New Kingdom

Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt  
Early Dynastic Period 3100–2686 BC
Old Kingdom 2686–2181 BC
1st Intermediate Period 2181–2055 BC
Middle Kingdom 2055–1650 BC
2nd Intermediate Period 1650–1550 BC
New Kingdom 1550–1069 BC
3rd Intermediate Period 1069–664 BC
Late Period 664–332 BC


Ahmose I, 1549 - 1524 BC

Ahmose I - Izgon Hiksa

Ahmose I je završio osvajanje i protjerivanje Hiksa iz delte regije, obnovljena tebansku pravilo u cijelom Egiptu i uspješno Ponovili egipatsku vlast u svojim nekad predmet područja Nubije i Kanaanu.

Around 1785 BC, as the power of the Middle Kingdom pharaohs weakened, a Western Asian people called the Hyksos had already settled in the Eastern Delta town of Avaris, seized control of Egypt, and forced the central government to retreat to Thebes. The pharaoh was treated as a vassal and expected to pay tribute. The Hyksos ("foreign rulers") retained Egyptian models of government and identified as pharaohs, thus integrating Egyptian elements into their culture.

After their retreat, the native Theban kings found themselves trapped between the Canaanite Hyksos ruling the north and the Hyksos' Nubian allies, the Kushites, to the south of Egypt. After years of vassalage, Thebes gathered enough strength to challenge the Hyksos in a conflict that lasted more than 30 years, until 1555 BC. The pharaohs Seqenenre Tao II and Kamose were ultimately able to defeat the Nubians to the south of Egypt, but failed to defeat the Hyksos. That task fell to Kamose's successor, Ahmose I, who successfully waged a series of campaigns that permanently eradicated the Hyksos' presence in Egypt. He established a new dynasty. In the New Kingdom that followed, the military became a central priority for the pharaohs seeking to expand Egypt's borders and attempting to gain mastery of the Near East.


Ah-mose - Jˁḥ ms(j.w), Born of Iah


Iah (Egyptian: Jˁḥ, transliterated as Yah, Jah, Jah(w), Joh or Aah is a lunar deity in ancient Egyptian religion. His name simply means "Moon". By the New Kingdom, he was less prominent than other gods with lunar connections, Thoth and Khonsu. As a result of the functional connection between them he could be identified with either of those deities.



Hebrew Name of G-d is Yah and it was known to be the name of G-d since Moses’s exodus from Egypt and by the way what was the name of Egyptian Moon God? He was called Yah.

Yah  equals to Iah or Ieue as it is said in Hebrew. One Egyptian papyrus says:

 "I am Moon God Yah among the Gods, I do not fail". When christians praise their G-d they use the word "Helelu-Yah", which means "O Yah the Shining One" . The word "Helel" means "Shining One".

The Hebrew word for Moon itself is "Yah-re-ach" meaning "Crescent Moon"(H3394) And ‘Yareach’ is Hebrew name for none other than the Canaanite deity Yarikh!

This Egyptian deity called Yah  was once personified through the crescent moon, worshiped in humanoid form.

The word Jerico or Yah-richo in Hebrew means  Moon City. So they prayed to Moon God.

Strong Lexicon gives a very interesting meaning for Yareach:  Yah (Moon) Re (Sun) Ank( Light).

If Moon God ‘Iah’ is not the same as Hebrew YAH then try explaining why so many Hebrew names end like:

Ab-iah , Ahaz-iah, Amar-iah, Ana-iah, Azaz-iah, Bena-iah, Bit-iah, El-iah, Hilk-iah, Hezek-iah, Isa-iah, Jecon-iah, Jerem-iah, Jos-iah etc.

World renowned Egyptologist, E.A. Wallis Budge, defined the Egyptian glyph "Aah" (Yah) as a moon deity in his Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary and equated it directly to the Hebraic word Yareach ירח 

George Hart, in his "A Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses" believes that these foreigners in Egypt may have associated Yah with the Akkadian moon-god, Sin, who had an important temple at Harran in north Syria. Like Thoth, Sin was a god of Wisdom, but his other epithets included "Brother of the Earth", Father of the Sun, Father of Gods, as well as others.

E.A. Wallis Budge Hieroglyphic Dictionary Vol. I. p.29b

The oldest Egyptian deity Osiris (Asar) is personified with the moon as ‘Asar-Aah’ who the Hyksos revered as YHWH after their expulsion from Egypt by the Nubian 18th dynasty after ruling it for over 100 years.

Among ancient references, we do seem to find in the Papyrus of Ani several references to the god, though here, his name has been translated as:
In Chapter 2:

"A spell to come forth by day and live after dying. Words spoken by the Osiris Ani:
O One, bright as the moon-god Iah; O One, shining as Iah

Even in the Theban royal families the name of the god Yah was incorporated into their names. The daughter of the 17th Dynasty king, Tao I, was Yah-hotep, meaning "Yah is content".

Ancient Artifacts Of Moon G-d Yarikh at Tel Hazor in Israel

The name of the next and last ruler of the 17th Dynasty, Kamose, may have also been derived from Yah. His name means "the bull is born", and this might be the Egyptian equivalent of the epithet applied to Sin describing him as a "young bull...with strong horns (i.e. the tips of the crescent moon). Also another interpretation of the name of the founder of the 18th Dynasty, Ahmose, is Yahmose, which would mean "Yah is born".

In the tomb of Tuthmosis III of the 18th Dynasty there is a scene where the king is accompanied by his mother and three queens, including Sit-Yah, the "daughter of the Moon-god".

Even in Indian tales of Mahabharat we find  variant of Yah/Iah  as Ila. In versions in which Ila is born a girl, she is changed to a boy by divine grace soon after her birth. After mistakenly entering a sacred grove as an adult, Ila is either cursed to change his/her gender every month or cursed to become a woman. As a woman, Ilā married Budha, the god of the planet Mercury (son of the moon-god), and bore him a son called Pururavas, the father of the Lunar Dynasty.

The Linga Purana and Mahabharata emphasize the sex change of Ila to be a deliberate act of  God Shiva to start the Lunar Dynasty. Ilā gave birth to Pururavas, who grew to become the first king of the Lunar Dynasty.



Khafajah lies on the Diyala River, a tributary of the Tigris. The site consists of four mounds, labeled A through D. The main one, Mound A, extends back as far as the Uruk period and contained an oval temple, a temple of the god Sin, not surely and a temple of Nintu. The Dur-Samsuiluna fort was found on mounds B and C. Mound D contained private homes and a temple for the god Sin where the archive tablets where found in two heaps.


Nannar/Sin - Sinai

Nannar's bull on his alter in Ur


Coat of arms of Moldova - Sin

The name Sinai may have been derived from the ancient moon-god Sin (Symbol bull).


Alal ti vera - Hallelujah

Venus, called "Meleket ha-Shamayim," "the queen of heaven," in Jeremiah 7:18 and elsewhere. That the latter means Venus is shown by the cakes which are said to have been baked for her. Among the Assyrians and Babylonians the cake offerings were called "the bread of Ishtar."

Helel (Alal) the "son of the morning," in Isaiah 14:12, is also thought by some to be the morning star (Venus when visible before dawn). This identification is better known to many English speakers as Lucifer, the "light-bearer.

The word "Yah" appears by itself as a divine name in poetry about 49 times in the Hebrew Bible (including halelu yah), such as in Psalm 68:4–5 "who rides upon the skies by his name Yah"

  • Vlah, Vl-ah; VL = BL (bijelo) + Iah, Yah

Helelu-Yah (O Yah the Shining One) Helel (Shining One)

Ha-vilah (Havale/Avala) = Valac-hie, Land of Havilah, where there is gold. (Ancient gold mining in Transylvania)

Sherden Levant

Hadrian coin

Illyria - Bosnae

Illyria - Bosnae

Coat of arms of the Illyrian republic

Volos/Veles Shining One


Inanna (Ishtar) - Nannar (Sin) - Utu (Shamash)

Venera, Mjesec i Sunce

Venera, Mjesec i Sunce ispod zmije (nebeskog zmaja).

Inanna, (Venera) Nannar (Mjesec) & Utu (Sunce)

Venera, Sunce i Mjesec su najsjajnija nebeska tijela vidljiva golim okom. Prvi zapisi o Veneri pronađeni su u sumerskom gradu Uruku (3000 pr.Kr.) u današnjem južnom Iraku.

Tri nebeska pečata na vrhu Meli-Šipak "vlasničkog lista".

Kralj Babilona, Meli-Šipak, dao je zemljište svom podaniku (Marduk-apla-idinu). "Vlasnički list" ima s jedne strane kudurrua uklesan tekst, a s druge simbole božanstava koja ugovor blagoslivljaju "pečate", ali istovremeno podsjećaju "stranke" na prokletstvo koje će ih stići u slučaju nepoštivanja ugovora.

Meli-Šipak kudurru, 1186–1172. pr. Kr.


Shamash - Sunce

Star of Shamash

Hostija predstavlja sunce (treba  primjetiti da je svećenik drži ispred trećeg oka, kao u trokutu), hostija se odlaže u posudu oblika polumjeseca, monstrancu (moon). Hostija je inače iz grčkih orfijskih misterija, kao i aleluja na početku i na kraju psalma; u Grčkoj se na početku i na kraju himni Apollu pjevalo "eleleule". U Egiptu je sunčev disk sa polumjesecom imala Hathor/Izida, u Mezopotamiji Baal Shamash se označavao tako, baal/bik plus bog sunca Shamash.

Venera, Mjesec i Sunce


Ishtar - Venera

Planet Venera se ne može vidjeti u bilo koje doba noći, već samo neko vrijeme nakon zalaska Sunca na zapadnom nebu (Hesperus, Vesper, zvijezda Večernica) ili pred zoru prije izlaska Sunca na istočnom nebu (Eosphorus –Phosphoros, Lucifer, zvijezda Danica). Prvotno se za Veneru mislilo da su to dva nebeska tijela.

Asirski astronomski zapisi napisani oko 1700 -1600. pr. Kr., među kojima je najpoznatija glinena ploča babilonskog kralja Ammizaduga nazvana "Venerina ploča", jasno dokazuju njihovu spoznaju da su "jutarnja" i "večernja" zvijezda zapravo jedno te isto nebesko tijelo - "zvijezda Venera".

 Kralj Ashurnalšipar II., Nimrodov hram, 883 pr.Kr., British Museum
Kraljev prst usmjeren k zvijezdi božice Ištar (Venera)

Zašto je osmokraka zvijezda (Octagon) simbol planete Venere?

Položaj Venere na nebu (kalendaru) pojavljuje se na istom mjestu u Zodijaku nakon osam godina (8) - zapravo nakon 8 godina i 2.4 dana – koliko je potrebno za pet (5) kompletnih prolaza ispred i iza Sunca (konjunkcije, Jutarnja/Večernja zvijezda).

Kad Venera prolazi između Sunca i Zemlje (unutrašnja konjunkcija) nevidljiva je osam (8) dana, a zatim se pojavljuje kao Jutarnja zvijezda. Kad se "sakrije" iza Sunca (vanjska konjunkcija) nevidljiva je oko 60 dana, a zatim se pojavljuje kao Večernja zvijezda.


Sin (Moon) - Mjesec

Sin Moon God

Chandra Soma

Chandra the Hindu moon god

Chandra is a lunar deity and is also one of the nine houses (Navagraha) in Hinduism. Chandra is synonymously referred to as Soma.
Chandra literally means the "Moon" in Sanskrit, Hindi and other Indian languages.

Soma connotes the Moon as well as a deity in post-Vedic Hindu mythology. In Puranic mythology, Soma is moon deity, but sometimes also used to refer to Vishnu, Shiva (as Somanatha), Yama and Kubera. In some Indian texts, Soma is a name of an Apsara, alternatively it is the name of any medicinal concoction, or rice-water gruel, or heaven and sky, as well as the name of certain places of pilgrimage.

Soma was presumed to be a planet in Hindu astronomical texts. It is often discussed in various Sanskrit astronomical texts, such as the 5th century Aryabhatiya by Aryabhatta, the 6th century Romaka by Latadeva and Panca Siddhantika by Varahamihira, the 7th century Khandakhadyaka by Brahmagupta and the 8th century Sisyadhivrddida by Lalla. Other texts such as Surya Siddhanta dated to have been complete sometime between the 5th century and 10th century present their chapters on various planets with deity mythologies. However, they show that the Hindu scholars were aware of elliptical orbits, and the texts include sophisticated formulae to calculate its past and future positions:

The longitude of moon =

Surya Siddhanta II.39.43

where m is the moon's mean longitude, a is the longitude at apogee, P is epicycle of apsis, R=3438'.

  • Chandra Soma = Sin (Moon)


Ishtar - Sin - Shamash

Inanna, Utu & Nannar- enjoy beer

Depiction of the emblems of Ishtar (Venus), Sin (Moon), and Shamash (Sun) on a boundary stone of Meli-Shipak II (12th century BCE)

Crescents appearing together with a star or stars are a common feature of Sumerian iconography, the crescent usually being associated with the moon god Sin (Nanna) and the star with Ishtar (Inanna, i.e. Venus), often placed alongside the sun disk of Shamash. In Late Bronze Age Canaan, star and crescent moon motifs are also found on Moabite name seals.

Thutmose I - Hatshepsut, 1506 - 1458 BC

Thutmose I - Hatshepsut

Thutmose I

Thutmose I, reign: 1506–1493 B.C.E. During his reign, he campaigned deep into the Levant and Nubia, pushing the borders of Egypt farther than ever before. He also built many temples in Egypt, and a tomb for himself in the Valley of the Kings.


The Hathor Chapel at the Mortuary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut. West Bank, Luxor.

Hatshepsut - Deir el-Bahari

Four Foreign Chieftains, Tomb of Puyemre


Deir el-Medina

Deir el-Medina

Deir el-Medina (Arabic: دير المدينة‎‎) is an ancient Egyptian village which was home to the artisans who worked on the tombs in the Valley of the Kings during the 18th to 20th dynasties of the New Kingdom period (ca. 1550–1080 BC) The settlement's ancient name was "Set Maat" (translated as "The Place of Truth"), and the workmen who lived there were called “Servants in the Place of Truth”.

The first datable remains of the village belong to the reign of Thutmosis I (c. 1506-1493 BCE) with its final shape being formed during the Ramesside Period At its peak, the community contained around sixty-eight houses spread over a total area of 5,600 m2 with a narrow road running the length of the village. The main road through the village may have been covered to shelter the villagers from the intense glare and heat of the sun. The size of the habitations varied, with an average floor space of 70 m2, but the same construction methods were used throughout the village. Walls were made of mudbrick, built on top of stone foundations. Mud was applied to the walls which were then painted white on the external surfaces with some of the inner surfaces whitewashed up to a height of around one metre. A wooden front door might have carried the occupants name. Houses consisted of four to five rooms comprising an entrance, main room, two smaller rooms, kitchen with cellar and staircase leading to the roof. The full glare of the sun was avoided by situating the windows high up on the walls. The main room contained a mudbrick platform with steps which may have been used as a shrine or a birthing bed. Nearly all houses contained niches for statues and small altars. The tombs built by the community for their own use include small rock-cut chapels and substructures adorned with small pyramids.

Village life

The settlement was home to a mixed population of Egyptians, Nubians and Asiatics who were employed as labourers, (stone-cutters, plasterers, water-carriers), as well as those involved in the administration and decoration of the royal tombs and temples. The artisans and the village were organised into two groups, left and right gangs who worked on opposite sides of the tomb walls similar to a ship's crew, with a foreman for each who supervised the village and its work.

Based on analysis of income and prices, the workmen of the village would, in modern terms, be considered middle class. As salaried state employees they were paid in rations at up to three times the rate of a fieldhand, but unofficial second jobs were also widely practiced. At great festivals such as the heb sed the workmen were issued with extra supplies of food and drink to allow a stylish celebration.

The working week was eight days followed by two days holiday, though the six days off a month could be supplemented frequently due to illness, family reasons and, as recorded by the scribe of the tomb, rowing with wife or having a hangover. Including the days given over to festivals, over one-third of the year was time-off for the villagers during the reign of Merneptah (c. 1213–1203 BCE).

During their days off the workmen could work on their own tombs, and since they were amongst the best craftsmen in Ancient Egypt who excavated and decorated royal tombs, their own tombs are considered to be some of the most beautiful on the west bank.

A large proportion of the community, including women, could at least read and possibly write.

The jobs of the workers would have been considered desirable and prized positions with the posts being inheritable.

The examples of love songs recovered show how friendship between the sexes was practised, as was social drinking by both men and women. Egyptian marriages amongst commoners were monogamous but little is known about the marriage or wedding arrangements from surviving records. It was not unusual for couples to have six or seven children with some recorded as having ten.

Separation, divorce and remarriage occurred. Merymaat is recorded as wanting a divorce on account of his mother in-law's behaviour. Girl slaves could become surrogate mothers in cases where the wife was infertile and in doing so raise their status and procure their freedom.

The community could move freely in and out of the walled village but for security reasons only outsiders who had good work related reasons could enter the site.


Turin Erotic Papyrus

The final two thirds of Turin Erotic Papyrus consist of a series of twelve vignettes showing men and women in various sexual positions. The men in the illustrations are "scruffy, balding, short, and paunchy" with exaggeratedly large genitalia and do not conform to Egyptian standards of physical attractiveness, but the women are nubile, and they are shown with objects from traditional erotic iconography, such as convolvulus leaves and, in some scenes, they are even holding items traditionally associated with Hathor, the goddess of love, such as lotus flowers, monkeys, and sistra.

The first third depicts animals performing various human tasks. This part of the scroll-painting has been described as satirical and humorous.

Turin Erotic Papyrus

Turin Erotic Papyrus


Women and village life

The records from this village provide most of the information we know about how women lived in the New Kingdom era. Women were supplied with servants by the government to assist with the grinding of the grain and laundry tasks. The wives of the workers cared for the children and baked the bread, a prime food source in these societies. The vast majority of women who had a particular religious status embedded in their names were married to foremen or scribes and could hold the titles of chantress or singer with official positions within local shrines or temples, perhaps even within the major temples of Thebes. Under Egyptian law they had property rights. They had title to their own wealth and a third of all marital goods. This would belong solely to the wife in case of divorce or death of the husband. If she died first it would go to her heirs, not to her spouse. Brewing of beer was normally supervised by the Mistress of the House, though the workmen considered the monitoring of the activity as a legitimate excuse for taking time off work.

Law and order

The workers and their families were not slaves but free citizens with recourse to the justice system as required. In principle any Egyptian could petition the vizier and could demand a trial by his peers. The community had its own court of law made up of a foreman, deputies, craftsmen and a court scribe, and were authorised to deal with all civil and some criminal cases, typically relating to the non-payment of goods or services. The villagers represented themselves and cases could go on for several years, with one dispute involving the chief of police lasting eleven years. The local police, Medjay, were responsible for preserving law and order as well as controlling access to the tombs in the Valley of the Kings. One of the most famous cases recorded relates to Paneb the son of an overseer who was accused of looting royal tombs, adultery and causing unrest in the community. The outcome is not known but surviving records indicate the execution of a head of workmen at this time.

Medical Care

The records and ostraca from Deir el-Medina provide a deeply compelling view into the medical workings of the New Kingdom. Like in other Egyptian communities, the workmen and inhabitants of Deir el-Medina received care for their health problems through medical treatment, prayer, and magic. Nevertheless, the records at Deir el-Medina indicate some level of division, as records from the village note both a “physician” who saw patients and prescribed treatments, and a “scorpion charmer” who specialized in magical cures for scorpion bites.

Popular piety

The excavations of the royal artisans community at Deir el-Medina have revealed much evidence of personal religious practice and cults. State gods were worshipped freely alongside personal gods without any conflict between national and local modes of religious expression.

The community had between sixteen and eighteen chapels, with the larger ones dedicated to Hathor, Ptah and Ramesses II. The workmen seem to have honoured Ptah and Reshep, the scribes Thoth and Seshat, as patron deities of their particular activity. Women had particular devotion towards Hathor, Taweret, and Bes in pregnancy, turning to Renenutet and Meretseger for food and safety. Meretseger, "Lady of the Western Mountain", was perhaps, at a local level, at least as important as Osiris, the great god of the dead.

The villagers held Amenhotep I (c. 1526–1506 BCE) and his mother Queen Ahmose Nefertari in high regard over many generations, possibly as divinized patrons of the community. When Amenhotep died he became the centre of a village funerary cult, worshipped as "Amenhotep of the Town". When the Queen died she also was deified and became "Mistress of the Sky" and "Lady of the West". Every year the villagers celebrated the Festival of Amenhotep I when the elders acted as priests in the ceremonies that paid honour to their own local gods who were not worshipped anywhere else in Egypt.


Dream interpretation, a gift which Hebrew scriptures also attribute to Joseph, was very common. A book of dreams was found in Scribe Kenhirkhopeshef's library which was old even in his time. This book was used to interpret various types of dreams. These interpretations lacked precision and similar dreams often had different meanings. In many cases the interpretation was the opposite of what the dream depicted, for example a happy dream often signified sadness, a dream of plenty often signified scarceness etc.


Qetesh - Resheph - Min

Qetesh (također u Kadešu /k ɑː d ɛ ʃ /) je božica usvojena u drevne egipatske religije od religije kanaanskoj, popularne tijekom Novog kraljevstva. Bila je plodnost božica od svetog zanosa i seksualnog užitka.

Qetesh je povezana s Anat, Astarte, i Ašeru. Ona također ima elemente povezane s božica Mikene, u Minoans od Krete, i određene Kassite božica trgovinu metala u kositra, bakra i bronce između Lothal i dilmun.

Qudshu-Astarte-Anat je prikaz jedne boginje koja je kombinacija triju božica: Qetesh (Athirat, gaj), Astarte, anat. Bila je to uobičajena praksa za Kanaancima i Egipćanima za spajanje različitih božanstava kroz proces sinkretizam, čime ih se pretvara u jednu cjelinu.

Resheph je usvojen kao službeni božanstvo u Egiptu pod Amenhotepa II za vrijeme osamnaeste dinastije Egipta kao bog konja i kola. Prvobitno usvojen u kraljevskom kultu, Resheph je postao popularno božanstvo. U dvadesetoj dinastiji nestaje iz kraljevskih natpisa. Resheph se često pojavljuje s Qetesh i Min. Većina njegovih stela nalaze se u Deir el-Medini, naselju levantinskih obrtnika.

Min (Egipatski mnw) je drevni egipatski bog čiji je kult nastao u predinastičkih doba (4. tisućljeća prije Krista). Bio je zastupljen u raznim oblicima, ali je često zastupljena u muškom obliku, prikazan s penis u erekciji koji je drži u lijevoj ruci i potvrdio desna ruka drži mlatilice.

British Museum EA 191
Qeh. identified as ‘Ke(d)eshet, lady of heaven’, Egyptian god Min & Canaanite god Reshep. Deir el-Medina (Dynasty 19)

It has also been suggested that the parallelism between the names of the Sumerian goddess, Inanna, and her West Semitic counterpart, Ishtar, continued in Canaanite tradition as Anath and Astarte, particularly in the poetry of Ugarit. The two goddesses were invariably linked in Ugaritic scripture and are also known to have formed a triad (known from sculpture) with a third goddess who was given the name/title of Qadesh (meaning "the holy one").


Qetesh is a goddess, who was adopted during the late Bronze Age from the religion of Canaan into the ancient Egyptian religion during its New Kingdom. She was a fertility goddess of sacred ecstasy and sexual pleasure, and became a popular deity.

The name was probably vocalized by Egyptians as, *Qātiša, from the Semitic root Q-D-Š meaning 'holy'. Her city of worship was Qadesh in present day Syria.

On stele reprsenting the deity, Qetesh is represented as a frontal nude standing on a lion, often between Min of Egypt and the Canaanite warrior god Resheph. She holds a snake in one hand and a bouquet lotus flowers in the other as symbols of creation.

Qetesh is associated with Anat, Astarte, and Asherah. She also has elements associated with the goddesses of Mycenae, the Minoan goddesses of Crete, and certain Kassite goddesses of the metals trade in tin, copper, and bronze between Lothal and Dilmun.

On some versions of the Qetesh stele her register with Min and Resheph is placed over another register showing gifts being presented to ‘Anat the goddess of War and below a register listing the lands belonging to Min and Resheph.

Triple goddess merged into one

Qudshu-Astarte-Anat is a representation of a single goddess who is a combination of three goddesses: Qetesh (Athirat, Asherah), Astarte, and Anat. It was a common practice for Canaanites and Egyptians to merge different deities through a process of syncretism, thereby turning them into one single entity. The "Triple-Goddess Stone", once owned by Winchester College, shows the goddess Qetesh with the inscription "Qudshu-Astarte-Anat", displaying their association as being one goddess, and Qetesh (Qudshu) in place of Athirat. Qadshu is used as an epithet of Athirat, the Great Mother Goddess of the Canaanites.



The Wooden coffer was made of acacia

The Wooden coffer was made of acacia  wood and measuring 111 by 49 cm. Its shape  resembles a shrine: the lid, which slopes towards  the back, closes against a palmetto cornice. It  was secured by a cord winding around mushroom shaped knobs. A funerary offering formula in sunk relief appears on the lid.


Wooden coffer of Merit The flat lid is painted with a "trompe l' oeil" wood grain pattern  decoration. The carved and painted inscription  is a funerary offering formula dedicated to Merit's ka-spirit.


Iusaaset - The Egyptian Goddess of DMT

The Grandmother Of All Egyptian Deities

Scales: Water, Wings: Air, Breath: Fire, Claws: Earth. The serpent/dragon is a representation of classical Ether. Iusaaset was a deity that represented Acacia Nilotica, the Egyptian Tree Of Lie. Recent studies in the 1990s have concluded that this plant contains DMT, as well as Tetrahydroharman. (Hutchings et al., 1996. Zulu Medicinal Plants. An Inventory.) The reason this Goddess is important, being comparable to others is because she was classified as the "Grandmother" of Deities. Simultaneously, she was also the owner of the Tree Of Life. After piecing these modern and ancient aspects together, it has been revealed to me that Iussaset is a personification of the psychoactive effects of DMT.

Modern Portrayal - The inner is the outer: Spiral Ancient Egyptians created personalities based upon spiritual encounters, which they referred to this practice as "Gnosticism," translating to "Practice of Knowledge." Gnosticism is based around "Gnosis," which translates to "Oneness with God."  Knowledge was gained through Psychedelic connections with All That Is. Understanding this fact in history allows for us to understand the origins of Religion/Spirituality.

Being informed is being aware. Awareness and knowledge are two of the same source.  Through the consumption of the tree came births of many Deities, including Osiris and Isis, both joined as One to create Horus, The Sun God; The Christ Within. In the original Gnostic Scriptures, Christ died on a Tree, rather than the Cross. "Where lies the beginning, lies the ending." - Jesus Christ, referring that these sayings are simply reflections of Gnostic Belief. Modern day, Science proves that all of human DNA is traced to Trees. Coincidence? Not a chance, as everything is connected.

Happy to share some sources:

"Egyptian mythology has associated the acacia tree with characteristics of the tree of life, such as in the Myth of Osiris and Isis."

"The acacia tree was renowned for its strength, hardiness, medical properties, and edibility."


Bagremovo drvo


Od bagremova drva neka naprave Kovčeg - Izlazak



DeNdera - MeDiNa (grad na arapskom), GraDiNa (rimski gradovi) - Danovci drevni graditelji gradova


Dendera zodiac

Rogers sees the Dendera zodiac as "a complete copy of the Mesopotamian zodiac".

Egyptian trade

During the Early Bronze Age the Egyptians would slowly come to control the Eastern Mediterranean and centuries later, during the height of the New Kingdom Empire, (1550-1100 BCE) the Sea would be known as the Water of Egypt. Although Egypt was the dominant political power on the waves for at least one thousand years it shared the waterborne trade routes with merchants from across the Bronze Age world. Much more is known about the Mediterranean trade routes than the sea routes to Asia.

Traveling north, along the Palestinian coast, Egyptian ships made an average sped of 55km per day. The Ships would bring gold, amethyst, jasper and turquoise to trade for timber and luxury goods like the prized lapis lazuli from distant Afghanistan. As southern Palestine had few ports most Egyptian ships traveled north to Byblos to conduct their business, usually trading for timber, especially the highly prized Lebanese cedar.

From Byblos ships could travel on to Ugarit and southern Anatolia or they could sail west to Cyprus which was known for its oxhide  ingots of copper ore (so named due their shape) and olive oil. Such journeys would take as little as two weeks when sailing out of the Eastern Nile Delta region. Travel south again from Cyprus was much quicker in the right season where southerly winds could push the ships southward at speeds of hundreds of Kilometers per day. This southerly journey from Cyprus could be treacherous as it relied on travel across open water which made the ships susceptible to storms.

During the New Kingdom Egyptian shipping was based out of Perunefer (meaning Good Departure/BonVoyage), the port of the capital city of Memphis. It was here that much of the timber from the Syrian coast was brought for shipbuilding. Ships masts were brought in ranging from 6-17 meters in length. The ships themselves were up to 5.5 meters wide and 30 meters long. Although Egypt built many vessels for trade it is possible that some of the longer range vessels were actually built in foreign lands.

An ancient Egyptian ship based on tomb drawings

Egyptian accounts tell of long range trade vessels known as Byblos ships and Keftiu ships. Keftiu was the ancient Egyptian name for Crete. Some theories suggest that theses ships were so named because of their destinations but depictions of these vessels indicate they often had crews of non-Egyptians and therefore may have actually originated in Byblos or Keftiu and were merely sanctioned by Egypt to trade in its territory.




Nilometar pomoću kojeg su mjerili vodostaj Nila. Na konto vodostaja su i uzimali porez. Ako je vodostaj nizak onda je bio mali porez dok kod visokog vodostaja poreza nije ni bilo, zbog poplava.


Cretans / Minoans



Cretan gold

Gold from the Balkan


Thera eruption - Tempest Stele

between 1550 - 1540 BC

Pumice found at Tell el Dab'a in Egypt that matches the composition of the Thera eruption has been dated to 1540 BCE, closer to the traditionally-accepted date of Thera's eruption. This pumice has been contentious since the 1990s, as it represents the most prominent supported date to differ from the old chronology. - Minoan eruption

Erupcija na otoku Thera (današnji Santorini oko 100 km od Krete) nastale tijekom LM IA. Ova erupcija bila je među najvećim vulkanskih eksplozija u povijesti civilizacije i izvaditi oko 60 km 3 materijala i uvrštavanje 7 na Vulkanski Explosivity Index. Erupcija je uništio obližnje naselje u Akrotiri na Santorini, koji je pokopan u sloju plavca. erupcija se vjeruje da su pogođeni na Kreti, iako je opseg učinka je raspravljalo. Rane teorije predložio da ashfall od Thera na istočnu polovicu Krete obuzdan biljni svijet, zbog čega izgladnjivanje lokalnog stanovništva. Više temeljita ispitivanja na terenu su utvrdili da nema više od 5 milimetara (0.20 in) pepela pao negdje na Kreti. na temelju arheoloških dokaza pronađenih na Kreti, studije 21. stoljeća pokazuju da masivni tsunami, generira Theran erupcije, opustošio priobalje Krete i uništili mnoga kretska naselja.

LM IIIA period je obilježen svog bogatstva (tj bogati grobovi, ukopi i umjetnost) i sveprisutnosti Knossian keramičkih stilova. No, do LM IIIB, značaj Knososu kao regionalno središte te MATERIJAL 'bogatstvo', čini se da su se smanjili.

Kretski ostaci pronađeni su iznad Thera pepela sloj, što znači da je Thera erupcija nije uzrokovalo trenutnu pad kretske civilizacije. Kako su Krečani su moć more i ovisilo o pomorskih i trgovačkih brodova za njihov život je Thera erupcija vjerojatno prouzročilo značajan ekonomski teškoće. Da li ti učinci bili dovoljni da se aktiviraju pad civilizacije intenzivno raspravlja. Mikenski osvajanje Krete dogodila u kasnom razdoblju "Minojska II". U Mycenaeans bili vojni civilizacije. Koristeći svoju funkcionalnu mornarice i dobro opremljenu vojsku su bili sposobni za invaziju. Mikenski oružje je pronađeno u ukopima na Kreti. To pokazuje mikenske vojni utjecaj nije mnogo godina nakon erupcije. Mnogi arheolozi nagađaju da je erupcija izazvala krizu u kretskoj civilizaciji, što ih čini ranjivim na osvajanja od strane Mycenaeans.

Uništenje kretske civilizacije je najvjerojatnije zbog invaziju snage. Iako je raspad procvata civilizacije pomogao je izbija vulkan na Thera, konačan kraj je došao od vanjskih osvajača. Arheološki dokazi upućuju na to da je uništenje otoka je zbog požara štetu. Hood napominje da je palača u Knososu Čini se da su imali manje štete od drugih mjesta duž otoka Krete. Kao što prirodne katastrofe ne biraju ciljeve, nejednolika uništenje vjerojatno je uzrokovan osvajača. Oni bi vidio korisnost očuvanja palaču centar kao što je Knososu za vlastite potrebe.

The Tempest Stele (alt. Storm Stele) was erected by pharaoh Ahmose I early in the 18th Dynasty of Egypt, circa 1550 BCE. The stele describes a great storm striking Egypt during this time, destroying tombs, temples and pyramids in the Theban region and the work of restoration ordered by the king.

Broken pieces of this stele were found in the 3rd Pylon of the temple of Karnak. The part of the stele that describes the storm, itself, is the most damaged part of the stele, with many lacunae in the meteorological description. The other parts of the stele are much better preserved.

Here are some descriptions of the storm.

(7) ... ...the gods expressed
(8) their discontent... The gods (made?) the sky come with a tempest of (rain?); it caused darkness in the Western region; the sky was
(9) unleashed, without ... ... more than the roar of the crowd; ... was powerful... on the mountains more than the turbulence of the
(10) cataract which is at Elephantine. Each house, ... each shelter (or each covered place) that they reached...
(11)... were floating in the water like the barks of papyrus (on the outside?) of the royal residence for... day(s)...
(12) with no one able to light the torch anywhere. Then His Majesty said 'How these (events) surpass the power of the great god and the wills of the divinities!' And His Majesty descended
(13) in his boat, his council following him. The (people were?) at the east and the west, silent, for they had no more clothes (?) on them...
(14) after the power of the god was manifested. Then His Majesty arrived in Thebes ... this statue; it received what it had desired.
(15) His Majesty set about to strengthen the Two Lands, to cause the water to evacuate without (the aid of) his (men?), to provide them with silver,
(16) with gold, with copper, with oil, with clothing, with all the products they desired; after which His Majesty rested in the palace - life, health, strength.
(17) It was then that His Majesty was informed that the funerary concessions had been invaded (by the water), that the sepulchral chambers had been damaged, that the structures of funerary enclosures had been undermined, that the pyramids had collapsed(?)
(18) all that existed had been annihilated. His Majesty then ordered the repair of the chapels which had fallen in ruins in all the country, restoration of the...


Mask of Agamemnon, c. 1550 - 1500 BC

Mask of Agamemnon

The Mask of Agamemnon is a gold funeral mask discovered at the ancient Greek site of Mycenae. The mask, displayed in the National Archaeological Museum of Athens, has been described by Cathy Gere as the "Mona Lisa of prehistory".
German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann, who discovered the artifact in 1876, believed that he had found the body of the Mycenaean king Agamemnon, leader of the Achaeans in Homer's epic of the Trojan War, the Iliad, but modern archaeological research suggests that the mask predates the period of the legendary Trojan War by about 300 years.

Mitanni, c. 1500 - 1300 BC

The Indo-European Hittites expanding south after the defeat of Yamhad. The army of the Hittite king Mursili I made its way to Babylon (by then a weak and minor state) and sacked the city. The destruction of the Babylonian kingdom, the presence of unambitious or isolationist kings in Assyria, as well as the destruction of the kingdom of Yamhad, helped the rise of another Hurrian dynasty. The first ruler was a legendary king called Kirta who founded the kingdom of Mitanni (known also as Hanigalbat/Ḫanigalbat by the Assyrians, and to the Egyptians as nhrn) around 1500 BCE. Mitanni gradually grew from the region around the Khabur valley and was perhaps the most powerful kingdom of the Near East in c. 1475–1365 BCE, after which it was eclipsed and eventually destroyed by the Middle Assyrian Empire.

Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni exhibit an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggesting that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrian population in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion.

The Mitanni were closely associated with horses. The name of the country of Ishuwa, which might have had a substantial Hurrian population, meant "horse-land". A text discovered at Hattusa deals with the training of horses. The man who was responsible for the horse-training was a Hurrian called Kikkuli. The terminology used in connection with horses contains many Indo-Aryan loan-words (Mayrhofer, 1974).


Mitanni-Aryan, 1500 - 1300 BC


Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni are considered to form (part of) an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggesting that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrian population in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion.

In a treaty between the Hittites and the Mitanni (between Suppiluliuma and Shattiwaza, c. 1380 BC), the deities Mitra, Varuna, Indra, and Nasatya (Ashvins) are invoked. Kikkuli's horse training text (circa 1400 BC) includes technical terms such as aika (Vedic Sanskrit eka, one), tera (tri, three), panza (pañca, five), satta (sapta, seven), na (nava, nine), vartana (vartana, round). The numeral aika "one" is of particular importance because it places the superstrate in the vicinity of Indo-Aryan proper (Vedic Sanskrit eka, with regular contraction of /ai/ to [eː]) as opposed to Indo-Iranian or early Iranian (which has *aiva; compare Vedic eva "only") in general.

Another text has babru(-nnu) (babhru, brown), parita(-nnu) (palita, grey), and pinkara(-nnu) (pingala, red). Their chief festival was the celebration of the solstice (vishuva) which was common in most cultures in the ancient world. The Mitanni warriors were called marya (Hurrian: maria-nnu), the term for (young) warrior in Sanskrit as well; note mišta-nnu (= miẓḍha,~ Sanskrit mīḍha) "payment (for catching a fugitive)" (Mayrhofer II 358).

Sanskritic interpretations of Mitanni names render Artashumara (artaššumara) as Arta-smara "who thinks of Arta/Ṛta" (Mayrhofer II 780), Biridashva (biridašṷa, biriiašṷa) as Prītāśva "whose horse is dear" (Mayrhofer II 182), Priyamazda (priiamazda) as Priyamedha "whose wisdom is dear" (Mayrhofer II 189, II378), Citrarata as citraratha "whose chariot is shining" (Mayrhofer I 553), Indaruda/Endaruta as Indrota "helped by Indra" (Mayrhofer I 134), Shativaza (šattiṷaza) as Sātivāja "winning the race price" (Mayrhofer II 540, 696), Šubandhu as Subandhu 'having good relatives" (a name in Palestine, Mayrhofer II 209, 735), Tushratta (tṷišeratta, tušratta, etc.) as *tṷaišaratha, Vedic Tveṣaratha "whose chariot is vehement" (Mayrhofer I 686, I 736).

Attested words and comparisons

All of the following examples are from Witzel (2001). For the pronunciation of the sounds transcribed from cuneiform as š and z, see Proto-Semitic language#Fricatives.

Names of people

Transcription of cuneiform Interpretation Vedic equivalent Comments
bi-ir-ya-ma-aš-da Priyamazdha Priyamedha "whose wisdom is dear"; /azd(ʰ)/ to [eːd(ʰ)] is a regular development in Vedic and its descendants (Indo-Aryan in the narrow sense)
bi-ir-ya-aš-šu-wa, bi-ir-da-aš-šu-wa Priya-aśva ~ Prītāśva Prītāśva "whose horse is dear"
ar-ta-aš-šu-ma-ra Artasmara Artasmara "who thinks of Arta/Ṛta"
ar-ta-ta-a-ma Artadhāma(n?) Artadhāman "his abode is Ṛta"
tu-uš-rat-ta, tu-iš-e-rat-ta, tu-uš-e-rat-ta Tvaiša(?)ratha Tveṣáratha "whose chariot is vehement"
in-tar-ú-da, en-dar-ú-ta Indrauta Indrota "helped by Indra"; /au/ to [oː] is a regular development in Vedic; ú specifically indicates [u] as opposed to [o]

Horse training

From Kikkuli.

Transcription of cuneiform Interpretation Vedic equivalent Comments
a-aš-šu-uš-ša-an-ni āśv-san-ni? aśva-sana- "master horse trainer" (Kikkuli himself)
-aš-šu-wa -aśva aśva "horse"; in personal names
a-i-ka- aika- eka "1"
ti-e-ra- tera- ? tri "3"
pa-an-za- pańća- ? pañca "5"; Vedic c is not an affricate, but apparently its Mitanni equivalent was
ša-at-ta satta sapta "7"; /pt/ to /tː/ is either an innovation in Mitanni or a misinterpretation by a scribe who had Hurrian šinti "7" in mind
na-a-[w]a- nāva- nava "9"
wa-ar-ta-an-na vartanna? vartana round, turn

Names of gods

From treaties of Mitanni.

Transcription of cuneiform Interpretation Vedic equivalent Comments
a-ru-na, ú-ru-wa-na Varuna Varuṇa  
mi-it-ra Mitra Mitra  
in-tar, in-da-ra Indra Indra  
na-ša-ti-ya-an-na Nasatya-nna Nāsatya Hurrian grammatical ending -nna
a-ak-ni-iš Āgnis Agni only attested in Hittite, which retains nominative -/s/ and lengthens stressed syllables

Mitrovdan, Mitar i Mitra

Praznik MITROVDAN je 8. novembra (26. okt.) i posvećen je vedskom bogu Sunca MITRU (MITRI, MIRI). Po njemu su naša narodna imena MITAR i MITRA.

Sanskritsko MITI znači MJERA, a sanskritsko MITA znači IZMJEREN. Sanskritsko PARI znači OKRUGLO (kad je nešto tačno izmjereno, i danas kažemo ”okruglo toliko”, tj. tačno toliko). Sanskritsko PARAMITI upravo znači: “okruglo toliko”, tj. “tačno toliko” i odatle potekla riječ PARE, jer su se nekad metalne pare od skupocjenih metala MJERILE na vagi.

Iz ovog vidimo da MITAR znači MJERAČ. U svom prevodu Novog Zavjeta Vuk Karadžić carinika naziva MITAR, jer na granici carniki svu robu MJERI I PREMJERAVA što je dokaz da je ta riječ sredinom 19. vijeka postojala u srbskom jeziku. MITAR (carinik) je na granici između dvije posebne države, a MITROV DAN MITROVDAN je na granici vremena između jesenje tople suve i hladne kišne jesenje sezone, te je po tome i nastala ona narodna poslovica “Mitrov danak, hajdučki rastanak”.

Zapadni etimolozi pretpostavljaju da riječ METAR potiče od indoevropskog korijena ME-, mada korijena sa tim značenjem u sanskritu nema, ali ima riječ MITI sa korijenom MIT- i isto znači: MJERA, dok sanskritsko MITA znači IZMJEREN. Ime MITAR, bog sunca, znači MJERAČ na granici sezona vremena.

Evo jedan očigledni matematički dokaz zašto sanskritske riječi MITI i MITA (od kojih je izvedeno ime MITAR) znače MJERA: od polovine Ilijevog dana 2. avgusta (IL je jedno od imena Višnjeg Boga), od hrišćana nazvanog Ilindana, pa do polovine Mitrovdana 8. novembra tačno je 98 dana. I sad pogledajmo:

√98 = 9,899494937 dana: √9,899494937 = 3,146346284

Krajnji rezultat je broj Pi sa tačnošću u dvije decimale i to je MJERA koja je matematička konstanta.

U naše vrijeme MITROV DAN je u sredini jeseni i pola godine udaljen je od JURJEVDANA (ĐURĐEVDANA) i to je veliki proročanski znak opšte granice vremena ovog svijeta.

Dimitrije (Dēmḗtrios, lat.; Δημήτριος, gr.), jer je ime DIMITRIJE izvedeno dvije sanskritske riječi: MITRA i DI, gdje ovo DI znači PAD, KRETANJE UNAZAD UZ SLABLJENJE. Tako ime DIMITRA znači PAD SUNCA, KRETANJE UNAZAD, PALO SUNCE, što opet znači nisko jesenje Sunce nad horizontom.



Haplogroup G2a-L293 - Haplogroup R1a1a

Hyksos Index Yuya