Old Europe

c. 7000 - 3500 BC

Old Europe

In southeast Europe agrarian societies first appeared in the 7th millennium BC, attested by one of the earliest farming sites of Europe, discovered in Vashtëmi, southeastern Albania and dating back to 6,500 BC. Anthropomorphic figurines have been found in the Balkans from 6000 BC, and in Central Europe by c. 5500 BC. Among the earliest cultural complexes of this area are the Sesklo culture in Thessaly, which later expanded in the Balkans giving rise to Starčevo-Körös (Cris), Linearbandkeramik, and Vinča. Through a combination of cultural diffusion and migration of peoples, the Neolithic traditions spread west and northwards to reach northwestern Europe by around 4500 BC.


Early Neolithic in Europe - Golden Age

Apparently related with the Anatolian culture of Hacilar, the Greek region of Thessalia is the first place in Europe known to have acquired agriculture, cattle-herding and pottery. These early stages are known as pre-Sesklo culture. The Thessalian Neolithic culture soon evolves in the more coherent culture of Sesklo (c. 8000 BP), which is the origin of the main branches of Neolithic expansion in Europe. Practically all the Balkan Peninsula is colonized in the 6th millennium from there. That expansion, reaching the easternmost Tardenoisian outposts of the upper Tisza gives birth to the proto-Linear Pottery culture, a significant modification of the Balkan Neolithic that will be in the origin of one of the most important branches of European Neolithic: the Danubian group of cultures. In parallel, the coasts of the Adriatic and southern Italy witness the expansion of another Neolithic current of less clear origins. Settling initially in Dalmatia, the bearers of the Cardium Pottery culture may have come from Thessalia (some of the pre-Sesklo settlements show related traits) or even from Lebanon (Byblos). They are sailors, fishermen and sheep and goat herders, and the archaeological findings show that they mixed with natives in most places. Other early Neolithic cultures can be found in Ukraine and Southern Russia, where the epi-Gravettian locals assimilated cultural influxes from beyond the Caucasus (culture of Dniepr-Don and related) and in Andalusia (Spain), where the rare Neolithic of La Almagra Pottery appears without known origins very early (c. 7800 BP).


Maritime route of colonization of Europe

The Neolithic populations, which colonized Europe approximately 9,000 y ago, presumably migrated from Near East to Anatolia and from there to Central Europe through Thrace and the Balkans. An alternative route would have been island hopping across the Southern European coast. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed genome-wide DNA polymorphisms on populations bordering the Mediterranean coast and from Anatolia and mainland Europe. We observe a striking structure correlating genes with geography around the Mediterranean Sea with characteristic east to west clines of gene flow. Using population network analysis, we also find that the gene flow from Anatolia to Europe was through Dodecanese, Crete, and the Southern European coast, compatible with the hypothesis that a maritime coastal route was mainly used for the migration of Neolithic farmers to Europe.

Study indicates Neolithic people from Near East migrated to Europe via island hopping

(Phys.org) -A multinational team of researchers has concluded that Neolithic farmers migrated to Europe from the Near East via the islands that dot the Mediterranean Sea between Turkey and Greece. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the team describes how they used genetic analysis on a large number of volunteers in the Middle and Near East and Europe to trace the path of early migration into Europe.

A coastal route of colonization of Europe. Credit: PNAS, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1320811111

Scientists know that the first modern humans to migrate to Europe were hunter-gatherers-they arrived approximately 40,000 years ago. But then, the hunter-gatherers were slowly replaced by new migrants from the Near East approximately 9,000 years ago-migrants that were farmers. But the path they took has been under dispute by historians. In this new effort the researchers sought to lay the arguments to rest by conducting an exhaustive DNA study of the people that live in the region today.

The team collected DNA samples from 964 people living in 32 different places in the region-from northern Africa, to the Middle and Near East to islands in the Mediterranean Sea, to the European continent. Each of the DNA samples was scrutinized for markers known as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). People from the same place tend to have SNPs in common, which makes tracking their migration possible by looking for such markers in different populations. Analysis of the samples allowed the researchers to trace the movement of early people from the fertile crescent in the Middle East, to the Near East and into Turkey, and then as they sailed to nearby islands off the southern coast and finally, as they arrived on the southern shores of mainland Europe.

Genetic markers in modern populations indicate the Neolithic migrants who brought farming to Europe traveled from the Levant into Anatolia and then island hopped to Greece via Crete and then to Sicily and north into Southern Europe. Credit: Modified NASA map

The researchers note that despite the lack of archeological evidence, such as boats used by the migrants, the DNA analysis allowed for near certainty in plotting the course of Neolithic migration of early farmers to Europe. The SNPs showed very clearly, they claim, the path that the people took, thus, island hopping may be considered the main, if not only route that was taken. That would rule out such possibilities as a northern land route from Turkey to Europe through the Bosphorus strait, or farmers sailing directly to Europe from the Middle East.

Maritime route of colonization of Europe.pdf


Aegean ships

Around 7250 BC inhabitants of Greece traveled from the mainland to the island of Melos or Milos using papyrus boats (papyrela). The evidence is the discovery of obsidian pieces that exists only in Melos and which were found in the Greek mainland ( Franchthi cavern) and also in Cyprus. A reconstruction was used in an experiment in 1988. The experiment showed that the papyrela boat could be used for a travel from the island of Corfu to the Peloponesse. The information I have is that even until 1990 some fishermen used similar papyrus boats.

Aegean Ships

The Aegean has since prehistoric times been a sea that has united rather than separated the large or small islands. Between these islands, there were narrow sea passages and shallow gulfs, accessible by some primitive sailing means. Navigation in the Aegean, has been testified by the tools made of Melian obsidian which were found in Franchthi Cave in Hermionid (at the eastern coast of the Peloponnese, a distance of 80 nautical miles (approximately 150 kilometers) from Melos. Tools made of Melian obsidian also found on Crete (Knossos) and on Cyprus, substantiate the existence of sea routes in the Aegean from the Early till the Final Neolithic (6800-3200 BC). They made a boat exclusively from papyrus, an aquatic plant which can be found near water areas of Greece ( as well as on the river Nile in Egypt). A similar boat was used until recently in Kerkyra. The "papyrela" could easily travel from Lavrion to Milos. Its crew would use kayak oars for navigation. It has also been proven that men in the Greek prehistoric period could travel by sea using natural material offered by the domestic world of Greece and also using simple techniques such as the one of straw mats.

Evidence for ship construction in Aegean Bronze Age comprises 358 catalogue entries, these being 44 models, 173 linear representations (wall paintings, vase paintings, incisions) and 141 glyptic images. Crete provides over 55 per cent of the catalogue, the islands and the mainland less than 25 per cent each. Whereas the Minoan material is spread out over a timespan of a millenium (2500-1500 BC), the Cycladic documents are concentrated to the Early Cycladic II period, and to the site of Akrotiri in Late Minoan IA, while the mainland sees a scattering of inconsequential evidence down to the final phases of the Bronze Age, when a slight increase becomes manifest.
The typological classification of the Aegean ship is mainly based on the evolution of hull shapes as per Dr. Michael Wedde works (*0)

Agricultural migrations - Mediterranean Group

Y-chromosome E-V13, G2a, I2a

Modern humans took two routes into Europe

The European Neolithic is assumed to have arrived from the Near East, via Asia Minor, the Mediterranean waterway and also through the Caucasus. There has been a long discussion between migrationists (who claim that the Near Eastern farmers almost totally displaced the European native hunter-gatherers) and diffusionists (who claim that the process was slow enough to have occurred mostly through cultural transmission). A relationship has been suggested between the spread of agriculture and the diffusion of Indo-European languages, with several models of migrations trying to establish a relationship, like the Anatolian hypothesis, which sets the origin of Indo-European agricultural terminology in Anatolia.


Neolithic Greece, c. 7500 BC

Neolithic Greece


Pre-Sesklo, c. 7510 - 6190 BC

The settlement at Sesklo gives its name to the earliest known Neolithic culture of Europe, which inhabited Thessaly and parts of Macedonia. The Neolithic settlement was discovered in the 1800s and the first excavations were made by the Greek archaeologist, Christos Tsountas. The oldest fragments researched at Sesklo place development of the civilization as far back as c. 7510 BC - c. 6190 BC, known as proto-Sesklo and pre-Sesklo. They show an advanced agriculture and a very early use of pottery that rivals in age those documented in the near east. Available data also indicates that domestication of cattle occurred at Argissa as early as c. 6300 BC, during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic.


Sesklo c. 6850 - 4400 BC





Cardium pottery, c. 6400 - 5500 BC

Y-DNA E-V13, G2a, I2a

Cardium pottery


  • Chandler et al. (2005) sequenced the mtDNA of four Neolithic skeletons from the Impressed Ware Culture of Portugal (5500-4750 BCE), and found two members of haplogroup U (U and U5), one of H and one of V.
  • Lacan et al. (2011) tested 29 skeletons from a 5,000-year-old site in Treilles, Languedoc, France. Twenty paternal lineages (Y-DNA) were identified as G2a, while the two others belonged to haplogroup I2a. The maternal lineages (mtDNA) comprised six haplogroup U (including four U5 and one U5b1c), two K1a, six J1, two T2b, two HV0, six H (three H1 and three H3), one V, and four X2. The two I2a men belonged to mtDNA haplogroup H1 and H3.
  • Lacan et al. (2011 bis) tested 7 skeletons from a 7,000-year-old Neolithic site from the Avellaner Cave in Cogolls, Catalonia, Spain. Six paternal lineages (Y-DNA) were identified including five G2a and one E1b1b1a1b (E-V13). There were three mtDNA haplogroup K1a, two T2b, one H3, and one U5.
  • The team of Fernández et al. (2006) and Gamba et al. (2008) analysed the mitochondrial HVR-I in 37 bone and teeth samples from 17 archaeological sites located around Castellón de la Plana, Valencia, Spain. Most of the results were inconclusive though. Out of the 12 mtDNA sequences from the Chalcolithic period that were retrieved, four were reported as haplogroup L3, four as H (including three CRS, which could be non-results), two to R0, HV or H, one to V, and one to D.
  • Gamba et al. (2011) identified the mtDNA of 10 Early Neolithic (5000-5500 BCE) samples from the sites of Can Sadurni and Chaves and three Late Early Neolithic (4250-3700 BCE) from Sant Pau del Camp, all around Barcelona, Spain. The coding region was also tested to confirm the haplogroups. The results included haplogroups N* (4 samples), H (4 samples including one H20), U5 (1 sample), K (3 samples) and X1 (1 sample).


Hamangia culture, c. 5250 - 4550 BC

Hamangia culture

The Hamangia, was a Middle Neolithic culture in Dobruja on the right bank of the Danube, in Muntenia Romania it is the site of Baia-Hamangia. The Hamangia culture is connected to the Neolithic of the Danube River Delta and Dobruja. It includes the Vinca, Dudeşti and Karanovo III culture elements.

Cernavodă, is the name of the necropolis where the famous statues “The Thinker” and “The Sitting Woman” were discovered at the eponymous site of Baia-Hamangia in Romania.  It was discovered in 1953 along Lake Goloviţa, close to the Black Sea coast, in the Romanian province of Dobruja.

Hasotti has divided the Hamangia-culture into three phases. The culture begins in the middle of the 6th Millennium (6,000 B.C.), with Painted vessels of complex geometrical patterns based on spiral-motifs. The shapes include pots and wide bowls.

Settlements - Settlements consist of rectangular houses with one or two rooms, built of wattle and daub, sometimes with stone foundations (Durankulak). They are normally arranged on a rectangular grid and may form small tells. Settlements are located along the coast, on the coast of lakes, on the lower and middle river-terraces, and sometimes in caves.

Inhumation - People are in crouched or extended positions in cemeteries. Grave-gifts tend to be without pottery in Hamangia I. Grave-gifts include flint, worked shells, bone tools and shell-ornaments.

Figurines - Pottery figurines are normally extremely stylized and show standing naked faceless women with emphasized breasts and buttocks. The Two figurines known as “The Thinker” and “The Sitting woman” are considered masterpieces of Neolithic art.

The Hamangia culture developed into the succeeding Gumelnitsa, Boian and Varna cultures of the late Eneolithic (aka. Chalcolithic - Copper/Stone or Copper Age), without noticeable break.


Dimini, c. 5000 - 4400 BC


Adam of Govrlevo, or "Adam of Macedonia". At more than 7,000 years old, the sculpture is the oldest artifact found in the Republic of Macedonia. The artist depicts a sitting male body, and shows details of his spine, ribs, navel, and phallus. The piece is now exhibited in the Skopje City Museum.

Adam of Macedonia


La Almagra pottery, c. 5000 BC


La Almagra pottery


Los Millares, c. 3000 - 1000 BC

Los Millares

Black pottery - Y-DNA G2a

Kongemose culture / Ertebølle culture, c. 6000 - 3950 BC

Y-DNA I2c, I2a1 & I2a1b

Kongemose culture - Ertebølle kultura


Bug-Dniester culture, c. 6300 - 5500 BC

Y-DNA I2a2a, R1a, R1b

Bug-Dniester culture is right yellow color spot

The Bug–Dniester culture was the archaeological culture that developed in the chernozem region of Moldavia and Ukraine around the Dniester and Southern Bug rivers in the Neolithic.

They made pottery from about 6200 BC. This type of pottery made by hunter-gatherers had arrived in the middle Volga from the Lake Baikal region of Asia.

Hoe made of horn, the Bug-Dniester culture


Kamyana Mohyla - Dereivka, c. 5500 BC

Kamyana Mohyla


Windmill Hill culture, c. 3000 BC - Skara Brae, c. 3180 - 2500 BC

Y-DNA I2a1 & I2a2

The Windmill Hill culture was a name given to a people inhabiting southern Britain, in particular in the Salisbury Plain area close to Stonehenge, c. 3000 BC. They were an agrarian Neolithic people. Together with another Neolithic tribe from East Anglia, a tribe whose worship involved stone circles, it is thought that they were responsible for the earliest work on the Stonehenge site.

The material record left by these people includes large circular hill-top enclosures, causewayed enclosures, long barrows, leaf-shaped arrowheads and polished stone axes. They raised cattle, sheep, pigs, and dogs, and grew wheat and mined flints.

Skara Brae


Skara Brae

Agricultural migrations - Danubian Group

Map of the difusion of agriculture

Reconstruction of a building from the Vinča culture site of Kormadin, Serbia, c.5000-4500 BC


Flood hypothesis, c. 6200 BC

Hydrography of the Pannonian basin before river regulation

In brief, the influence of the 8200 calBP event is most easily recognised on Cyprus and Central Anatolia. Here, the large and long-flourishing settlement at Çatalhöyük-East was abruptly deserted around 8200 calBP. We speculate that this was most likely due to irregularities in the water-supply of this large settlement. Following 8200 calBP, the site was re-occupied, but with a shift of the settlement by c. 200 m to a new position (Çatalhöyük-West). This settlement shift marks the beginning of the Pottery Neolithic (sensu strictu) in Central Anatolia. It is further intriguing that many other major archaeological sites in the Eastern Mediterranean are alternatively either first occupied at c. 8200 calBP (in North-West Anatolia: Hoca Çeşme IV); in Greece: Nea Nikomedeia, Achilleion, Sesklo; in Bulgaria: Ovcarovo-Platoto) or else deserted (in Cyprus: Khirokitia and Kalavassos-Tenta). Conversely, in the regions under study we have not been able to identify any sites with clear stratigraphic evidence for a continuous settlement extending through the 8200 calBP event. It appears remarkable, that – following the (more or less) simultaneous desertion of Khirokitia and Kalavassos-Tenta around 8200 calBP – the island of Cyprus was apparently deserted and remained uninhabited for more than 1500 years. We furthermore observe that the major neolithic tell settlement at Mersin in Cilicia (Yumuktepe) was deserted during the time of the 8.2 ka calBP event – and was immediately reoccupied following the event. Major changes in cultural trajectories are also to be observed in North Syria (e.g. Tell Sabi Abyad)

Flood hypothesis, c. 6200 BC


Starčevo culture, c. 6200 - 4500 BC

Starčevo culture


In human remains of Starčevo culture in four investigated samples (Lipson et al., 2017) were found three different Y haplogroups: H2, G2a2a1 and G2a2b2b1a.

Haak et al. (2005) and Haak et al. (2010) sequenced the mitochondrial DNA from several LBK sites in Germany and one in Austria dating from 5500 BCE to 4900 BCE. Out of the 38 mtDNA lineages recovered there were six haplogroup N (one N1a, one N1a1a, two N1a1a1, two N1a1a2, and one N1a1b), two U (U3 and U5a1a), seven K, four J, ten T (including three T2), three HV, eight H, two V, and two W. The Y-chromosomal DNA of three samples was also successfully retrieved and assigned to haplogroup F (2 samples) and G2a3.


Starčevo, Kőrös, Criş

Encompasses various Early Neolithic archeological cultures from the Balkans, including those of Anzabegovo, Chavdar, Conevo, Criș, Dudești-Cernica, Karanovo, Kőrös, Kremikovci, Ovtcharovo, Porodin, Starčevo, and Tsonevo. It is commonly known simply under the appellation of Starčevo culture.

Represents the advance of Early Neolithic farmers from Anatolia to south-east Europe, including present-day Bulgaria, Macedonia, Kosovo, Montenegro, Serbia, Bosnia, northern Croatia, south-west Hungary, and Romania. The Starčevo–Kőrös–Criș culture is the precursor of the Alföld Linear Pottery, the LBK culture, and the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture - in other words all the Early Neolithic cultures from northern France to western Ukraine.

Their Neolithic agricultural economy was based primarily on the cultivation of crops from the Fertile Crescent, such as Emmer wheat, Einkorn wheat, barley, spelt millet, pulses (peas and bitter vetch), and buckwheat. Some fruit trees were also cultivated, including plums and apricots. Starčevo farmers bred livestock, especially goats and sheep, but to a lower extent also cattle and pigs. They also supplemented their diets by fishing in rivers and hunting deer and wild boar in forests.

Starčevo farmers lived in dug out rectangular dwellings with a timber frame, wattle-and-daub walls and clay-plastered foors. Most houses were small, measuring approximately 7–10 m in length and 4–6 m in width (i.e. 30 to 60 m²). They were built on a single storey, which consisted of a single room, without any internal divisions. Some structures may have contained a loft on the second floor, probably used as a granary.

Pottery types varied between regional groups, and could be painted in white-on-red and dark-on-red as in the Starčevo culture around Serbia, or be unpainted as in the Körös culture in Hungary. Ceramic vessels were typically decorated with net patterns, spirals, garlands, floral motives, ridges, and finger imprints. Anthropomorphic and zoomorphic representations of goats and deer were common.

Like in other Neolithic cultures, most tools were made of stone, bones or antlers. Flints, obsidians and quarzes were used to make blades, cutters, scrapers and drills. Axes, hatchets and grinding stone were made of sandstone, limestone, granite, quartz, and other rocks.

Very few graves were found in the Starčevo culture, and those were generally single graves. Most burials identified belonged to women or children, who were placed in the graves in a crouched position, lying on the right or the left side. They were inhumed under the floors of personal residences, a practice that continued until 4000 BCE. Graves rarely contained goods. When they did, it was pottery, grinding stones, flint tools or jewelry.

  • Preceded by; Iron Gates culture, Mesolithic Romania, Körös culture, Sesklo culture, Dimini culture, Neolithic Greece
  • Followed by; Linear Pottery culture, Vinča culture, Gumelnița-Karanovo culture


Early neolithic in Europe, c. 6000 to 5000 BC - Eupedia

Vinča culture, c. 5700 - 4500 BC

Vinča culture

The Vinča culture was an early culture (between the 6th and 3rd millennium B.C.), stretching around the course of the Danube in what is today Serbia, Hungary, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Romania, Bulgaria, and the Republic of Macedonia - although traces of it can be found all around the Balkans, as well as parts of Central Europe and Asia Minor (Anatolia).

In the older Starčevo settlement, located in the deepest layers of Vinča sites; mud huts with tent roofs were discovered in which the settlers of the Starčevo-culture lived and were also buried. During the period of the Vinča Culture, houses were erected above ground, with complex architectural layouts, and several rooms built of wood that were covered in mud. The houses in the settlement are facing northeast and southwest, with streets between them. Other settlements include Divostin, Potporanj, Selevac, Pločnik, Predionica Liobcova and Ujvar.

The First European Metallurgists

Copper working had been in progress in nearby Anatolia (Turkey), for well over 1,000 years before it appeared in Europe. One of the most exciting finds for archaeologists therefore, was the discovery of a sophisticated metal workshop with a furnace and tools including a copper chisel and a two-headed hammer and axe. "This might prove that the Copper Age started in Europe at least 500 years earlier than we thought,". The Copper Age marks the first stage of humans' use of metal, with copper tools used alongside older stone implements. It is thought to have started around the 4th millennium BC in south-east Europe, and earlier in the Middle East.

The discovery of a mine - Europe's oldest - at the nearby Mlava river suggested at the time that Vinca could be Europe's first metal culture, a theory now backed up by the Plocnik site. "These latest findings show that the Vinca culture was from the very beginning a metallurgical culture," said archaeologist Dusan Sljivar of Serbia's National Museum. "They knew how to find minerals, to transport them and melt them into tools."

The metal workshop in Plocnik was a room of some 25 square meters, with walls built out of wood coated with clay. The furnace, built on the outside of the room, featured earthen pipe-like air vents with hundreds of tiny holes in them and a prototype chimney to ensure air goes into the furnace to feed the fire and smoke comes out safely. He said the early metal workers very likely experimented with colourful minerals that caught their eye - blue azurite, bright green malachite and red cuprite, all containing copper - as evidenced by malachite traces found on the inside of a pot. The settlement was destroyed at some point, probably in the first part of the fifth millennium, by a huge fire.

The Vinča site of Pločnik has produced the earliest example of copper tools in the world.

The First European Writing

The Tărtăria tablets (below) refers to a group of three tablets, discovered in 1961 by archaeologist Nicolae Vlassa at a Neolithic site in the village of Tărtăria (about 30 km (19 mi) from Alba Iulia), in Romania. Two of the tablets are rectangular and the third is round. They are all small, the round one being only 6 cm (2½ in) across, and two  - one round and one rectangular - have holes drilled through them. All three have symbols inscribed only on one face

Various styles of zoomorphic and anthropomorphic figurines are hallmarks of the culture, as are the Vinča symbols, which some conjecture to be an early form of proto-writing

The tablets, dated to around 5,300 BC, bear incised symbols - the Vinča symbols - and have been the subject of considerable controversy among archaeologists, some of whom claim that the symbols represent the earliest known form of writing in the world. subsequent radiocarbon dating on the Tărtăria finds pushed the date of the tablets (and therefore of the whole Vinča culture) much further back, to as long ago as 5,500 BC, the time of the early Eridu phase of the Sumerian civilization in Mesopotamia. This finding has reversed our concept of the origin of writing, and it is now believed that the Sumerians inherited a Vinca tradition of 'magical' or 'meaningful' scripture, probably following the collapse of the Vinca homeland c. 3,500 BC.

Similar motifs (above) have been found on pots excavated at Gradeshnitsa in Bulgaria, Vinča in Serbia and a number of other locations in the southern Balkans.

Full list of Vincan Symbols.

Neolithic clay amulet (retouched), part of the Tărtăria tablets set, dated to 5500–5300 BC and associated with the Turdaş-Vinča culture. The Vinča symbols on it predate the proto-Sumerian pictographic script.

Recent excavations at the site of the Pločnik settlement, have shed considerable light on the Vinča culture. The Pločnik settlement flourished from 5,500 B.C. until it was destroyed by a fire in 4700 B.C. The findings suggest an advanced division of labor and central organization.

Vinča houses had stoves, and special holes specifically for rubbish. The dead were buried in cemeteries. People slept on woolen and fur mats, and made clothes of wool, flax and leather. The figurines found not only represent deities but many show the daily life of the inhabitants. Women are depicted in short tops and skirts and wearing jewelry. A thermal well found near the settlement might be evidence of Europe's oldest spa.



Halaf culture

The emergence of metallurgy may have occurred first in the Fertile Crescent. The earliest use of lead is documented here from the late Neolithic settlement of Yarim Tepe in Iraq,

"The earliest lead (Pb) finds in the ancient Near East are a 6th millennium BC bangle from Yarim Tepe in northern Iraq and a slightly later conical lead piece from Halaf period Arpachiyah, near Mosul. As native lead is extremely rare, such artifacts raise the possibility that lead smelting may have begun even before copper smelting."

Copper smelting is also documented at this site at about the same time period (soon after 6000 BC), although the use of lead seems to precede copper smelting. Early metallurgy is also documented at the nearby site of Tell Maghzaliyah, which seems to be dated even earlier, and completely lacks pottery.

Although traditional view holds that the transition to the Bronze Age had first occurred in the Fertile Crescent in the 4th millennium BCE, finds from the Vinča culture in Europe have now been securely dated to slightly earlier than those of the Fertile Crescent.

An archaeological site in Serbia contains the oldest securely dated evidence of coppermaking from 7,500 years ago. In Serbia, a copper axe was found at Prokuplje, which indicates that humans were using metals in Europe by 7,500 years ago (5500 BCE), many years earlier than previously believed. Knowledge of the use of copper was far more widespread than the metal itself. The European Battle Axe culture used stone axes modeled on copper axes, even with imitation "mold marks" carved in the stone. Ötzi the Iceman, who was found in the Ötztal Alps in 1991 and whose remains were dated to about 3300 BCE, was found with a Mondsee copper axe.


Ötzi, c. 3300 BC

Ötzi's copper axe's haft is 60 centimetres (24 in) long and made from carefully worked yew with a right-angled crook at the shoulder, leading to the blade. The 9.5 centimetres (3.7 in) long axe head is made of almost pure copper, produced by a combination of casting, cold forging, polishing, and sharpening.

High levels of both copper particles and arsenic were found in Ötzi's hair. This, along with Ötzi's copper axe blade, which is 99.7% pure copper, has led scientists to speculate that Ötzi was involved in copper smelting.

Ötzi had a total of 61 tattoos (or Soot tattoos), consisting of 19 groups of black lines ranging from 1 to 3 mm in thickness and 7 to 40 mm long. These include groups of parallel lines running along the longitudinal axis of his body and to both sides of the lumbar spine, as well as a cruciform mark behind the right knee and on the right ankle, and parallel lines around the left wrist. The greatest concentration of markings is found on his legs, which together exhibit 12 groups of lines. A microscopic examination of samples collected from these tattoos revealed that they were created from pigment manufactured out of fireplace ash or soot.

DNA analysis in February 2012 revealed that Ötzi (G2a) was lactose intolerant.

Ötzi's full genome has been sequenced; the report on this was published on 28 February 2012. The Y-DNA of Ötzi belongs to a subclade of G defined by the SNPs M201, P287, P15, L223 and L91 (G-L91, ISOGG G2a2b, former "G2a4"). He was not typed for any of the subclades downstreaming from G-L91. G-L91 is now mostly found in South Corsica.

Analysis of his mitochondrial DNA showed that Ötzi belongs to the K1 subclade, but cannot be categorized into any of the three modern branches of that subclade (K1a, K1b or K1c). The new subclade has provisionally been named K1ö for Ötzi. Multiplex assay study was able to confirm that the Iceman's mtDNA belongs to a previously unknown European mtDNA clade with a very limited distribution among modern data sets.




Vinča - Jedna od najstarijih kultura na Balkanu

U tekstu korišteni podaci iz knjige "VINČA - Kolevka Prve Evrope", koju su napisale Vesna Pešić i Jelena Radojković. Lokacija Vinča se nalazi 14 kilometara udaljena od Beograda u Srbiji.

Ovaj nevjerojatan prapovijesni lokalitet otkrio je Miloje Vasić, koji je od 1932 do 1935 istraživao lokalitet, i koji je shvatio da je naišao na nešto zaista čudesno. Vasić je u svojoj monografiji pod nazivom „Praistorijska Vinča“ otkrio čitateljstvu o svojim nalazima, iako mu javnost nije bila nimalo naklonjena i nije shvaćala koliko je njegov rad važan u otkrivanju razvijene neolitske kulture Balkana. Vasić je napisao: "u neobaviještenoj, skoro neprijateljskoj sredini bilo je teško, tada, započeti skupa arheološka istraživanja," ali Vasić je ipak započeo borbu za arheološkim otkrivanjima Vinče "zamah tih istraživanja je bio snažan uspjeh i imao je nedogledne posljedice za arheologiju u dolini Dunava."

Kao što se kasnije vidjelo, ne samo što je Vasić bio u pravu, i ne samo da je njegovo iskopavanje imalo dalekosežnog značaja za Srbiju, već za arheologiju cijele stare ili "prve" Europe, kako ju je okarakterizirala istraživačica Marija Gumbutac, koja je uspjela klasificirati Vinčansko pismo i usporediti ga sa svim pismima Mediterana.

Oko 4500 do 5000 godina pr.n.e. kultura Vinče je zauzimala veliko područje, od Karpata na sjeveru, Bosne na zapadu, Sofije na istoku do Soluna na jugu, centar te iste kulture, možemo reći čak i njena prijestolnica je bila Vinča po čemu je i cijela kultura dobila ime.

Arhitektura samog naselja Vinča, je nešto što Europa tada nije imala, pravilno raspoređene ulice i zgrade, mnogobrojni zanatlije, trgovci, visoko složeni umjetnički izražaj i nadasve bogato pismo, odlike su ove prastare i sveobuhvatne kulture.

Pretpostavlja se da je Vinča kao složena urbana sredina postojala u neprekinutom nizu u više od 5000 godina, što je očigledno vidljivo u 10 metara urbanih slojeva koji su se nagomilavali tijekom milenija jedni na druge u samom arheološkom nalazištu u Vinči.

Jedno od pitanja koje se sasvim logično nameće svakoj osobi koja bi o Vinči željela znati više: što je utjecalo za tako visok urbani stupanj u doba kada je po popularnom razmišljanju Balkan mogao imati tek raštrkane špiljske ljude?

Ali pismo i bogata arheološka ostavština ove kulture svakako mijenjaju naše poimanje prapovijesti i neolitika na našim prostorima i zasigurno zahtijevaju detaljnije i internacionalno istraživanje, jer sigurno Vinča ima još po koju tajnu koja bi nas s vremenom mogla iznenaditi.

Nije samo Vinča bila jedino nalazište iz tog doba koje je prednjačilo u svojoj kultiviranosti, tu također imamo Butmirsku kulturu iz Bosne koja je u stvari subgrupa Vinčanske kulture, Starčevačku kulturu koja bi se mogla nazvati određenom avangardnom, i mnoga nalazišta širom Hrvatske (Vela Špilja na Korčuli, Vučedolska kultura, Vela Jama na Lošinju, Danilovska kultura, Markova špilja na Hvaru i Spila Nakovana pored Lovišta) koje jasno daju do znanja da Balkan zaista ima mnogo toga za ponuditi, no vratimo se Vinči i njenom najvećem dometu, pismenosti.

Vinčansko pismo nije izolat, ono jasno ima odlike ostalih Mediteranskih pisama kao što je Feničansko, Kretsko, Etruščansko, Zapadno Semitsko, Palestinsko, Starogrčko, starofeničansko i Brahmi. Na kraju, Vinčansko pismo ima brojne poveznice sa današnja dva najvažnija pisma na ovim prostorima, Latinicom i Ćirilicom.

Nemojte misliti da su Vinčani bili skromni u svojoj pismenosti, mnogobrojne glinene pločice, ukrasne vaze, torza, ćupovi, krigle, figurice, ukrasni predmeti, plitice i skulpture bili su urešeni bogatim Vinčanskim pismom, što nam daje za pravo da naslutimo da pismenost nije bila sporadična stvar i da je manje-više bilo sasvim "normalno" da je neko iz Vinčanske kulture pismen, kao što je to nama normalno danas.

No krenimo od nekih jako važnih brojeva.

Ako je suditi po ostacima Vinčanskih zapisa (po predmetima koji na sebi imaju zapise) počevši od najstarijih koji datiraju iz 5300 godine prije nove ere, onda je pismo iz Vinče jedno od najstarijih u Europi.

Sumersko piktografsko: cca 3100 PRNE
Egipatsko piktografsko: cca 3000 PRNE
Akadsko klinasto: cca 2500 PRNE
Indijsko piktografsko: cca 2200 PRNE
Kretsko linearno: cca 1800 PRNE
Semitsko: cca 1800 PRNE
Feničansko: cca 1100 PRNE
Etruščansko: cca 900 PRNE
Kopsko: cca 100 PRNE

Zapisi Vinčanske kulture protežu se na više od 700 lokacija širom Balkana, što nam daje za naslutiti da je tadašnja kultura itekako komunicirala između svojih enklava i vjerojatno (zbog dobro razvijene trgovine) i sa ostalim narodima tadašnje Europe.

Marija Gumbutac je otkrila da je Vinčansko pismo pravo linearno pismo s posebnim ritualnim značajem i znacima svojine određenog pisara, to jest malih odstupanja pri svakom različitom rukopisu onako kako mi to danas imamo običaj pisati (svatko sa drugačijim osobni stilom rukopisa). Vinčansko pismo se koristilo i u religijske, a i u praktične svrhe, te je zasigurno bilo kruna ondašnjeg Vinčanskog dostignuća. U preko 100 znakova Gumbutac je izdvojila 30 osnovnih znakova koji predstavljaju samu srž pisma, te je odvojila 10 znakova koji su gotovo identični Kretskom linearnom pismu tipa A i mnogim drugim ranomediteranskim pismima

Kulture Lepenskog Vira, Vučedola i Vinče predstavljaju jedne od najinteresantnijih arheoloških lokaliteta na našem prostoru. O Vučedolu i Lepenskom Viru ću pisati naknadno, a sada bih se željela pozabaviti nekim interesantnim umjetničkim izričajima Vinčanaca, pa vi sami prosudite je li ovo tipična neolitska kultura ili nešto više.

Vinčani su imali matrifokalnu kulturu, što znači da je ženska regenerativna moć bila obožavana, kao i priroda, sve ženske figurice nađene u Vinčanskoj kulturi bile su bogato urešene: meandrima, volarima i crticama, dok je obožavana boja Vinčanaca bila crna i crvena i još se jako lijepo vidi na nekim od figurica. Zbog stiliziranih i ponavljajućih ureza na figuricama, žena pretpostavlja se da je bila riječ o ranom ženskom pismu.

Razvoj Vinčanske kulture prekinut je na njenom samom vrhuncu u periodu od 2500 godine pr.n.e. zbog infiltracije Indoeuropljana, čija je kultura bila patrijahalna, socijalno strukturirana, nomadska i ratoborna. Kultura miroljubivog svijeta Vinče neopremljena za ratove i mobilizaciju podlegla je najezdama ljudi s dijametralno obrnutim društvenim tvorevinama.

Vinčanska religija lunarnog tipa s kultom Božice Majke, koja daje život, plodnost i regeneraciju, ustupila je mjesto ratobornim muškim bogovima i njihovim štovateljima. Dijelom je Vinča ostala u nama do danas kroz mitologiju, folklor, pismo, jezik, običaje, ali je njena važnost ostala gotovo zaboravljena i degradirana na "još samo jednu" neolitsku kulturu bez većeg značaja. Stara poslovica kaže: "što se zaboravi, to se ponovi", a mi smo polako i gotovo u potpunosti zaboravili na ovu kulturu. Vinča je nestala sa scene, s obzirom kako se ponaša naša civilizacija, ne bi me čudilo da se i nama "zaboravnima" nešto tako dogodi i da na naše mjesto dođe netko drugi...


Danubian Civilization




Vinčansko pismo


Dispilio tablet, 5260 ± 40 BC

A: samples of carved "signs" on the wooden Dispilio tablet and clay finds from Dispilio, Greece.
B: samples of Linear A signs.
C: samples of signs on Paleo-European clay tablets.

The Dispilio tablet is a wooden tablet bearing inscribed markings, unearthed during George Hourmouziadis's excavations of Dispilio in Greece and carbon 14-dated to 7300 ± 40 BP or 5260 ± 40 BC. It was discovered in 1993 in a Neolithic lakeshore settlement that occupied an artificial island near the modern village of Dispilio on Lake Kastoria in Kastoria, Greece.


Gradeshnitsa tablets

The tablets are dated to the 5th millennium BC - Bulgaria


Tărtăria tablets

Tărtăria tablets


Vinča-Turdaş script

An example of a Sumerian Cuneiform clay tablet

One of the three Tărtăria tablets, dated 5300 BC

One of the Gradeshnitsa tablets

The mainstream academic theory is that writing first appeared during the Sumerian civilization in southern Mesopotamia, around 3300–3200 BC. in the form of the Cuneiform script. This first writing system did not suddenly appear out of nowhere, but gradually developed from less stylized pictographic systems that used ideographic and mnemonic symbols that contained meaning, but did not have the linguistic flexibility of the natural language writing system that the Sumerians first conceived. These earlier symbolic systems have been labeled as proto-writing, examples of which have been discovered in a variety of places around the world, some dating back to the 7th millennium BC.


Vinčanski kalendar

Figura ovna sa ispisanim kalednarom (kermika, Vinča).

Jedna strana ovna pripada istoku, druga zapadu. Trideset kičmenih pršljenova je 30 dana mjeseca. Dvanaest mjeseci po 30 dana je 360 dana godine. Četiri zelena kružića jesu četiri godišnja doba godine.

Prva strana ovna.

Sedam dana sedmice obilježeno je "bregovima" prema kičmi, a malim udubljunjima (plavi kružići) obilježeno je 26 sedmica što je 182 dana ili pola godine.

Druga strana ovna.

Na drugoj strani ovna malim udubljenjima obilježene su 24 sedmice što iznosi 168 dana godine.

Glava ovna sa prsima.

Na prsima ovna označena su četiri godišnja doba (vertikle sa svojim tačkama ispod) sa po tri mjeseca dužine (žute linije). Mali kružići su naknadno dodani dani godine: 15 dana.

Da saberemo sve dane:
a) prva strana ima 26 sedmica   = 182 dana
b) druga strana ima 24 sedmice = 168 dana
Ukupno: 50 sedmica = 350 dana

Do pune godine fali još 15 dana i ovi dani označeni su na prsima ovna (crveni kružici): u dnu prsiju je 2 x 5 dana što sa onih prethodnih 350 daje 360 dana i to je tačno 12 mjeseci po 30 dana, a preostalih 5 dana godine označeno je crvenim kružićima iznad vertikalnih linija godišnjih doba i to je tačno 365 dana godine.

I na ovoj strani artefakta vinčanske kulture duplim vertikalama jasno je označeno 6 mjeseci. Ako je tako i na drugoj strani ovna (a vjerujem da jest), to je 12 mjeseci. Tačkice kao markere dana i sedmica nije moguće tačno prebrojati zbog lošeg ugla snimanja i nepostojanja fotografije druge strane figure (Gradski muzej Vršac).


Vinčanski sunčani kalendar

Vinčanski sunčani kalendar

Zbunjuje saznanje da se u centru vinčanskog sunčevog kalendara nalazi urezan dijagram energija Sunca koje u toku jedne kalendarske godine stižu do Zemlje. Postavlja se pitanje: Kako su znali da na Mitrovdan počinje zima? Da li su poznavali prirodnu elektromagnetsku silu koja jedina daje odgovor na ovo pitanje?

U 19. veku Ričard Karington otkrio je da sinodički rotacioni period površina na ekvatoru Sunca iznosi 27 dana. Sinodički rotacioni period je vreme potrebno da neka aktivna magnetna struktura na Sunčevoj površini učini jednu rotaciju gledano sa Zemlje, odnosno da se ponovo vrati na istu poziciju sa koje je krenula.

Dugo se verovalo da je vreme jedne sinodičke rotacije konstanta. Zbog toga pitanje promene sinodičke rotacije Sunca nije bilo predmet razmatranja u naučnim krugovima. Međutim, posle pronalaska Vinčanskog sunčevog kalendara javila se sumnja u stalnost brzine rotacije Sunca. Vinčanski sunčev kalendar nastao je pre više od 7525 godina.

Izrađen je u obliku kružnog tanjira od keramike i nađen je na lokalitetu Vinče. Nosi dva simbola srpskog naroda, pa ga spravom možemo nazvati Srpski vinčanski sunčev kalendar.

Na vrhu tanjira nalazi se vinčanski simbol za vreme koji su Srbi koristili za datiranje važnih događaja.

Datiranje Dušanovog zakonika u staroj srpskoj prestonici Skoplju u leto 6857. sa srpskim simbolom za vreme (Po katoličkom kalendaru pape Grgura Trinaestog, 1349. godine koji u to vreme nije ni postojao).

Drugi simbol na Vinčanskom sunčevom kalendaru u obliku je dva koncentrična perforirana kruga. Oni su simbol Sunca kod srpskog naroda i nalaze se u mnogim starim rukopisnim knjigama i artefaktima. Da su perforirani koncentrični krugovi simbol srpskog naroda, može se videti na pečatu administracije srpske države i kraljevske kancelarije kralja Stroimira u leto 6338-6343. (po katoličkom kalendaru pape Grgura Trinaestog od 830-835. godine).

Pečat srpskog kralja Stroimira napravljen je od čistog zlata i izgraviran ćirilicom

Zlatni pečat je materijalni dokaz da je ćirilica zvanično pismo srpskih država i srpskog naroda i da je nastala pre Ćirila, koji je rođen 828. godine. U vreme kada je pečat izgraviran, Ćirilo je imao dve a Metodije deset godina. Pečat je dokaz da je Srbija bila država sa administracijom i kraljevskom kancelarijom s pečatom od zlata i pre dinastije Nemanjića. Nalazio se u jednoj nemačkoj privatnoj kolekciji.

Vinčanski sunčev kalendar je, verovatno, prvi u svetu pokrenuo pitanje promene brzine sinodičke rotacije Sunca. Na osnovu dosadašnjih merenja Sunce u toku jedne kalendarske godine napravi 13 punih sinodičkih rotacija i do kraja kalendarske dodajemo 13,5 zemaljskih dana. Međutim, po vinčanskom sunčevom kalendaru Sunce u toku jedne kalendarske godine napravi 13 punih rotacija i do kraja kalendarske godine Srbi su pre 8.000 godina dodavali 15 zemaljskih dana!

Ovo saznanje od izuzetnog je značaja za nauku, jer ukazuje da se u periodu od 8.000 godina vreme rotacije Sunca ubrzalo za 1,5 zemaljskih dana. Bez obzira da li je praistorijski vinčanski sunčev kalendar tačan ili ne, on je prvi pokrenuo pitanje promene brzine sinodičke rotacije Sunca. Postoje naučni osnovi da je brzina sinodičke rotacije Sunca promenljiva veličina i da je Sunce nekada sporije rotiralo nego danas. Poznato je da Sunce zrači materiju i energiju. To znači da Sunce zračenjem gubi masu pa je logično da usled gubitka mase povećava brzinu rotacije.

Ako pretpostavimo da su podaci iz vinčanskog sunčevog kalendra tačni, onda se može izračunati da se vreme rotacije Sunca u periodu od 8.000 godina ubrzalo za 1,5 zemaljskih dana. Pod pretpostavkom da se gubitak mase Sunca vrši linearno, Sunce će kroz 72.000 godina imati 13 rotacija u toku jedne kalendarske godine. Kako promena brzine sinodičke rotacije Sunca utiče na vremenske promene, to znači da zbog ovih razloga promenu klime na našim prostorima možemo očekivati posle 72.000 godina.

Brzina kretanja Sunčevog sistema oko centra galaksije je 250 kilometara u sekundi, a brzina revolucije Zemlje oko Sunca je 30 kilometara u sekundi. Zemlja se oko Sunca kreće se u obliku zavojnice, čiji je poluprečnik  r = mvsinӨ/qB. Put koji pređe Zemlja u toku jedne kalendarske godine u odnosu na centar galaksije je d = 2πrmvcosӨ/qB, gde je B vektor magnetske indukcije, a q električno opterećenje; Ө ugao između vektora brzine v i vektora magnetske indukcije B.

Prikaz kretanja Zemlje oko Sunca

Podizanjem naučnih satelita i analizom dobijenih rezultata naučnih istraživanja dobija se utisak da mi tek sada otkrivamo ono što su naši preci znali. Najbolji primer je saznanje da se na Preobraženje  „preobražava i gora i voda”. Ova izreka  predstavlja deo naučnog i istorijskog nasleđa Srba.

Najnovija hemijska istraživanja kiše Beogradske škole meteorologije pokazala su da su one od Đurđevdana do Preobraženja kisele, a od Preobraženja alkalne. Da bi se došlo do saznanja da se kiša preobražava, potrebni su precizni hemijski instrumenti, odnosno napredna civilizacija.

Suncu je potrebno 220 miliona godina da obiđe jedan galaktički krug; od nastanka do danas načinilo ih je 20. Međutim, zbunjuje saznanje da se u centru vinčanskog sunčevog kalendara nalazi urezan dijagram energija Sunca koje u toku jedne kalendarske godine stižu do Zemlje.

Postavlja se pitanje: Kako su znali da na Mitrovdan počinje zima? Da li su poznavali prirodnu elektromagnetsku silu koja jedina daje odgovor na ovo pitanje?

Prikaz dijagrama energija u toku jedne kalendarske godine

Po Srpskom kalendaru Svetog Save, u toku jedne kalendarske godine postoje samo dva godišnja doba –  leto i zima. Leto počinje krajem marta i početkom aprila, a zima na Mitrovdan, početkom novembra. Najnovija satelitska elektromagnetna merenja energija koje dolaze sa Sunca na severnu i južnu hemisferu dokazuju da u toku jedne kalendarske godine postoje samo dva godišnja doba.

Dijagram izmerenih elektromagnetnih energija



Linear Pottery culture, c. 5500 - 4500 BC

Lactose tolerance

Linear Pottery culture

Lactose tolerance

The culture is also known under the names of Linear Band Ware, Linear Ware, Linear Ceramics or Incised Ware culture. It is commonly abbreviated as LBK, from the German Linearbandkeramik.

Represents the advance of Early Neolithic farmers from the Starčevo-Körös culture across central Europe, starting from what is now Hungary and spreading north to the Czech Republic and Poland, west across Germany to Belgium and northern France, and east to western Ukraine, northern Moldova and north-eastern Romania.

Their Neolithic agricultural economy was based primarily on the cultivation of crops from the Fertile Crescent, such as Emmer wheat, Einkorn wheat, peas and lentils, and to a lower extent barley, millet, rye, and broad beans. The LBK people settled on fluvial terraces and in the proximities of rivers, especially in regions rich in fertile loess. Stockbreeding was also practised, of cattle in particular, but also of goats and pigs. The LBK farmers supplemented their diets by hunting deer and wild boar in the open forests.

Linear Pottery

People lived in trapezoidal or rectangular wooden longhouses built with massive timber posts. They had thatched roofs and were chinked with wattle and daub mortar. The longhouses measured from 7 to 45 meters in length and 5 to 7 meters in width. Villages were composed of five to eight longhouses, about 20 metres apart. Some villages were fortified for some time with a palisade and outer ditch.

Flint and obsidian were the main materials used for points and cutting edges. LBK farmers harvested with sickles manufactured by inserting flint blades into the inside of curved pieces of wood. Trees were felled and carved using shoe-last celt, which consists of a ground stone chisel blade tied to a handle.

Like other early Neolithic cultures in Europe, the Linear Pottery featured burials of women and children under the floors of personal residences - a practice that continued until 4000 BCE. Cemeteries containing from 20 to 200 graves make their appearance from 5000 BCE and included both male and female skeletons, apparently arranged in groups based on kinship. Both cremation and inhumation were practiced. The inhumed were placed in a flexed position in pits lined with stones, plaster, or clay. Graves typically contained goods like flint implements or jewelry of Spondylus shells, but pottery was found almost exclusively in female graves.

  • Preceded by; Mesolithic Europe, Starčevo–Kőrös–Criș culture
  • Followed by; Hinkelstein culture, Rössen culture, Lengyel culture, Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, Boian culture


Funnelbeaker culture, c. 4300 - 2800 BC

Lactose tolerance

Funnelbeaker culture

Represents a merger between the Neolithic agricultural society derived form the LBK culture and Mesolithic (hunter-gatherer) lifestyle, in southern Scandinavia, the Netherlands, northern Germany and Poland.

The culture owes its name to the distictive collared flask ceramic, perhaps a precursor of the Bell-beaker ceramic that would spread across the western half of Europe from 2800 BCE.

Neolithic agricultural economy dominated by animal husbandry of sheep, cattle, pigs and goats that grazed in a demarcated piece of land around the farmers' houses. Cow milk was consumed and oxen were used for heavy work. TRB people also complemented their diet through hunting and fishing. Primitive wheat and barley was grown on small patches that were quickly depleted. Flintstone was mined, notably in southern Sweden, to make flint axes. Copper daggers and axes were imported from Central Europe.

People lived in wooden longhouses with clay walls and thatched roofs. They were centered around a monumental grave, which acted as a symbol of social cohesion. Villages were located close to those of the preceding Mesolithic Ertebølle culture, near the coastline.

Marks the appearance of Megalithic tombs and passage graves (from 3,400 BCE in Denmark) along the coasts of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, apparently as an eastward expansion of the Atlantic Megalithic cultures, with which it was later unified within the Bell-Beaker trading network. Hundreds of megaliths have been uncovered, with particularly high concentrations in the Dutch provinces of Gelderland and Overijssel, in the Lüneburg Heath in Lower Saxony, around Haldensleben in Saxony-Anhalt, and on the island of Rügen in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Burials included ceramic vessels that contained food, amber jewelery and flint axes.

Funnel-beaker people reached a height of 165 cm for men and 153 cm for women in average. They rarely lived over 35 or 40 years old.

Variants of the Funnelbeaker culture in or near the Elbe catchment area include the Tiefstich pottery group in northern Germany as well as the Baalberge group (TRB-MES II and III; MES = Mittelelbe-Saale), the Salzmünde group and Walternienburg-Bernburg group (all TRB-MES IV) in Saxony-Anhalt.

  • Preceded by; Ertebølle culture, Dnieper-Donets culture, Linear Pottery culture
  • Followed by; Globular Amphora culture, Corded Ware culture


Lactose tolerance, c. 5500 BC

Linear Pottery culture - Haplogroup G2a, I2a & R1b

Kelteminar culture, c. 5500 - 3500 BC

The Kelteminar people lived in huge houses (size 24m x 17m and height 10m), which housed the whole tribal community of about 100-120 people. They adorned themselves with beads made of shells. They manufactured stone axes and miniature trapezoidal flint arrowheads. For cooking, they used clay vessels produced without the potter's wheel. The Kelteminar economy was based on sedentary fishing and hunting. - Kelteminar culture

  • Followed by; Pit-Comb Ware culture


Samara culture c. 5500 - 4800 BC

Y-DNA R1b1

Samara culture


Pottery consists mainly of egg-shaped beakers with pronounced rims. They were not able to stand on a flat surface, suggesting that some method of supporting or carrying must have been in use, perhaps basketry or slings, for which the rims would have been a useful point of support. The carrier slung the pots over the shoulder or onto an animal. Decoration consists of circumferential motifs: lines, bands, zig-zags or wavy lines, incised, stabbed or impressed with a comb.


A male buried at Lebyazhinka approximately 7,000 years BP and often referred to by scholars of archaeogenetics as the "Samara hunter-gatherer", appears to have carried the rare Y-DNA haplogroup R1b1.


Dnieper-Donets culture. c. 5000 - 4200 BC

The Dnieper–Donets culture (ca. 5th-4th millennium BC) was a Mesolithic culture in the area north of the Black Sea/Sea of Azov between the Dnieper and Donets River, and bordering the European Neolithic area.

There are parallels with the contemporaneous Samara culture. The Dnieper–Donets culture was succeeded by the Yamna culture.

It was a hunter-gatherer culture that made the transition to early agriculture. The economic evidence from the earliest stages is almost exclusively from hunting and fishing.

  • Preceded by; Swiderian culture
  • Followed by; Funnelbeaker culture, Yamna culture


Alpine race

Y-DNA R1a, R1b

  • Dnieper-Donets/Samara culture Alpine race


Late Neolithic

This period occupies the first half of the 6th millennium BP and is rather quiet. The tendencies of the previous period consolidate, so we have a fully formed Neolithic Europe with five main cultural regions:

1.Danubian cultures: from northern France to Western Ukraine. Now split into several local cultures, the most relevant ones being: the Romanian branch (culture of Boian) that expands into Bulgaria, the culture of Rössen that is preeminent in the west, and the culture of Lengyel of Austria and western Hungary, which will have a major role in the upcoming periods.

2.Mediterranean cultures: from the Adriatic to eastern Spain, including Italy and large portions of France and Switzerland. These are also diversified into several groups.

3.The area of Dimini-Vinca: Thessalia, Macedonia and Serbia, but extending its influence also to parts of the mid-Danubian basin (Tisza, Slavonia) and southern Italy.

4.Eastern Europe: basically central and eastern Ukraine and parts of southern Russia and Belarus (culture of Dniepr-Don). Apparently these people were the ones who first domesticated horses (though some Paleolithic evidence could disprove it).

5.Atlantic Europe: a mosaic of local cultures, some of them still pre-Neolithic, from Portugal to southern Sweden. Since around 5800 BP the western regions of France incorporate also the Megalithic style of burial.

There were also a few independent areas, including Andalusia, southern Greece and the western coasts of the Black Sea (culture of Hamangia).


Neolithic and Chalcolithic Europe - Eupedia

Agriculture first developed in the Levant, then spread to Anatolia, Greece, the Balkans, Italy, Central and Eastern Europe. These Neolithic farmers were confirmed to have belonged primarily to Y-DNA haplogroups G2a, but also included minorities of C1a2, E1b1b, H2 (formerly F3), J1, J2 and T1a lineages, who could have been assimilated in Anatolia before entering Europe. As they advanced across Europe, Neolithic farmers also increasingly assimilated European lineages, notably I2a1 in Southeast Europe, I1 and I2a1 in Central Europe, I2a1 and I2a2a in Western Europe, and E-M78, I2a1 and I2a2a in Southwest Europe.

Hundreds of Neolithic samples from all over Europe (but especially Central Europe and Iberia) have been tested. The new lineages brought by these Near Eastern immigrants included mt-haplogroups HV, J1, J2, K1, K2, N*, N1, T1a, T2b, T2c, T2e, T2f, U3, W, X1, X2, and many subclades of H (including H2, H5, H7, H13 and H20). H4, H8 and H9 seem to have originated in the Near East as well, although no Neolithic sample has been identified in Europe yet.

However, due to the proximity of the Caucasus from the Indo-European homeland, many of these mt-haplogroups were almost certainly also transported by the Indo-Europeans themselves. This would notably be the case of H5, K1a, T2b, U3, W and X2.


Neolithic and chalcolithic in Europe, c. 5000 to 4500 BC

Anatolia Index Garden of Eden