Old Europe

c. 7000 - 3500 BC

Old Europe

In southeast Europe agrarian societies first appeared in the 7th millennium BC, attested by one of the earliest farming sites of Europe, discovered in Vashtëmi, southeastern Albania and dating back to 6,500 BC. Anthropomorphic figurines have been found in the Balkans from 6000 BC, and in Central Europe by c. 5500 BC. Among the earliest cultural complexes of this area are the Sesklo culture in Thessaly, which later expanded in the Balkans giving rise to Starčevo-Körös (Cris), Linearbandkeramik, and Vinča. Through a combination of cultural diffusion and migration of peoples, the Neolithic traditions spread west and northwards to reach northwestern Europe by around 4500 BC.


Early Neolithic in Europe - Golden Age

Apparently related with the Anatolian culture of Hacilar, the Greek region of Thessalia is the first place in Europe known to have acquired agriculture, cattle-herding and pottery. These early stages are known as pre-Sesklo culture. The Thessalian Neolithic culture soon evolves in the more coherent culture of Sesklo (c. 8000 BP), which is the origin of the main branches of Neolithic expansion in Europe. Practically all the Balkan Peninsula is colonized in the 6th millennium from there. That expansion, reaching the easternmost Tardenoisian outposts of the upper Tisza gives birth to the proto-Linear Pottery culture, a significant modification of the Balkan Neolithic that will be in the origin of one of the most important branches of European Neolithic: the Danubian group of cultures. In parallel, the coasts of the Adriatic and southern Italy witness the expansion of another Neolithic current of less clear origins. Settling initially in Dalmatia, the bearers of the Cardium Pottery culture may have come from Thessalia (some of the pre-Sesklo settlements show related traits) or even from Lebanon (Byblos). They are sailors, fishermen and sheep and goat herders, and the archaeological findings show that they mixed with natives in most places. Other early Neolithic cultures can be found in Ukraine and Southern Russia, where the epi-Gravettian locals assimilated cultural influxes from beyond the Caucasus (culture of Dniepr-Don and related) and in Andalusia (Spain), where the rare Neolithic of La Almagra Pottery appears without known origins very early (c. 7800 BP).


Ages of Man

The first extant account of the successive ages of humanity comes from the Greek poet Hesiod (between 750 and 650 BC), in his poem Works and Days (lines 109–201). His list is:

  • Golden Age – The Golden Age is the only age that falls within the rule of Cronus. Created by the immortals who live on Olympus, these humans were said to live among the gods, and freely mingled with them. Peace and harmony prevailed during this age. Humans did not have to work to feed themselves, for the earth provided food in abundance. They lived to a very old age but with a youthful appearance and eventually died peacefully. Their spirits live on as "guardians". Plato in Cratylus (397e) recounts the golden race of men who came first. He clarifies that Hesiod did not mean men literally made of gold, but good and noble. He describes these men as daemons upon the earth. Since δαίμονες (daimones) is derived from δαήμονες (daēmones, meaning knowing or wise), they are beneficent, preventing ills, and guardians of mortals.
  • Silver Age – The Silver Age and every age that follows fall within the rule of Cronus's successor and son, Zeus. Men in the Silver age lived for one hundred years under the dominion of their mothers. They lived only a short time as grown adults, and spent that time in strife with one another. During this Age men refused to worship the gods and Zeus destroyed them for their impiety. After death, humans of this age became "blessed spirits" of the underworld.
  • Bronze Age – Men of the Bronze Age were hardened and tough, as war was their purpose and passion. Zeus created these humans out of the ash tree. Their armor was forged of bronze, as were their homes, and tools. The men of this Age were undone by their own violent ways and left no named spirits; instead, they dwell in the "dank house of Hades". This Age came to an end with the flood of Deucalion.
  • Heroic Age – The Heroic Age is the one age that does not correspond with any metal. It is also the only age that improves upon the age it follows. It was the heroes of this Age who fought at Thebes and Troy. This race of humans died and went to Elysium.
  • Iron Age – Hesiod finds himself in the Iron Age. During this age humans live an existence of toil and misery. Children dishonor their parents, brother fights with brother and the social contract between guest and host (xenia) is forgotten. During this age might makes right, and bad men use lies to be thought good. At the height of this age, humans no longer feel shame or indignation at wrongdoing; babies will be born with gray hair and the gods will have completely forsaken humanity: "there will be no help against evil."

Agricultural migrations - Mediterranean Group

Y-chromosome E-V13, G2a, I2a

Modern humans took two routes into Europe

The European Neolithic is assumed to have arrived from the Near East, via Asia Minor, the Mediterranean waterway and also through the Caucasus. There has been a long discussion between migrationists (who claim that the Near Eastern farmers almost totally displaced the European native hunter-gatherers) and diffusionists (who claim that the process was slow enough to have occurred mostly through cultural transmission). A relationship has been suggested between the spread of agriculture and the diffusion of Indo-European languages, with several models of migrations trying to establish a relationship, like the Anatolian hypothesis, which sets the origin of Indo-European agricultural terminology in Anatolia.


Neolithic Greece, c. 7500 BC

Y-DNA E-V13, G2a, I2a

Neolithic Greece


Pre-Sesklo, c. 7510 - 6190 BC

Y-DNA E-V13, G2a, I2a

The settlement at Sesklo gives its name to the earliest known Neolithic culture of Europe, which inhabited Thessaly and parts of Macedonia. The Neolithic settlement was discovered in the 1800s and the first excavations were made by the Greek archaeologist, Christos Tsountas. The oldest fragments researched at Sesklo place development of the civilization as far back as c. 7510 BC - c. 6190 BC, known as proto-Sesklo and pre-Sesklo. They show an advanced agriculture and a very early use of pottery that rivals in age those documented in the near east. Available data also indicates that domestication of cattle occurred at Argissa as early as c. 6300 BC, during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic.


Sesklo c. 6850 - 4400 BC

Y-DNA E-V13, G2a, I2a & T1a





Cardium pottery, c. 6400 - 5500 BC

Y-DNA E-V13, G2a, I2a

Cardium pottery


  • Chandler et al. (2005) sequenced the mtDNA of four Neolithic skeletons from the Impressed Ware Culture of Portugal (5500-4750 BCE), and found two members of haplogroup U (U and U5), one of H and one of V.
  • Lacan et al. (2011) tested 29 skeletons from a 5,000-year-old site in Treilles, Languedoc, France. Twenty paternal lineages (Y-DNA) were identified as G2a, while the two others belonged to haplogroup I2a. The maternal lineages (mtDNA) comprised six haplogroup U (including four U5 and one U5b1c), two K1a, six J1, two T2b, two HV0, six H (three H1 and three H3), one V, and four X2. The two I2a men belonged to mtDNA haplogroup H1 and H3.
  • Lacan et al. (2011 bis) tested 7 skeletons from a 7,000-year-old Neolithic site from the Avellaner Cave in Cogolls, Catalonia, Spain. Six paternal lineages (Y-DNA) were identified including five G2a and one E1b1b1a1b (E-V13). There were three mtDNA haplogroup K1a, two T2b, one H3, and one U5.
  • The team of Fernández et al. (2006) and Gamba et al. (2008) analysed the mitochondrial HVR-I in 37 bone and teeth samples from 17 archaeological sites located around Castellón de la Plana, Valencia, Spain. Most of the results were inconclusive though. Out of the 12 mtDNA sequences from the Chalcolithic period that were retrieved, four were reported as haplogroup L3, four as H (including three CRS, which could be non-results), two to R0, HV or H, one to V, and one to D.
  • Gamba et al. (2011) identified the mtDNA of 10 Early Neolithic (5000-5500 BCE) samples from the sites of Can Sadurni and Chaves and three Late Early Neolithic (4250-3700 BCE) from Sant Pau del Camp, all around Barcelona, Spain. The coding region was also tested to confirm the haplogroups. The results included haplogroups N* (4 samples), H (4 samples including one H20), U5 (1 sample), K (3 samples) and X1 (1 sample).


Hamangia culture, c. 5250 - 4550 BC

Y-DNA G2a, I2a, J2, T1a

Hamangia culture

The Hamangia, was a Middle Neolithic culture in Dobruja on the right bank of the Danube, in Muntenia Romania it is the site of Baia-Hamangia. The Hamangia culture is connected to the Neolithic of the Danube River Delta and Dobruja. It includes the Vinca, Dudeşti and Karanovo III culture elements.

Cernavodă, is the name of the necropolis where the famous statues “The Thinker” and “The Sitting Woman” were discovered at the eponymous site of Baia-Hamangia in Romania.  It was discovered in 1953 along Lake Goloviţa, close to the Black Sea coast, in the Romanian province of Dobruja.

Hasotti has divided the Hamangia-culture into three phases. The culture begins in the middle of the 6th Millennium (6,000 B.C.), with Painted vessels of complex geometrical patterns based on spiral-motifs. The shapes include pots and wide bowls.

Settlements - Settlements consist of rectangular houses with one or two rooms, built of wattle and daub, sometimes with stone foundations (Durankulak). They are normally arranged on a rectangular grid and may form small tells. Settlements are located along the coast, on the coast of lakes, on the lower and middle river-terraces, and sometimes in caves.

Inhumation - People are in crouched or extended positions in cemeteries. Grave-gifts tend to be without pottery in Hamangia I. Grave-gifts include flint, worked shells, bone tools and shell-ornaments.

Figurines - Pottery figurines are normally extremely stylized and show standing naked faceless women with emphasized breasts and buttocks. The Two figurines known as “The Thinker” and “The Sitting woman” are considered masterpieces of Neolithic art.

The Hamangia culture developed into the succeeding Gumelnitsa, Boian and Varna cultures of the late Eneolithic (aka. Chalcolithic - Copper/Stone or Copper Age), without noticeable break.


Dimini, c. 5000 - 4400 BC

Y-DNA E-V13, G2a, I2a, T1a


Adam of Govrlevo, or "Adam of Macedonia". At more than 7,000 years old, the sculpture is the oldest artifact found in the Republic of Macedonia. The artist depicts a sitting male body, and shows details of his spine, ribs, navel, and phallus. The piece is now exhibited in the Skopje City Museum.

Adam of Macedonia


Agricultural migrations

Bug-Dniester culture, c. 6300 - 5500 BC

Y-DNA I2a, R1a, R1b

Bug-Dniester culture is right yellow color spot

Hoe made of horn, the Bug-Dniester culture


Kamyana Mohyla, c. 5500 BC

Kamyana Mohyla



Agricultural migrations - Danubian Group

Map of the difusion of agriculture


Flood hypothesis, c. 6200 BC

“The environmental stakes in this case are very high: The wetlands involved are the remains of the only inland sea delta in Europe. This delta survived since the last Ice Age, when the Pannon Sea filled the Carpathian Basin. Some 400 unique species have survived from what used to be this Pannon sea delta, and what today is called the Szigetkoz (“the region of a thousand islands”–in Hungarian), where, since the rerouting, not a single island remains,–as there is no water.” Bela Liptak, Yale

In brief, the influence of the 8200 calBP event is most easily recognised on Cyprus and Central Anatolia. Here, the large and long-flourishing settlement at Çatalhöyük-East was abruptly deserted around 8200 calBP. We speculate that this was most likely due to irregularities in the water-supply of this large settlement. Following 8200 calBP, the site was re-occupied, but with a shift of the settlement by c. 200 m to a new position (Çatalhöyük-West). This settlement shift marks the beginning of the Pottery Neolithic (sensu strictu) in Central Anatolia. It is further intriguing that many other major archaeological sites in the Eastern Mediterranean are alternatively either first occupied at c. 8200 calBP (in North-West Anatolia: Hoca Çeşme IV); in Greece: Nea Nikomedeia, Achilleion, Sesklo; in Bulgaria: Ovcarovo-Platoto) or else deserted (in Cyprus: Khirokitia and Kalavassos-Tenta). Conversely, in the regions under study we have not been able to identify any sites with clear stratigraphic evidence for a continuous settlement extending through the 8200 calBP event. It appears remarkable, that – following the (more or less) simultaneous desertion of Khirokitia and Kalavassos-Tenta around 8200 calBP – the island of Cyprus was apparently deserted and remained uninhabited for more than 1500 years. We furthermore observe that the major neolithic tell settlement at Mersin in Cilicia (Yumuktepe) was deserted during the time of the 8.2 ka calBP event – and was immediately reoccupied following the event. Major changes in cultural trajectories are also to be observed in North Syria (e.g. Tell Sabi Abyad)



Starčevo culture, c. 6200 - 4500 BC

Starčevo culture


In human remains of Starčevo culture in four investigated samples (Lipson et al., 2017) were found three different Y haplogroups: H2, G2a2a1 and G2a2b2b1a.

Haak et al. (2005) and Haak et al. (2010) sequenced the mitochondrial DNA from several LBK sites in Germany and one in Austria dating from 5500 BCE to 4900 BCE. Out of the 38 mtDNA lineages recovered there were six haplogroup N (one N1a, one N1a1a, two N1a1a1, two N1a1a2, and one N1a1b), two U (U3 and U5a1a), seven K, four J, ten T (including three T2), three HV, eight H, two V, and two W. The Y-chromosomal DNA of three samples was also successfully retrieved and assigned to haplogroup F (2 samples) and G2a3.


Starčevo, Kőrös, Criş

Encompasses various Early Neolithic archeological cultures from the Balkans, including those of Anzabegovo, Chavdar, Conevo, Criș, Dudești-Cernica, Karanovo, Kőrös, Kremikovci, Ovtcharovo, Porodin, Starčevo, and Tsonevo. It is commonly known simply under the appellation of Starčevo culture.

Represents the advance of Early Neolithic farmers from Anatolia to south-east Europe, including present-day Bulgaria, Macedonia, Kosovo, Montenegro, Serbia, Bosnia, northern Croatia, south-west Hungary, and Romania. The Starčevo–Kőrös–Criș culture is the precursor of the Alföld Linear Pottery, the LBK culture, and the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture - in other words all the Early Neolithic cultures from northern France to western Ukraine.

Their Neolithic agricultural economy was based primarily on the cultivation of crops from the Fertile Crescent, such as Emmer wheat, Einkorn wheat, barley, spelt millet, pulses (peas and bitter vetch), and buckwheat. Some fruit trees were also cultivated, including plums and apricots. Starčevo farmers bred livestock, especially goats and sheep, but to a lower extent also cattle and pigs. They also supplemented their diets by fishing in rivers and hunting deer and wild boar in forests.

Starčevo farmers lived in dug out rectangular dwellings with a timber frame, wattle-and-daub walls and clay-plastered foors. Most houses were small, measuring approximately 7–10 m in length and 4–6 m in width (i.e. 30 to 60 m²). They were built on a single storey, which consisted of a single room, without any internal divisions. Some structures may have contained a loft on the second floor, probably used as a granary.

Pottery types varied between regional groups, and could be painted in white-on-red and dark-on-red as in the Starčevo culture around Serbia, or be unpainted as in the Körös culture in Hungary. Ceramic vessels were typically decorated with net patterns, spirals, garlands, floral motives, ridges, and finger imprints. Anthropomorphic and zoomorphic representations of goats and deer were common.

Like in other Neolithic cultures, most tools were made of stone, bones or antlers. Flints, obsidians and quarzes were used to make blades, cutters, scrapers and drills. Axes, hatchets and grinding stone were made of sandstone, limestone, granite, quartz, and other rocks.

Very few graves were found in the Starčevo culture, and those were generally single graves. Most burials identified belonged to women or children, who were placed in the graves in a crouched position, lying on the right or the left side. They were inhumed under the floors of personal residences, a practice that continued until 4000 BCE. Graves rarely contained goods. When they did, it was pottery, grinding stones, flint tools or jewelry.


Starčevo–Kőrös–Criş Culture and Linear Pottery Culture

c. 8000 to 6500 ybp; Central & Southeast Europe

  • Haak et al. (2005) and Haak et al. (2010) sequenced the mitochondrial DNA from several LBK sites in Germany and one in Austria dating from 5500 BCE to 4900 BCE. Out of the 38 mtDNA lineages recovered there were six haplogroup N (one N1a, one N1a1a, two N1a1a1, two N1a1a2, and one N1a1b), two U (U3 and U5a1a), seven K, four J, ten T (including three T2), three HV, eight H, two V, and two W. The Y-chromosomal DNA of three samples was also successfully retrieved and assigned to haplogroup F* (2 samples) and G2a3.
  • Bramanti et al. (2008) tested the mtDNA from the LBK site of Vedrovice (5300 BCE) in the Czech Republic. Two samples were found to belong to haplogroup K, one to J1c, two to T2 and the last one to H.
  • Guba et al. (2011) analysed the mtDNA of 11 Neolithic skeletons from Hungary. Among the five specimens from the Kőrös culture (5500 BCE), two carried the mutations of haplogroup N9a and one of C5. Another one had a series of mutations not seen in any haplogroup to this day (16235G, 16261T, 16291T, 16293G, 16304C). The last one didn't have any mutation from the CRS in the HVS-I region and is therefore undetermined. Out of the six specimens from the LBK-related Alföld Culture (5250-5000 BCE) three belonged to haplogroup N (N1a, N1a1b, N9a), and one to haplogroup D1 or G1a1. The two others were undetermined (CRS and 16324C mutation reported as M/R24).


Early neolithic in Europe, c. 6000 to 5000 BC - Eupedia


Y-chromosome G2a & H2

Y-chromosome G - Y-chromosome H

Y-chromosome G

In 2012, a paper by Siiri Rootsi et al. suggested that: "We estimate that the geographic origin of haplogroup G plausibly locates somewhere nearby eastern Anatolia, Armenia or western Iran."

Two scholarly papers have also suggested an origin in the Middle East, while differing on the date. Semino et al. (2000) suggested 17,000 years ago. Cinnioglu et al. (2004) suggested the mutation took place only 9,500 years ago.

Y-chromosome H2

Haplogroup H2 (P96) seems to be primarily European, and very ancient. It was recently found in Linear Pottery culture and Neolithic Iberia.


Copper - Metallurgy (Silver Age)

Halaf culture


Copper occurs naturally as native metallic copper and was known to some of the oldest civilizations on record. The history of copper use dates to 9000 BC in the Middle East; a copper pendant was found in northern Iraq that dates to 8700 BC. Evidence suggests that gold and meteoric iron (but not smelted iron) were the only metals used by humans before copper. The history of copper metallurgy is thought to follow this sequence: First, cold working of native copper, then annealing, smelting, and, finally, lost-wax casting. In southeastern Anatolia, all four of these techniques appear more or less simultaneously at the beginning of the Neolithic c. 7500 BC.


The emergence of metallurgy may have occurred first in the Fertile Crescent. The earliest use of lead is documented here from the late Neolithic settlement of Yarim Tepe in Iraq,

"The earliest lead (Pb) finds in the ancient Near East are a 6th millennium BC bangle from Yarim Tepe in northern Iraq and a slightly later conical lead piece from Halaf period Arpachiyah, near Mosul. As native lead is extremely rare, such artifacts raise the possibility that lead smelting may have begun even before copper smelting."

Copper smelting is also documented at this site at about the same time period (soon after 6000 BC), although the use of lead seems to precede copper smelting. Early metallurgy is also documented at the nearby site of Tell Maghzaliyah, which seems to be dated even earlier, and completely lacks pottery.

Although traditional view holds that the transition to the Bronze Age had first occurred in the Fertile Crescent in the 4th millennium BCE, finds from the Vinča culture in Europe have now been securely dated to slightly earlier than those of the Fertile Crescent.

An archaeological site in Serbia contains the oldest securely dated evidence of coppermaking from 7,500 years ago. In Serbia, a copper axe was found at Prokuplje, which indicates that humans were using metals in Europe by 7,500 years ago (5500 BCE), many years earlier than previously believed. Knowledge of the use of copper was far more widespread than the metal itself. The European Battle Axe culture used stone axes modeled on copper axes, even with imitation "mold marks" carved in the stone. Ötzi the Iceman, who was found in the Ötztal Alps in 1991 and whose remains were dated to about 3300 BCE, was found with a Mondsee copper axe.



Ötzi's copper axe's haft is 60 centimetres (24 in) long and made from carefully worked yew with a right-angled crook at the shoulder, leading to the blade. The 9.5 centimetres (3.7 in) long axe head is made of almost pure copper, produced by a combination of casting, cold forging, polishing, and sharpening.

High levels of both copper particles and arsenic were found in Ötzi's hair. This, along with Ötzi's copper axe blade, which is 99.7% pure copper, has led scientists to speculate that Ötzi was involved in copper smelting.

Ötzi had a total of 61 tattoos (or Soot tattoos), consisting of 19 groups of black lines ranging from 1 to 3 mm in thickness and 7 to 40 mm long. These include groups of parallel lines running along the longitudinal axis of his body and to both sides of the lumbar spine, as well as a cruciform mark behind the right knee and on the right ankle, and parallel lines around the left wrist. The greatest concentration of markings is found on his legs, which together exhibit 12 groups of lines. A microscopic examination of samples collected from these tattoos revealed that they were created from pigment manufactured out of fireplace ash or soot.

DNA analysis in February 2012 revealed that Ötzi was lactose intolerant.

Ötzi's full genome has been sequenced; the report on this was published on 28 February 2012. The Y-DNA of Ötzi belongs to a subclade of G defined by the SNPs M201, P287, P15, L223 and L91 (G-L91, ISOGG G2a2b, former "G2a4"). He was not typed for any of the subclades downstreaming from G-L91. G-L91 is now mostly found in South Corsica.

Analysis of his mitochondrial DNA showed that Ötzi belongs to the K1 subclade, but cannot be categorized into any of the three modern branches of that subclade (K1a, K1b or K1c). The new subclade has provisionally been named K1ö for Ötzi. Multiplex assay study was able to confirm that the Iceman's mtDNA belongs to a previously unknown European mtDNA clade with a very limited distribution among modern data sets.


Vinča culture, c. 5700 - 4500 BC

Vinča culture

The Vinča culture was an early culture (between the 6th and 3rd millennium B.C.), stretching around the course of the Danube in what is today Serbia, Hungary, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Romania, Bulgaria, and the Republic of Macedonia - although traces of it can be found all around the Balkans, as well as parts of Central Europe and Asia Minor (Anatolia).

In the older Starčevo settlement, located in the deepest layers of Vinča sites; mud huts with tent roofs were discovered in which the settlers of the Starčevo-culture lived and were also buried. During the period of the Vinča Culture, houses were erected above ground, with complex architectural layouts, and several rooms built of wood that were covered in mud. The houses in the settlement are facing northeast and southwest, with streets between them. Other settlements include Divostin, Potporanj, Selevac, Pločnik, Predionica Liobcova and Ujvar.

The First European Metallurgists

Copper working had been in progress in nearby Anatolia (Turkey), for well over 1,000 years before it appeared in Europe. One of the most exciting finds for archaeologists therefore, was the discovery of a sophisticated metal workshop with a furnace and tools including a copper chisel and a two-headed hammer and axe. "This might prove that the Copper Age started in Europe at least 500 years earlier than we thought,". The Copper Age marks the first stage of humans' use of metal, with copper tools used alongside older stone implements. It is thought to have started around the 4th millennium BC in south-east Europe, and earlier in the Middle East.

The discovery of a mine - Europe's oldest - at the nearby Mlava river suggested at the time that Vinca could be Europe's first metal culture, a theory now backed up by the Plocnik site. "These latest findings show that the Vinca culture was from the very beginning a metallurgical culture," said archaeologist Dusan Sljivar of Serbia's National Museum. "They knew how to find minerals, to transport them and melt them into tools."

The metal workshop in Plocnik was a room of some 25 square meters, with walls built out of wood coated with clay. The furnace, built on the outside of the room, featured earthen pipe-like air vents with hundreds of tiny holes in them and a prototype chimney to ensure air goes into the furnace to feed the fire and smoke comes out safely. He said the early metal workers very likely experimented with colourful minerals that caught their eye - blue azurite, bright green malachite and red cuprite, all containing copper - as evidenced by malachite traces found on the inside of a pot. The settlement was destroyed at some point, probably in the first part of the fifth millennium, by a huge fire.

The Vinča site of Pločnik has produced the earliest example of copper tools in the world.

The First European Writing

The Tărtăria tablets (below) refers to a group of three tablets, discovered in 1961 by archaeologist Nicolae Vlassa at a Neolithic site in the village of Tărtăria (about 30 km (19 mi) from Alba Iulia), in Romania. Two of the tablets are rectangular and the third is round. They are all small, the round one being only 6 cm (2½ in) across, and two  - one round and one rectangular - have holes drilled through them. All three have symbols inscribed only on one face

Various styles of zoomorphic and anthropomorphic figurines are hallmarks of the culture, as are the Vinča symbols, which some conjecture to be an early form of proto-writing

The tablets, dated to around 5,300 BC, bear incised symbols - the Vinča symbols - and have been the subject of considerable controversy among archaeologists, some of whom claim that the symbols represent the earliest known form of writing in the world. subsequent radiocarbon dating on the Tărtăria finds pushed the date of the tablets (and therefore of the whole Vinča culture) much further back, to as long ago as 5,500 BC, the time of the early Eridu phase of the Sumerian civilization in Mesopotamia. This finding has reversed our concept of the origin of writing, and it is now believed that the Sumerians inherited a Vinca tradition of 'magical' or 'meaningful' scripture, probably following the collapse of the Vinca homeland c. 3,500 BC.

Similar motifs (above) have been found on pots excavated at Gradeshnitsa in Bulgaria, Vinča in Serbia and a number of other locations in the southern Balkans.

Full list of Vincan Symbols.

Neolithic clay amulet (retouched), part of the Tărtăria tablets set, dated to 5500–5300 BC and associated with the Turdaş-Vinča culture. The Vinča symbols on it predate the proto-Sumerian pictographic script.

Recent excavations at the site of the Pločnik settlement, have shed considerable light on the Vinča culture. The Pločnik settlement flourished from 5,500 B.C. until it was destroyed by a fire in 4700 B.C. The findings suggest an advanced division of labor and central organization.

Vinča houses had stoves, and special holes specifically for rubbish. The dead were buried in cemeteries. People slept on woolen and fur mats, and made clothes of wool, flax and leather. The figurines found not only represent deities but many show the daily life of the inhabitants. Women are depicted in short tops and skirts and wearing jewelry. A thermal well found near the settlement might be evidence of Europe's oldest spa.


Vinča - Jedna od najstarijih kultura na Balkanu

U tekstu korišteni podaci iz knjige "VINČA - Kolevka Prve Evrope", koju su napisale Vesna Pešić i Jelena Radojković. Lokacija Vinča se nalazi 14 kilometara udaljena od Beograda u Srbiji.

Ovaj nevjerojatan prapovijesni lokalitet otkrio je Miloje Vasić, koji je od 1932 do 1935 istraživao lokalitet, i koji je shvatio da je naišao na nešto zaista čudesno. Vasić je u svojoj monografiji pod nazivom „Praistorijska Vinča“ otkrio čitateljstvu o svojim nalazima, iako mu javnost nije bila nimalo naklonjena i nije shvaćala koliko je njegov rad važan u otkrivanju razvijene neolitske kulture Balkana. Vasić je napisao: "u neobaviještenoj, skoro neprijateljskoj sredini bilo je teško, tada, započeti skupa arheološka istraživanja," ali Vasić je ipak započeo borbu za arheološkim otkrivanjima Vinče "zamah tih istraživanja je bio snažan uspjeh i imao je nedogledne posljedice za arheologiju u dolini Dunava."

Kao što se kasnije vidjelo, ne samo što je Vasić bio u pravu, i ne samo da je njegovo iskopavanje imalo dalekosežnog značaja za Srbiju, već za arheologiju cijele stare ili "prve" Europe, kako ju je okarakterizirala istraživačica Marija Gumbutac, koja je uspjela klasificirati Vinčansko pismo i usporediti ga sa svim pismima Mediterana.

Oko 4500 do 5000 godina pr.n.e. kultura Vinče je zauzimala veliko područje, od Karpata na sjeveru, Bosne na zapadu, Sofije na istoku do Soluna na jugu, centar te iste kulture, možemo reći čak i njena prijestolnica je bila Vinča po čemu je i cijela kultura dobila ime.

Arhitektura samog naselja Vinča, je nešto što Europa tada nije imala, pravilno raspoređene ulice i zgrade, mnogobrojni zanatlije, trgovci, visoko složeni umjetnički izražaj i nadasve bogato pismo, odlike su ove prastare i sveobuhvatne kulture.

Pretpostavlja se da je Vinča kao složena urbana sredina postojala u neprekinutom nizu u više od 5000 godina, što je očigledno vidljivo u 10 metara urbanih slojeva koji su se nagomilavali tijekom milenija jedni na druge u samom arheološkom nalazištu u Vinči.

Jedno od pitanja koje se sasvim logično nameće svakoj osobi koja bi o Vinči željela znati više: što je utjecalo za tako visok urbani stupanj u doba kada je po popularnom razmišljanju Balkan mogao imati tek raštrkane špiljske ljude?

Ali pismo i bogata arheološka ostavština ove kulture svakako mijenjaju naše poimanje prapovijesti i neolitika na našim prostorima i zasigurno zahtijevaju detaljnije i internacionalno istraživanje, jer sigurno Vinča ima još po koju tajnu koja bi nas s vremenom mogla iznenaditi.

Nije samo Vinča bila jedino nalazište iz tog doba koje je prednjačilo u svojoj kultiviranosti, tu također imamo Butmirsku kulturu iz Bosne koja je u stvari subgrupa Vinčanske kulture, Starčevačku kulturu koja bi se mogla nazvati određenom avangardnom, i mnoga nalazišta širom Hrvatske (Vela Špilja na Korčuli, Vučedolska kultura, Vela Jama na Lošinju, Danilovska kultura, Markova špilja na Hvaru i Spila Nakovana pored Lovišta) koje jasno daju do znanja da Balkan zaista ima mnogo toga za ponuditi, no vratimo se Vinči i njenom najvećem dometu, pismenosti.

Vinčansko pismo nije izolat, ono jasno ima odlike ostalih Mediteranskih pisama kao što je Feničansko, Kretsko, Etruščansko, Zapadno Semitsko, Palestinsko, Starogrčko, starofeničansko i Brahmi. Na kraju, Vinčansko pismo ima brojne poveznice sa današnja dva najvažnija pisma na ovim prostorima, Latinicom i Ćirilicom.

Nemojte misliti da su Vinčani bili skromni u svojoj pismenosti, mnogobrojne glinene pločice, ukrasne vaze, torza, ćupovi, krigle, figurice, ukrasni predmeti, plitice i skulpture bili su urešeni bogatim Vinčanskim pismom, što nam daje za pravo da naslutimo da pismenost nije bila sporadična stvar i da je manje-više bilo sasvim "normalno" da je neko iz Vinčanske kulture pismen, kao što je to nama normalno danas.

No krenimo od nekih jako važnih brojeva.

Ako je suditi po ostacima Vinčanskih zapisa (po predmetima koji na sebi imaju zapise) počevši od najstarijih koji datiraju iz 5300 godine prije nove ere, onda je pismo iz Vinče jedno od najstarijih u Europi.

Sumersko piktografsko: cca 3100 PRNE
Egipatsko piktografsko: cca 3000 PRNE
Akadsko klinasto: cca 2500 PRNE
Indijsko piktografsko: cca 2200 PRNE
Kretsko linearno: cca 1800 PRNE
Semitsko: cca 1800 PRNE
Feničansko: cca 1100 PRNE
Etruščansko: cca 900 PRNE
Kopsko: cca 100 PRNE

Zapisi Vinčanske kulture protežu se na više od 700 lokacija širom Balkana, što nam daje za naslutiti da je tadašnja kultura itekako komunicirala između svojih enklava i vjerojatno (zbog dobro razvijene trgovine) i sa ostalim narodima tadašnje Europe.

Marija Gumbutac je otkrila da je Vinčansko pismo pravo linearno pismo s posebnim ritualnim značajem i znacima svojine određenog pisara, to jest malih odstupanja pri svakom različitom rukopisu onako kako mi to danas imamo običaj pisati (svatko sa drugačijim osobni stilom rukopisa). Vinčansko pismo se koristilo i u religijske, a i u praktične svrhe, te je zasigurno bilo kruna ondašnjeg Vinčanskog dostignuća. U preko 100 znakova Gumbutac je izdvojila 30 osnovnih znakova koji predstavljaju samu srž pisma, te je odvojila 10 znakova koji su gotovo identični Kretskom linearnom pismu tipa A i mnogim drugim ranomediteranskim pismima

Kulture Lepenskog Vira, Vučedola i Vinče predstavljaju jedne od najinteresantnijih arheoloških lokaliteta na našem prostoru. O Vučedolu i Lepenskom Viru ću pisati naknadno, a sada bih se željela pozabaviti nekim interesantnim umjetničkim izričajima Vinčanaca, pa vi sami prosudite je li ovo tipična neolitska kultura ili nešto više.

Vinčani su imali matrifokalnu kulturu, što znači da je ženska regenerativna moć bila obožavana, kao i priroda, sve ženske figurice nađene u Vinčanskoj kulturi bile su bogato urešene: meandrima, volarima i crticama, dok je obožavana boja Vinčanaca bila crna i crvena i još se jako lijepo vidi na nekim od figurica. Zbog stiliziranih i ponavljajućih ureza na figuricama, žena pretpostavlja se da je bila riječ o ranom ženskom pismu.

Razvoj Vinčanske kulture prekinut je na njenom samom vrhuncu u periodu od 2500 godine pr.n.e. zbog infiltracije Indoeuropljana, čija je kultura bila patrijahalna, socijalno strukturirana, nomadska i ratoborna. Kultura miroljubivog svijeta Vinče neopremljena za ratove i mobilizaciju podlegla je najezdama ljudi s dijametralno obrnutim društvenim tvorevinama.

Vinčanska religija lunarnog tipa s kultom Božice Majke, koja daje život, plodnost i regeneraciju, ustupila je mjesto ratobornim muškim bogovima i njihovim štovateljima. Dijelom je Vinča ostala u nama do danas kroz mitologiju, folklor, pismo, jezik, običaje, ali je njena važnost ostala gotovo zaboravljena i degradirana na "još samo jednu" neolitsku kulturu bez većeg značaja. Stara poslovica kaže: "što se zaboravi, to se ponovi", a mi smo polako i gotovo u potpunosti zaboravili na ovu kulturu. Vinča je nestala sa scene, s obzirom kako se ponaša naša civilizacija, ne bi me čudilo da se i nama "zaboravnima" nešto tako dogodi i da na naše mjesto dođe netko drugi...


Dispilio tablet, 5260 ± 40 BC

A: samples of carved "signs" on the wooden Dispilio tablet and clay finds from Dispilio, Greece.
B: samples of Linear A signs.
C: samples of signs on Paleo-European clay tablets.

The Dispilio tablet is a wooden tablet bearing inscribed markings, unearthed during George Hourmouziadis's excavations of Dispilio in Greece and carbon 14-dated to 7300 ± 40 BP or 5260 ± 40 BC. It was discovered in 1993 in a Neolithic lakeshore settlement that occupied an artificial island near the modern village of Dispilio on Lake Kastoria in Kastoria, Greece.


Gradeshnitsa tablets

The tablets are dated to the 5th millennium BC - Bulgaria


Vinča-Turdaş script

An example of a Sumerian Cuneiform clay tablet

One of the three Tărtăria tablets, dated 5300 BC

One of the Gradeshnitsa tablets

The mainstream academic theory is that writing first appeared during the Sumerian civilization in southern Mesopotamia, around 3300–3200 BC. in the form of the Cuneiform script. This first writing system did not suddenly appear out of nowhere, but gradually developed from less stylized pictographic systems that used ideographic and mnemonic symbols that contained meaning, but did not have the linguistic flexibility of the natural language writing system that the Sumerians first conceived. These earlier symbolic systems have been labeled as proto-writing, examples of which have been discovered in a variety of places around the world, some dating back to the 7th millennium BC.


Danubian Civilization




Vinčansko pismo


Vinčanski kalendar

Figura ovna sa ispisanim kalednarom (kermika, Vinča).

Jedna strana ovna pripada istoku, druga zapadu. Trideset kičmenih pršljenova je 30 dana mjeseca. Dvanaest mjeseci po 30 dana je 360 dana godine. Četiri zelena kružića jesu četiri godišnja doba godine.

Prva strana ovna.

Sedam dana sedmice obilježeno je "bregovima" prema kičmi, a malim udubljunjima (plavi kružići) obilježeno je 26 sedmica što je 182 dana ili pola godine.

Druga strana ovna.

Na drugoj strani ovna malim udubljenjima obilježene su 24 sedmice što iznosi 168 dana godine.

Glava ovna sa prsima.

Na prsima ovna označena su četiri godišnja doba (vertikle sa svojim tačkama ispod) sa po tri mjeseca dužine (žute linije). Mali kružići su naknadno dodani dani godine: 15 dana.

Da saberemo sve dane:
a) prva strana ima 26 sedmica   = 182 dana
b) druga strana ima 24 sedmice = 168 dana
Ukupno: 50 sedmica = 350 dana

Do pune godine fali još 15 dana i ovi dani označeni su na prsima ovna (crveni kružici): u dnu prsiju je 2 x 5 dana što sa onih prethodnih 350 daje 360 dana i to je tačno 12 mjeseci po 30 dana, a preostalih 5 dana godine označeno je crvenim kružićima iznad vertikalnih linija godišnjih doba i to je tačno 365 dana godine.

I na ovoj strani artefakta vinčanske kulture duplim vertikalama jasno je označeno 6 mjeseci. Ako je tako i na drugoj strani ovna (a vjerujem da jest), to je 12 mjeseci. Tačkice kao markere dana i sedmica nije moguće tačno prebrojati zbog lošeg ugla snimanja i nepostojanja fotografije druge strane figure (Gradski muzej Vršac).



In the mountains of the Balkans, up until the end of the 20th century, shepherds carried with them a calendar stick. It was a stick with a notch cut into it for every day of the year and a cross or some other symbol for major holy days, which in Serbia are all linked to major agricultural events and major solar cycle events. At the end of every day a piece of the stick up to the first notch, representing the previous day, was cut off from the stick. When the last piece was cut, the year was over. This was a very effective way to track the passage of time. It was simple and could have been used easily by uneducated shepherds in the mountains where they were often cut off from the rest of the population for up to nine months. By looking at the stick they would know when it is time to praise god and their protector saint. But also the would know when the cheese needs to be ready and packed so that it can be sent from the mountain stations down to the valleys. And when to gather the flocks for sheering and when to start migrating down to the valleys before the winter descends.

Two shepherds minding flocks on the mountain would be able to coordinate their actions with each other and with the people from the valleys by using identical calendar sticks.

But in order to make these calendar sticks, you need to know:

1. When does the solar year start?
2. How many full moons there are in a year?
3. How many days there are in a moon?
4. How many full moons are in a solar year?
5. How many full extra days there are after the end of the last full moon before the beginning of the new solar year?

Once you know this, you can make a stick calendar, give it to people and they will be able to coordinate their actions. Here is an example of the stick calendar from Bulgaria.

How do you determine all the above? By a very long period of observation of the sun and the moon and their changes, and by realizing that they follow cyclical patterns. Then you need to determine what these cycles are and how they relate to each other.


You realize that there is a day and a night. Day always fallows night and night always fallows day. So you can use a border moment between night and day, sunset or sunrise as delimiting point which determines the beginning or the end of a day and night period. Then you can count days by counting the number of sunrises or sunsets. You have your time unit that you can use for measuring and expressing time. So you find a level place from where you can observe the sunrise and sunset all year round and start observing and counting. You want to mark the place from which you are observing the sky, so you use a stick, a post and stick it into the ground. So every morning you go to the post and observe the sun rising and every evening you go to the post and observe sun setting.

You also realize that there is this body in the sky, moon and that as night after night passes, moon changes from a thin crescent to the full circle and back again.

Then one night during the full moon you start wandering after how many nights the moon will become full again. You take a stick (štap in Serbian) and you cut a notch into it for every night between the two full moons. Now you have a full moon cycle cut "into stick",  or cut "u štap" in Serbian. The archaic word for full moon in Serbian is still "uštap", meaning "into stick".  You then repeat your marking of nights into another stick "štap" for the next moon cycle and the next. You compare your moon sticks "uštaps" and you realize that the full moon always comes after the same number of notches.

The Moon has phases because it orbits Earth, which causes the portion we see illuminated to change. The Moon takes 27.3 days to orbit Earth, but the lunar phase cycle (from new moon to new moon or from full moon to full moon) is 29.5 days. The Moon spends the extra 2.2 days "catching up" because Earth travels about 45 million miles around the Sun during the time the Moon completes one orbit around Earth.

You count notches on your moon stick, your "uštap". You realize that the there are about 29 to 30 nights in a moon cycle. You start calling this period moon (mesec in Serbian). And you have a lunar calendar.

Because the first day counting was associated with moon cycle calculation, the start of the day was counted from the sunset. This tradition was preserved in both Ireland and Serbia until very recently.

Because the tracking the change of the moon is easy, the first calendars were moon based. You could say to people: "we will meet at the next full moon" or "we will meet three full moons from today" or "we need to meet on the third day after the third full moon". All people needed to do to keep their appointment was to use stick "štap" and mark the passing of full moons into the stick "uštap".

This is the 8000 years old lunar calendar found in Serbia. It is made from the tusk of a wild boar and is marked with engravings thought to denote a lunar cycle of 28 days, as well as the four phases of the moon. There is an empty space just before the last notch. Is this the 29th day, when the new moon vanishes from the sky and is not visible? The calendar fits into a pouch or a small bag so it can be said that this is probably the world's first pocket calculator, calendar.

The area where the tusk was discovered represents one of Europe's most interesting archaeological sites from the Neolithic period and was a religious center 8,000 years ago.

This was probably a ceremonial calendar, which probably belonged to the priest and was maybe even held in a temple. The ordinary people probably had "uštap" the full moon cycle cut into a stick. For time synchronization required for work planning simple  "uštap" is perfectly sufficient. There is no need for time adjustment

The problem is that this system is good enough for short term planning which is not related to the vegetative cycle. But if you try to use moon calendar to plan your activities related to vegetative cycle you will realize that the moon calendar is not the right tool for the job, because the Earth vegetative cycle is governed not by the moon but by the Sun. If a specific solar governed event, like the beginning of spring fell on the 3rd full moon this year, it will not fall on the 3rd full moon next year. Because the lunar year, the sum of full moons in one year, is shorter than the solar year, the new lunar year will start earlier than the solar year and the solar event will occur later than previous year. And this lagging of the solar events will be bigger and bigger as years pass. 

So how do you solve this problem?

You realize that you need to start using the sun cycle in order to determine the exact timing of vegetative events during the solar year. You start with what you know about the sun. You know that the sun is changing in a longer cycle. It gets higher over the horizon and hotter and then lower and colder over many moons. The trick is to determine exactly when the solar cycle starts and how many moons does it last. 

Remember the level place from where you were observing the sunrise and sunset all year round in order to determine the number of days in a moon? The observatory? You are standing next to the observation pole and observing sunrises and sunsets. As you are observing the sunrises and sunsets, you notice that the point where sun rises is not the same as the point where sun sets. The sun rises on the left side of the horizon, travels across the sky from left to right and sets at the opposite right side of the horizon. As days pass you realize that the point where the sun rises moves along the horizon. So does the point where the sun sets. You notice that the sunrise point moves during the spring further and further to the left and the sunset point further and further to the right. So the sun needs to travel longer across the sky and the day is longer and longer and hotter and hotter. Then at some point during the summer the sunrise and sunset points start moving in the opposite direction. The sunrise point starts moving to the right and sunset point starts moving to the left. They get closer and closer to each other, so the sun has to travel shorter distance between the sunrise and sunset and the day is shorter and shorter and colder and colder.

This is extremely important observation if you depend on solar vegetative cycle for your survival. If the length and heat of the day depends on the position of the sunrise and sunset points, then determining how they move becomes imperative. You know that the days when the sunrise and sunset points change the direction of their movements, fall in the middle of the coldest and hottest part of the year. You are of course more interested in the turning point which falls in the middle of the cold dark part of the year. You want to know if, and this was for our ancestors very real IF, and when the sunrise and sunset points will start moving further and further away from each other, because that will mean that the days will start getting longer and hotter again. So you start observing the the horizon and you try to remember where the sun rose and set yesterday in order to compare it with the sunrise and sunset position today. But that is difficult and imprecise. It would be much better if you could mark the points of sunrise and sunset every day in some way and then observe the relative position of the sunrise and sunset points to the marks. So you decide to use two stakes, poles as markers. But it is difficult to mark the exact point of sunrise and sunset if the horizon is uneven. It would be much easier if the horizon is horizontal, smooth and elevated all around you so that the observation and marking of the sunrise and sunset points becomes more precise. So you decide to create an artificial horizontal smooth horizon which will mask the real horizon. You take a long enough rope, tie it to the observation pole and then walk around the observation pole. As you walk you mark a circle with the center in the observation pole.

You then dig a circular trench along the circle and pile up the the dug out earth on the edge of the circle to form the bank. You build a henge like this original earthen henge in Stonehenge.

Now when the sun rises or sets it will be easy to mark the exact spot of sunrise and sunset  with a stake stuck into the elevated earthen bank. Every morning and evening you observe the new position of the sunrise and sunset points. If the sun does not rise and set at the points marked with the yesterday's stakes, you stick new stakes into the earthen bank to mark the new position of the sunrise and sunset points, and you remove the yesterday's stakes. As the days get colder and colder, the sunrise and sunset stakes will get closer and closer to each other. Then one day in the middle of the winter, the movement of the sunrise and sunset points will stop. The sun will rise at the same position behind the yesterday's sunrise stake and will set at the same position behind the yesterday's sunset stake. That day is the winter turning point, the winter solstice, the shortest day of the year. You mark these two points with the permanent taller stakes. So when the sun again rises and sets behind these two sunrise and sunset stakes you will know that the winter turning point, the winter solstice, the shortest day has arrived again. You can now build a high wall, a fence, a palisade made of wooden stakes, around the central observation stake, within the earthen henge, in order to create artificial smooth horizontal elevated horizon to completely mask the real horizon. You then make two gates, both in the earthen bank and in the wooden palisade within it, at the exact places where the winter solstice turning point stakes were. So in the future, on the day of the winter turning point, the winter solstice, the people standing in the center of the sun circle will see the sun rise and set through the "sun gates".

This is exactly what people did in Goseck circle one of the oldest henge solar observatories in the world.

At the winter solstice, observers at the center would have seen the sun rise and set through the southeast and southwest gates.

You can do exactly the same with the boundary turning points in the middle of the summer. You can make gates at these two points or just at the summer solstice sunrise point and watch the sun rise through the sun gate every summer solstice like in so many henges in England.

Now you have a ceremonial sun circle, which can be used year after year to determine the the beginning of the solar year but also for worshiping of the high god, the Sun.

Then from the starting point of the winter solstice, you count number of days and number of full moons until the next starting point. You get a long stick and you cut a notch for every day and a cross for a full moon day. You are basically determining the number of days in a solar year and the number of "moons" in a solar year and you record them  "u štap" in a stick. Next time the winter solstice arrives, you will know exactly how many full moons there are in a solar year and how many "extra" days are you need to reach the end of the solar year. Then when the sun rises through the sun gate, and the new solar year begins, a celebration is held to celebrate the rebirth of the sun and the new year calendar stick is cut.

How was this year calendar stick cut?

The year stick was cut in such a way that it first counted the days of fool moons from the day of the winter solstice, regardless whether there was actually a full moon or not. A notch was made for every day and every time the number of days in a full was reached, the full moon mark was made in the calendar stick. At the end of the last full moon period, people were left with the extra days, the days which they needed to add to reach the number of days in the solar year. These days were added to the end of the calendar stick. These extra days were called "dead days". They were outside the calendar, outside the time, between the sun circle and the moon circle. These were the days when no work was done, the taboo days, when everyone was at the sun circle, waiting for the sun to be "reborn" and for another solar year to start. People originally probably used the 29 days full moons. This calendar had 12 full moons and 17 extra dead days. At some point one day was added to each full moon and moons ended up having 30 days each. This calendar had 12 fool moons and 5 extra dead days.

In Serbian tradition the name of these 5 extra "dead days" is preserved as (Mratinci, Mrt + den, literally dead day) which in Serbian Orthodox church calendar fall between the 9. do 14. of November. These dead days are also called "vučji dani" or  wolf days.

The calendar stick with all the days of the solar year divided into the days of the full moons and the dead days, allowed everyone to count time in the same way, and to coordinate their actions without the need to observe the sky and know anything about the movements of the sun and moon. Now vegetative events of the solar year were fixed in the lunar calendar. Also this system made sure that every year was a true solar year, starting at the exactly the right time and lasting exactly the same number of lunar calendar days. It was the dead days at the end of the solar year that allowed year length adjustment.

So after the celebration at the sun circle is finished, everyone goes away to their villages, bringing with them their year stick calendars. Every day, they cut away a piece of the year stick up to the first notch, marking the passing of the previous day. Then one day, when the last full moon mark is reached on the stick, at the beginning of the dead days, everyone comes back to the sun circle to witness the rebirth of the sun, and to get the new calendar stick carved for them. I love the way these calendars are not made to record the past, but to fix the present moment in time and to allow planning for the future.

It seems that at some stage the order of "dead days" and full moons was reversed and the dead days were counted as the first days after the winter solstice.  

In Serbian tradition, Sun, the "Višnji Bog", the High God, is perceived as a living being, which is born every year in the winter. He then grows into a young man Jarilo on the 6th of May the day of the strongest vegetative, reproductive power of the sun. Then he becomes the powerful ruler Vid at the summer solstice, 21st of June the longest day of the year. He then becomes the terrible warrior Perun on the 2nd of August the hottest day of the year. Then the Sun God dies on the day of the winter solstice, the 21st of December the shortest day of the year. The Sun God then goes into the underworld, where it spends 5 days and emerges, reborn on the 25th of December. These 5 days that the sun spends in the underworld, are the extra days, the dead days, the days which are outside of the calendar.

This is why Christ the Son God, was born on the 25th of December, the same day when Mithra the Sun God was born before him.

Epiphany which traditionally falls on January 6, is a Christian feast day that celebrates the revelation of God the Son as a human being in Jesus Christ. The earliest reference to Epiphany as a Christian feast was in A.D. 361, by Ammianus Marcellinus St. Epiphanius says that January 6 is hemera genethlion toutestin epiphanion (Christ's "Birthday; that is, His Epiphany"). Alternative names for the feast in Greek include η Ημέρα των Φώτων, i Imera ton Foton (modern Greek pronunciation), hē hēmera tōn phōtōn (restored classic pronunciation), "The Day of the Lights", and τα Φώτα, ta Fota, "The Lights".

Was the night between the 6th and the 7th of January, the old end of the 17 dead days, when the month had 29 days? The day when the sun reappeared from the underworld and revealed itself to the people as the beginning of a first day of the first moon of the new year? Is this why this day is still a holy day of the revelation, birthday of the Son the God who replaced Sun God?  Is this why this day is called the Day of the Lights?

But in Serbian tradition we also find the 5 dead days at the end of the solar year. When the beginning of the year was moved to the spring Equinox in March, the dead days became the Baba's days, the days of the Baba Mara, Mora, Morana, Marzana, the goddess of winter and death. They are the last 5 days of winter, the dead days after the end of the last 30 days full moon and just before the beginning of the spring. In Serbia these days are often in legends called jarići meaning billy goats. Now vanished stone circle from the south of Serbia was recorded as being called Baba i jarići. Baba was the central stone pillar and jarići were the circle stones. Were there five of them? Is this why so many stone circles from Ireland have exactly 5 stones? Maybe these were days during which Jarilo, the young sun, the god of spring is going through the underworld before being born to start new vegetative cycle. There is an expression in Serbia, which probably dates to the time of the forced Christianization of the Serbs in 13th Century: "Ja ga krstim a on jariće broji" meaning "I am baptizing him and he is still counting billy goats". The expression means wasting time on someone and shows how strong the old faith was among the Serbs. Are the billy goats from this expression the same 5 dead days of the old calendar? Are all these beliefs and customs echos from the days when first henges were built 7000 years ago in order to create the first lunisolar calendar?


Vinčanski sunčani kalendar

Vinčanski sunčani kalendar

Zbunjuje saznanje da se u centru vinčanskog sunčevog kalendara nalazi urezan dijagram energija Sunca koje u toku jedne kalendarske godine stižu do Zemlje. Postavlja se pitanje: Kako su znali da na Mitrovdan počinje zima? Da li su poznavali prirodnu elektromagnetsku silu koja jedina daje odgovor na ovo pitanje?

U 19. veku Ričard Karington otkrio je da sinodički rotacioni period površina na ekvatoru Sunca iznosi 27 dana. Sinodički rotacioni period je vreme potrebno da neka aktivna magnetna struktura na Sunčevoj površini učini jednu rotaciju gledano sa Zemlje, odnosno da se ponovo vrati na istu poziciju sa koje je krenula.

Dugo se verovalo da je vreme jedne sinodičke rotacije konstanta. Zbog toga pitanje promene sinodičke rotacije Sunca nije bilo predmet razmatranja u naučnim krugovima. Međutim, posle pronalaska Vinčanskog sunčevog kalendara javila se sumnja u stalnost brzine rotacije Sunca. Vinčanski sunčev kalendar nastao je pre više od 7525 godina.

Izrađen je u obliku kružnog tanjira od keramike i nađen je na lokalitetu Vinče. Nosi dva simbola srpskog naroda, pa ga spravom možemo nazvati Srpski vinčanski sunčev kalendar.

Na vrhu tanjira nalazi se vinčanski simbol za vreme koji su Srbi koristili za datiranje važnih događaja.

Datiranje Dušanovog zakonika u staroj srpskoj prestonici Skoplju u leto 6857. sa srpskim simbolom za vreme (Po katoličkom kalendaru pape Grgura Trinaestog, 1349. godine koji u to vreme nije ni postojao).

Drugi simbol na Vinčanskom sunčevom kalendaru u obliku je dva koncentrična perforirana kruga. Oni su simbol Sunca kod srpskog naroda i nalaze se u mnogim starim rukopisnim knjigama i artefaktima. Da su perforirani koncentrični krugovi simbol srpskog naroda, može se videti na pečatu administracije srpske države i kraljevske kancelarije kralja Stroimira u leto 6338-6343. (po katoličkom kalendaru pape Grgura Trinaestog od 830-835. godine).

Pečat srpskog kralja Stroimira napravljen je od čistog zlata i izgraviran ćirilicom

Zlatni pečat je materijalni dokaz da je ćirilica zvanično pismo srpskih država i srpskog naroda i da je nastala pre Ćirila, koji je rođen 828. godine. U vreme kada je pečat izgraviran, Ćirilo je imao dve a Metodije deset godina. Pečat je dokaz da je Srbija bila država sa administracijom i kraljevskom kancelarijom s pečatom od zlata i pre dinastije Nemanjića. Nalazio se u jednoj nemačkoj privatnoj kolekciji.

Vinčanski sunčev kalendar je, verovatno, prvi u svetu pokrenuo pitanje promene brzine sinodičke rotacije Sunca. Na osnovu dosadašnjih merenja Sunce u toku jedne kalendarske godine napravi 13 punih sinodičkih rotacija i do kraja kalendarske dodajemo 13,5 zemaljskih dana. Međutim, po vinčanskom sunčevom kalendaru Sunce u toku jedne kalendarske godine napravi 13 punih rotacija i do kraja kalendarske godine Srbi su pre 8.000 godina dodavali 15 zemaljskih dana!

Ovo saznanje od izuzetnog je značaja za nauku, jer ukazuje da se u periodu od 8.000 godina vreme rotacije Sunca ubrzalo za 1,5 zemaljskih dana. Bez obzira da li je praistorijski vinčanski sunčev kalendar tačan ili ne, on je prvi pokrenuo pitanje promene brzine sinodičke rotacije Sunca. Postoje naučni osnovi da je brzina sinodičke rotacije Sunca promenljiva veličina i da je Sunce nekada sporije rotiralo nego danas. Poznato je da Sunce zrači materiju i energiju. To znači da Sunce zračenjem gubi masu pa je logično da usled gubitka mase povećava brzinu rotacije.

Ako pretpostavimo da su podaci iz vinčanskog sunčevog kalendra tačni, onda se može izračunati da se vreme rotacije Sunca u periodu od 8.000 godina ubrzalo za 1,5 zemaljskih dana. Pod pretpostavkom da se gubitak mase Sunca vrši linearno, Sunce će kroz 72.000 godina imati 13 rotacija u toku jedne kalendarske godine. Kako promena brzine sinodičke rotacije Sunca utiče na vremenske promene, to znači da zbog ovih razloga promenu klime na našim prostorima možemo očekivati posle 72.000 godina.

Brzina kretanja Sunčevog sistema oko centra galaksije je 250 kilometara u sekundi, a brzina revolucije Zemlje oko Sunca je 30 kilometara u sekundi. Zemlja se oko Sunca kreće se u obliku zavojnice, čiji je poluprečnik  r = mvsinӨ/qB. Put koji pređe Zemlja u toku jedne kalendarske godine u odnosu na centar galaksije je d = 2πrmvcosӨ/qB, gde je B vektor magnetske indukcije, a q električno opterećenje; Ө ugao između vektora brzine v i vektora magnetske indukcije B.

Prikaz kretanja Zemlje oko Sunca

Podizanjem naučnih satelita i analizom dobijenih rezultata naučnih istraživanja dobija se utisak da mi tek sada otkrivamo ono što su naši preci znali. Najbolji primer je saznanje da se na Preobraženje  „preobražava i gora i voda”. Ova izreka  predstavlja deo naučnog i istorijskog nasleđa Srba.

Najnovija hemijska istraživanja kiše Beogradske škole meteorologije pokazala su da su one od Đurđevdana do Preobraženja kisele, a od Preobraženja alkalne. Da bi se došlo do saznanja da se kiša preobražava, potrebni su precizni hemijski instrumenti, odnosno napredna civilizacija.

Suncu je potrebno 220 miliona godina da obiđe jedan galaktički krug; od nastanka do danas načinilo ih je 20. Međutim, zbunjuje saznanje da se u centru vinčanskog sunčevog kalendara nalazi urezan dijagram energija Sunca koje u toku jedne kalendarske godine stižu do Zemlje.

Postavlja se pitanje: Kako su znali da na Mitrovdan počinje zima? Da li su poznavali prirodnu elektromagnetsku silu koja jedina daje odgovor na ovo pitanje?

Prikaz dijagrama energija u toku jedne kalendarske godine

Po Srpskom kalendaru Svetog Save, u toku jedne kalendarske godine postoje samo dva godišnja doba –  leto i zima. Leto počinje krajem marta i početkom aprila, a zima na Mitrovdan, početkom novembra. Najnovija satelitska elektromagnetna merenja energija koje dolaze sa Sunca na severnu i južnu hemisferu dokazuju da u toku jedne kalendarske godine postoje samo dva godišnja doba.

Dijagram izmerenih elektromagnetnih energija

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