA zagovornika: „Pod kožom smo svi Afrikanci“ (Stringer, 2002).

 

Interbreeding between Archaic and Modern Humans


Neanderthal & Denisovan

There is evidence for interbreeding between archaic and modern humans during the Middle Paleolithic and early Upper Paleolithic. The interbreeding happened in several independent events that included Neanderthals, Denisovans, as well as several unidentified hominins.

In Eurasia, interbreeding between Neanderthals and Denisovans with modern humans took place several times between about 100,000 and 40,000 years ago, both before and after the recent out-of-Africa migration 70,000 years ago. Neanderthal-derived DNA was found in the genome of contemporary populations in Europe and Asia, estimated as accounting for between 1% and 6% of modern genomes. Neanderthal-derived and Denisovan-derived ancestry is significantly absent from most modern populations in Sub-Saharan Africa, but archaic alleles consistent with several independent admixture events in the subcontinent have been found.

In Eurasians, the highest rates of archaic admixture overall have been found in indigenous Oceanian and Southeast Asian populations, with an estimated 4–6% of the genome of modern Melanesians being derived from Denisovans. In certain West African populations, admixture rates appear to be significantly higher than in Eurasians, with an estimated admixture at 13% from a "basal western African" lineage in Mende people found for instance.


A world map of Neanderthal and Denisovan ancestry in modern humans.

Although the narratives of human evolution are often contentious, DNA evidence shows that human evolution should not be seen as a simple linear or branched progression, but a mix of related species. In fact, genomic research has shown that hybridization between substantially diverged lineages is the rule, not the exception, in human evolution. Furthermore, it is argued that hybridization was an essential driving force in the emergence of modern humans.


Interbreeding between Archaic and Modern Humans.

 

Human DNA Haplogroups


Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups - Y-DNA


Distribution Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups


Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups - mtDNA


Distribution DNA

 

Zastupljenost Haplogrupa u Europi


Human DNA Haplogroups - Africa

Y-chromosome A


Haplogroup A the foundational haplogroup

Afrički lovci skupljači, čije malene klanove još uvijek možemo naći u Kalahariju i okolnim područjima, imaju ostatke miješane genetike s još jednom vrstom praljudi koja je znanosti nepoznata, iako afrički lovci skupljači nikada nisu napustili Afriku.

 
San people (Bushman)

 
Kung Bushmen

Haplogroup A is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Unlike other Y-DNA clades, it is not defined by a specific mutation. It is the foundational haplogroup to all known patrilineal lineages carried by modern humans, and thus is the Y-chromosomal Adam.

 

Y-chromosome B


Y-chromosome B

Haplogroup B (B-M60) is common in parts of Africa, especially the tropical forests of West-Central Africa. It was the ancestral haplogroup of not only modern Pygmies like the Baka and Mbuti, but also Hadzabe from Tanzania, who often have been considered, in large part because of some typological features of their language, to be a remnant of Khoisan people in East Africa.


Pygmies


Pygmies


Hadza

 
Khoisan - Bantu

 

Africa Y-DNA

Y-chromosomal Adam
A00 A0-T 
A0 A1 
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
G HIJK
IJK H
IJ K
I      LT        K2 
L     T    K2a         K2b      K2c     K2d K2e   
K-M2313      K2b1 
NO    M     P1     P2
N O Q R

 

Africa mtDNA

  Mitochondrial Eve (L)    
L0 L1–6  
L1 L2   L3     L4 L5 L6
M N  
CZ D E G Q   O A S R   I W X Y
C Z B F R0   pre-JT   P   U
HV JT K
H V J T

Out of Africa

Colonization of East Asia, Oceania & Australia

Homo sapiens migrating from East Africa roughly 70,000 years ago and spreading along the southern coast of Asia and to Oceania before 50,000 years ago. Modern humans spread across Europe about 40,000 years ago.

Denisovan


Denisovan

 

Y chromosome CT (M168) - Out of Africa


Haplogroup CT


c. 70,000 years ago

No male in paragroup CT has yet been discovered, which means in other words that all men in this haplogroup are also defined as being in one of the several major branch clades. All known surviving descendant lineages of CT are in one of two major sub-clades, CF and DE.

CF split into C and F.
DE also split into D and E
.

 
Y-chromosome C - Haplogroup D

  • Y-DNA D - went to southern China and on to Japan
  • Y-DNA E - returned to Africa
  • Y-DNA C - went east to southern India, Indo-china, Indonesia, and Australia
  • Y-DNA F - took up residence in the the Ur-Shatt river valley

 

Y-chromosome C

East Asia, Central Asia, Siberia, North America and Oceania

   
Haplogroup C - Estimated migration root of haplogroup C in East and South Asia

Haplogroup C is found in ancient populations on every continent except Africa and is the predominant Y-DNA haplogroup among males belonging to many peoples indigenous to East Asia, Central Asia, Siberia, North America and Oceania. It is also found at moderate frequencies among certain indigenous populations of South Asia and Southeast Asia.

 

Y-DNA

  CT
DE CF
D E C2 F
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
G HIJK
IJK H
IJ   K
I       LT  K2
L T NO K2b    K2c  K2d  K2
 O   K2b1      P
K2b1a   K2b1b  K2b1c  M P1 P2
K2b1a1   K2b1a2   K2b1a3 S  R

 

mtDNA

    L3    
  M   N  
CZ D E G Q   O A S   R   I W X Y
C Z B F R0   pJT P U
HV JT K
HV JT
  • Y-DNA CT = mtDNA L3 (Out of Africa)
  • Y-DNA DE, CF = mtDNA M, N (Basic stock)
  • Y-DNA D = mtDNA M, CZ, D, E, G, Q (Colonization of East Asia & Japan)
  • Y-DNA F1, F2, F3 = mtDNA N (Colonization of Southeast Asia)
  • Y-DNA C2 = mtDNA O, A, S, R, B, F, P (Colonization of Southeast Asia, America, Oceania & Australia)

Haplogroup O mtDNA - found in Australia and Oceania
Haplogroup A mtDNA - Indigenous peoples of the Americas and East Asia
Haplogroup S mtDNA - Aboriginal Australians
Haplogroup Y mtDNA - Sea of Okhotsk, Kamchatka Peninsula and Maritime Southeast Asia
Haplogroup B mtDNA - Southern China and Southeast Asia
Haplogroup F mtDNA - East Asia and Southeast Asia
Haplogroup R mtDNA - Europe, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, the Near East, the Indian Subcontinent, Oceania and the Americas.
Haplogroup P mtDNA - Australian.

 
mtDNA L3, M, N

 
mtDNA C - mtDNA Z

 
mtDNA R - mtDNA P

 

East Asian/Americas

 
Yukaghir people Y-DNA C2 / Ainu people Y-DNA D

Ainu people

The Ainu are traditionally animists, believing that everything in nature has a kamuy (spirit or god) on the inside. The most important include Kamuy Fuchi, goddess of the hearth, Kim-un Kamuy, god of bears and mountains, and Repun Kamuy, god of the sea, fishing, and marine animals.

The Ainu have no priests by profession; instead the village chief performs whatever religious ceremonies are necessary. Ceremonies are confined to making libations of sake, saying prayers, and offering willow sticks with wooden shavings attached to them. These sticks are called inaw (singular) and nusa (plural).

They are placed on an altar used to "send back" the spirits of killed animals. Ainu ceremonies for sending back bears are called Iyomante. The Ainu people give thanks to the gods before eating and pray to the deity of fire in time of sickness. They believe their spirits are immortal, and that their spirits will be rewarded hereafter by ascending to kamuy mosir (Land of the Gods).

Yukaghir people

Alongside Russian Orthodox beliefs, Yukaghirs still practice shamanism. The dominant cults are ancestral spirits, the spirits of Fire, Sun (Pugu), Hunting, Earth, and Water, which can act as protectors or as enemies of people. The most important is the cult of Pugu, the Sun, who is the highest judge in all disputes. The spirits of the dead go to a place called Aibidzi. Every clan had a shaman called an alma. After death every alma was treated as a deity, and the body of the dead alma was dismembered and kept by the clan as relics. The Yukaghir still continue traditions stemming from their origins as nomadic reindeer-hunters: they practice dog sacrifice and have an epic poem based around crows.

What is Shamanism ?


Colonization of East Asia & Oceania

 

Hypothetical lost civilization "Mu"


Mu was once located in the Pacific


Upper Paleolithic in Europe

Neanderthals

The spreading of early modern humans (red) from Africa, based on genetic studies. In Europe, the first modern humans (Cro-Magnons) would have encountered the Neanderthals.


Neanderthal bust

Neanderthals inhabited much of Europe and western Asia from as far back as 130,000 years ago. They existed in Europe as late as 30,000 years ago. They were eventually replaced by anatomically modern humans (AMH; sometimes known as Cro-Magnons), who began to appear in Europe circa 43000 years ago. Given that the two hominid species likely coexisted in Europe, anthropologists have long wondered whether the two interacted. The question was resolved only in 2010, when it was established that Eurasian populations exhibit Neanderthal admixture, estimated at 1.5–2.1% on average.

 

Cro-Magnon, c. 43 ka

mtDNA N


Migration of modern humans into Europe, based on simulation by Currat & Excoffier (2004)

Homo sapiens arrived in Europe around 43,000 years ago via the Levant and entered the continent through the Danubian corridor as the fossils at Peștera cu Oase suggest.

Generally small and widely dispersed fossil sites suggest, that Neanderthals lived in less numerous and socially more isolated groups than Homo sapiens. Tools and Levallois points are remarkably sophisticated from the outset, yet they have a slow rate of variability and general technological inertia is noticeable during the entire fossil period. Artifacts are of utilitarian nature, symbolic behavioral traits are undocumented before the arrival of modern humans. The Aurignacian culture, introduced by modern humans is characterized by cut bone or antler points, fine flint blades and bladelets struck from prepared cores rather than using crude flakes. The oldest examples and subsequent widespread tradition of prehistoric art originate from the Aurignacian.

Cro-Magnons domesticated dogs in Russia at the Kostenki site.


Cro-magnon skull

Cro-Magnonss were anatomically modern, straight limbed and tall compared to the contemporaneous Neanderthals. They are thought to have stood on average 176.2 cm (5 feet 9 1⁄3 inches) tall. They differ from modern-day humans in having a more robust physique and a slightly larger cranial capacity. The Cro-Magnons had fairly low skulls, with wide faces, robust mandibles, blunted chins, narrow noses, and moderate to no prognathism. A distinctive trait was the rectangular eye orbits, similar to modern Ainu people. Their vocal apparatus was like that of present-day humans and they could speak.

Genetics

Mitochondrial DNA analysis places the early European population as sister group to the Asian groups, dating the divergence to some 50,000 years ago. The very light skin tone found in modern Northern Europeans is a relatively recent phenomenon, and may have appeared in the European line as recently as 12 to 6 thousand years ago (10,000 - 4,000 BCE), indicating Cro-Magnons had dark skin. Sequencing of finds of the late post-ice-age hunter-gatherer populations in Europe indicate that some Cro-Magnons likely had blue eyes and dark hair, and a "black" complexion.

A 2003 sequencing on the mitochondrial DNA of two Cro-Magnons (23,000-year-old Paglicci 52 and 24,720-year-old Paglicci 12) identified the mtDNA as Haplogroup N.

The term 'Cro-Magnon' is not used for people living after the Aurignacian.

 

Aurignacian, c. 43-26 ka

Y-DNA C1 & F


Aurignacian

It is thought that modern humans began to inhabit Europe during the Upper Paleolithic about 40,000 years ago. Some evidence shows the spread of the Aurignacian culture.


Aurignacian cave paintings, Chauvet Cave

The Art of the Upper Paleolithic includes carvings on antler and bone, especially of animals, as well as the so-called Venus figurines and cave paintings.


Cave painting - Shamanism


Picture of a half-human, half-animal being in a Paleolithic cave painting in Dordogne, France.


Löwenmensch figurine is the oldest known anthropomorphic animal figurine in the world.


Aurignacian flute made from a vulture bone, Geissenklösterle (Swabia), which is about 35 ka

The earliest depiction linked to the constellation of Orion is a prehistoric (Aurignacian) mammoth ivory carving found in a cave in the Ach valley in West Germany in 1979. Archaeologists estimate that it was fashioned approximately 32,000 to 38,000 years ago.

Dolní Věstonice

Three inhabitants of Dolni Vestonice, lived 31,155 years ago (calibrated date) and to have mitochondrial haplogroup U, and one inhabitant mitochondrial haplogroup U8.

In the Vestonice 13 sample, the Y chromosomal haplogroup CT (notIJK) was determined, for the Vestonice 15 sample, the Y chromosome haplogroup BT, in the Vestonice 43 sample, the Y chromosome haplogroup F. In the Vestonice 16 sample, the Y chromosomal haplogroup C1a2.

 

Basic Eurasian stock & Western Eurasian

Y-DNA

  CT
DE CF
D E C1 F
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
G HIJK
IJK H
IJ   K
I       LT  K2
L T NO K2b    K2c  K2d  K2
 O   K2b1      P
K2b1a   K2b1b  K2b1c  M P1 P2
K2b1a1   K2b1a2   K2b1a3 S  R

 

mtDNA

    L3    
  M   N  
CZ D E G Q   O A S   R   I W X Y
C Z B F R0   pJT P U
HV JT K
HV JT
  • Y-DNA GHIJK = mtDNA N, R, I, W, X (Basic Eurasian stock)
  • Y-DNA C1, F = mtDNA N, R, U (Western Eurasian - Cro-Magnon)

 
mtDNA I - mtDNA W

Haplogroup I mtDNA - Europe and West Asia, and Afroasiatic-speaking populations in Africa.
Haplogroup W mtDNA - Europe, West and South Asia and Northern Pakistan.


mtDNA X

Haplogroup X mtDNA - Americas, Europe, Western Asia, North Africa and the Horn of Africa.

 

Y-chromosome F


Y-chromosome F

Haplogroup F probably developed in the Tigris/Euphrates delta in the Persian Gulf or perhaps in the Indus River delta. In that part of the Weichselian ice age, the sea level was much lower, so the Persian Gulf was dry land to the south past the Strait of Hormuz. The area is sometimes known as the Ur-Shatt, or old Shatt river valley. The area was a well watered plain surrounding fresh-water lakes. There were abundant resources to support hunter-gatherers.

From a purely patrilineal, Y-chromosome perspective, it is possible that the old haplogroups C, F and/or E may be those with the oldest presence in Europe. They have been found in some very old human remains in Europe. However, other haplogroup are far more common among living European males.

Haplogroups I and J split from IJ in Kurdestan.

The group that would become Haplogroup I went north and split going around both sides of Lake Pontus, the Black Sea in a fresh water phase.  (J spread from Kurdestan mostly to the south and west, populating the entire eastern and southern Mediterranean region.) There are still significant populations of subgroups of I and J remaining in Kurdestan.

Haplogroup I (M170), which is now relatively common and widespread within Europe, may represent a Palaeolithic marker – its age has been estimated at ~ 22,000 BP. While it is now concentrated in Europe, it probably arose in a male from the Middle East or Caucasus, or their near descendants, c. 20–25,000 years BP, when it diverged from its immediate ancestor, haplogroup IJ. At about this time, an Upper Palaeolithic culture also appeared, known as the Gravettian.

The Neanderthal DNA percentage was much higher, perhaps around 10%, new migrants (Gravettian) reduces that amount.


Y-DNA I-M170


Gravettian, c. 33-24 ka

Y-DNA I-M170

 
Haplogroup I - Gravettian culture

Around 32,000 years ago, the Gravettian culture appeared in the Crimean Mountains (southern Ukraine). By 24,000 BP the Solutrean and Gravettian cultures were present in the southwestern region of Europe. The Gravettian technology/culture has been theorized to have come with migrations of people from the Middle East and Anatolia. They might be linked with the transitional cultures mentioned before, because their techniques have some similarities and are both very different from Aurignacian ones but this issue is very obscure. The Gravettian also appeared in the Caucasus and Zagros mountains. It soon disappeared from southwestern Europe, with the notable exception of the Mediterranean coasts of Iberia.


Skin boat

Permanent settlements like Dolní Věstonice could provide excellent strategical view in the countryside; nevertheless, this would have been useless without the ships; the countryside was divided from the settlements by the river Dyje.

The hunters also used different traps to hunt small animals like foxes and rabbits. The foundings of the young ones shows, that sometimes even other useless animals got stucked in the trap.

Permanent winter habitation  of the Pavlovian people had to meet many requirements. There had to be a good view of the landscape from the site, but it did not have to be situated on the top of a hill and not facing south (to avoid melting snow by the sun rays during the day and freezing the snow and water during the night). There had to be a river nearby, and the sea level of such a site had to be in certain limits. Winter dwellings were permanent, their basements and walls were probably made of stones and mammoth bones, sometimes joined by moulded soil. Roofs were made of wood and isolated with turf and maybe also reed, which was available in the arctic conditions.

 

The hunter shot an arrow, which pierced the animal’s body. The animal was either killed on the spot or, if not, when moving, the saw of the point made its injury fatal. What remained was to track the animal. A bow was ideal for individual hunting.

The hunters also used different traps to hunt small animals like foxes and rabbits. The foundings of the young ones shows, that sometimes even other useless animals got stucked in the trap.


The Pavlovian's textile

 

Sewing with an awl and sinew is quite easy, we do not even need a needle. It is enough to wet the part of a sinew, which we want to be flexible, the tip remains dry and hard. Awl –type tools are the most abundant group of bone tools.


Mezin's textile


Tattoo

The pattern for decoration of the woman on the foregoing picture was this unique human relief found in Dolní Věstonice. The reconstructive transformation offers two explanations; simple body painting or permanent tattoo.


Tattoo

Huge supplies of meat were smoked in the dwelling. Mammoth bones and probably mammoth fat served as a fuel. The interior of the dwelling was the world in itself, where there were no arctic conditions and it was possible to take off one’s clothes. So the Pavlovian people could be practically naked in their dwellings, similarly to the Inuits.

Meander was used also for decoration of the Mezin Venuses, as the reconstructional transformation shows. This woman figurine reminds of a mixture of the Gravettian and Magdalenian styles. She stands upright as a Gravettian Venus and, at the same time, she sticks out her bottom as a Magdalenian Venus.


Scheme and possibilities composition of build male statues.

This unique figurine of a man made of ivory was found in the burial of the shaman of Brno. You can see the level of the craft and the strength of time, which changes everything considerably. Even if you find the figurine on the left ugly, full of cracks and dull, it is possible to say that it is in fact incredibly beautiful and complete. The finder had to glue the small fragments of it together, as it was totally broken up when found in the nineteenth century.

Grinding of stones is one of the characteristic Pavovian technologies. It was a unique technology in those times. In Moravia, it was used mostly for adjusting hammerstones. The Venus of Willendorf of Austria was also ground using the technology.

The scientists noticed unusual regular parallel lines in the fired clay unearthed in the Pavlov Hills sites. James Adovasio (working together with Olga Soffer), a specialist in prehistoric textiles, who studies Palaeolithic Indian sites in America, was the first to evaluate these lines as textile impressions. He even proved various types of twining and manufacturing of ropes. The Pavlovian sites yielded the oldest proof of the existence of textile in the past of the Homo sapiens. Fibres from nettles were probably utilized, but import of plants giving finer fibres from warmer regions could also be possible. In eastern Europe there exists a calvary unearthed near the Skhodnya River, which also bears a surface structure reminding of an imprint of a coarse textile. The calvary was studied by O.N.Bader, who was also involved in the excavations of the Sungir site. It is still unclear if it is an impression of textile made deliberately by people. 

 

Primary Gravettian burial sites looked probably like this. The dead were put above the ground or on the ground, and only some of the human bones were sometimes put into shallow holes.

Reconstruction shamans grave in the street in Brno.

 
Venus of Willendorf c. 25 ka - Venus of Laussel c. 25 ka

The 25,000 year old 'fertility goddess / mother-earth' figure from Laussel, near Eyzles in France, was painted in red ochre and holds a crescent-conch shape with 13-lines on it.

It has been suggested that the 13 lines on the conch refer to the 13 lunar/menstrual cycles each solar year. The object is currently on display at the Bordeaux Museum.

 

Sungir

Y-DNA C1 & I

 
Sungir, c. 32050 - 28550 BC - Sculptural reconstruction. MM Gerasimov, Moscow Museum

Graves 1 and 2 at Sungir are described as "the most spectacular" among European Gravettian burials. The adult male was buried in what is called Grave 1 and the two adolescent children in Grave 2, placed head-to-head, together with an adult femur filled with red ochre. The three people buried at Sungir were all adorned with elaborate grave goods that included ivory-beaded jewelry, clothing, and spears. More than 13,000 beads were found (which would have taken 10,000 hours to produce). Red ochre, an important ritual material associated with burials at this time, covered the burials.

mtDNA analysis shows that the four individuals tested from Sungir belong to mtDNA Haplogroup U. The individual from Burial 1 belongs to mtDNA Haplogroup U8c, while the three individuals from Burial 2 belong to mtDNA Haplogroup U2. Y-DNA analysis shows that all four of the tested individuals from Sungir belong to Y-DNA Haplogroup C1a2.


The reconstructional transformation of the unique grave of a man from Sungir into a lifelike ethnographic material - Arctic clothing, 29,500 years old (25,000 RCYBP).


O. N. Bader noticed that the beads on the trousers of the man from Sungir reminded of the trousers worn by the Indians of northwest America (the Indian trousers are depicted on the left).

The reconstructional imitation of the production of belemnite beads in a dwelling of the Gravettian people of Sungir. The Sungir site was not interesting just because of the clothes and outfits of the buried people, but also due to the fact that the dwellings of the settlement did not have the usual oval or circular ground plans. The dwellings were rather oblong, and thus they reminded of the large houses of the Indians of the American Northwest or the large log cabins of Siberia.


A reconstructional transformation of the unique children’s double burial of Sungir.Double burial of Sungir.

 

Solutrean / Magdalenian culture

Y-DNA C1 & I

The Solutrean culture, extended from northern Spain to south-east France, includes not only a beautiful stone technology but also the first significant development of cave painting, the use of the needle and possibly that of the bow and arrow. The more widespread Gravettian culture is no less advanced, at least in artistic terms: sculpture (mainly venuses) is the most outstanding form of creative expression of these peoples.

Around 19,000 BP, Europe witnesses the appearance of a new culture, known as Magdalenian, possibly rooted in the old Aurignacian one. This culture soon supersedes the Solutrean area and also the Gravettian of Central Europe. However, in Mediterranean Iberia, Italy, the Balkans and Turkey, epi-Gravettian cultures continue evolving locally.

With the Magdalenian culture, Paleolithic development in Europe reaches its peak and this is reflected in art, owing to previous traditions of paintings and sculpture.

Around 12,500 BP, the Würm Glacial age ends. Slowly, through the following millennia, temperatures and sea levels rise, changing the environment of prehistoric people. During this time, Ireland and Great Britain become islands, and Scandinavia is separated from the main part of the European Peninsula. (They had all formerly been connected by a now-submerged region of the continental shelf known as Doggerland.) Nevertheless, Magdalenian culture persists until circa 10,000 BP, when it quickly evolves into two microlithist cultures: Azilian, in Spain and southern France, and Sauveterrian, in northern France and Central Europe. Though there are some differences, both cultures share several traits: the creation of very small stone tools called microliths and the scarcity of figurative art, which seems to have vanished almost completely, being replaced by abstract decoration of tools.


Solutrean, c. 22000 - 17000 BP

In the late phase of this epi-Paleolithic period, the Sauveterrean culture evolves into the so-called Tardenoisian and influences strongly its southern neighbour, clearly replacing it in Mediterranean Spain and Portugal. The recession of the glaciers allows human colonization in Northern Europe for the first time. The Maglemosian culture, derived from the Sauveterre-Tardenois culture but with a strong personality, colonizes Denmark and the nearby regions, including parts of Britain.

Solutrean hypothesis


Magdalenian, c. 17000 - 12000 BP

The Solutrean hypothesis builds on similarities between the Solutrean industry and the later Clovis culture / Clovis points of North America, and suggests that people with Solutrean tool-technology crossed the Ice Age Atlantic by moving along the pack ice edge, using survival skills similar to those of modern Eskimo people. The migrants arrived in northeastern North America and served as the donor culture for what eventually developed into Clovis tool-making technology.

Haplogroup C, was found on human remains belonging to the culture and on individuals of the Magdalenian and Azilian cultures.

Madelenian humans appears to have been of low stature, dolichocephalic, with low retreating forehead and prominent brow ridges.


Magdalenian tools and weapons


Magdalenian Girl

 

Ural/Siberia cultures

Mal'ta–Buret' culture, c. 24-15 ka

Y-DNA R


Mal'ta–Buret' culture


Haplogroup R


Lake Baikal


The Mal'ta boy was related to people who later migrated across Beringia to the Americas.


Malta in Siberia


Malta in Siberia


Malta in Siberia

MA-1 is the only known example of Y-DNA R* (R-M207*) – that is, the only member of haplogroup R* that did not belong to haplogroups R1, R2 or secondary subclades of these. The mitochondrial DNA of MA-1 belonged to an unresolved subclade of haplogroup U.

Earlier research into Y-DNA had instead focused on haplogroup R1 (M173): the most populous lineage among living European males; R1 was also believed to have emerged ~ 40,000 BP in Central Asia. However, it is now estimated that R1 emerged substantially more recently: a 2008 study dated the most recent common ancestor of haplogroup IJ to 38,500 and haplogroup R1 to 18,000 BP. This suggested that haplogroup IJ colonists formed the first wave and haplogroup R1 arrived much later.

Origins Y-DNA R Lake Baikal, Siberia

 

Hypothetical lost civilization, Hyperborea - Bohemia

In Greek mythology the Hyperboreans were a mythical race of giants who lived "beyond the North Wind". The Greeks thought that Boreas, the god of the North Wind (one of the Anemoi, or "Winds") lived in Thrace, and therefore Hyperborea indicates that it is a region beyond Thrace. This land was supposed to be perfect, with the sun shining twenty-four hours a day, which to modern ears suggests a possible location within the Arctic Circle during the Midnight Sun-time of year.

Boreas (Βορέας, Boréas; also Βορρᾶς, Borrhâs) was the Greek god of the cold north wind and the bringer of winter. Although normally taken as the north wind, the Roman writers Aulus Gellius and Pliny the Elder both took Boreas as a north-east wind, equivalent to the Roman Aquilo. Boreas is depicted as being very strong, with a violent temper to match. He was frequently shown as a winged old man with shaggy hair and beard, holding a conch shell and wearing a billowing cloak.


Boreas

Boreas' two sons Calaïs and Zetes, known as Boreads, were in the crew of the Argo as Argonauts.

Boreas was closely associated with horses. He was said to have fathered twelve colts after taking the form of a stallion, to the mares of Erichthonius, king of Dardania. These were said to be able to run across a field of grain without trampling the plants. The Greeks believed that his home was in Thrace, and Herodotus and Pliny both describe a northern land known as Hyperborea "Beyond the North Wind" where people lived in complete happiness and had extraordinarily long lifespans.

 

Kostyonki-Borshchyovo archaeological complex

Y-DNA C1 & I


A prehistoric inhabitant of the site (forensically reconstructed by Gerasimov)

In the period around 40-24 kya, a latitudinal clinal pattern of modern/Neanderthal traits was indicated in Europe. The Kostyonki sites are located at the more modern eastward end.

The earliest directly dated human remains from this site are dated to 32,600 ± 1,100 14C years and consist of a tibia and a fibula, with traits classifying the bones as European early modern humans.

In 2009, DNA was extracted from the remains of a male hunter-gatherer from Kostenki-12 who lived circa 30,000 BP and died aged 20–25. His maternal lineage was found to be mtDNA haplogroup U2. He was buried in an oval pit in a crouched position and covered with red ochre. Kostenki 12 was later found to belong to the patrilineal Y-DNA haplogroup C1* (C-F3393).

A male from Kostenki-14 (Markina Gora), who lived approximately 35–40,000 BP, was also found to belong to mtDNA haplogroup U2. His Y-DNA haplogroup was C1b* (C-F1370). The Kostenki-14 genome represents early evidence for the separation of Western Eurasian and East Asian lineages. It was found to have a close relationship to both "Mal'ta boy" (24 ka) of central Siberia (Ancient North Eurasian) and to the later Mesolithic hunter-gatherers of Europe and western Siberia, as well as with a basal population ancestral to Early European Farmers, but not to East Asians.


Distribution of mobile art in Eastern Europe

1 Staryé Duruitory, 2 Brynzeny, 3 Kosseoutzy, 4 Klimaoutzy, 5 Suren' 1, 6 Chan-Koba, 7 Apiantcha, 8 grotte d'Uvarov, 9 Sakagia, 10 Sagvardgilé, 11 Gvardgilas-Kldé, 12 Devis-Khvreli, 13 Taro-Kldé, 14 Molodova V, 15 Lissitchniki, 16 Lipa VI, 17 Klinetz, 18 Ossokorovka, 19 Dubovaya Balka, 20 Kaïstrovaya Balka, 21 Mejiritch (Mezhirich), 22 Kievo-Kirillovskaya, 23 Mézine (Mezin), 24 Novgorod Severskyi, 25 Puchkari I, 26 Dobranitchevka, 27 Gontzy, 28, Rogalik, 29 Amvrossievka, 30 Eliseevitchi I, 31 Eliseevitchi II, 32 Yudinovo, 33 Khoylevo II, 34 Timonovka, 35 Suponevo, 36 Avdeevo, 37 Sungir', 38 Gagarino, 39 Kostienki 19, 40 Kostienki 21, 41 Kostienki 13, 42 Kostienki 1, 43 Kostienki 14, 44 Kostienki 12, 45 Kostienki 17, 46 Kostienki 2, 47 Kostienki 11, 48 Kostienki 4, 49 Kostienki 15, 50 Kostienki 9, 51 Kostienki 8, 52 Borchtchevo 1, 53 Borchtchevo 2, 54 Ilskaya, 55 Murakovka, 56 Ostrovskaya, 57 Bez'imyannyi, 58 Smelobskaya, 59 Kapova, 60 Ignatievskaya.

 

Venuses of Kostenki

The reconstructional transformation fully respects the hairdo and the horizontal decorative stripes. The Venuses of the Kostenkian culture bear fantastic and unique information on the then decorations. The Gravettian Venuses almost always depicted dignifiedly standing women, and with the exception of cubistically shaped Venuses these figurines were made with much attention, so we can see the decorations and even geometrized decorations. Only the Gravettian Venuses bear information on the ethnographic grooming of female bodies.


A reconstructional  metamorphosis of a typical Kostenki- type cut of eastern Europe, which we can see in many figurines.


Kostěnki in east Europe


Kostěnki in east Europe


Kostěnki in east Europe


The statuettes coming from this era are repeatedly carrying signs of ethnographical ornamentation. These two statues show breast belts and bracelets.

 

Epigravettian, c. 21-10 ka

Y-DNA I2


Epigravettiana statuette femminili dette Veneri


Epigravettian


Land of four rivers

 

Venus figurine


Ceramic figurine - Venus

Jacques Cauvin (1978.134; 2000.22–29, 204–205,207–208) has postulated that Levantine ceramic female figurines were markers of the new ‘expansionist’ religion, which became a powerful social force and facilitated at an ideological level the transition to an agricultural way of life. In identifying what he understood was clear evidence for an inter-linked economic and religious transformation he believed that he had also discovered the reason why hunter gatherer people in villages outside the Levant did not develop subsistence production for themselves. He suggested that their failure to move over to the ‘humanisation’ of art and related new divinities could also have prevented them from moving over to a new type of economic practice. According to this interpretative scenario Europe thus could not have become Neolithicised until the ‘wave of advance’ and ceramic female figurines had reached the Balkans.

It was suggested recently that the distribution of Neolithic ceramic female figurines appears to have links with human genetic evidence. As Roy King and Peter A. Underhill (2002.707–714) have hypothesised, these figures are perhaps ‘the best genetic predictor’ of Neolithic farmers’ haplogrups and of the (re)population dynamics in Europe and Western Asia. It is due to the postulates that their geographic distribution correlates closely with the southeast-northwest cline of frequencies of Y chromosome markers and associated haplogroup Eu9 (J–M67* and J–M92 according to Semino et al. 2004.1030) in modern populations in Asia Minor and Europe, and, that all appear to originate in the same area of south-central Anatolia. The ceramic female figurines were hypothesized to appear at the same time as the emergence of cereal cultivation in the PPNA of the Levant. Moreover, they were believed to symbolise a series of gender and symbolic attributes that were carried forward with the spread of farming and went on to constitute part of the ‘new materiality’ that defined the key economic and ideological features of the Balkan Neolithic (Gimbuts 1989; Biehl 1996.153–175; Marangou 1996.176–2002; Chapman 2000;Bailey 2005; Hansen 2005.199–200).

However, the introduction of ceramic female statuettes, animal figurines and constructional ceramics were certainly not within the cultural domain of earlier Levantine hunter-gatherer societies, and nor they did not appear only on the ‘eve of the appearance of an agricultural economy’ as Cauvin (2000.25) suggested. The tradition of making figurines can be traced back to Central Europe, across the Russian Plain, into southern Siberia, and ultimately back to the Levant and Northern Africa. It is now clear that the clay figurine tradition was deeply embedded in pre-existing Eurasian hunter-gatherer social and symbolic contexts and that the dates of these figures begins as earlier as 26 000 years BP (Verpoorte 2001; Budja2004.59–81; 2005.53–72). For example, more than 16000 fragments of anthropomorphic figurines, zoomorphic statuettes, pellets, ‘earplugs’, flat fragments and constructional ceramic were recovered from the Central European Palaeolithic sites of Dolní Vestonice, Pavlov, Petrkovice, and Predmostí in Moravia. In the same region poorly preserved fragments of fired clay have also have also been recorded at Krems- Wachtberg, Moravany-Lopata, Jaro”ov, and hypothetically at Ka”ov and Cejkov (Soffer and Vandiver 1997.383–402; Verpoorte 2001) (Figs. 1 and 2), and while some may have been statuettes, their exact form remains unclear. Further to the East, on the Russian Plain, low-temperature-fired clay fragments were reported at Zaraisk and Kostenki Gravettian sites. At the latter, located on the banks of the River Don, more than four hundred fragments were found, contextually associated with marl and ivory Venus figures, and animal statuettes (Iakovleva 1999.125–134; Soffer, Adovasio and Hyland 2000.511–537;Soffer et al. 2000.814). Finally, the most easterly anthropomorphic ceramic figurine was found at an open air site at Maininskaya (Maina), on the left bank of the Yenisei River in Siberia (Vasil’ev 1985.193–196; Maina on-line).

All these early ceramic figurine assemblages can be assigned to the Pavlovian, a local variant of the Eastern Gravettian techno-complex, which dates back to around 26000 BP (Verpoorte 2001.86). For example, the ceramics at Kostenki were embedded in range of contexts, the oldest of which dates to 24 100 BP, and the most recent, to 18 000 BP (Soffer et al. 2000.814). Two dates are available for a ceramic figurine at Mayininskaya: at 16 540±170BP and 16 176±180BP (Vasil’ev 1985.193–196; Vasil’ev et al. 2002.526,Tab. 1). In addition, a lesser known fired ceramic sculpture, possibly representing a wild Barbary sheep (Ovis tragelaphus), was recovered from Tamar Hat Cave in Algeria, in an Ibero-Maurisian context which has been dated to 19 800±500 bp (Saxon 1976.327–329).

These finds point clearly to the fact that knowledge of ceramic technology had become ‘embedded’ into the agency of Eurasian hunter-gatherers many millennia before the appearance of food-producing agricultural societies. We must also note two other facts, first, that the making of ceramic figurines predates the making of pottery, and second, that pottery was not necessarily associated with the emergence of farming, as ceramic vessels were being made before the practice of early agriculture in Eastern Asia, and subsequently in the Levant, and Anatolia in Southwestern Asia.

 

The Art of the Gravettian & Epigravettian


Engraving of a female figure, so called Venus of Předmostí. A stylised female figure engraved on a mammoth tusk, realized in terms of geometrical patterns: triangles, ellipses, an incomplete circle and a oval.

 

The painting of a woman, resembling the figurine of the Venus of Dolní Věstonice (also called the Black Venus). The painting shows, that the statuettes are mixtures of decorative and geometrical patterns with real anatomical elements.  The skew scores on the head indicate the forelock. The body of the woman is lenghthened and does not show the lap, which on the other side is visualized on the ivory statuette. One long horizontal score defines the sexes and separation of the legs. An absolute rarity in Gravettian tradition is the depiction of the collar bones on the Black Venus figurine. These artefacts made of burnt clay are unique. The Black Venus is one of more than 130 today known Gravettian Venuses. The image was created with the help of Ing. Vít Lang.


Brasempoy in France

Already in the nineteenth century the world-renowned Venus of Willendorf was unearthed by the Danube River. The reconstructional transformation shows various arrangements of the head (different variants of the transformation) typical of that culture, when long hair was rare.


Avdějevo in east Europe


A reconstructional metamorphosis of a Pavlovian hairstyle from Central Europe.
Notice also the classical and peaceful woman’s face.

Venus figurine - Phallus


These sculptures and others like them from Mezin have been variously described as phallic figurines, birds, and bird/woman hybrids. They were made originally in Mammoth ivory.

   
Venus of Dolni Vestonice - Venus of Savignano - Phallus of Schelklingen, about 27-30000 years

   
Venus of Petřkovice (c. 23k BP) - Venus of Moravany, 22,800 BCE - Venus de Lespugue (replica) c. 26-24 ka

 
Dame de Brassempouy (25000 ans) - Female figurine, Gravettian, Anthropos, Brno

 

Levant

Natufian culture, c. 12500 BC

Y-DNA E-Z830 Basal Natufian


Natufian culture

Archaeogenetics

According to ancient DNA analyses conducted by Lazaridis et al. (2016) on six Natufian skeletal remains from present-day northern Israel, the Natufians carried the Y-DNA haplogroup E-Z830 or E1b1b1b2, whose ancestral paternal clade is E1b1b-M123. One Natufian individual was also found to belong to the N1b mtDNA haplogroup.

Haplogroup E

The origins of E-M215 were dated by Cruciani in 2007 to about 22,400 years ago in the Horn of Africa. E-M35 was dated by Batini in 2015 to between 15,400 and 20,500 years ago. In June 2015, Trombetta et al. reported a previously unappreciated large difference in the age between haplogroup E-M215 (38.6 kya; 95% CI 31.4-45.9 kya) and its sub-haplogroup E-M35 (25.0 kya; 95% CI 20.0-30.0 kya).

All major sub-branches of E-M35 are thought to have originated in the same general area as the parent clade: in North Africa, the Horn of Africa, or nearby areas of the Near East. Some branches of E-M35 are assumed to have left Africa thousands of years ago, whereas others may have arrived from the Near East. For example, Underhill (2002) associates the spread of the haplogroup with the Neolithic Revolution, believing that the structure and regional pattern of E-M35 subclades potentially give "reagents with which to infer specific episodes of population histories associated with the Neolithic agricultural expansion". Battaglia et al. (2007) also estimate that E-M78 (called E1b1b1a1 in that paper) has been in Europe longer than 10,000 years. Accordingly, human remains excavated in a Spanish funeral cave dating from approximately 7,000 years ago were shown to be in this haplogroup. Two more E-M78 have been found in the Neolithic Sopot and Lengyel cultures too.

Concerning E-M35 in Europe within this scheme, Underhill & Kivisild (2007) have remarked that E-M215 seems to represent a late-Pleistocene migration from North Africa to Europe over the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt. While this proposal remains uncontested, it has more recently been proposed by Trombetta et al. (2011) that there is also evidence for additional migration of E-M215 carrying men directly from North Africa to southwestern Europe, via a maritime route.


Haplogroup E


Distribution Y-DNA E

 

Natufian Basal, c. 12000 BC

"We report genome-wide ancient DNA from 44 ancient Near Easterners ranging in time between ~12,000-1,400 BCE, from Natufian hunter-gatherers to Bronze Age farmers. We show that the earliest populations of the Near East derived around half their ancestry from a ‘Basal Eurasian’ lineage that had little if any Neanderthal admixture and that separated from other non-African lineages prior to their separation from each other. The first farmers of the southern Levant (Israel and Jordan) and Zagros Mountains (Iran) were strongly genetically differentiated, and each descended from local hunter-gatherers."

 

Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler is likely to have been descended from both Jews and Africans, according to DNA tests.

Samples taken from relatives of the Nazi leader show that he is biologically linked to the 'sub-human' races he sought to exterminate.


Revealing: The DNA tests on relatives of Nazi leader Adolf Hitler show he was probably descended from Jewish people and North Africans

Journalist Jean-Paul Mulders and historian Marc Vermeeren used DNA to track down 39 of the Fuhrer's relatives earlier this year.

They included an Austrian farmer revealed only as a cousin called Norbert H.

A Belgian news magazine has reported that samples of saliva taken from these people strongly suggest Hitler had antecedents he certainly would not have cared for.

A chromosome called Haplopgroup E1b1b (Y-DNA) in their samples is rare in Germany and indeed Western Europe.

'It is most commonly found in the Berbers of Morocco, in Algeria, Libya and Tunisia as well as among Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews,' Mr Vermeeren said.

'One can from this postulate that Hitler was related to people whom he despised,' adds Mr Mulders in the magazine, Knack.

Haplogroup E1b1b1, which accounts for approximately 18 to 20 per cent of Ashkenazi and 8.6 per cent to 30 per cent of Sephardic Y-chromosomes, appears to be one of the major founding lineages of the Jewish population.

'This is a surprising result,' said Ronny Decorte, a genetic specialist who agreed that Hitler probably did have some roots in North Africa.

 
Roots: Hitler's DNA was found to contain Haplogroup E1b1b, commonly found in the Berbers of Morocco (left) - and also accounts for approximately 18 to 20 per cent of the Y-chromosomes of Sephardic Jews (right) who hail from Morocco, Spain and Portugal)

'It is difficult to predict, what happens with this information, both to opponents and supporters of Hitler,' he added.

The magazine says the DNA was tested under stringent laboratory conditions to obtain the results.

It is not the first time that historians have suggested Hitler had Jewish ancestry.

His father, Alois, is thought to have been the illegitimate offspring of a maid called Maria Schickelgruber and a 19-year-old Jewish man called Frankenberger.

This would have made the man who inspired the Holocaust one-quarter Jewish.


Hidden secrets: The Waldviertel region in Austria where Hitler's cousin, farmer Norbert H, was found

Reports have suggested that Hitler's nephew, Patrick, tried to blackmail his uncle over the issue of Alois Hitler's parentage. Hitler asked his lawyer, Hans Frank, to investigate the claims and he announced just before the outbreak of the Second World War that they were 'without any foundation'.

'Hitler would not have been pleased about this,' added Mr Decorte, of the Catholic University of Leuven.

'The affair is fascinating if one compares it with the conception of the world of the Nazis, in which race and blood was central.

'Hitler's concern over his descent was not unjustified. He was apparently not "pure" or "Ayran".'

DNA was also taken from American Alexander Stuart-Houston, 61, a grand-nephew of Hitler.


DNA on a serviette was taken from Alexander Stuart-Houston (now aged 61), a grand-nephew of Hitler

He was trailed for seven days before he dropped a used serviette which Mulders said led him to the cousin in Austria  -  and the link with Hitler's sworn enemies.

 

Distribution DNA

Y-DNA

  CT
DE CF
D E C1 F
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
G HIJK
IJK H
IJ   K
I2       LT  K2
L T NO K2b    K2c  K2d  K2
 O   K2b1      P
K2b1a   K2b1b  K2b1c  M P1 P2
K2b1a1   K2b1a2   K2b1a3 S  R

 

mtDNA

    L3    
  M   N  
CZ D E G Q   O A S   R   I W X Y
C Z B F R0   pJT P U
HV JT K
HV JT
  • Y-DNA E = mtDNA M (Basal Natufian)
  • Y-DNA GHIJK= mtDNA N, R, I, W, X (Basal Eurasian)
  • Y-DNA C1, F, I, I2, R = mtDNA U (Western & Northern Eurasian, later Mesolithic hunter-gatherer)


mtDNA U

Haplogroup U mtDNA - Northern Europe, Eastern Europe, Central Asia, South Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa and the Near East.


Last Glacial Maximum

The Last Glacial Maximum ("LGM") started c. 30 ka BC, at the end of MIS 3, leading to a depopulation of Europe.

This event decreased the overall genetic diversity in Europe, a "result of drift, consistent with an inferred population bottleneck during the Last Glacial Maximum". As the glaciers receded from about 13,000 years ago, Europe began to be slowly repopulated by people from refugia, leaving genetic signatures.

 
Europe in the Ice Age and the End of the Ice Age.

 

Meteorska oluja, c. 10950 BC

Evidence suggests Pillar 43 at Gobekli Tepe depicts a comet impact 13,000 years ago, vindicating the work of author Graham Hancock

University experts decipher ancient stones message

An ancient stone carving appears to describe a comet impact nearly 13,000 years ago according to Martin Sweatman and Dimitrios Tsikritsis at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. The relief carving which appears on the T shaped pillar number 43 (The Vulture Stone) depicts a bird with outstretched wings, two smaller birds, a scorpion, a snake, and a circle. By matching low-relief carving on some of the pillars at Gobekli Tepe to star asterisms,  Sweatman and Tsikritsis believe they have found compelling evidence that the Vulture Stone is a date stamp for 10950BC ± 250 years, which corresponds closely to the Younger Dryas event which is estimated at 10890BC. They also propose that Gobekli Tepe was used to observe meteor showers and comets.

The Youger Dryas is a geological period approximately 11,900 years ago where the Earth saw an abrupt rise in temperature. In some locations the temperature rose by as much as 10° C. At this time much of the earth, including most of North America, was covered with glaciers as much as 2 miles thick. The sudden increase in temperature melted the glaciers leading to a much higher ocean level. It is believed that many coastal living societies at the time would have been forced to retreat inland due to the rapidly rising waters. The trigger for the event is unknown, but some believe that it may have been caused by a comet impact on the North American ice-cap.

After a detailed analysis of the position of each of pillar 43’s pictograms ,  Sweatman and Tsikritsis propose that the pillar acts as a time stamp for one of four dates (2,000AD, 4,350BC, 10,950BC or 18,000BC all ±250 years). Radio carbon dating of the site dates the construction of Gobekli Tepe to approximately 13,000 years ago, therefore Sweatman and Tsikritsis conclude that the time stamp must point to 10,950BC. Sweatman and Tsikritsis also asserts that the symbolism shown on Pillar 43 proves that the builders of Gobekli Tepe witnessed the event that caused the end of the Younger Dryas, and that they even witnessesed the impact of a comet.


Pillar 43, The Vulture Stone

Idea first proposed by Author Graham Hancock

The idea that Pillar 43 has astronomical significance is not new. The theory was first proposed by author Graham Hancock in his most recent book Magicians of the Gods. Using the the work of Paul Burley he suggests that the circle in the center of Pillar 43 represents the Sun, and that the animals in the scene represent constellations such as Scorpio and Sagittarius. Hancock and Burley also concluded that the Pillar is a time stamp pointing to the date 10,950 BC but they did not dismiss the date of 2,000AD which is coincidentally our time! Hancock suggests that the builders of Gobekli Tepe were pointing to a disaster that occurred in their time, as well as warning of an impending disaster in our time.

If Hancock is correct, not only did the megalithic stone builders understand the Earth was round, they understood extremely complex ideas such as the position of the Sun and Earth relative to the constellations and even the Earth’s precession cycles. The Earth wobbles like a toy top and a precession cycle is the 26,000 year period in which the Earth completes one “wobble” (See GIF inage below). This is an amazing understanding of the cosmos shown by society previously thought to be hunter gatherers. Hancock asserts that the builders of Gobekli Tepe were much more than hunter gatherers and that they might have been the recipients of knowledge passed down from a lost civilization.

 

Glacial Lake Missoula Megaflood

Hancock presents a variety of evidence to support a Younger Dryas period comet impact on the North American ice-cap.  Blast proxies have been found across the world in geological sediments that contain glass spherules (nano diamonds) that are only created at very high temperatures (such as those found in massive explosions). The sediment layer that contains the glass spherules dates back to the Younger Dryas boundary layer. Although there are no craters caused by the comet impact, Hancock suggests there is evidence of large geological depressions across North America caused by the comet impact. In this scenario, the blast pressure caused by the comet impact on the ice-cap creates enough downward force that it creates a large bowl like depression in the Earth below.

Hancock also argues, using the work of Randall Carlson, that geological features such as the Scablands of eastern Washington state, could only have been caused by cataclysmic flooding. This flooding was the result of ice dams in the North American ice-cap breaking open and releasing an enormous amount of water onto the land.

Glacial Lake Missoula and the Ice Age Floods

There have been at least five major ice ages in the past one billion years. The most recent, the Pleistocene Ice Age, began about 2 million years ago. Glaciers did not continually cover the earth during this time; there have been interglacial periods where temperatures warm slightly and the glaciers melt and retreat.

In the most recent advance, glaciers reached their maximum extent 15,000 years ago and had almost completely melted by 10,000 years ago. It was during this glacial advance that a finger from the glacial ice sheet moved south through the Purcell Trench in northern Idaho, near present day Lake Pend Oreille, damming the Clark Fork River creating Glacial Lake Missoula.

The water began to build up behind the 2,500-foot ice dam filled the valleys to the east with water, creating a glacial lake the size of Lake Erie and Lake Ontario combined. The water continued to rise until it reached its maximum height at an elevation of 4,200 feet. As the water rose, the pressure against the ice dam increased, ultimately, causing the dam to fail catastrophically. The failure occurred when the water reached a depth of 2000 feet. The water pressure caused the glacier to become buoyant, and water began to escape beneath the ice dam by carving sub-glacial tunnels at an exponential rate.

It is estimated that the maximum rate of flow was equal to 9.46 cubic miles per hour (386 million cubic feet per second). This rate is 60 times the flow of the Amazon River, the largest river in the world today. At this rate, the lake probably drained in a few days to a week. Water moving at speeds between 30 and 50 miles per hour raced across eastern Washington.

The floodwaters from Glacial Lake Missoula moved through eastern Washington on a 430-mile journey to the Pacific Ocean, forever changing the landscape by stripping away topsoil, and picking apart the bedrock. The floodwater carved an immense channel system across eastern Washington. In 1928, geologist J. Harlen Bretz poetically described the scene: "No one with an eye for land forms can cross eastern Washington in daylight without encountering and being impressed by the 'scabland.' Like great scars marring the otherwise fair face of the plateau are these elongated tracts of bare, or nearly bare, black rock carved into mazes of buttes and canyons. Everyone on the plateau knows scabland. It interrupts the wheatlands, parceling them out into hill tracts less than forty acres to more than forty square miles in extent. One can neither reach them nor depart from them without crossing some part of the ramifying scabland. Aside from affording a scanty pasturage, scabland is almost without value. The popular name is an expressive metaphor. The scablands are wounds only partially healed great wound in the epidermis of soil with which Nature protects the underlying rock."

Massive Cordilleran ice sheet blocked the mouth of the Clark Fork River and caused the water to backup and submerge the city of Missoula. One day, the massive Ice Dam broke. Imagine a highlander, running atop the highest peak of a mountain. With bated breath, he watched the breaking of the ice dam, unleashing a megafood of biblical proportions. The Megaflood plowed ahead and created havoc in the Columbia River Gorge in no time. The highlander, who watched massive waves, towering thousands of feet high moving at great speeds with a deafening noise and approaching him, he stood thunderstruck. The giant waves scoured and stripped the topsoil, cut deep canyons and coulees in no time, randomly depositing hulking boulders at different places. The gargantuan water then turned into a colossal vortex, spiraling with tremendous velocity. It drilled the hard rock and sunk into the belly of the earth. One vortex followed another. The water poured in from three-mile high cliff into deep gorges. It was the greatest show by the Geological Force ever happened in human history.

 

Dan kad se Zemlja zamrznula, c. 10950 BC

Jeste li znali da je prije 13.000 godina jedan sat duga oluja s gradom bombardirala Zemlju pretvorivši planet u zaleđenu loptu s mini ledenim dobom? Tako barem tvrde znanstvenici. Katastrofa je uzrokovana raspadom komete, koja se rasprskala u tisuće fragmenata sastavljenih od leda i prašine.

Ova sudar je izbrisao ogroman broj životinjskih vrsta u cijelom svijetu, poremetio živote naših predaka iz kamenog doba i pokrenuo zamrzavanje koji je trajalo više od 1000 godina.

Teoriju je osmislio profesor Bill Napier Univerziteta Cardiff, koji tvrdi kako njegovo istraživanje objašnjava tajanstveno razdoblje izumiranja otprilike 11.000 godina prije Krista.

Znanstvenici su odavno zbunjeni s uzrokom naglog globalnog hlađenja do 8 ° C (14F) baš kao i s naglim zagrijavanjem Zemlje krajem zadnjeg ledenog doba.

Promjena klime uzrokovala je dodatni nagli rast ledenjaka, i podudarala se s izumiranjem 35 vrsta sjevernoameričkih sisavaca.

Neki geolozi dan danas tvrde da je svijet bio pogođen divovskim asteroidom – točnije manjom verzijom onoga koji je istrijebio dinosauruse prije 65 milijuna godina.


Debeli sloj čađi nastao s požarima koji su planuli zbog električnih efekata komete.

Sudar je pak ostavio iza sebe priču unutar tragova u stijenama – uključujući crnu čađu debljine 2,5 centimetra za koju se smatra da su stvorili kontinentalni sveprisutni požari.

Mikroskopija ‘nanodijamanata‘ (dijamanti od 1 mikrometra) pokazuje da su isti stvoreni s masivnim šokovima koji se stvaraju isključivo s udarima meteora (asteroida i kometa) i koji se nalaze u njihovim kraterima što dodatno potvrđuje razlog ove katastrofe.


Nano dijamanti koji nastaju isključivo s udarom nebeskih lutalica o planetarnu površinu.

Ovi rezultati su doveli do pretpostavke kako se komet duljine 2.5 milje (ili asteroid) zabio u ledenjačke ploče koje su tada pokrivale područje cijele Kanade i sjevernog dijela SAD-a.

No, drugi znanstvenici smatraju kako su šanse da je Zemlju udario tako veliki objekt prije samo 13.000 godina tek 1:1000. Oni tvrdoglavo nastavljaju vjerovati da jedan takav događaj ne može objasniti toliko rasprostranjene požare.

Teorija profesora Napiera sugerira da se devastacija dogodila kada je Zemlja zalutala u gusti trag fragmenata koji je stvoren raspadom velikog kometa.

Na tisuće komada materijala iz kometa je ‘kišilo’ po Zemlji, a svaki od njih je oslobodio energiju jednog megatona nuklearne bombe.


Lokacije na planeti na kojima su pronađeni nanodijamanti.

Ovakav utjecaj je ispunio atmosferu dimom i čađu, zaklanjajući Sunce.

Profesor Napier kaže da se komet slomio u unutrašnjem dijelu Sunčevog sustava prije otprilike 20.000 i 30.000 godina, te se raspadao od otada.

‘Veliki komet se još uvijek razgrađuje u bližem okruženju Zemlje posljednjih 20.000 do 30.000 godina rasprskavajući se u tisuće fragmenata što je mnogo vjerojatniji događaj od samo jednog sudara “, rekao je profesor Napier.

Njegov je model, objavljen u časopisu Monthly Notices, Kraljevskog astronomskog društva, te sugerira da je globalna “oluja s gradom’ trajala oko sat vremena.

Takva kataklizma je uzrokovala na tisuće strahovitih događaja, od globalnih požara i stvaranje ‘nanodijamanta’ do ‘izumiranje’ koja označavaju točku u vremenu kada su mnoge vrste nenadano nestale s planete bez naoko vidljivog razloga.


Dijelić objekta koji se zabio u jezero Tagish okovan ledom.

Profeseor Napier je na koncu zaključio sa sljedećim riječima:
Jedan nedavni događaj je također mogao nastati udarom manje komete ili fragmentom veće komete, a poznat je kao Tagish meteoritsko jezero.  (Ovdje možete pregledati fotografije s jezera Tagish).

Objekt koji je pao na teritoriju Yukona u Kanadi u siječnju 2000. sadrži najveću poznatu količinu nanodijamanata, točnije više nego li je otkriveno od svih dosadašnjih udara kometa.

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/04/100407-ice-age-extinction-comet-meteor-shower/
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1262904/Prehistoric-hailstorm-triggered-1-000-year-freeze-Earth-wiped-animal-species.html

 

Phaeton


Phaeton

In Plato's Timaeus, Critias tells the story of Atlantis as recounted to Solon by an Egyptian priest, who prefaced the story by saying:
There have been, and will be again, many destructions of mankind arising out of many causes; the greatest have been brought about by the agencies of fire and water, and other lesser ones by innumerable other causes. There is a story that even you [Greeks] have preserved, that once upon a time, Phaethon, the son of Helios, having yoked the steeds in his father's chariot, because he was not able to drive them in the path of his father, burnt up all that was upon the earth, and was himself destroyed by a thunderbolt. Now this has the form of a myth, but really signifies a declination of the bodies moving in the heavens around the earth, and a great conflagration of things upon the earth, which recurs after long intervals.

 

Meteorska oluja pogodila je Zemlju prije 13000 godina i kraj ledenog doba


Kozmička kataklizma uzrokovala je nestanak planetarne mega faune, uključujući i mamuta.

Tijekom geološke prošlosti poznata su razdoblja za vrijeme kojih je dolazilo do zaleđivanja kontinenata, glacijacije (stvaranja ledenjaka) i naglog zahlađenja. Te promjene su se kroz Zemljinu prošlost dogodile nekoliko puta i poznate su pod nazivom ledeno doba. Svaki je prodor leda vezao velike količine vode u kontinentalnim ledenjacima debljine 1500-3000 m, što je dovelo do privremenog pada razine mora od 100 m ili više na cijeloj površini Zemlje.

Posljednje ledeno doba nastupilo je prije otprilike 2 milijuna godina. Svoj je vrhunac doživjelo u pleistocenu koji je trajao je od prije 2,588 milijuna do prije 11.550 godina. On pokriva veći dio razdoblja učestalih glacijacija, sve do konačnog zahlađenja zvanog mlađi drijas. Kraj mlađeg drijasa datiran je oko 9600. pr. Kr. (prije 11.550 kalendarskih godina).

Kraj ledenih doba karakterizira povećanje temperature i povlačenje ledenjaka i ledenih pokrova. Uz ta dva procesa također dolazi do izdizanja morske razine i nastajanja otoka i zaljeva. Svršetak posljednjeg ledenog doba definiran je otprilike 10000 godina prije nove ere. Tada se led povukao u svoje sadašnje granice i formirali su se klimatsko-vegetacijski pojasevi kakve danas poznajemo. Nakon pleistocena nastupio je holocen u kojem živimo još danas.

Krajem posljednjega ledenoga doba na sve živo na planeti su se obrušile strašne sile. Masovno izumiranje krupnih sisavaca (megafaune), koje je obuhvaćalo mamute, mastodonte, sabljozube tigrove, gliptodonte i kopnene ljenivce započelo je krajem pleistocena te se nastavilo u holocenu. Zbog otapanja leda, razina mora je između 10. i 6. tisućljeća pr. Kr. porasla za oko 100 metara.

Znanstvenici su pronašli „istaljeno staklo“ u stijenama, koje se formiralo na 1.700 stupnjeva Celzijeve ljestvice, što je ravno temperaturi koju stvara eksplozija atomske bombe. Ova meteorska oluja je prije 12.000 godina pokrenula ledeni val koji je uništio tadašnje velike sisavce.
Ekstremna toplina stvorena je udarom kozmičkih tijela o planetu, na slici vidimo istaljene djeliće stijene iz Sirije, stare gotovo 13.000 godina.

Znanstvenici su pronašli neoborive dokaze da je kiša meteora zasula zemlju prije 13.000 godina, što je uvjetovalo izumiranje velikog broja prapovijesnih ljudi i potpuno izumiranje velikih sisavaca uključujući mamute.

Dokazi o meteoritima su toliko intenzivni da su pronađeni na dva kontinenta. Istraživači vjeruju kako je ovaj ogromno kozmički sraz uzrokovao jaki ledeni val koji je uzrokovao globalnu destrukciju.

Internacionalni tim znanstvenika je pronašao mnogobrojne nalaske istaljenog stakla koji se formira na temperaturama između 1.700-2.000 stupnjeva Celzijeve ljestvice, koja je nastala udarom kozmičkih tijela o Zemlju.


Ekstremna toplina stvorena je udarom kozmičkih tijela o planetu. Istaljene djeliće stijene iz Sirije, stare gotovo 13.000 godina.


Istovjetni uzorci otopljenog kamenja iz područja New Mexica za vrijeme eksplozije prve atomske bombe 1945., i iz Sirije stari gotovo 13.000 godina.

Meteorite storm 'smashed the Earth 12,000 years ago and killed off a prehistoric people'
Was a giant comet responsible for a North American catastrophe in 11,000 BC?
The day the Earth froze: An hour-long storm started a mini ice age, say scientists
Study supports theory of extraterrestrial impact
Misterije arheologije

 

Lice Zemlje se zamračilo

Tijekom posljednjega ledenoga doba na sva su se živa stvorenja obrušile strašne sile. Na koji se način to odrazilo na čovječanstvo možemo zaključiti na temelju čvrstih dokaza o tome što se dogodilo s većinom drugih vrsta. Često su ti dokazi zbunjujući. Charles Darwin je, primjerice, tijekom boravka u Južnoj Americi primijetio:

"Vjerujem da se nitko nije više od mene čudio izumiranju vrsta.
Kada sam u La Plati [Argentina] otkrio konjski zub koji je ležao uz ostatke mastodonta, Megatheriuma, toksodonta i drugih izumrlih čudovišta, koja su živjela u veoma kasnom geološkom razdoblju, jako sam se iznenadio; naime, kada sam shvatio da je konj trčao ovim divljinama i množio se do velikih razmjera od kada su ga Španjolci pripitomili, zapitao sam se što se to nedavno moglo dogoditi da je, u navodno veoma pogodnim životnim uvjetima, prvi konj mogao izumrijeti?"

Odgovor je, naravno, ledeno doba. Prvi američki konji kao i brojni drugi prvotni sisavci izumrli su u ledenome dobu. No, ta istrebljenja nisu se dogodila samo u Novome svijetu. Upravo suprotno, u različitim dijelovima svijeta (iz različitih razloga i u različito doba) u dugim ledenim razdobljima u nekoliko je navrata istrijebljen velik broj vrsta. U čitavome svijetu većina je uništenih vrsta nestala u posljednjih 7 000 godina, u razdoblju od otprilike 15 000. do 8 000. god.pr. Kr.

Sada ćemo pokušati utvrditi klimatske, seizmičke i geološke događaje povezane s napredovanjem i povlačenjem ledenoga pokrivača, koji je uništio životinje. Razumno je pretpostaviti da su u tome znatan utjecaj imali i plimni valovi, potresi, divovske oluje te iznenadan početak i završetak glacijamih klimatskih uvjeta. No, bez obzira na to što se tijekom navedenih uvjeta zbivalo, najznačajnija je činjenica da su uslijed promjena koje su nastupile u posljednjem ledenome dobu životinje zaista masovno istrijebljene.

To previranje, kako je Darwin zaključio u svome Dnevniku, zasigurno je poremetilo "cjelokupan poredak Zemljine kugle". Na primjer, u Novome svijetu je između 15 000. i 8 000. god. pr. Kr. izumrlo više od sedamdeset vrsta velikih sisavaca, uključujući pripadnike sedam obitelji te čitavi red sjevernoameričkih rilaša. Taj golemi gubitak više od četrdeset milijuna životinja, koje su nasilno nestale sa Zemlje, dogodio se više puta u različitim razdobljima ledenoga doba. Naime, velika većina životinja istrijebljena je u razdoblju od samo dvije tisuće godina, između 11 000. i 9 000. god. pr. Kr. Usporedbe radi, u prethodnih 300 000 godina nestalo je samo dvadeset vrsta.

Taj proces masovnoga istrebljenja zahvatio je i čitavu Europu i Aziju, pa čak i daleku Australiju, u kojoj je u relativno kratkom razdoblju nestalo otprilike devetnaest vrsta velikih kralježnjaka, no ne i svih sisavaca.

Izvor: Graham Hancock - Otisci bogova

 

Holocensko masovno izumiranje

Znanstvenici su na bazi novootkrivenih dokaza shvatili da je prije 12900 godina kometa udarila o planetu stvarajući kataklizmu čije posljedice osjećamo i dan danas.

Diljem planete su nedavno pronađeni mikroskopski djelići otopljene stijene, koji se u stručnom jeziku nazivaju sferule ili nano dijamanti, oni su iskopani iz prastarih slojeva tla i jasno dokazuju silinu udarca koji se dogodio prije skoro 13 milenija.

Mješavina ovih malenih komadića stijena je mogla nastati samo uz pomoć ekstremnih temperatura, koje su na površini naše planete mogle nastati jedino udarom ogromnog nebeskog tijela.

Znanstvenici Američkog Geološkog Saveza (AGU) su po prvi puta javnosti prezentirali otkriće nano dijamanata 2007. godine, i to na mjestima prastarih arheoloških nalazišta, u sloju tla koji je zadnji put vidio svjetlost dana prije točno 12900 godina.
Dodatna neovisna istraživanja o istoj temi su u javnost izašli 19.09.2012. u žurnalu PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences).

Voditelj tima istraživača, prof. dr. Malcolm LeCompte sa Sveučilišta Sjeverne Karoline je potvrdio nastanak sferula na dodatnim nalazištima u: Novom Meksiku, Južnoj Karolini i Marylandu.

Dodatnim istraživanjem ledenih polja u istočnoj Kanadi, otkriveno je da je ta lokacija najvjerojatnije mjesto udara komete koja je toliko promijenila izgled Zemlje na kraju zadnjeg ledenog doba.

Iako se u školama djecu uči o udaru asteroida koji je izbrisao dinosauruse s lica planete, javnosti je malo poznata činjenica da su svi veliki sisavci nepovratno zbrisani prije 13 milenija, no na Američkom kontinentu je čak nestala i jedna vrsta ljudi, zahvaljujući istoj katastrofi, riječ je o ljudima iz kulture Clovis, visoko razvijenoj civilizaciji iz neolitika koja je nestala bez traga u iznimno kratkom vremenskom periodu.
Upravo su nalazišta kulture Clovis pomogla u identificiranju sferula, u slojevima neposredno iznad ostataka njihovih artefakata, znanstvenici su pronašli 30 puta više sferula.

Udarac komete također objašnjava nastanak Mlađeg Drijasa, perioda od 1300 godina u kojem se pokazao nagli pad temperature na planeti, što se sada može objasniti naglim oslobađanjem ogromne količine energije nakon udara komete, s kojom se otopila velika količina ledenjaka, stvarajući potpuni kaos u termalinskim morskim strujama koje su kontrolirale planetarnu temperaturu. Nakon što su velike količine ledene glacijalne vode dospjele u more, poremetio se salinitet oceana i termalinske struje su tada nestale.

Ovaj mehanizam bi nas trebao zamisliti nad sličnom situacijom koju možemo vidjeti u našem današnjem svijetu, otapanje ledenjaka i globalno zatopljenje definitivno utječu i na termalinske struje u današnjim oceanima.

 
Sferule - Mladunac Sibirskog mamuta zaleđen u nekoliko trenutaka zajedno sa zelenom travom u ustima

Case Closed? Comet Crash Killed Ice Age Beasts
Catastrophic Comet Chilled and Killed Ice Age Beasts

 

Izvještaj o stvaranju, c. 11000 BC

Sljedećih godina događale su se katastrofalne poplave, potresi, vulkanska aktivnost, te sveopće podizanje morske razine za više od 100 metara. Do trenutka kada je najgore prošlo, lice Zemlje se promijenilo gotovo do neprepoznatljivosti: prijašnje obale, otoci i zemljani mostovi poplavljeni su, a mnoge životinjske vrste su nestale. Oslobađajući se mulja i pepela, neznatni ostatak čovječanstva je preživio.

Izvještaj o stvaranju opisuje događaje onako kako bi ih opisao netko tko je promatrao sa Zemlje i to nakon katastrofe prije 13000 god.

Knjiga o Jobu nam kazuje kakva je bila Zemlja u doba stvaranja. Zemlja je bila potopljena vodom, a gusti oblaci spriječavali su svjetlost da dopire do površine Zemlje. »Gdje si bio kad zemlju utemeljih?... Tko li zatvori more vratnicama kad je navrlo iz krila majčina; kad ga oblakom k'o haljom odjenuh i k'o pelenam' ovih maglom gustom;» (Job 38:9).

  1. »Zemlja bijaše pusta i prazna; tama se prostirala nad bezdanom« Barijera od magle i gustih olaka počela je nestajati, dopuštajući difuznoj svjetlosti da prodre kroz atmosferu. »I bi svjetlost... Tako bude večer, pa jutro - dan prvi.«
  2. Nastajao je prostor koji je razdvajao guste oblake i mora (potopljenu Zemlju), »vode pod svodom odijeli od voda nad svodom... - dan drugi.«
  3. »Vode pod nebom neka se skupe na jedno mjesto i neka se pokaže kopno!.. proklija zemlja zelenilom... - dan treći.«
  4. Atmosfera se razbistrila i na “nebeskom svodu” pojavi se Sunce i Mjesec. Drugim riječima, od tog trenutka moglo se vidjeti Sunce i Mjesec - dan četvrti.
  5. Počeo se obnavljati život na zemlji, namnože se morske životinje i leteća stvorenja, kukci.. - dan peti.
  6. Namnože se na zemlji: »stoka, gmizavci i zvjerad«, namnoži se i čovjek koji napuni zemlju. - dan šesti.

Na svoju sliku stvori Bog čovjeka, na sliku Božju on ga stvori, muško i žensko stvori ih. (28) I blagoslovi ih Bog i reče im: "Plodite se, i množite, i napunite zemlju, i sebi je podložite! - Göbekli Tepe, Twelve Tribes

Knjiga o Jobu

Nato Jahve odgovori Jobu iz oluje i reče: (2) "Tko je taj koji riječima bezumnim zamračuje božanski promisao? (3) Bokove svoje opaši k'o junak: ja ću te pitat', a ti me pouči. (4) Gdje si bio kad zemlju utemeljih? Kazuj, ako ti je znanje sigurno. (5) Znaš li tko joj je mjere odredio i nad njom uže mjerničko napeo? (6) Na čemu joj počivaju temelji? Tko joj postavi kamen ugaoni (7) dok su klicale zvijezde jutarnje i Božji uzvikivali dvorjani? (8) Tko li zatvori more vratnicama kad je navrlo iz krila majčina; (9) kad ga oblakom k'o haljom odjenuh i k'o pelenam' ovih maglom gustom; (10) kad sam njegovu odredio među, vrata stavio sa prijevornicama? (11) Dotle, ne dalje, rekao sam njemu, tu nek' se lomi ponos tvog valovlja! (12) Zar si ikad zapovjedio jutru, zar si kazao zori mjesto njeno, (13) da poduhvati zemlju za rubove i da iz nje sve bezbožnike strese; (14) da je pretvori u glinu pečatnu i oboji je k'o kakvu haljinu. (15) Ona uzima svjetlost zlikovcima i pesnicu im lomi uzdignutu. (16) Zar si ti prodro do izvora morskih, po dnu bezdana zar si kad hodio? (17) Zar su ti vrata smrti pokazali; vidje li dveri kraja mrtvih sjena? (18) Zar si prostranstvo zemlje uočio? Govori, ako ti je znano sve to. (19) Koji putovi u dom svjetla vode, na kojem mjestu prebivaju tmine, (20) da ih odvedeš u njine krajeve, da im put k stanu njihovu pokažeš? (21) Ti znadeš to, tÓa davno ti se rodi, tvojih dana broj veoma je velik! (22) Zar si stigao do riznica snijega i zar si tuče spremišta vidio (23) što ih pričuvah za dane nevolje, za vrijeme boja krvava i rata? (24) Kojim li se putem dijeli munja kada iskre po svoj zemlji prosipa? (25) Tko li je jaz iskopao povodnju, tko prokrčio pute grmljavini (26) da bi daždjelo na kraj nenastanjen, na pustinju gdje žive duše nema, (27) da bi neplodnu napojio pustoš, da bi u stepi trava izniknula? (28) Ima li kiša svoga roditelja? Tko je taj koji kapi rose rađa? (29) Iz čijeg li mraz izlazi krila, tko slanu stvara što s nebesa pada? (30) Kako čvrsnu vode poput kamena i led se hvata površja bezdana? (31) Možeš li lancem vezati Vlašiće i razdriješiti spone Orionu, (32) u pravo vrijeme izvesti Danicu, vodit' Medvjeda s njegovim mladima? (33) Zar poznaješ ti zakone nebeske pa da njima moć na zemlji dodijeliš? (34) Zar doviknuti možeš oblacima pa da pljuskovi tebe poslušaju? (35) Zar na zapovijed tvoju munje lijeću i tebi zar se odazivlju: 'Evo nas'? (36) Tko je mudrost darovao ibisu, tko li je pamet ulio u pijetla? (37) Tko to mudro prebrojava oblake i tko nebeske izlijeva mjehove (38) dok se zemlja u tijesto ne zgusne i dok se grude njezine ne slijepe?

 

Refuge - Podzemni gradovi, c. 11000 BC

People took refuge in climatic sanctuaries (or refugia) as follows:

• Central Europe refuge
• Anatolian refuge (Cappadocia)

Some Y haplogroup I clades appear to have diverged from their parental haplogroups sometime during or shortly after the LGM.

Cinnioglu sees evidence for the existence of an Anatolian refuge, which also harboured Hg R1b1b2. Today, R1b dominates the y chromosome landscape of western Europe, including the British Isles, suggesting that there could have been large population composition changes based on migrations after the LGM.

Haplogroup I2 is prevalent in the western Balkans, as well as the rest of southeastern and central-eastern Europe in more moderate frequencies. Its frequency drops rapidly in central Europe, suggesting that the survivors bearing I2 lineages expanded predominantly through south-eastern and central-eastern Europe.

From an mtDNA perspective, Richards et al. found that the majority of mtDNA diversity in Europe is accounted for by post-glacial re-expansions during the late upper Palaeolithic/ Mesolithic. "The regional analyses lend some support to the suggestion that much of western and central Europe was repopulated largely from the southwest when the climate improved. The lineages involved include much of the most common haplogroup, H, as well as much of K, T, W, and X." The study could not determine whether there were new migrations of mtDNA lineages from the near east during this period; a significant input was deemed unlikely.

Spektakularno arheološko nalazište nalazi se u Nevsehiru, u Turskoj. Sasvim slučajno na njega su naišli građevinari koji su rušili kompleks zgrada u sklopu rekonstrukcije grada. Nakon tri godine istraživanja stručnjaci kažu da se radi o najvećem i najkompleksnijem podzemnom gradu na planeti, piše Telegraph.  
Skeniranjem tla utvrđeno je da se grad proteže na nekoliko razina, a njegova je površina usporediva s površinom - pazite sad - 64 nogometna terena
Utvrđeno je da je grad star pet tisuća godina, a njegova je kompleksnost zapanjila arheologe. Naime, ljudi su u njemu imali kuhinje, sanitarne čvorove, primitivan vodovod i ventilacijski sustav, vinarije, kapelice i brojna stepeništa kojima se prelazilo s jedne razine na drugu te na kraju i na - površinu.

 

 

U SAD-u postoji niz legendi o tajnim podzemnim prolazima koji se protežu kilometrima. Jesu li ove tunele izradili divovi ili možda američki preci, jer su iz nekog razloga tražiti zaštitu u podzemlju?
Mnoge od tih drevnih legendi govore o velikim katastrofama koje su se dogodile u drevno doba. Nekoliko mitova i legendi navode i da su se prvi ljudi pojavili iz podzemnih pećina, tunela, pa čak i gradova.
U knjizi "Native American Myths and Mysteries", autora Vincent H. Gaddisa (1913-1997), koji je bio poznat po tome što je prvi koristio izraz Bermudski trokut, iznešene su neke vrlo zanimljive priče o podzemnim prolazima i pećinama u Americi. Tako on piše da je "Hopi indijancima ovo četvrti svijet. Tri puta je svijet na površini bio opustošen, a Hopi indijanci su pobjegli živjeti s ljudima - mravima u podzemlje".

Dokazi o tunelima pronađeni su ispod stotina neolitskoh lokaliteta i naselja, samim time što je toliko mnogo tunela preživjelo barem 12.000. godina pokazuje da je sama mreža u prošlosti morala biti enormno velika.
Mail online je napisao slijedeće, čovjek kamenog doba stvorio je masivnu mrežu podzemnih tunela koji leluja Europom od Škotske do Turske, o njima se napisala knjiga čiji autor ove tunele naziva „autocestama prapovijesti.“
Njemački arheolog Doktor Heinrich Kusch je izjavio kako se dokazi o tunelima koji nalaze ispod stotina i stotina neolitskih tunela po cijelom kontinentu.

Živi zakopani
Masivna mreža tunela iz kamenog doba
Otkriven misteriozni grad pod zemljom!
Otkriven misteriozni podzemni grad star punih pet tisućljeća
Tuneli iz kamenog doba spajaju Škotsku i Tursku
Europa je premrežena? Tajni tuneli od Škotske do Turske

  Index Göbekli Tepe