New Kingdom

Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt  
Early Dynastic Period 3100–2686 BC
Old Kingdom 2686–2181 BC
1st Intermediate Period 2181–2055 BC
Middle Kingdom 2055–1650 BC
2nd Intermediate Period 1650–1550 BC
New Kingdom 1550–1069 BC
3rd Intermediate Period 1069–664 BC
Late Period 664–332 BC

New Kingdom - 18th Dynasty Family Tree

New Kingdom - 18th Dynasty DNA

Basic phylogenetic tree for R1b

Haplogroup R1b


R-M343* (R1b*). No cases have been reported.


R-PH155 (R1b1b) has been found in individuals from Bahrain, Bhutan, Ladakh, Tajikistan, Turkey, Xinjiang, and Yunnan.


R-V88 (R1b1a2): the most common forms of R1b found among males native to Sub-Saharan Africa, also found rarely elsewhere.


R-V1636 (R1b1a1b) is rare, but has been found in Bulgaria, Turkey, a Tomsk Tatar, the Italian Province of Salerno, and an individual of unknown descent in Puerto Rico.


Subclades of R-M73 (R1b1a1a1) are rare and common only in Eastern Europe, Siberia and Central Asia.


Subclades of R-M269 (R1b1a1a2; previously R1b1a2) are now extremely common throughout Western Europe, but are also found at lower levels in many other parts of Western Eurasia and the Mediterranean.


Geographical distribution

R1b1a2 (R-V88)

R1b1a2 (PF6279/V88; previously R1b1c) is defined by the presence of SNP marker V88, the discovery of which was announced in 2010 by Cruciani et al. Apart from individuals in southern Europe and Western Asia, the majority of R-V88 was found in the Sahel, especially among populations speaking Afroasiatic languages of the Chadic branch.

Studies in 2005–08 reported "R1b*" at high levels in Jordan, Egypt and Sudan. However, subsequent research indicates that the samples concerned most likely belong to the subclade R-V88, which is now concentrated in Sub-Saharan Africa, following migration from Asia.

Two branches of R-V88, R-M18 and R-V35, are found almost exclusively on the island of Sardinia.

As can be seen in the above data table, R-V88 is found in northern Cameroon in west central Africa at a very high frequency, where it is considered to be caused by a pre-Islamic movement of people from Eurasia. On the other hand, Gonzalez et al (2013) found that patterns of diversity in African R1b-V88 did not fit with a movement of Chadic-speaking people from the North across the Sahara to West-Central Africa, but was compatible with the reverse, an origin of the V88 lineages in Central-West Africa, followed by migration to North Africa.


Ahmose I, 1549 - 1524 BC

Ahmose I - Izgon Hiksa

Ahmose I je završio osvajanje i protjerivanje Hiksa iz delte regije, obnovljena tebansku pravilo u cijelom Egiptu i uspješno Ponovili egipatsku vlast u svojim nekad predmet područja Nubije i Kanaanu.

Around 1785 BC, as the power of the Middle Kingdom pharaohs weakened, a Western Asian people called the Hyksos had already settled in the Eastern Delta town of Avaris, seized control of Egypt, and forced the central government to retreat to Thebes. The pharaoh was treated as a vassal and expected to pay tribute. The Hyksos ("foreign rulers") retained Egyptian models of government and identified as pharaohs, thus integrating Egyptian elements into their culture.

After their retreat, the native Theban kings found themselves trapped between the Canaanite Hyksos ruling the north and the Hyksos' Nubian allies, the Kushites, to the south of Egypt. After years of vassalage, Thebes gathered enough strength to challenge the Hyksos in a conflict that lasted more than 30 years, until 1555 BC. The pharaohs Seqenenre Tao II and Kamose were ultimately able to defeat the Nubians to the south of Egypt, but failed to defeat the Hyksos. That task fell to Kamose's successor, Ahmose I, who successfully waged a series of campaigns that permanently eradicated the Hyksos' presence in Egypt. He established a new dynasty. In the New Kingdom that followed, the military became a central priority for the pharaohs seeking to expand Egypt's borders and attempting to gain mastery of the Near East.


Ah-mose - Jˁḥ ms(j.w), Born of Iah


Iah (Egyptian: Jˁḥ, transliterated as Yah, Jah, Jah(w), Joh or Aah is a lunar deity in ancient Egyptian religion. His name simply means "Moon". By the New Kingdom, he was less prominent than other gods with lunar connections, Thoth and Khonsu. As a result of the functional connection between them he could be identified with either of those deities.



Hebrew Name of G-d is Yah and it was known to be the name of G-d since Moses’s exodus from Egypt and by the way what was the name of Egyptian Moon God? He was called Yah.

Yah  equals to Iah or Ieue as it is said in Hebrew. One Egyptian papyrus says:

 "I am Moon God Yah among the Gods, I do not fail". When christians praise their G-d they use the word "Helelu-Yah", which means "O Yah the Shining One" . The word "Helel" means "Shining One".

The Hebrew word for Moon itself is "Yah-re-ach" meaning "Crescent Moon"(H3394) And ‘Yareach’ is Hebrew name for none other than the Canaanite deity Yarikh!

This Egyptian deity called Yah  was once personified through the crescent moon, worshiped in humanoid form.

The word Jerico or Yah-richo in Hebrew means  Moon City. So they prayed to Moon God.

Strong Lexicon gives a very interesting meaning for Yareach:  Yah (Moon) Re (Sun) Ank( Light).

If Moon God ‘Iah’ is not the same as Hebrew YAH then try explaining why so many Hebrew names end like:

Ab-iah , Ahaz-iah, Amar-iah, Ana-iah, Azaz-iah, Bena-iah, Bit-iah, El-iah, Hilk-iah, Hezek-iah, Isa-iah, Jecon-iah, Jerem-iah, Jos-iah etc.

World renowned Egyptologist, E.A. Wallis Budge, defined the Egyptian glyph "Aah" (Yah) as a moon deity in his Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary and equated it directly to the Hebraic word Yareach ירח 

George Hart, in his "A Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses" believes that these foreigners in Egypt may have associated Yah with the Akkadian moon-god, Sin, who had an important temple at Harran in north Syria. Like Thoth, Sin was a god of Wisdom, but his other epithets included "Brother of the Earth", Father of the Sun, Father of Gods, as well as others.

E.A. Wallis Budge Hieroglyphic Dictionary Vol. I. p.29b

The oldest Egyptian deity Osiris (Asar) is personified with the moon as ‘Asar-Aah’ who the Hyksos revered as YHWH after their expulsion from Egypt by the Nubian 18th dynasty after ruling it for over 100 years.

Among ancient references, we do seem to find in the Papyrus of Ani several references to the god, though here, his name has been translated as:

"A spell to come forth by day and live after dying. Words spoken by the Osiris Ani:
O One, bright as the moon-god Iah; O One, shining as Iah

Even in the Theban royal families the name of the god Yah was incorporated into their names. The daughter of the 17th Dynasty king, Tao I, was Yah-hotep, meaning "Yah is content".

Ancient Artifacts Of Moon G-d Yarikh at Tel Hazor in Israel

The name of the next and last ruler of the 17th Dynasty, Kamose, may have also been derived from Yah. His name means "the bull is born", and this might be the Egyptian equivalent of the epithet applied to Sin describing him as a "young bull...with strong horns (i.e. the tips of the crescent moon). Also another interpretation of the name of the founder of the 18th Dynasty, Ahmose, is Yahmose, which would mean "Yah is born".

In the tomb of Tuthmosis III of the 18th Dynasty there is a scene where the king is accompanied by his mother and three queens, including Sit-Yah, the "daughter of the Moon-god".

Even in Indian tales of Mahabharat we find  variant of Yah/Iah  as Ila. In versions in which Ila is born a girl, she is changed to a boy by divine grace soon after her birth. After mistakenly entering a sacred grove as an adult, Ila is either cursed to change his/her gender every month or cursed to become a woman. As a woman, Ilā married Budha, the god of the planet Mercury (son of the moon-god), and bore him a son called Pururavas, the father of the Lunar Dynasty.

The Linga Purana and Mahabharata emphasize the sex change of Ila to be a deliberate act of  God Shiva to start the Lunar Dynasty. Ilā gave birth to Pururavas, who grew to become the first king of the Lunar Dynasty.



Khafajah lies on the Diyala River, a tributary of the Tigris. The site consists of four mounds, labeled A through D. The main one, Mound A, extends back as far as the Uruk period and contained an oval temple, a temple of the god Sin, not surely and a temple of Nintu. The Dur-Samsuiluna fort was found on mounds B and C. Mound D contained private homes and a temple for the god Sin where the archive tablets where found in two heaps.


Nannar/Sin - Sinai

Nannar's bull on his alter in Ur


Moldova - Sin

Coat of arms of Moldova - Sin

The name Sinai may have been derived from the ancient moon-god Sin (Symbol bull).

Declaration of unification of Romania and Bessarabia

Mask of a mummy of a sacred bull with the sacred disk of Hathor - Sacred bull Apis


Alal ti vera - Hallelujah

Venus, called "Meleket ha-Shamayim," "the queen of heaven," in Jeremiah 7:18 and elsewhere. That the latter means Venus is shown by the cakes which are said to have been baked for her. Among the Assyrians and Babylonians the cake offerings were called "the bread of Ishtar."

Helel (Alal) the "son of the morning," in Isaiah 14:12, is also thought by some to be the morning star (Venus when visible before dawn). This identification is better known to many English speakers as Lucifer, the "light-bearer.

The word "Yah" appears by itself as a divine name in poetry about 49 times in the Hebrew Bible (including halelu yah), such as in Psalm 68:4–5 "who rides upon the skies by his name Yah"

  • Vlahia/Vlah; VL=BL (blistav, sjajan, bijel..) + Iah/Yah = Vlah

Helelu-Yah (O Yah the Shining One) Helel (Shining One)

Volos/Veles Shining One

Illyria - Bosnae

Illyria - Bosnae

Sherden Levant

Hadrian coin


Sin (Moon) - Mjesec

Sin Moon God


Chandra Soma

Chandra the Hindu moon god

Chandra is a lunar deity and is also one of the nine houses (Navagraha) in Hinduism. Chandra is synonymously referred to as Soma.
Chandra literally means the "Moon" in Sanskrit, Hindi and other Indian languages.

Soma connotes the Moon as well as a deity in post-Vedic Hindu mythology. In Puranic mythology, Soma is moon deity, but sometimes also used to refer to Vishnu, Shiva (as Somanatha), Yama and Kubera. In some Indian texts, Soma is a name of an Apsara, alternatively it is the name of any medicinal concoction, or rice-water gruel, or heaven and sky, as well as the name of certain places of pilgrimage.

Soma was presumed to be a planet in Hindu astronomical texts. It is often discussed in various Sanskrit astronomical texts, such as the 5th century Aryabhatiya by Aryabhatta, the 6th century Romaka by Latadeva and Panca Siddhantika by Varahamihira, the 7th century Khandakhadyaka by Brahmagupta and the 8th century Sisyadhivrddida by Lalla. Other texts such as Surya Siddhanta dated to have been complete sometime between the 5th century and 10th century present their chapters on various planets with deity mythologies. However, they show that the Hindu scholars were aware of elliptical orbits, and the texts include sophisticated formulae to calculate its past and future positions:

The longitude of moon =

Surya Siddhanta II.39.43

where m is the moon's mean longitude, a is the longitude at apogee, P is epicycle of apsis, R=3438'.

Kṛttikā - Pleiades

The star cluster Kṛttikā (Tamil: கிருத்திகை) (Sanskrit: कृत्तिका, pronounced [kɽɪttɪkaː], popularly transliterated Krittika), sometimes known as Kārtikā, corresponds to the open star cluster called Pleiades in western astronomy; it is one of the clusters which makes up the constellation Taurus. In Indian astronomy and Jyotiṣa (Hindu astrology) the name literally translates to "the cutters". It is also the name of its goddess-personification, who is a daughter of Daksha and Panchajani, and thus a half-sister to Khyati. Spouse of Kṛttikā is Chandra ("moon").

  • Chandra Soma = Sin (Moon)
  • Pleiades = Vlašići (Kiʹmah)


Egyptians lunar deity

Yah - Thoth - Khonsu - Min

Min was also a lunar god - moon deity tended to be gods relating to moisture and thus of fertility. As a lunar deity Min was sometimes given the title "Protector of the Moon". In this capacity, the god was related to the Egyptian calendar - the last day of the lunar month was consecrated to the deity, and the day was known as "The Exit of Min". He was, in later times, thought to preside over the fifth month of the Egyptian calendar, known by Greek times as Tybi.

  • Min; mina, mena, mijena (Mjesec).. mjenjati, mjenjačnica.. Moon

Thutmose I - Hatshepsut, 1506 - 1458 BC

Thutmose I - Hatshepsut

Thutmose I

Thutmose I, reign: 1506–1493 B.C.E. During his reign, he campaigned deep into the Levant and Nubia, pushing the borders of Egypt farther than ever before. He also built many temples in Egypt, and a tomb for himself in the Valley of the Kings.


The Hathor Chapel at the Mortuary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut. West Bank, Luxor.

Hatshepsut - Deir el-Bahari

Four Foreign Chieftains, Tomb of Puyemre


Deir el-Medina

Deir el-Medina

Deir el-Medina (Arabic: دير المدينة‎‎) is an ancient Egyptian village which was home to the artisans who worked on the tombs in the Valley of the Kings during the 18th to 20th dynasties of the New Kingdom period (ca. 1550–1080 BC) The settlement's ancient name was "Set Maat" (translated as "The Place of Truth"), and the workmen who lived there were called “Servants in the Place of Truth”.

The first datable remains of the village belong to the reign of Thutmosis I (c. 1506-1493 BCE) with its final shape being formed during the Ramesside Period At its peak, the community contained around sixty-eight houses spread over a total area of 5,600 m2 with a narrow road running the length of the village. The main road through the village may have been covered to shelter the villagers from the intense glare and heat of the sun. The size of the habitations varied, with an average floor space of 70 m2, but the same construction methods were used throughout the village. Walls were made of mudbrick, built on top of stone foundations. Mud was applied to the walls which were then painted white on the external surfaces with some of the inner surfaces whitewashed up to a height of around one metre. A wooden front door might have carried the occupants name. Houses consisted of four to five rooms comprising an entrance, main room, two smaller rooms, kitchen with cellar and staircase leading to the roof. The full glare of the sun was avoided by situating the windows high up on the walls. The main room contained a mudbrick platform with steps which may have been used as a shrine or a birthing bed. Nearly all houses contained niches for statues and small altars. The tombs built by the community for their own use include small rock-cut chapels and substructures adorned with small pyramids.

Village life

The settlement was home to a mixed population of Egyptians, Nubians and Asiatics who were employed as labourers, (stone-cutters, plasterers, water-carriers), as well as those involved in the administration and decoration of the royal tombs and temples. The artisans and the village were organised into two groups, left and right gangs who worked on opposite sides of the tomb walls similar to a ship's crew, with a foreman for each who supervised the village and its work.

Based on analysis of income and prices, the workmen of the village would, in modern terms, be considered middle class. As salaried state employees they were paid in rations at up to three times the rate of a fieldhand, but unofficial second jobs were also widely practiced. At great festivals such as the heb sed the workmen were issued with extra supplies of food and drink to allow a stylish celebration.

The working week was eight days followed by two days holiday, though the six days off a month could be supplemented frequently due to illness, family reasons and, as recorded by the scribe of the tomb, rowing with wife or having a hangover. Including the days given over to festivals, over one-third of the year was time-off for the villagers during the reign of Merneptah (c. 1213–1203 BCE).

During their days off the workmen could work on their own tombs, and since they were amongst the best craftsmen in Ancient Egypt who excavated and decorated royal tombs, their own tombs are considered to be some of the most beautiful on the west bank.

A large proportion of the community, including women, could at least read and possibly write.

The jobs of the workers would have been considered desirable and prized positions with the posts being inheritable.

The examples of love songs recovered show how friendship between the sexes was practised, as was social drinking by both men and women. Egyptian marriages amongst commoners were monogamous but little is known about the marriage or wedding arrangements from surviving records. It was not unusual for couples to have six or seven children with some recorded as having ten.

Separation, divorce and remarriage occurred. Merymaat is recorded as wanting a divorce on account of his mother in-law's behaviour. Girl slaves could become surrogate mothers in cases where the wife was infertile and in doing so raise their status and procure their freedom.

The community could move freely in and out of the walled village but for security reasons only outsiders who had good work related reasons could enter the site.


Turin Erotic Papyrus

The final two thirds of Turin Erotic Papyrus consist of a series of twelve vignettes showing men and women in various sexual positions. The men in the illustrations are "scruffy, balding, short, and paunchy" with exaggeratedly large genitalia and do not conform to Egyptian standards of physical attractiveness, but the women are nubile, and they are shown with objects from traditional erotic iconography, such as convolvulus leaves and, in some scenes, they are even holding items traditionally associated with Hathor, the goddess of love, such as lotus flowers, monkeys, and sistra.

The first third depicts animals performing various human tasks. This part of the scroll-painting has been described as satirical and humorous.

Turin Erotic Papyrus

Turin Erotic Papyrus


Women and village life

The records from this village provide most of the information we know about how women lived in the New Kingdom era. Women were supplied with servants by the government to assist with the grinding of the grain and laundry tasks. The wives of the workers cared for the children and baked the bread, a prime food source in these societies. The vast majority of women who had a particular religious status embedded in their names were married to foremen or scribes and could hold the titles of chantress or singer with official positions within local shrines or temples, perhaps even within the major temples of Thebes. Under Egyptian law they had property rights. They had title to their own wealth and a third of all marital goods. This would belong solely to the wife in case of divorce or death of the husband. If she died first it would go to her heirs, not to her spouse. Brewing of beer was normally supervised by the Mistress of the House, though the workmen considered the monitoring of the activity as a legitimate excuse for taking time off work.

Law and order

The workers and their families were not slaves but free citizens with recourse to the justice system as required. In principle any Egyptian could petition the vizier and could demand a trial by his peers. The community had its own court of law made up of a foreman, deputies, craftsmen and a court scribe, and were authorised to deal with all civil and some criminal cases, typically relating to the non-payment of goods or services. The villagers represented themselves and cases could go on for several years, with one dispute involving the chief of police lasting eleven years. The local police, Medjay, were responsible for preserving law and order as well as controlling access to the tombs in the Valley of the Kings. One of the most famous cases recorded relates to Paneb the son of an overseer who was accused of looting royal tombs, adultery and causing unrest in the community. The outcome is not known but surviving records indicate the execution of a head of workmen at this time.

Medical Care

The records and ostraca from Deir el-Medina provide a deeply compelling view into the medical workings of the New Kingdom. Like in other Egyptian communities, the workmen and inhabitants of Deir el-Medina received care for their health problems through medical treatment, prayer, and magic. Nevertheless, the records at Deir el-Medina indicate some level of division, as records from the village note both a “physician” who saw patients and prescribed treatments, and a “scorpion charmer” who specialized in magical cures for scorpion bites.

Popular piety

The excavations of the royal artisans community at Deir el-Medina have revealed much evidence of personal religious practice and cults. State gods were worshipped freely alongside personal gods without any conflict between national and local modes of religious expression.

The community had between sixteen and eighteen chapels, with the larger ones dedicated to Hathor, Ptah and Ramesses II. The workmen seem to have honoured Ptah and Reshep, the scribes Thoth and Seshat, as patron deities of their particular activity. Women had particular devotion towards Hathor, Taweret, and Bes in pregnancy, turning to Renenutet and Meretseger for food and safety. Meretseger, "Lady of the Western Mountain", was perhaps, at a local level, at least as important as Osiris, the great god of the dead.

The villagers held Amenhotep I (c. 1526–1506 BCE) and his mother Queen Ahmose Nefertari in high regard over many generations, possibly as divinized patrons of the community. When Amenhotep died he became the centre of a village funerary cult, worshipped as "Amenhotep of the Town". When the Queen died she also was deified and became "Mistress of the Sky" and "Lady of the West". Every year the villagers celebrated the Festival of Amenhotep I when the elders acted as priests in the ceremonies that paid honour to their own local gods who were not worshipped anywhere else in Egypt.


Dream interpretation, a gift which Hebrew scriptures also attribute to Joseph, was very common. A book of dreams was found in Scribe Kenhirkhopeshef's library which was old even in his time. This book was used to interpret various types of dreams. These interpretations lacked precision and similar dreams often had different meanings. In many cases the interpretation was the opposite of what the dream depicted, for example a happy dream often signified sadness, a dream of plenty often signified scarceness etc.


The Wooden coffer was made of acacia

The Wooden coffer was made of acacia  wood and measuring 111 by 49 cm. Its shape  resembles a shrine: the lid, which slopes towards  the back, closes against a palmetto cornice. It  was secured by a cord winding around mushroom shaped knobs. A funerary offering formula in sunk relief appears on the lid.


Wooden coffer of Merit The flat lid is painted with a "trompe l' oeil" wood grain pattern  decoration. The carved and painted inscription  is a funerary offering formula dedicated to Merit's ka-spirit.


Iusaaset - The Egyptian Goddess of DMT

The Grandmother Of All Egyptian Deities

Scales: Water, Wings: Air, Breath: Fire, Claws: Earth. The serpent/dragon is a representation of classical Ether. Iusaaset was a deity that represented Acacia Nilotica, the Egyptian Tree Of Lie. Recent studies in the 1990s have concluded that this plant contains DMT, as well as Tetrahydroharman. (Hutchings et al., 1996. Zulu Medicinal Plants. An Inventory.) The reason this Goddess is important, being comparable to others is because she was classified as the "Grandmother" of Deities. Simultaneously, she was also the owner of the Tree Of Life. After piecing these modern and ancient aspects together, it has been revealed to me that Iussaset is a personification of the psychoactive effects of DMT.

Modern Portrayal - The inner is the outer: Spiral Ancient Egyptians created personalities based upon spiritual encounters, which they referred to this practice as "Gnosticism," translating to "Practice of Knowledge." Gnosticism is based around "Gnosis," which translates to "Oneness with God."  Knowledge was gained through Psychedelic connections with All That Is. Understanding this fact in history allows for us to understand the origins of Religion/Spirituality.

Being informed is being aware. Awareness and knowledge are two of the same source.  Through the consumption of the tree came births of many Deities, including Osiris and Isis, both joined as One to create Horus, The Sun God; The Christ Within. In the original Gnostic Scriptures, Christ died on a Tree, rather than the Cross. "Where lies the beginning, lies the ending." - Jesus Christ, referring that these sayings are simply reflections of Gnostic Belief. Modern day, Science proves that all of human DNA is traced to Trees. Coincidence? Not a chance, as everything is connected.

Happy to share some sources:

"Egyptian mythology has associated the acacia tree with characteristics of the tree of life, such as in the Myth of Osiris and Isis."

"The acacia tree was renowned for its strength, hardiness, medical properties, and edibility."


Bagremovo drvo


Od bagremova drva neka naprave Kovčeg - Izlazak



DeNdera - MeDiNa (grad na arapskom), GraDiNa (rimski gradovi) - Danovci drevni graditelji gradova


Dendera zodiac

Rogers sees the Dendera zodiac as "a complete copy of the Mesopotamian zodiac".

Egyptian trade

During the Early Bronze Age the Egyptians would slowly come to control the Eastern Mediterranean and centuries later, during the height of the New Kingdom Empire, (1550-1100 BCE) the Sea would be known as the Water of Egypt. Although Egypt was the dominant political power on the waves for at least one thousand years it shared the waterborne trade routes with merchants from across the Bronze Age world. Much more is known about the Mediterranean trade routes than the sea routes to Asia.

Traveling north, along the Palestinian coast, Egyptian ships made an average sped of 55km per day. The Ships would bring gold, amethyst, jasper and turquoise to trade for timber and luxury goods like the prized lapis lazuli from distant Afghanistan. As southern Palestine had few ports most Egyptian ships traveled north to Byblos to conduct their business, usually trading for timber, especially the highly prized Lebanese cedar.

From Byblos ships could travel on to Ugarit and southern Anatolia or they could sail west to Cyprus which was known for its oxhide  ingots of copper ore (so named due their shape) and olive oil. Such journeys would take as little as two weeks when sailing out of the Eastern Nile Delta region. Travel south again from Cyprus was much quicker in the right season where southerly winds could push the ships southward at speeds of hundreds of Kilometers per day. This southerly journey from Cyprus could be treacherous as it relied on travel across open water which made the ships susceptible to storms.

During the New Kingdom Egyptian shipping was based out of Perunefer (meaning Good Departure/BonVoyage), the port of the capital city of Memphis. It was here that much of the timber from the Syrian coast was brought for shipbuilding. Ships masts were brought in ranging from 6-17 meters in length. The ships themselves were up to 5.5 meters wide and 30 meters long. Although Egypt built many vessels for trade it is possible that some of the longer range vessels were actually built in foreign lands.

An ancient Egyptian ship based on tomb drawings

Egyptian accounts tell of long range trade vessels known as Byblos ships and Keftiu ships. Keftiu was the ancient Egyptian name for Crete. Some theories suggest that theses ships were so named because of their destinations but depictions of these vessels indicate they often had crews of non-Egyptians and therefore may have actually originated in Byblos or Keftiu and were merely sanctioned by Egypt to trade in its territory.

Land of Punt

The most famous expedition dispatched to Punt was by Queen Hatshepsut in the Eighteenth Dynasty (1540?1304 BC). Engraving based on detailed descriptions of trade between Punt and Egypt in her funerary temple at Deir el-Bahri. On one of the reliefs, the boats from Egypt have arrived at Punt and are beached. The Egyptians offer 'strings of beads, axes, and weapons' and the people of Punt in exchange have 'gold, ivory ? and precious myrrh-tress'.

Puntites - Cretans - Kushite

Foreign tributaries on the top three registers of the Grand Procession mural at Thebes.
Top row=Puntites (left), Nilotes (far right); Middle row=Cretans; Bottom row=Hamitic-type Nubians, Nilote (center-right)




Nilometar pomoću kojeg su mjerili vodostaj Nila. Na konto vodostaja su i uzimali porez. Ako je vodostaj nizak onda je bio mali porez dok kod visokog vodostaja poreza nije ni bilo, zbog poplava.

The Hurrian Kingdom of Mitanni, c. 1500 - 1300 BC

The Great Kingdoms

During the 18th century BCE the Hurrians were one of many tribes that lived along the borders of the Babylonian Empire, slowly absorbing elements of its culture. This empire entrenched the use of Akkadian as the international language of diplomacy and grew wealthy from the trade routes that it controlled. Almost immediately upon Hammurabi’s death around 1686 BCE the empire began to unravel. Then almost a century later, in one of the boldest military moves of the age, the Hittite king Mursili I marched his armies from Anatolia down the Euphrates and sacked the ancient city of Babylon, capital of the diminished empire.

The Hittites made no attempt to consolidate control outside of Anatolia at that time and the lands of Mesopotamia fell into a period of political chaos. Within a few generations two new peoples had emerged on the scene taking advantage of the fall of Babylonian authority. One group was known as the Kassites and they would move in from the eastern frontier and establish a new Babylonian dynasty in southern Iraq that would last nearly 600 years.

The other group that would take advantage of Mursili’s raid were the Hurrians. With a society built around a chariot warrior elite the Hurrians would for a time dominate the ancient Near East. During the Middle and Late Bronze Age much of Syria and Iraq came to be united under the rule of a Hurrian dynasty of kings known as the Mitanni. By controlling the trade routes of northern Mesopotamia the Mitanni kings had become a major power in the region.

Early Hittite Records

Around 1560 BCE the Hittite King Hattushili I, Mursili’s father, marched his armies out of Anatolia to the southeast intent on expanding his control over the trade routes of Syria. As the Hittites took control of the city of Alalakh in western Syria a new force of Hurrians was uniting to the east of the Euphrates River. When the Hittites moved against the city of Urshu they were less successful. Although the Hittites laid siege to Urshu, the city’s allies, including the Hurrians, managed to keep the city supplied and eventually Hattushili was forced to withdraw.

This account in the Hittite records is the first mention of the Hurrians organized as a united people. It is possible that this time period can be connected with the doings of the legendary King Kirta. If this correlation can be made then the first King of Mitanni, Suttarna son of Kirta, can be placed as having ruled around 1550 BCE. Suttarna’s son Paratarma is thought to have consolidated Mitanni control over Syria between 1530 and 1480 BCE after Mursili’s raid on Babylon.

Mitanni versus Egypt

Paratarma had ruled for around 30 years when the Egyptian King Tuthmoses I (1506–1493 BCE) marched his armies northward into Syria. It is possible that Tuthmoses defeated the Mitanni army near the Euphrates River. However the Egyptians were unable to maintain control over central Syria and within a generation a new Mitanni King, Paratarma’s son, Saushtatar (1480-1430 BCE?) was busy rebuilding his kingdom. By 1470 BCE the Kingdom of Mitanni was at its height of power. King Suashtatar controlled territory from Kizzuwadna in southern Anatolia to the west and to the Zagros mountains in the East. Most of the minor kings in Canaan now looked to the Mitanni king as overlord as did the Assyrian king in Ashur on the banks of the Tigris.

Saushtatar’s royal seal

In the year 1457 BCE an alliance of Canaanite and South Syrian rulers formed to contest the might of Egypt. Although nominally led by the King of Kadesh, it is likely that this alliance was orchestrated by the Mitanni Kingdom to the north. The struggle likely ensued as several minor kings chose to end their allegiance to the Egyptian pharaoh in the hopes of better opportunities under a Mitanni king. The alliance gathered a considerable chariot force at Megiddo but was never able to take further action.

The Egyptian pharaoh Tuthmoses III (1479-1425 BCE) upon hearing of the alliance arrayed against him marched with all possible speed and defeated his enemies in first Battle of Megiddo. The Mitanni vassals were routed and fled to behind the city walls. Tuthmoses III was decisive in his victory. Over a decade long period he conquered Canaan in a series of yearly campaigns. Tuthmoses was able to eventually conquer Kadesh in southern Syria opening the way for a direct confrontation with Mitanni.

Alliance With Egypt

By 1430 BCE a new Mitanni king named Artatarma was on the throne. Within a few decades a long-term peace was finally reached with the Egyptians. It is likely that the growing strength of the Hittites to the north in Anatolia motivated this alliance.

Ruins of a Mitanni palace at Tel-Brak in eastern Syria

Around the year 1400 BCE Artatarma’s son Shuttarna II became king of Mitanni. In an effort to firm up the alliance with Egypt one of Shuttarna’s daughters was sent to Egypt to marry the pharaoh Tuthmoses IV(1401-1391 BCE). Artatarma’s and Tuthmose’s heirs repeated this marriage alliance a generation later when Shuttarna II’s son Artashumara sent his daughter to wed the Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep III.

The Egyptian-Mitanni alliance saw a period of peace and prosperity that lasted for several generations as trade and diplomacy came to be preferred over war. This tranquility was disrupted after half a century by the assassination of the Mitanni king. With the death of the rightful ruler the kingdom would begin a slow fall into a chaos from which it could not emerge.

The Downfall of the Mitanni Dynasty

The internal strife within the Mitanni Kingdom would, for a time, undermine the relationship with Egypt. In the Amarna archive is a letter sent by King Tushratta of Mitanni (ca. 1372-1324 B.C.E.) to the pharaoh Akhenaten, (ca1353-1335 B.C.E.) attempting to rekindle his alliance with Egypt. This letter, Amarna Letter 17 (EA 17), can be dated to around 1350 BCE and is one of the only sources available that sheds any light on the inner workings of the Mitanni Kingdom in this period.

Tushratta’s letter to Akhenaten

As revealed in the ancient text it was during the early years of the 14th century when Tushratta’s father, Shuttarna II (ca. 1415-1390 B.C.E.) had entered into a marriage alliance with Egypt . It was Tushratta’s elder brother, Artashumara, who first succeed his father to the throne, but he was soon toppled by an internal coup and assassinated. The villain, named UD-hi, then placed the young prince Tushratta on the throne.

According to Tushratta, UD-hi prevented him from “friendship with anyone who loved me.” This is an apparent reference to the diplomatic strictures that were now in place, given the illegal nature of the Mittani regime. Considering the intermarriage between the two royal households, it appears that Egypt would not tolerate the murdering of in-laws to the pharaoh. Commerce between the two kingdoms dried up along with diplomatic contact following the death of Artashumara. It is only after Tushratta came of age and UD-hi was dead that the young king once again communicated with Egypt.

Tushratta Attempts To Renew An Alliance With Egypt

In his letter to Akhenaten, Tushratta writes to remind the pharaoh how, in the past, there had been a close friendship between the two kingdoms. The Mitanni king recalls that even now his sister resides in Egypt as a wife of the Pharaoh. Furthermore, the original purpose of the alliance had once again become relevant, since after a long time of remaining in Anatolia, the Hittites were once again on the move southward into Syria.

Tushratta writes telling the pharaoh that the year after he had restored legitimate rule to his land, the Hittites invaded. This encounter can either be read as an account of a minor raid by the Hittites or as a full scale invasion, the letter is unclear. Either way, Tushratta claim’s victory and announces to the Egyptian king that none of the enemy returned home alive. As a token of friendship with Egypt, and as proof of this account, Tushratta sends along with his letter a Hittite chariot, a team of horses and two slaves as a sample of his booty gained from the battle.

In the letter Tushratta continues by listing his “greeting gifts.” For the pharaoh he sends another five chariots and five teams of horses. As a way of making his point about the friendship between the two kingdom’s, Tushratta sends along several additional “greeting gifts” for his sister, the pharaoh’s wife Gildukhepa.

If Tushratta feared his kingdom was at the brink of a serious war and needed strong allies, then he was correct. In the end, although Egypt would renew its friendship with Mitanni, it would not be enough to stop the kingdom’s destruction. Within a few decades of Tushratta’s having written to the Pharaoh, the Kingdom of Mitanni would be no more.

The kingdom’s downfall would be primarily due to the conquests of the Hittite king Suppililiuma. Over the period of a decade or more the Hittite king conducted a series of campaigns that at first diminished then toppled the Mitanni dynasty. He would then put Tushratta’s son Shattizawa on the throne of a new Hurrian vassal kingdom that the Hittite king envisioned as a buffer against the growing might of Assyria.



A team of Kurdish and German archeologists has excavated a Bronze Age palace in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, one they say can be dated to the Mittani Empire 3,500 years ago.

"The find is one of the most important archaeological discoveries in the region in recent decades and illustrates the success of the Kurdish-German cooperation," Hasan Ahmed Qasim, an archaeologist involved in the dig, said in a press release. 

The grand reveal took place after a drought caused water in a reservoir checked by the Mosul Dam to retreat, exposing the remains of an ancient building. This required an intensive effort to survey the site before the water returned and buried the remains (once again).

Within a short time-frame, the team was able to partially excavate eight of the 10 rooms – finding floor slabs made of fired bricks and murals painted with red and blue pigments.

The excavations on the shore of Mosul Dam; a room in Kemune Palace in which murals were found. University of Tübingen, eScience Center, and Kurdistan Archaeology Organization

Mural fragments. University of Tübingen, eScience Center, and Kurdistan Archaeology Organization

"In the second millennium BCE, murals were probably a typical feature of palaces in the Ancient Near East, but we rarely find them preserved," Ivana Puljiz of the Tübingen Institute for Ancient Near Eastern Studies (IANES) explained.

"So discovering wall paintings in Kemune is an archaeological sensation."


Hurito-bodulske paralele

Najzanimljiviji od svega za nas su obilni popisi susjednoga huritskog pučanstva iz klinopisnih arhiva grada Ebla, čija su plemenska imena (patronimi) pred 4.000 god. često slična našim današnjim prezimenima kao da su nekim "vremeplovom" prekopirana u klinopis iz našeg telefonskog imenika (pisali su k umjesto našeg "ć"): npr. Allariki (Alerići), Babuki (Babukić), Barba (Barbić), Buliki (Bulići), Ganeki (Ganići), Gališki (Galići), Harraki (Haračić), Hišaki (Hižaki), Ikiki (Ikići), Karašiki (Karačići), Kawurki (Kavurić), Kadziki (Kačići), Kirki (Kirčić), Korushi (Korušić), Kummiki (Kumičić), Lukka (Lukas), Mahaliki (Mihalići), Maliki (Malići), Maneki (Manekić), Mariki (Marići), Markashiki (Markešići), Maruhi (Marušić), Maryanni (Marjanić), Matka (Matković), Muriki (Murići), Nikkiki (Nikići), Parriki (Parići), Pazur (Pažur), Ribishki (Ribičić), Sershiki (Seršići), Shadaki (Šidaki), Shamnigi (Slamnig), Sharriki (Šarići), Shimaniki (Šimanići), Shimiki (Šimići), Shishilki (Šišići), Shumani (Šuman - Šumanić), Urgini (Ugrini), Uriki (Urići), Uvaliki (Uvalići), Waliki (Valići), Wasilki (Vasilić), Zalatariki (Zlatarići), Zanzi (Zanze), Zigulki (Žigulić), ... itd.

Osim glavnog grada (uri: čak. ûri = velegrad-prijestolnica), drugi huritski gradovi (wasi: kaj.+ čak. vâsi) u huritskoj Siriji su još bili Shibaniki (= 'Starigrad'), Libbur, Chabra, Zalatar, Mirnu, Dunab, Suharu, Sushara, Shumenye, Zabuhlye, Sidrashe, Birshena, Ludbug, Resen, Zalepuhi, itd. U tim huritskim naseljima su bili hramovi (šattera) sa čuvarima (sigguru: čak. sigûri), mesnice (bekkari: čak. bikarýa) i ini dućani (mešgetu: čak. mešéti). Kuće (khisha: kaj.+ čak. hîša) su bile gradjene od cigle (matún = čak. matûn), s većim sobama (kamaru = č. kàmare) i sobicama (kamaraši = č. kamarìći), a u njima lampaš (fera = č. ferâl), ognjište (kamanu = č. komîn), uz njega kolači (galeani = č. galèti) i papiri (hatuars: č. kârte), razne posude (latta = č. làta), bačvica (bariga = č. barìlac) s vinom (wiana), preša za voće (turya = č. tûrija), lanac (kattan: č. kadêna), sjekira (šukurru = č. šikýra), klupica (šamla), kolijevka (zikša = čak. zìkva + kaj. zibka), na krevetu madrac (šašta = č. šùšta), pahataru (plahte) i jastuci (tuhuli: č. tùhice) s perjem (pera), pa rupci (hubruši: čak. ubrùši + što. ubrus), odijelo (wessya = čak. veštîd + kaj. veš), ogrtač (kaban = č. kabân + što. kabanica) i šubar (šubara).

Pred ukućanima (hišaki: kaj.+ čak. hîšaki) je njihov kućni pragazda (barba = bârba) već tada kroz zube (zubu) psovao "Aštem-Baga !" (= čak. Asti-Bôga !). Oko sela su mjerom (ari) mjerili oranice (ugaru) i povrtnjake hasuwan (kaj. hasanje) gdje su sadili razne žitarice (kurustu), najviše proso (šen = čak. šenàc), a u mjesecu svibnju (zivan) cvale su im voćke: marah (višnja: čak. maràška), muri (dud: kaj.+ čak. mûrva), kirasi (trešnja: čak. cerýšna), šallori (šljiva) itd. Na padinama huritskih brežuljaka (baršilki) pregradjenih kamenim suhozidima su bili terasasti vinogradi tršat (kaj. trsje + Trsât kod Rijeke) gdje su im rasli trši (loza: kaj.+ čak. trsi) i to je najstarije poznato ime za lozu i prvi zapis o uzgoju vinograda u svijetu.

U stočnim štalama (paraka = baraka) držali su najviše koze (kozala: čak. kozâl = jarac) i svinje (gud: čak. gudà) koje su se hranile hrastovim žirom (šelu: čak. šelút). Od divljači su lovili (čatapu = čak. čapàti) npr. srne (surna), lisice (šelebu: čak. šelebâj = lisac) i tigrove (pirga: kaj.+ čak. pirgast = pjegav). U šumskim guštarama (gištir) rasli su daluba (hrast = č. dubác), maxri (borovi: čak. macâri), a ispod drveća razno trnje (nerezitu: čak. nerezìne), puzave povijuše (trti = čak. trtìna), šašru (šaševi) i sitya (sitina) itd. Na višim gorskim padinama Antitaurusa (huritski: Dingir-Ulikamma = Kamena Dinara) puhali su im olujni vjetrovi shiuni (čak. šijûni), najviše hladni sjeverni buryaš (= bùra), a sunce je zalazilo na zapadu (semiru: čak. semêra).

Na višemu planinskom hrbatu (hirhib = kaj.+ čak. hribèt) vapnenastog krasa na Antitaurus bile su ims kraške ponikve (walu = čak. vàla) i manji dolci (uwalki = uvalice), pastirski katuni (alani) i oko njih gole kamenjare (škarnu = čak. škâri ili škardũn) s kamenjem (kagalu = čak. kôguli). U rječnim kanjonima Tarae su im bile strmine (nahiri: kaj.+ čak. nahero) i stijene (kammaena), a u špiljama sige (mushur = čak.+ ikav. mušûr), te gnijezda zmija (kašga = čak. kàška + kaj. kača) i jastrebova (aršib: čak. laštrîb). Ta mitanska leksička baština u našemu je čakavskom rječniku mnogostruko brojnija negoli npr. u armenskom jeziku (DIAKONOV 1985, GREPPIN 1991) koji se kasnije razvio u istom području Zakavkazja umjesto ranjih Mitana, ali danas sadrži jedva dvadesetak huritskih izoglosa slično kao i kod nas kajkavica.

Od pr.Kr. su Mitanni postali vazalima anatolskih Hetita, pa ženidbama ulaze u njihovu carsku dinastiju Tabarna. Zato uzajamni utjecaj huritske vjere i kulture već daje snažan pečat kasnijoj hetitskoj civilizaciji, a mnoštvo hetitskih riječi obratno ulaze u huritski rječnik. Nakon rušenja Troje, u pr.Kr., preko Balkana na Stari Istok provaljuju sjeverni nomadi koji tu uništavaju većinu prapovijesnih država, pa kasnije preostaju samo još antička Asirija i faraonski Egipat. Tada i Hetiti propadaju zajedno s vazalnim Mitanima, a dio Hurita u sjevernoj banovini Ardini (12.- postaju asirskim vazalima. Odonda vladajući indovedski Mitanni nestaju iz povijesti Starog istoka. Premda o njima više nema nekih izravnih pismenih navoda, izgleda kako su pri masovnim selidbana "naroda s mora" u oni vjerojatno prvo prebjegli na huritski Cipar odakle ih potom opet protjeruju stari Grci. Možda su potom s flotom ranih Eteociprana (Thalassokratia Aeteocypria iz grčkih izvora) odplovili na sjeverozapad preko Sredozemlja do Jadrana, o čemu postoji više posrednih pokazatelja:

  • a) Jedan od najvećih ranohuritskih gradova u Mezopotamiji je bio Libbur (koji su osvojili Asirci).
  • b) Mitanski bojovnici bili su maryanni, a slično se zovu i srednjovjeki neretvanski gusari - marjani, dok srednjovjeki istarski biskup takodjer nosi naslov "episcopus Maranorum"
  • c) Čakavske "Veyske legende" iz Kvarnera o pradavnoj pomorskoj doselidbi istočnih 'Matana': Povêda ud Matânih navakÿreh (vidi: Vejske legende).

Preostali sjeverni gorski Huriti (Huratele = ratnici) na visoravni južnog Zakavkazja izmedju Taurusa i Kavkaza (Dingir-Kazluh) zajedno s ranim Armencima i inim gorskim narodima od 843.- 585. stvaraju novo veliko carstvo Urartu (Nahiri) pod Kaldejskom dinastijom (MELKIŠVILI 1971). Njihov najjači car Šarmata-Argišti (781.- 753.) pokorava većinu okolnih ranoantičkih zemalja na Starom istoku i s dotad najvećom zapisanom vojskom od 352.000 vojnika, 32.000 konjanika i 92 bojnih kola, on vlada tada najvećom državom od pokorene Asirije do Crnog mora i od Levanta do Kaspijskog mora.

Zatim iranski nomadi (Skiti i Medijci) od 585. pr.Kr. razaraju to huritoidno carstvo Urartu, koje od 6.- ulazi u Perzijsko carstvo Ahemenida kao 18. satrapija Uraštu. Posljednja preostala huritoidna država je bilo Manejsko kraljevstvo u zapadnom Iranu od 8.- Nakon Aleksandrovog rušenja Perzije, već iranizirani potomci Urarta opet se oslobadjaju kao nezavisno Vansko kraljevstvo ili Alarodia pod samostalnom dinastijom Atropatene od 323. pr.Kr. do 106. po Kr. Najjači predzadnji kralj Atropatena bio je Mitridat (34.- 51.) koji vlada cijelim Zakavkazjem od Kavkaza do Antitaurusa uključivo Armeniju, Kurdistan i Azerbeidjan. To je najzadnja samostalna država prednje Azije gdje još dijelom sudjeluju huritoidni potomci, koju konačno ruše Rimljani pa se nihovi preostali potomci potom asimiliraju u današnjim Kurdima i Armencima.


Mitanni - Aryan


The Indo-European Hittites expanding south after the defeat of Yamhad. The army of the Hittite king Mursili I made its way to Babylon (by then a weak and minor state) and sacked the city. The destruction of the Babylonian kingdom, the presence of unambitious or isolationist kings in Assyria, as well as the destruction of the kingdom of Yamhad, helped the rise of another Hurrian dynasty. The first ruler was a legendary king called Kirta who founded the kingdom of Mitanni (known also as Hanigalbat/Ḫanigalbat by the Assyrians, and to the Egyptians as nhrn) around 1500 BCE. Mitanni gradually grew from the region around the Khabur valley and was perhaps the most powerful kingdom of the Near East in c. 1475–1365 BCE, after which it was eclipsed and eventually destroyed by the Middle Assyrian Empire.

The Mitanni were closely associated with horses. The name of the country of Ishuwa, which might have had a substantial Hurrian population, meant "horse-land". A text discovered at Hattusa deals with the training of horses. The man who was responsible for the horse-training was a Hurrian called Kikkuli. The terminology used in connection with horses contains many Indo-Aryan loan-words (Mayrhofer, 1974).

In a treaty between the Hittites and the Mitanni (between Suppiluliuma and Shattiwaza, c. 1380 BC), the deities Mitra, Varuna, Indra, and Nasatya (Ashvins) are invoked. Kikkuli's horse training text (circa 1400 BC) includes technical terms such as aika (Vedic Sanskrit eka, one), tera (tri, three), panza (pañca, five), satta (sapta, seven), na (nava, nine), vartana (vartana, round). The numeral aika "one" is of particular importance because it places the superstrate in the vicinity of Indo-Aryan proper (Vedic Sanskrit eka, with regular contraction of /ai/ to [eː]) as opposed to Indo-Iranian or early Iranian (which has *aiva; compare Vedic eva "only") in general.

Another text has babru(-nnu) (babhru, brown), parita(-nnu) (palita, grey), and pinkara(-nnu) (pingala, red). Their chief festival was the celebration of the solstice (vishuva) which was common in most cultures in the ancient world. The Mitanni warriors were called marya (Hurrian: maria-nnu), the term for (young) warrior in Sanskrit as well; note mišta-nnu (= miẓḍha,~ Sanskrit mīḍha) "payment (for catching a fugitive)" (Mayrhofer II 358).

Sanskritic interpretations of Mitanni names render Artashumara (artaššumara) as Arta-smara "who thinks of Arta/Ṛta" (Mayrhofer II 780), Biridashva (biridašṷa, biriiašṷa) as Prītāśva "whose horse is dear" (Mayrhofer II 182), Priyamazda (priiamazda) as Priyamedha "whose wisdom is dear" (Mayrhofer II 189, II378), Citrarata as citraratha "whose chariot is shining" (Mayrhofer I 553), Indaruda/Endaruta as Indrota "helped by Indra" (Mayrhofer I 134), Shativaza (šattiṷaza) as Sātivāja "winning the race price" (Mayrhofer II 540, 696), Šubandhu as Subandhu 'having good relatives" (a name in Palestine, Mayrhofer II 209, 735), Tushratta (tṷišeratta, tušratta, etc.) as *tṷaišaratha, Vedic Tveṣaratha "whose chariot is vehement" (Mayrhofer I 686, I 736).

Attested words and comparisons

All of the following examples are from Witzel (2001). For the pronunciation of the sounds transcribed from cuneiform as š and z, see Proto-Semitic language#Fricatives.

Names of people

Transcription of cuneiform Interpretation Vedic equivalent Comments
bi-ir-ya-ma-aš-da Priyamazdha Priyamedha "whose wisdom is dear"; /azd(ʰ)/ to [eːd(ʰ)] is a regular development in Vedic and its descendants (Indo-Aryan in the narrow sense)
bi-ir-ya-aš-šu-wa, bi-ir-da-aš-šu-wa Priya-aśva ~ Prītāśva Prītāśva "whose horse is dear"
ar-ta-aš-šu-ma-ra Artasmara Artasmara "who thinks of Arta/Ṛta"
ar-ta-ta-a-ma Artadhāma(n?) Artadhāman "his abode is Ṛta"
tu-uš-rat-ta, tu-iš-e-rat-ta, tu-uš-e-rat-ta Tvaiša(?)ratha Tveṣáratha "whose chariot is vehement"
in-tar-ú-da, en-dar-ú-ta Indrauta Indrota "helped by Indra"; /au/ to [oː] is a regular development in Vedic; ú specifically indicates [u] as opposed to [o]

Horse training

From Kikkuli.

Transcription of cuneiform Interpretation Vedic equivalent Comments
a-aš-šu-uš-ša-an-ni āśv-san-ni? aśva-sana- "master horse trainer" (Kikkuli himself)
-aš-šu-wa -aśva aśva "horse"; in personal names
a-i-ka- aika- eka "1"
ti-e-ra- tera- ? tri "3"
pa-an-za- pańća- ? pañca "5"; Vedic c is not an affricate, but apparently its Mitanni equivalent was
ša-at-ta satta sapta "7"; /pt/ to /tː/ is either an innovation in Mitanni or a misinterpretation by a scribe who had Hurrian šinti "7" in mind
na-a-[w]a- nāva- nava "9"
wa-ar-ta-an-na vartanna? vartana round, turn

Names of gods

From treaties of Mitanni.

Transcription of cuneiform Interpretation Vedic equivalent Comments
a-ru-na, ú-ru-wa-na Varuna Varuṇa  
mi-it-ra Mitra Mitra  
in-tar, in-da-ra Indra Indra  
na-ša-ti-ya-an-na Nasatya-nna Nāsatya Hurrian grammatical ending -nna
a-ak-ni-iš Āgnis Agni only attested in Hittite, which retains nominative -/s/ and lengthens stressed syllables



Early Christian apologists noted similarities between Mithraic and Christian rituals, but nonetheless took an extremely negative view of Mithraism: they interpreted Mithraic rituals as evil copies of Christian ones. For instance, Tertullian wrote that as a prelude to the Mithraic initiation ceremony, the initiate was given a ritual bath and at the end of the ceremony, received a mark on the forehead. He described these rites as a diabolical counterfeit of the baptism and chrismation of Christians. Justin Martyr contrasted Mithraic initiation communion with the Eucharist:

Wherefore also the evil demons in mimicry have handed down that the same thing should be done in the Mysteries of Mithras. For that bread and a cup of water are in these mysteries set before the initiate with certain speeches you either know or can learn.

  • Mitrovdan, Srijemska Mitrovica..


Mitanni - Matiene

Location of Matiene, between Corduene and Atropatene

The Mannaeans were conquered and absorbed by an Iranian people called Matieni, and the country was called Matiene, with Lake Urmia called Lake Matianus. Matiene was later conquered by the Medes and became a satrapy of the Median empire and then a sub-satrapy of the Median satrapy of the Persian Empire.

Matiene was the name of a kingdom in northwestern Iran on the lands of the earlier kingdom of the Mannae. Ancient historians including Strabo, Ptolemy, Herodotus, Polybius, and Pliny mention names such as Mantiane, Martiane, Matiana, Matiani, Matiene, Martuni to designate a region located to the northwest of Media."

The name Matiene may be related to Mitanni, the name of a state some 800 years earlier, which was founded by an Indo-Aryan ruling class governing the Hurrian population. The name Matiene was applied also to the neighboring Lake Matianus (Lake Urmia) located immediately to the east of the Matieni people. The Iranian root "Mati-" meaning "to tower, to stand out" (from the same Indo-European root that gives us the word "mountain") might explain the name.

The land of Matiene was surrounded to the north by Armenia, to the east by Media, to the south by Susiana, and to the west by Assyria. Its chief city was Matiati around Lake Van.

  • Matiene, DEL-MAT= Dalmatians

Mut, Maut, Mout, Demeter (mat, mati, mater, majka.. Mate, Matka, Matko..)

Babylonia - Kassites, c. 1500 -1155 BC


The Kassite language has not been classified. However, several Kassite leaders bore Indo-European names, and they might have had an Indo-European elite similar to the Mitanni. Over the centuries, however, the Kassites were absorbed into the Babylonian population. Eight among the last kings of the Kassite dynasty have Akkadian names, Kudur-Enlil's name is part Elamite and part Sumerian and Kassite princesses married into the royal family of Assyria.

Herodotus was almost certainly referring to Kassites when he described "Asiatic Ethiopians" in the Persian army that invaded Greece in 492 BC. Herodotus was presumably repeating an account that had used the name "Cush", or something similar, to describe the Kassites; the similar name "Kush" was also, purely by coincidence, a name for Ethiopia. A similar confusion of Kassites with Ethiopians is evident in various ancient Greek accounts of the Trojan war hero Memnon, who was sometimes described as a "Cissian" and founder of Susa, and other times as Ethiopian. According to Herodotus, the "Asiatic Ethiopians" lived not in Cissia, but to the north, bordering on the "Paricanians" who in turn bordered on the Medes. - Kassites


Hindu Kush - Kashmir

Hindu Kush


Y-chromosome G2a & J1

  • Kuš (Kushite) > Kish civilization > Kassites > Hindu Kush (Kashmir)


Buddhas of Bamyan

Taller Buddha of Bamyan before 2001

Smaller Buddha in 1977

Drawing of the Buddhas of Bamyan, visited by Alexander Burnes in 1832

Photographed by Françoise Foliot

Destruction of the site by the Taliban

Taller Buddha in 1963 and in 2008 after destruction

Buddhas of Bamiyan, Afghanistan after destruction in 2001 by the Taliban

Smaller Buddha, after destruction

Taller Buddha, after destruction

Site of the smaller statue in 2005 - Caution Sign, 2017

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