Merneptah


Merneptah, 1213 - 1203 BC

Merneptah had to carry out several military campaigns during his reign. In year 5 he fought against the Libyans, who-with the assistance of the Sea Peoples-were threatening Egypt from the West. Merneptah led a victorious six-hour battle against a combined Libyan and Sea People force at the city of Perire, probably located on the western edge of the Delta. His account of this campaign against the Sea Peoples and Libu is described in prose on a wall beside the sixth pylon at Karnak, which states:

[Beginning of the victory that his majesty achieved in the land of Libya] -i, Ekwesh, Teresh, Lukka, Sherden, Shekelesh, Northerners coming from all lands.

Later in the inscription Merneptah receives news of the attack:

... the third season, saying: 'The wretched, fallen chief of Libya, Meryre, son of Ded, has fallen upon the country of Tehenu with his bowmen--Sherden, Shekelesh, Ekwesh, Lukka, Teresh, Taking the best of every warrior and every man of war of his country. He has brought his wife and his children--leaders of the camp, and he has reached the western boundary in the fields of Perire.'

In the Athribis Stele, in the garden of Cairo Museum, it states "His majesty was enraged at their report, like a lion", assembled his court and gave a rousing speech. Later he dreamed he saw Ptah handing him a sword and saying "Take thou (it) and banish thou the fearful heart from thee." When the bowmen went forth, says the inscription, "Amun was with them as a shield." After six hours the surviving Nine Bows threw down their weapons, abandoned their baggage and dependents, and ran for their lives. Merneptah states that he defeated the invasion, killing 6,000 soldiers and taking 9,000 prisoners. To be sure of the numbers, among other things, he took the penises of all uncircumcised enemy dead and the hands of all the circumcised, from which history learns that the Ekwesh were circumcised, a fact causing some to doubt they were Greek.

There is also an account of the same events in the form of a poem from the Merneptah Stele, widely known as the Israel Stele, which makes reference to the supposed utter destruction of Israel in a campaign prior to his 5th year in Canaan: "Israel has been wiped out...its seed is no more." This is the first recognised ancient Egyptian record of the existence of Israel--"not as a country or city, but as a tribe" or people.

The princes are prostrate, saying, "Peace!"
Not one is raising his head among the Nine Bows.
Now that Tehenu (Libya) has come to ruin,
Hatti is pacified;
The Canaan has been plundered into every sort of woe:
Ashkelon has been overcome;
Gezer has been captured;
Yano'am is made non-existent.
Israel is laid waste and his seed is not;
Hurru is become a widow because of Egypt.


Merneptah Stela

 

Terah genealogy

  Terah  
                 
 
                           
 
 
                                           
 Abraham              Hagar Nahor Haran
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sarah                                
 
 
 
                     
                Milcah Lot Iscah
       
    Ishmael                                    
 
 
 
 
 
 
                   
    7 sons Bethuel 1st daughter              2nd daughter 
 
         
                                     
                     
Isaac   Rebecca Laban Moabites Ammonites
 
 
                                                   
                                       
Esau Jacob                                 Rachel
                               
                            Bilhah
 
 
 
                   
Edomites                 Zilpah
 
 
   
           
      Leah
 
 
       
 
 
 
         
 
 
       
 

  1. Reuben
  2. Simeon
  3. Levi
  4. Judah
  9. Issachar
  10. Zebulun
  11. Dinah

    7. Gad
  8. Asher
    5. Dan
  6. Naphtali
    12. Joseph
  13. Benjamin

 

Aramejac Laban

Ovo je povijest Abrahamova sina Izaka: Izak se rodio od Abrahama. Izaku je bilo četrdeset godina kad se oženio Rebekom, kćerkom Aramejca Betuela iz Padan Arama, a sestrom Aramejca Labana.

Laban

Laban (Hebrew: לָבָן, Modern Lavan, Tiberian Lāḇān; "White") is the son of Bethuel and the brother of Rebecca as described in the Book of Genesis. Though the biblical text itself does not attest to this, Rabbinic sources also identify him as the father of Bilhah and Zilpah, the two concubines with whom Jacob also has children (Midrash Raba, Gen 24)

  • Laban - Labu (Bijel), Korjenski osnov LB
  • Bilhah - Bilić (Bijel), Korjenski osnov BL

 

Labu

 
Libyen & black Libyen

This tribe from which the land of Libya takes its name is sometimes called the Labu, Libu, or Rebu, and appears in many Egyptian texts, such as the inscriptions on the temple at Medinet Habu. The earliest of these texts is the Papyrus Anastasi II in Dynasty XVIII and appear in texts, if only rarely, up until Dynasty XXI. It is unclear for certain where the Labu originated, but they may have originated from west of the region of Libya. It is clear, however, that along with other tribes such as the Meshwesh they replaced the pervious inhabitants of Libya at some time during the New Kingdom. If the Labu are from the west of Libya, then it seems strange to associate them so closely with the Sea Peoples, even if the Labu do fight alongside the Sea Peoples against the Egyptians. Another theory, though, is that the Libu originated in the Balkans and were driven to migration by the Illyrians, with the Libu finally settling in Libya.


Labu


Chief of Labu - Sherden of sea

  • Labu = Laban

 

Meshwesh

 
Meshwesh

Meshwesh first appeared as kindred tribes of the Temehu ili Tamahu. Egypt was under threat from an alliance between the Libyans and the Meshwesh, who possibly also coordinated an attack with the Peleset and the Tjekker. Even if it is not certain many Labu (Lybians) who wore the phallus sheath may have been Meshwesh.


Meshwesh


Meshwesh - Canaanite

  • Meshwesh = Mešak

 

Argive genealogy in Greek mythology

Libya

Inachus Melia
Zeus Io Phoroneus
Epaphus Memphis
Libya Poseidon
Belus Achiroë Agenor Telephassa

Libija

Libya is the daughter of Epaphus, King of Egypt, in both Greek and Roman mythology. She personified the land of Ancient Libya in North Africa, from which the name of modern-day Libya originated.

 

Akhetaten family

 

 

Different races in ancient Egypt


The four races of the world


The four races in ancient Egypt


Meshwesh "Themehu", Nubian "Nehesu", Asian "Aamu" & Egyptian "Reth"
Umjetnički prikaz, na temelju murala iz grobnice Setija I

Toga - šinearski plašt

Azijcima osnovna odjeća bila je TUG, stilom i imenom prethodnik rimske toge. Zvala se TUG.TU.SHE, što je značilo "odjeća koja se nosi omotana".

Zaista, ja sagriješih Jahvi, Bogu Izraelovu, i evo što sam učinio: vidjeh u plijenu lijep šinearski plašt, dvije stotine srebrnjaka i zlatnu šipku vrijednu pedeset srebrnjaka, pa se polakomih i uzeh sebi. Eno je sve zakopano usred moga šatora, a srebro je odozdo. - Jošua

 

Liburni

Liburni (grč. Libyrnides) su antička pomorska etnoskupina koja je živjela na jugozapadu Hrvatske uz sjeveroistočni Jadran između rijeke Raše i Krke, tj. uglavnom u Kvarneru i sjevernoj Dalmaciji do velebitskog primorja. Zapadno od njih bili su Histri.

U brončano doba prapovijesti tj. u II. tisućljeću pr. Kr., na kasnijem ozemlju klasičnih Liburna živjelo je ranokvarnersko prapučanstvo koje su prvi grčki moreplovci na Jadranu zapisali pod imenom Hythmites. Istodobno su rani pretci Liburna vjerojatno još boravili na Levantu između Mezopotamije i Anatolije, tj. u Siriji, gdje je prije dolaska Asiraca zapisan rani grad Libbur. S početkom željeznog doba, pri velikim pomorskim selidbama tzv. "Naroda s mora" u 12. i 11. st. pr. Kr. sudjelovali su jamačno i rani Liburni, koji bi tada doplovili iz obala Levanta na Jadran (Yoshamya 2005, Lovrić i sur. 2007), gdje se zato već od prvih vijesti uvijek pojavljuju kao pomorci.

Liburni su bili suvremenici italskih Etruščana i levantskih Feničana, pa je to na hrvatskom ozemlju najranija jasno potvrđena i opisana etnogrupa, koja se tu navodi već od 9. stoljeća pr.Kr.

 

Najstarija brodica otkrivena u Mediteranu - Hythmites

Po pisanju portala Ancient Origins, u periodu od 2008. do 2010. godine obavljene su analize drveta s brodice, te je radiokarbonskim datiranjem određena nevjerojatna starost od 3.200 godina. Do sada je iz muljevitog dna, na svjetlost dana izašlo osam madira (platica) brodskog korita napravljenog od brijesta i jedna korba (rebro) od jele, dok su ostali dijelovi rađeni i od johe. Na rubovima madira se nalaze ukoso izbušene rupe kroz koje je obavljeno šivenje uz pomoć konopca, preko šava je stavljana drvena letvica koja je služila kao brtvilo.

Smatra se da je brodica bila duga šest metara, dok joj je širina bila 2,4 metra.
Tijekom ispitivanja otkriveno je da Zambratija krije brojne arheološke nalaske na površini od preko 10.000 četvornih metara na dubini od 2,50 do 3,20 metara te da su ti ostaci pripadali prapovijesnom naselju koje je bilo sačinjeno od drvenih kućica koje su stajale na pilonima od hrastova kako bi se izbjeglo utonuće u muljevito tlo.

 

Boduli

Uočen je problem teorije da je pokret "naroda s mora", prema klasičnim arheološkim spoznajama do 20. st., tekao samo od sjeverozapada na jugoistok. S treće strane, nove opsežne biogenetske analize Sredozemlja u 21. st. to tek dijelom potvrđuju, ali još dokazuju da je taj doseljenički udar s Balkana odmah stvorio i veliki povratni "tsunami" genskog iseljavanja s Levanta u zapadni Mediteran i najviše u Italiju. Zato muška i ženska dnk Sicilije, Sardinije, Korzike i Toskane, pa čak i dio njihove stoke (DNK) paralelno potvrđuju istodobne doselidbe talijanskih "naroda s mora" iz Levanta (Sikuloti, Sardeati, Etrurci itd.), a za Etruščane su već prije poznati arheonalazi u tom smjeru (koji su sad i genski potvrđeni). U to se logično uklapaju i Liburni, a ove veze s Levantom potvrđuje i naša biogenetika (Tolk i surad. 2000, Barač i sur. 2003, Lovrečić i sur. 2005, Yoshamya 2005, Lovrić i sur. 2007, itd.), jer je unutar Hrvatske na Krku i u Kvarneru nađen razmjerno najveći udio levantskog haplotipa Eu9 i Eu10, uz manje dinarskog tipa Eu7 koji drugdje kod nas dominira.

O sličnoj pomorskoj doselidbi s istoka ranih kvarnerskih "bodula" govore u arhajskom cakavizmu i domaće legende "Veyske povede". Također tkalačka preslica s kvarnerskih otoka te istarska glazbena ljestvica gornjeg Jadrana (K. Galin 2001) odskaču od Europe i bliže su tradiciji Levanta i starog Egipta. Miješanjem i asimilacijom doseljenih levantskih pomoraca s ranijim Hitmitima, potom na gornjem Jadranu nastaju klasični Liburni koji su odmah zavladali cijelim Jadranom gdje rani Grci naglašuju njihovu pomorsku prevlast kao "Libyrnike Thalassokratia", jer u to rano doba od 9.- 7. st. Liburni kontroliraju ne samo istočni Jadran, nego i sve naše otoke te istočne obale Italije i obalu Albanije sve do Otranta i otoka Krfa, a možda su plovili i Jonskim morem do Sicilije.

Nalazi se pretežno kod hamitskih naroda uz južne obale Sredozemlja i u sjevernoj Africi, npr. Egipćani, Abesinci, Berberi itd. U južnoj Europi je to najstariji i rijedak genotip, podrijetlom od prapovijesnih doseljenika do neolita, koji su sudjelovali u ranom razvitku poljodjelstva i prvih keramičkih kultura, a u dolini Nila je taj genotip bio glavni većinski nositelj visoke pracivilizacije faraonskog Egipta. U Hrvatskoj Eu4 obuhvaća oko 5% pučanstva uglavnom medju čakavcima, a razmjerno najviše na otoku Krku gdje dostiže blizu 7%

 

Medun - Teuta

Tvrdjava Medun u Kucima Crna Gora, animacija restitucije tvrdjave

Medun is an old town and fortress, situated 13 kilometers northeast from Podgorica, Montenegro. It was erected originally as a fortress, later on as a town, between 4th and 3rd centuries BC, by Illyrians living in the area. It was known as Medeon (Ancient Greek: Μεδεών), Meteon, or Modunense.

Well preserved walls of the fortress were built of big blocks of trimmed stone, placed in a number of rows. With respect to solidity and size of the construction it substantially differs from the construction of other, less significant Illyrian towns. From the cultural-artistic point of view, two lower dig ups in the rock on the road from the lower to the upper town are very interesting. Studies refer to the conclusion that it was the place of performance of rituals related to the cult of snake that represented myth ancestor to the Illyrians. Necropolis is sited north from the upper town. It originates from the Iron Age, but has not been studied. Medeon hosted the Ardiaei king Gentius, his wife Teuta and the rest of his family until they were taken captives by the Roman legions, who effectively ended the independence of Illyria and created the Roman province of Illyricum.

Medun was mentioned by Livy (59BC-17AD) as a civitas of the Labeates, an Illyrian tribe which lived around the Lake Skadar, then known as Lacus Labeatis. Roman legions conquered Medun around 167 BC, during the Third Illyrian War. On that occasion the Ardiaei king Gentius and his family were captivated, marking the establishment of Illyricum.

Besides the stairways cut into the cliffs on all sides, dating from the Iron Age, from this earlier period is also a portion of the west wall, subsequently built over by a medieval wall. Different parts of the medieval fortification date from different periods.

It was referred to later, in the 7th century, by the Ravenna Geographer, under the name Medion. The medieval fortification had been built on the ruins of the Roman city.

 

Bratstvo Kuči


Haplogroups E1b

Kuči, pleme u istočnoj Crnoj Gori na području Crnogorskih brda, između Podgorice i Komova.

Pleme Kuchi


Odnos između Liburna i starih baltičkih pomoraca

Jadranski drakkari: Ranoantički pisci za prvo doba liburijske talasokracije spominju kako Jadranom plove tzv. drakkophoroi (dracofores) tj. obostrano zašiljeni ilirski brodovi s uzdignutim zmajevim glavama na kraju, a slični su ucrtani i na nekim ilirskim štitovima (Stipčević 1974), dok na Krku i Rabu sve do danas postoji prastari naziv dragãar za ratni brod. Nema sumnje da je to bio sličan jadranski prototp kasnije poznatih vikinških drakkara, inače značajnih upravo za starogermanske pomorce.


Amber Road

Ritualna Sunčeva barka: Slično kao i stari nordijski pomorci iz Baltika i Skandinavije, tako su i Liburni posebice štovali Sunčev kult u obliku simbola Sunčane barke.

Tradicija sušenja ribe: Diljem Sredozemlja je glavni općerašireni postupak tekućeg konzerviranja slane ribe u salamuri. Naprotiv na sjeveroistočom Jadranu je od antike do danas uobičajen i drugi način konzerviranja sušenjem na suncu i vjetru (osobito za hobotnice i raže). To je inače uglavnom nordijska tradicija germanskih ribara u Skandinaviji, gdje tako masovno suše bakalare i ine ribe.

Ribarski tornjevi: Unutar cijeloga Sredozemlja je oduvijek za Kvarner donedavna bio osobiti i izniman, prastari način ribolova pomoću obalnih drvenih tornjeva s ljestvama, tzv. tunere iz kojih se nadgledao prolaz ribe i upravljalo njihovim ulovom. Sličan tradicijski ribolov sa zidanim tornjevima poznat je još i na obalama sjeverozapadne Europe, npr. na britanskom otočju.

Pokazne legende: Nordijske sage spominju doselidbu njihovih predaka iz pradomovine oko Tanaisa. Kod nas su na Krku očuvane stilom i sadržajem dosta slične legende "Veyske Povede", koje takodjer pobliže opisuju antičku doselidbu morem iz Azova, a izrijekom se spominje i nordijski bog Thor kao "Tohôr".

Antičke mitske legende očuvane na Krku: "Povêda ud_Matânih navakÿreh" slikovito opisuje pomorsku doselidbu pradavnih krčkih predaka brodovljem "preko 7 mora." Za Liburne je takodjer vjerojatna doselidba brodovima kao u legendi, jer na kopnu nema arheoloških tragova, a već su od početka poznati kao pomorci.

 

Liburnians (Bireme)


Greek Liburnian


Carthaginian Bireme


A Roman Bireme


A small roman Liburnian


A Roman Liburnian allegedly used at the battle of actium


Liburnian ship


Trireme

 

Sea Peoples - Merneptah

1208 - 1207 BC

Date Narrative Source(s) Peoples named
c. 1200 BC Merneptah Great Karnak Inscription Eqwesh, Lukka, Shekelesh, Sherden, Teresh
Athribis Stele Eqwesh, Shekelesh, Sherden, Teresh

Sea Peoples, 1208 - 1207 BC

The major event of the reign of the Pharaoh Merneptah, was his battle against a confederacy termed "the Nine Bows" at Perire in the western delta in the 5th and 6th years of his reign. Depredations of this confederacy had been so severe that the region was "forsaken as pasturage for cattle, it was left waste from the time of the ancestors."

The Nine Bows were acting under the leadership of the king of Libya and an associated near-concurrent revolt in Canaan involving Gaza, Ashkelon, Yenoam and the people of Israel. Exactly which peoples were consistently in the Nine Bows is not clear, but present at the battle were the Libyans, some neighboring Meshwesh.

[Beginning of the victory that his majesty achieved in the land of Libya] -i, Ekwesh, Teresh, Lukka, Sherden, Shekelesh, Northerners coming from all lands.

Later in the inscription Merneptah receives news of the attack:

... the third season, saying: 'The wretched, fallen chief of Libya, Meryey, son of Ded, has fallen upon the country of Tehenu with his bowmen – Sherden, Shekelesh, Ekwesh, Lukka, Teresh, Taking the best of every warrior and every man of war of his country. He has brought his wife and his children – leaders of the camp, and he has reached the western boundary in the fields of Perire'

Merneptah states that he defeated the invasion, killing 6,000 soldiers and taking 9,000 prisoners. To be sure of the numbers, among other things, he took the penises of all uncircumcised enemy dead and the hands of all the circumcised, from which history learns that the Ekwesh were circumcised.

52 Sherden, and Shekelesh, and Ekwesh, of strange lands from the sea that are circumcised. (literally: "who have no skin")
  53 [...] Shekelesh: 222 people

And the line adds a detail: they are circumcised (literally: they haven’t got the foreskin).

People Egyptian name Original identification
Ekwesh jḳ3w3š3 Greeks (Achaeans)
Lukka row Lycians
Shekelesh š3krš3 Siculi
Sherden š3rdn Sardinians, tribe of Dan
Teresh twrš3 Tyrrhenians

 

 

Ekwesh ('-k-w'-s')

Scholars generally accept that the name Ekwesh or Akwasha is the Egyptian equivalent of Achaean and Ahhiyawa of the Hittite text. If that is valid, the Bronze Age Greeks are to be recognized as one of the Sea Peoples. According to the best reading of the numbers inscribed at Karnak, there were 1213 Ekwesh casualties, and they were the largest group among the Sea Peoples, the core of this Sea People force. Further, the Karnak inscriptions clearly imply that the Akwash or Ekwesh were circumcised. Hardly anyone thinks that the Greeks of the Bronze Age were circumcised, but of course, no one really Knows. It is certainly possible that the Ekwesh were the Achaeans.

Achaeans (Homer)
Arzawa

Achaeans

In Several Hittite texts the population of Ahhiyawa, which occurred at an early date as the name of a country, is mentioned. Not only does this name bear an obvious phonetic resemblance to the Achai(w)oi.

On Linear B tablet C 914 from Knossos "...a hecatomb of cattle is sent to akhaiwian.." which seems to be a unique Cretan reference to the mainland Greeks. But this word also, considered geographically and politically, seems to point to the people we know as "Achaeans".

In the so-called Taswagalawa letter the Hittite King Hattusili II (about 1265-1240 BC) consistency addresses the King of Ahhiyawa formally, using the style " my brother". The significance of this is that the King of Ahhiyawa is placed on the same level as the Kings of Egypt, Babylon, Assuria and the Hittite King himself. Furthermore it is clear that, at least at the time the letter was written, the Ahhiyawa were a political and military force to be reckoned with. Some expressions like "By ship" and "crossing" suggested that the Ahhiyawa were located overseas most likely to the west of Asia Minor.

Based on some Hittite tablets the Ahhiyawa operational center in Anatolia was located in the city of Millawanda following the Hittite army trip of King Hattusili II to reach the area and based on some other places mentioned in association with Millawanda, that can be located in the inter-land of Miletus, it is clear that the geographical location of Millawanda correspond to the city of Miletus.

In Miletus an Achaean style citadel as well as pottery, and other Mycenaean elements have been actually discovered. Based on Hittite documents this settlement was attacked and sacked around 1315 BC by Mursili II and by Hattusili II around 1250 BC. Evidences of destruction in the Achaean Miletus are in fact also attested by the archaeological excavations. In these periods the Achaeans settlements in the Anatolian coast and the relevant diplomatic relationship with the Hittite empire seems to be lead by the Achaean.


Bronze Achaean and Hittite swords from the Achaean acropolis of Miletus dated 13th Century BC

There are several Hittite documents in which Ahhiyawa appears:

1) The earliest is an Oracle Report (AHT 22). It dates late 15th-early 14th century BC under the reign of Tudhaliya I/II. In this tablet the name Ahhiya is associated with an enemy ruler of them.

2) The second one is the so-called Indictment of Madduwata (AHT 3). It dates late 15th-early 14th century BC under the reign of Arnuwanda I, even if many of the events narrated in this text had taken place under the preceding king Tudhaliya I/II, and recounts Hittite dealing with a certain Madduwata, forced to flee his country by Attarissiya (Forrer sought to identify this name with the Achaean king Atreus) whom the Hittites called Man of Ahhiya(wa). Madduwata was installed as a Hittite vassal ruler somewhere in southwestern Anatolian; however, he proved to be an ungrateful and overambitious person, who caused serious trouble for his overlord by attacking Hittite posesions in what appears to have been the area of classical Lycia and Caria. Later he even invaded Cyprus in alliance with his former enemy Attarissiya. In this table is also indicated that Attarissiya fought in the area with 100 chariots and thousand infranty and that one of his officer was killed.

3) In another tablet known as Ten-Years Annals of Mursili II (AHT 1A) dated late 14th century BC, it is mentioned that a man called Piyama-Kurunta son of the Arzawan king Uhha-ziti come out from the sea, and he entered (into exile) with the King of Ahhiyawa.

4) The next reference which is correlated with the previous tablet comes from the Ten-Years Annals of Mursili II (AHT 1B). He conquered the country of Arzawa, which lay in the area of classical Lydia, with its capital Apasa (classical Ephesus). Relying on the King of Ahhiyawa, it engaged in hostilities against the Hittites and incited the land of Millawanda to rebellion, but was defeated and its prince probably handed over to the Hittites by Ahhiyawa King.

5) Other references of Ahhiyawa are present in the Oracle Report (AHT 20) dated late 14th-early 13th century BC (Mursili II). In this report the rituals prescribed include summoning the god of Ahhiyawa and the god of Lazpa, and determining the appropriate ritual to be used for them. We do not know which particular gods of Ahhiyawa and Lazpa were fetched.

6) In the so-called Prayer of Mursili II/Muwattalli II/Urhi-Teshshup(?) (AHT 12) dated late 14th-middle 13th century BC the fragmentary text seems to constitute a self-justification of the speaker, certainly a Hittite King, before the gods. In this prayer the King said that while his father was still alive , and because (s)he became hostile to his mother, his father dispatched him/her to the Land of Ahhiyawa, beside the sea.

7) The survived portion of letter (AHT 9), dated Mid 14th-13th century BC from a king of Hatti (perhaps Mursili II or Hattusili III to a king of Ahhiyawa), appears to deal with someone (Piyamaradu ?) or something , brought from Ahhiyawa to another place . There is reference to a legal dispute, and to a tablet perhaps connected with it that the writer has separately dispatched to his addressee.

8) In the letter (AHT 7), from Manapa-Tarhunta of the Seha River Land to a King of Hatti (probably Muwattalli II) dated early 13th century BC, the main topic is the defection of a group of skilled Hittite craftsmen, dyers, to a ruler by name < b="">. Although Ahhiyawa is not mentioned in the preserved lines, the missive definitely belongs to this corpus, as demonstrated by the appearance of Piyamaradu, Wilusa, and Lazpa (Lesbos).

9) In the letter (AHT 6) dated Early-to mid 13th century BC from a King of Ahhiyawa to Hittite King (probably Muwattalli II) (written in Hittite but the linguistic features of the text confirm that the writer spoke Greek, rather than Hittite, as his mother tongue) the King of Ahhiyawa cites a previous letter from his correspondent. This means that by the time this letter was written a regular exchange of correspondence was established between Hattusa and Ahhiyawa. The letter deals with the matter of the islands which originally belonged to Assuwa. The Hitite King asserted in his message that these islands belonged to him. The King of Ahhiyawa objects that an ancestor of his received the islands from the King of Assuwa. These islands were very likely Lemnos, Imbros, and/or Samothrace. Furthermore the Ahhiyawa king explains that a forebear of his had given his daughter in marriage to the then King of Assuwa (which after the chronology of Kings know to us must have been in the fifteenth century) and that consequently the islands had come into possession of Ahhiyawa.

10) Probably the most important, and certainly the longest, Hittite text regarding Ahhiyawa is the so-called Tawagalawa letter (AHT 4) dated Mid-13th century BC. It is the letter of the Hittite King Hattusili III (about 1267-1237 BC), to the Great King of Ahhiyawa, whose name is unfortunately not preserved. The letter is named after the first person mentioned in it, which is Tawagalawa, brother of the Ahhiyawa King. A more suitable label, however, would be "the Piyamaradu letter" because it is a complaint of the Hittite King to his fellow sovereign in Ahhiyawa about the depredations of Piyamaradu on Hittite territory, apparently committed with the tacit approval of the Ahhiyawa King. The most prominent feature of the letter is the apologetic and conciliatory tone used by the Hittite King to address the King of Ahhiyawa, probably a proof that the country of the latter was a respectable military power beyond Hittite reach. All this compatible with the facts known to us about the Achaeans of that age.

11) In a letter (AHT 8) dated Mid-13th century BC from a Hittite official to a King of Hatti (Hattusili III ?) there is a passage refers to the dispatch of gifts to Egypt and to the King of Ahhiyawa, within the context of the conduct of diplomatic relations between the Hittite King and his counterparts in Egypt and Ahhiyawa. It is clear that at the time of the letter's composition, the Hittite King who was its recipient enjoyed peaceful relations with both Egypt and Ahhiyawa. This makes it likely that the man in question was Hattusili III, and that the letter is probably to be dated to the period shortly before or in the aftermath of the treaty which he concluded with the pharaoh Ramesses II in 1259 BC .

12) In another letter (AHT 15) dated 13th century BC from a King of Hatti (Hattusili III?) to another Great King is mentioned the King of Ahhiyawa and Piyamaradu, who long acted as an agent of Ahhiyawan interests in the west.

13) In the votive prayer (AHT 26), dated Mid-13th century BC, of Poduhepa? (wife of Hattusili III) there is no reference to Ahhiyawa but its references to Piyamaradu, who had been supported by the Ahhiyawan King in his anti-Hittite enterprises, indicates the Hittite regime's continuing concern over his activities.

14) In the "Boundary" list (AHT 18) dated Mid-to late 13th century BC (Reign of Hattusili III or Tudhaliya IV) there are references to the lands of Tarhuntassa, Mira and Ahhiyawa and other kingdoms of western and southern Anatolia. That Ahhiyawan-controlled territory in western Anatolia bordered on the kingdom of Mira can be inferred from the fact that a King or Kings of Ahhiyawa exercised for a time sovereignty over the land of Millawanda (Miletus), which lay directly south of Mira.

15) In the Extract from a letter (AHT 14) dated Mid-to late 13th century BC, from a King of Hatti (Tudhaliya IV?) concerning Urhi-Teshshup, it is mentioned that following Urhi-Teshshup' removal from the Hittite throne by his uncle Hattusili III, the deposed King was assigned a place of banishment in the Nuhashshi Lands in Syria. He was determined, however, to get his throne back, and in his bid to do so sought the support of both foreign kings and his former vassal rulers. In a passage of the leter it seems that Urhi-Teshshup had also made approaches to the king of Ahhiyawa. This suggests that Ahhiyawa still had a significant presence in the Nera Eastern world, at least i the westernmost part of it.

16) In the letter (AHT 11) dated Late-13th century BC, Offenses of the Seha River Land (royal edict of Tudhaliya IV?) a personal involvement of the Great King of Ahhiyawa to support the rebellion of the Seha River Land. It may well be that Ahhiyawan support for the rebellion finally induced Tudhaliya IV to force a military showdown with the Ahhiyawan regime-an action that may have resulted in the elimination of Ahhiyawa's sovereignty over Milawata, and the end of an effective Ahhiyawan political and military presence anywhere in western Anatolia.

17) In the survived fragments of a letter known as "Milawata Letter"(AHT 5) dated Late-13th century BC from a king of Hatti (probably Tudhaliya IV) to a western Anatolia ruler (Tarkasnawa, king of Mira?) the Ahhiyawa are not mentioned but there is reference to several individuals and political entities deeply involved with them. The rogue Piyamaradu, the land of Wilusa, and the city of Milawata. The reinstallation of Walmu as King of Wilusa leads us to conclude that the Great King here was probably one of the successors of Muwattali II, in whose reign Wilusa was governed by Alaksandu. The most likely author of the dispatch is Tudhaliya IV.

18) In the Treaty (AHT 2) between Tudhaliya IV and Shaushga-muwa king of Amurru dated Late-13th century BC there is a reference to the king of Ahhiyawa in the list of foreign rulers whom Tudhaliya IV considers his equlas. Unsurprisingly, the rulers of Egypt, Babylonia, and Assyria are included in the list. And originaly the list also contained the King of Ahhiyawa-the name subsequently being erased. A possible conclusion is that the Ahhiyawan King had indeed enjoyed the status of one of the Great Kings of the Late Bronze Age world, at least in Hittite diplomatic terminology, but had recently lost this status.

19) The two letters (AHT 27A and B) dated Late-13th century BC respectively from Suppiluliuma II (1207-? BC) and Penti-Sharruma, a Hittite official, to Ammurapi king of Ugarit, deals about an unacceptable delay of shipment of (copper) ingots from Ugarit to Ahhiyawans currently present in the land of Lukka. This is the last known reference to Ahhiyawa in Late Bronze Age sources. By this time the Ahhiyawan kingdom referred to in earlier Hittite text had lost its Anatolian territories. The Hiyawa-men were no doubt private groups of adventurers who remained n the Anatolian mainland in the wake of the loss of Ahhiyawan sovereignty in the region or came their living as freebooters or as mercenaries in a foreign king's hire.

20) The Ahhiyawa are also mentioned in other very fragmentary tablets (AHT 10, 13, 16, 17, 19, 21, 23, 24, 25) dated durign the 13th century BC which are too fragmentary for translation or comments.

It was now clear from the Hittite tablets and from several archaeological evidences that the Achaeans of the 14th and 13th centuries BC (the heyday of their civilization) were largely involved in trade, diplomatic and armed foray along the shores and islands of the western Anatolian.

  • Ekwesh/Achaeans - Greek forces opposed to the Trojans

 

Achaeans

Y-chromosome J2


Haplogroup J2


Circumcision

According to Hodges, ancient Greek aesthetics of the human form considered circumcision a mutilation of a previously perfectly shaped organ. Greek artwork of the period portrayed penises as covered by the foreskin (sometimes in exquisite detail), except in the portrayal of satyrs, lechers, and barbarians. This dislike of the appearance of the circumcised penis led to a decline in the incidence of circumcision among many peoples that had previously practiced it throughout Hellenistic times.

In Egypt, only the priestly caste retained circumcision, and by the 2nd century, the only circumcising groups in the Roman Empire were Jews, Jewish Christians, Egyptian priests, and the Nabatean Arabs.

 

Shekelesh (S'-R 'rw-a') - Siculi

One of the earliest accounts of the Shekelesh occurs early in the reign of the pharaoh Merneptah. In the beginning of his fifth year of rule, the pharaoh had to face off with a Libyan invasion; which he boasts of his victory in his annals at Karnak. When Merneptah confronted his enemy, he not only faced one hostile tribe, but a alliance of Sea People groups, which consisted of the Meshwesh people, who were the major forces and urged smaller tribes like the Sherden, Tereš and the Shekelesh to assist in the fight against the Egyptians. Although Ramessess III gives the impression that he has completely eradicated the enemy, the Sea People groups were still a major threat in the Mediterranean. The Harris Papyrus is an important account because it seems to indicate that the Shekelesh were used as garrison forces and mercenaries by Ramessess III, along with other Sea People groups. Sheklesh together the Ekwesh, and Sherden were circumcised as states in the Great Karnak inscription of the Pharaoh Merneptah.

The reliefs and inscriptions at Medinet Habu are the most famous and well-known source for references to the Sea Peoples. The annals here give the most detailed account of the Sea Peoples, but only mention the Shekelesh briefly. However we are able to get a glimpse of what a Shekelesh soldier would have looked like and what accoutrements accompanied him into battle. Of the others, the Shekelesh (and the Teresh) wear cloth headdresses and a medallion on their breasts, and carry two spears and a round shield. Some scholars, such as N.K. Sandars, believe that the Shekelesh came from southeast Sicily.

Following the age of the Sea Peoples, the island of Sicily was divided between three major tribes the Elymians, the Sicani, and the Siculi (sometimes referred to as the Sicels). While the Sicani were indigenous to the island, the Elymians are believed to have originally come from Asia Minor and had deep connections to the Greek city-states of the Aegean Sea. The Sicels, on the other hand, were likely an Italic tribe from the mainland. All three tribes may have connections to the Sea Peoples, but it is believed that marauders from Sicily were part of the invasions by the Sea Peoples. Specifically, these Sicilian pirates were called the Shekelesh by the Egyptians.

For their part, the later Greek conquerors of ancient Sicily believed that the Sicels had fled to Troy after being defeated by the Egyptians. From there, they traveled to southern Italy and finally to Sicily. Modern historians seem to corroborate this belief that the Sicels and the Elymians were both defeated members of the Sea Peoples confederation who found shelter in Sicily.

Anatolia e Sagalassos

Le ipotesi più accreditate si riferiscono principalmente all'area egeo-anatolica e indicherebbero un territorio immediatamente ad est della Licia, dipendente dall'impero ittita ma in contatto con le popolazioni semitiche, tale da giustificare la circoncisione dei guerrieri Šekeleš attestata dalle iscrizioni egizie. Nell'Età del Bronzo finale, un luogo con tali requisiti può essere individuato nella Cilicia e nella vicina Panfilia.

In età arcaica, il capoluogo dell'antica regione della Pisidia era la città che i greci chiamavano Sagalassos, nei pressi dell'odierna Ağlasun, in Turchia. L'egittologo francese Gaston Maspero suggerì, per assonanza, di considerare Sagalassos come possibile luogo d'origine dei Šekeleš. Tuttavia, la città viene menzionata nelle Gesta di Hattusili I e in altri testi ittiti con il nome di Šal-la-aḫ-šu-wa. - Anatolia e Sagalassos

 

Shasu o Šekeleš?

From left to right:

  1. Prince of (ht)
  2. Prince of (imr)
  3. chieftain of (tkry) the Tjekker
  4. srdn of the Sea
  5. chieftain of the (s)
  6. (trs) of the Sea

The figure of the Pelseset (p) is missing. (The Ancient Near East in Pictures: James B. Pritchard p. 250)

A ridosso del cosiddetto migdol sul versante orientale della torre nord fu rinvenuto un rilievo con sei prigionieri in ginocchio e con le mani legate: si tratta dei capitani degli stranieri del nord catturati in battaglia. Se negli altri rilievi del sito i Popoli del mare non risultano sempre riconoscibili e si assiste più che altro a caotiche scene di guerra, qui troviamo un'iscrizione accanto ad ogni prigioniero che ne dichiara l'identità.

(EN)
1 The vile chief of Hatti as a captive
2 The vile chief of Amor
3 The leader of the enemy of Tjeker
4 The Shardana of the sea
5 The leader of the Sh(asu)
6 The Turesh of the sea
7 The leader of the enemy of Pe(leset)

(IT)
1 Il vile capitano degli Hatti prigioniero
2 Il vile capitano di Amor
3 Il capo del nemico Tjeker
4 Gli Shardana del mare
5 Il capo degli Sh(asu)
6 I Teresh del mare
7 Il capo del nemico Pe(leset)

Dei sette capitani citati, per i prigionieri Shardana e Teresh viene sottolineata la provenienza marittima, probabilmente per differenziare le armate nautiche da quelle terrestri. L'ultimo prigioniero viene descritto come Peleset, ma l'immagine è mancante. Il quinto prigioniero raffigurato è stato identificato come uno Shasu, nonostante l'iscrizione - posta immediatamente alla sinistra dell'uomo - risulti incompleta. Il piccolo spazio vuoto a seguire fece dedurre all'équipe di restauro e trascrizione, diretta dall' Oriental Institute (Chicago University), un esito in -sw.

Proprio su questo tema, negli anni sessanta, un fervente dibattito animò le riviste di archeologia mediorientale: l'oggetto fu proprio l'identità del quinto prigioniero. Un gruppo di studiosi, capeggiati dall'inglese Gerald A. Wainwright, sostenne che si sarebbe potuto trattare più verosimilmente di uno Šekeleš.

Antički Sikuli (Sicum, Siculi, Sicilis, Siculum, ) naselje Kaligulinih veterana.

Trogirski povjesničar Ivan Lucić (1604.-1697.) temeljem izvještaja rimskih pisaca Plinija....Tragurium je grad rimskih građana poznat po mramoru.Sicium je ono mjesta u koje je car Klaudije poslao veterane,kolonija Salona...., i Klaudija Ptolomeja ......gradovi pak Dalmacije uz obalu jesu Sicinum, kolonija Salona..... , te itinerija Tabula peutingeriana pravilno zaključuje ... obojica postavljaju Sicum blizu Solina, a Plinije izričito između Trogira i Solina..... Arheolog don Frane Bulić ubicirao je Sikule na područje Bijaća tj. oko nalazišta grobova veterana VII i IX legije.

 

Teresh (Tw-ry-s')

The Teresh or Tursha are mentioned during the fifth year of Merneptah reign, (about 1207 BC), in the Great Karnak Inscription, between the enemies coalition faced by Egypt. In this document a total of 742 dead Teresh are accounted. During the reign of Ramesses III a Teresh chief is shown together other captive Sea Peoples in the Medinet Habu relief. Furthermore in the tomb 23 from Gurob the Archaeologist W. Flinders Petrie found the mummy of An-en-Tursha. He was a Teresh butler in the court of Rameses III. This well preserved mummy still shows fair hairs thus his origins was not from Egypt.

Several possibilities exist which may identify the Teresh as Anatolians. Teresh appears in a Hittite record as Taruisa. It is reasonable assumption that the people of Taruisa called themselves by some name close to this. Stripped of vowels so that it can be compared to the stripped Egyptian spelling.

The second possibility is relevant to the Tyrsenians a group of pirates with well decked ships mentioned in two works of about 700 BC in a poem known as Hymn to Dionysus, which tradition attributes to Homer. During the classical period Herodotus and Thucydides mention them under the name Tyrrhenians. Herodotus places these peoples in Lydia. Thucydides remarks that they were known to live on the island of Lesbos, offshore from Lydia. Lydia is the Classical period name for the land which in the Bronze Age was Arzawa, and possibly part of Seha River Land an area located in the near south of Taruisa. Some scholars suggested that the Tyrsenians may be related to the Etruscans in fact the Tyrhennian Sea - derived from a Greek term - still survives as a name for the waters between Tuscany and Corsica.

Herodotus portrays the wandering and migration of Lydians from Anatolia because of famine:

In the days of Atys, the son of Manes, there was a great scarcity through the whole land of Lydia ... So the king determined to divide the nation in half ... the one to stay, the other to leave the land. ... the emigrants should have his son Tyrrhenus for their leader ... they went down to Smyrna, and built themselves ships ... after sailing past many countries they came to Umbria ... and called themselves ... Tyrrhenians.

The third possibility shifts the geographic focus to the southeast coast of Anatolia. In a Hittite record containing a list of cities the names Kummanni, Zunnahara, Adaniya, Tarsa... appear together. These last two are more likely the cities of Adana and Tarsus, and thus is certain that the city of Tarsus was in existence in the Bronze Age. If the Egyptians were to ask a man of Tarsus where he came from, he might point in northerly direction and answer "from Tarsa" or "Tarsha" or "Tarssas" This answer would be written down by Egyptians as T-r-s or T-r-sh. Tarsus is close to the coast, and in later times an important port.

 

Lidija

Lidija (asirski: Luddu; grčki: Λυδία) je kraljevstvo iz Željeznog doba. Nalazila se istočno od drevne Ionije, a njeni stanovnici govorili su jezik poznat kao lidijski. Lidija (poznata kao Sparda od strane Ahemenida) je satrapija (pokrajina) Ahemenidsko Perzijskog carstva. Tabal, imenuje Kir Veliki , bilo je prvi satrap (guverner). Smatra se kako su se najstarije kovanice pojavile u Lidiji oko 660. pr. Kr. Glavni grad regije bio je Sard. Teritorij Lidije još su oko 1200. pr. Kr. naseljavali Hetiti. Lidija se spominje u Homerovoj Ilijadi kao Maionia ili Maeonia, a prema grčkim izvorima regija je naziv „Lidija“ dobila prema kralju Lidu. Herodot tvrdi kako su Lidijci izumili kovani novac, kojeg su kovali od zlata i srebra. Sredinom 6. stoljeća pr. Kr. Lidijom je vladao kralj Krez koji je bio poznat po golemom bogatstvu, pa i danas postoji uzrečica „Bogat kao Krez“. Krez je financirao gradnju Artemidinog hrama u Efezu koji spada u sedam svjetskih čuda. Godine 546. pr. Kr. perzijski vladar Kir Veliki osvaja Lidiju koja postaje perzijska pokrajina.

 
Croesus

Sard (s ɑr d ɪ s) ili Sardes (s ɑr d sam z, lidijsko: Sfard, starogrčki: Σάρδεις Sardeis; staroperzijski: Sparda) je drevni grad na mjestu današnje Sart (Sartmahmut prije 19. listopada 2005.) u Turskoj u Manisa provinciji. Sard je bio glavni grad drevnog kraljevstva Lidije, je jedan od važnijih gradova Perzijskog Carstva, sjedišta namjesnika pod Rimskim Carstvom, a metropola provincije Lydia u kasnijem rimskom i bizantskom dobu. Kao jedan od sedam crkava u Aziji, upućena je od Ivana u Knjizi Otkrivenja u Bibliji. Njegova važnost je zbog, prvo svoje vojne snage, drugo na važnoj autocesti koja vodi od unutrašnjosti do Egejskog mora, a treće na široku i plodnu ravnicu u Hermusu.

"Spard" ili "Sard", drugo ime usko povezano s imenom Tirensko, bio je glavni grad zemlje Lidije, izvorni dom od Tyrrhenians; je iz Grci kao "Sardu". Ime konzervirani grčkim i egipatskim vizualizacije je "Sard," jer Grci ga zovu "Sardu" a ime se pojavljuje u egipatskim natpisima kao "Srdn."

Haplogroups T1a & R-V88

 

Tyrrhenians

The Tyrrhenians (Attic Greek: Τυρρηνοί Turrhēnoi) or Tyrsenians (Ionic: Τυρσηνοί Tursēnoi; Doric: Τυρσανοί Tursānoi) is an exonym used by Greek authors to refer to a non-Greek people.

While ancient sources have been interpreted in a variety of ways, one theory identifies the Tyrsenians with the Etruscan, Raeti, and Lemnian cultures, whose languages have been grouped together as the Tyrsenian languages based on strong similarities in their written languages.


Lemnos stele, Lemnian (Etruscan) inscriptions discovered in a crypt

Later, in the 6th to 5th centuries BC, the name referred specifically to the Etruscans, for whom the Tyrrhenian Sea is named, according to Strabo. In Pindar, the Tyrsanoi appear grouped with the Carthaginians as a threat to Magna Graecia:

I entreat you, son of Cronus, grant that the battle-shouts of the Carthaginians and Etruscans stay quietly at home, now that they have seen their arrogance bring lamentation to their ships off Cumae.

The name is also attested in a fragment by Sophocles.

The name becomes increasingly associated with the generic Pelasgians. Herodotus places them in Crestonia in Thrace, as neighbours of the Pelasgians. Similarly, Thucydides mentions them together with the Pelasgians and associates them with Lemnian pirates and with the pre-Greek population of Attica.

Lemnos remained relatively free of Greek influence up to Hellenistic times, and the Lemnos stele of the 6th century BC is inscribed with a language very similar to Etruscan. This has led to the postulation of a "Tyrrhenian language group" comprising Etruscan, Lemnian and Raetic.

Another hypothesis connecting the Tyrrhenians and the Etruscans posits that the Etruscans derive at least partially from a 12th-century BC invasion from the Aegean and Anatolia imposing itself over the Italic Villanovan culture, with some scholars claiming a relationship or at least evidence of close contact between the Anatolian languages and the Etruscan language. Adherents of this latter school of thought point to the legend of Lydian origin of the Etruscans referred to by Herodotus (Histories 1.94) and the statement of Livy that the Raetians were Etruscans driven into the mountains by the invading Gauls.

Tyrant (tyrannos), Tirana

 
Glasinc - Tarkvinija

 

Tyrsenian languages

A larger Aegean family including Eteocretan, Minoan and Eteocypriot has been proposed by G. M. Facchetti, and is supported by S. Yatsemirsky, referring to some alleged similarities between on the one hand Etruscan and Lemnian (a language attested in the Aegean, widely thought to be related to Etruscan), and on the other hand some languages such as Minoan and Eteocretan. If these languages could be shown to be related to Etruscan and Rhaetic, they would constitute a pre-Indo-European family stretching from (at the very least) the Aegean islands and Crete across mainland Greece and the Italian peninsula to the Alps. Facchetti proposes a hypothetical language family derived from Minoan in two branches. From Minoan he proposes a Proto-Tyrrhenian from which would have come the Etruscan, Lemnian and Rhaetic languages. James Mellaart has proposed that this language family is related to the pre-Indo-European Anatolian languages, based upon place name analysis. From another Minoan branch would have come the Eteocretan language.

  • Anatolski jezici = Proto ilirsko-slavenski jezici


Tyrsenian languages

 

Tyras

Tyras (starogrčki: Τύρας) je drevni grčki grad na sjevernoj obali Crnog mora. Osnovali su ga kolonisti iz Mileta, vjerojatno oko 600 pne. Grad je smješten oko 10 km od ušća rijeke Tyras, koji se sada zove Dnjestar. Okružuje ga domorodačko pleme nazivalo Tyragetae. Ruševine Tyrasa nalaze se u današnjem gradu Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi u Odessa Ukrajinskoj oblasti.

Tyrageti, Tyragetae ili Tyrangitae (grčki: Τυραγγεῖται, Tυραγγέται ili Τυρεγέται), doslovno, Getae od Tyras , su sub-plemena Getae Tračana, nalaze se na rijeci Tyras (današnj Dnjestar u Moldaviji i Ukrajini).

 

Herodot - Strabo

Herodotus's account (written c. 440 BC) refers to the myths of Io and Europa.

According to the Persians best informed in history, the Phoenicians began the quarrel. These people, who had formerly dwelt on the shores of the Erythraean Sea, having migrated to the Mediterranean and settled in the parts which they now inhabit, began at once, they say, to adventure on long voyages, freighting their vessels with the wares of Egypt and Assyria ... - Herodotus, The History, I.1

The Greek historian Strabo believed that the Phoenicians originated from Bahrain. Herodotus also believed that the homeland of the Phoenicians was Bahrain. This theory was accepted by the 19th-century German classicist Arnold Heeren who said that: "In the Greek geographers, for instance, we read of two islands, named Tyrus or Tylos, and Aradus, which boasted that they were the mother country of the Phoenicians, and exhibited relics of Phoenician temples." The people of Tyre in South Lebanon in particular have long maintained Persian Gulf origins, and the similarity in the words "Tylos" and "Tyre" has been commented upon. The Dilmun civilization thrived in Bahrain during the period 2200-1600 BC, as shown by excavations of settlements and Dilmun burial mounds.

 

Phoenicians

Haplogroup T-L206

 
Haplogroup T-L206

Haplogroup T-L206, also known as haplogroup T1, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. The SNP that defines the T1 clade is L206. The haplogroup is one two primary branches of T (T-M184), the other being T2 (T-PH110).

T1 is the most common descendant of the T-M184 haplogroup, being the lineage of more than 95% of all T-M184 members in America, Australia, Africa, Asia and Europe. T1 lineages are found at high frequencies among northern Somali clans and at least, T1* could have spread with the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B culture (PPNB).

The rare basal paragroup T1* has been found in a Berber individual from Tunisia, a male in Syria, and one among ethnic Macedonians in Macedonia.

T-L206's sole primary branch, T1a (M70), is believed to have originated about 15,900 – 23,900 BP, in the Middle East. It appears that individuals bearing T-M70 later migrated south to Africa.

Structure

  • T1 (L206, L490) Found in Syria.
    • T1a (M70/Page46/PF5662, PAGES78) Found in Early Neolithic skeleton found in Karsdorf, Germany, 7200 years old. Also in Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Ossetia, England, Italy and Portugal.
      • T1a1 (L162/Page21, L299, L453/PF5617, L454) Found in Eivissa, northern Anatolia and Germany.
        • T1a1a (L208/Page2, L905) Mostly found in Upper Egypt, Horn of Africa, western Europe, eastern Anatolia, Iran and the Arabian Peninsula. Some spots in western Morocco, Sahrawis and Canarias.
          • T1a1a1 (P77) Mostly found in Middle East, western Europe and Ashkenazi Jews.
          • T1a1a2 (P321) Found in Syria and Ashkenazi Jews.
            • T1a1a2a (P317) Found in Syria, Italian Jews and Ashkenazi Jews.
      • T1a2 (L131) Mostly found in northern Europe, eastern Europe, southeastern Europe and Anatolia. Also found in Xinjiang, Lemba, Tunisia, south and east Iberian Peninsula.
        • T1a2a (P322, P328) Found in Scandinavia, Denmark, Germany and Netherlands. Some spots in Yemenite Jews and Palestine(P327).
        • T1a2b (L446) Found in Northwest Europe and eastern Alps.
      • T1a3 (L1255) Found in Kuwait.

Subclade distribution

T1* (T-L206*)

This lineage could have arrived in the Levant through the PPNB expansion from northeastern Anatolia.

T1a (M70)

Mendez et al. (2011) points to an ancient presence for T1a-M70 in Europe may reflect early exiles between the ancient lands of Israel and Babylon. The subclade probably arrived with the very first farmers. This is supported by the recent findings of Haak et al. who discovered several T1a1-CTS880 members in a 7000 years old settlement in Karsdorf, Germany. Autosomal analysis of these skeletal remains show an unusual relationship with modern Southwest Asian populations, reaching close to 10%.

The T1a1 skeletal remains from this settlement were also found to belong to the H mtdna haplogroup, this settlement have the highest frequency of this mtDNA haplogroup 30.4% (7/23) that have been found in any early Neolithic Europe population until now.

T1a1 (L162; xL208)

T1a1 formed 17,400-14,600 BP, is the largest lineage downstream from T1a-M70 and became widespread across Eurasia and Africa before the modern era.

This extremely rare subclade has been found in Ibizan (Eivissan) islanders and Pontic Greeks from Giresun. The first Y-STR haplotype belonging to this lineage appeared in the paper of Tomas et al in 2006 among a sample of Eivissan individuals but is not until August 2009 when the first T1a1-L162(xL208) individual was reported in a 23andMe customer of Pontic Greek background and Metaxopoulos surname, thanks to the public Adriano Squecco's Y-Chromosome Genome Comparison Project.

Pontic Greeks from Giresun descend from Sinope colonists and Sinope was colonised by Ionians from Miletus. Is interesting to note that there exist an Ionian colony known as Pityussa just like the known Greek name for Eivissa Pityuses. In Eivissa, where is found the famous bust of Demeter that have been confused with the punic Tanit for decades, is known the cult to Demeter. The bust belonging to Demeter have been analysed and is found to contains black particles of volcanic sand origin from the Etna, is thought to be made in Sicily with red clays typical of the eastern Trinacria, which was colonized by the Ionians. The Ionians could be arrived to Eivissa c.2700 YBP. This lineage could be an Ionian marker. T1a1 formed 17,400-14,600 BP, is the largest lineage downstream from T1a-M70 and became widespread across Eurasia and Africa before the modern era.

This extremely rare subclade has been found in Ibizan (Eivissan) islanders and Pontic Greeks from Giresun. The first Y-STR haplotype belonging to this lineage appeared in the paper of Tomas et al in 2006 among a sample of Eivissan individuals but is not until August 2009 when the first T1a1-L162(xL208) individual was reported in a 23andMe customer of Pontic Greek background and Metaxopoulos surname, thanks to the public Adriano Squecco's Y-Chromosome Genome Comparison Project.

Pontic Greeks from Giresun descend from Sinope colonists and Sinope was colonised by Ionians from Miletus. Is interesting to note that there exist an Ionian colony known as Pityussa just like the known Greek name for Eivissa Pityuses. In Eivissa, where is found the famous bust of Demeter that have been confused with the punic Tanit for decades, is known the cult to Demeter. The bust belonging to Demeter have been analysed and is found to contains black particles of volcanic sand origin from the Etna, is thought to be made in Sicily with red clays typical of the eastern Trinacria, which was colonized by the Ionians. The Ionians could be arrived to Eivissa c.2700 YBP. This lineage could be an Ionian marker.

T1a1a (L208)

This lineage, formed 14,200-11,000 BP, is the largest branch downstream T1a1-L162. Firstly discovered and reported at August 2009 in a 23andMe customer of Iberian ancestry that participated in the public Squecco's Y-Chromosome Genome Comparison Project and appearing there as "Avilés" and as "AlpAstur" in 23andMe. Named as "L208" at November 2009.

 

Thomas Jefferson

Phylogenetic network analysis of its Y-STR (short tandem repeat) haplotype shows that it is most closely related to an Egyptian K2 [now T/K1a] haplotype, but the presence of scattered and diverse European haplotypes within the network is nonetheless consistent with Jefferson's patrilineage belonging to an ancient and rare indigenous European type. This is supported by the observation that two of 85 unrelated British men sharing the surname Jefferson also share the President's Y-STR haplotype within haplogroup K2. Turi E. King et al.,

A notable member of the T-M184 haplogroup is the third US President, Thomas Jefferson. He reportedly belongs to a subclade of T-M184 which is most commonly found in both the Iberian Peninsula (e.g. Spain) and Egypt. His most distant known ancestor is Samuel Jeffreason  [sic], born 11 October 1607 at Pettistree, Suffolk, England, although there is also a widespread belief that the President had Welsh ancestry. While all subclades of T-M184 are rare in Britain, some British males with the surname Jefferson have also reportedly been found to carry T-M184, reinforcing the idea that Thomas Jefferson's immediate paternal ancestry was British and may originate in Sephardic (Spanish) Jewish populations, who have their ultimate origins in the Middle East. Science Daily.

There was controversy for almost two centuries regarding allegations that Thomas Jefferson had fathered the children of his slave Sally Hemings. An oral tradition in the Hemings family and other historical evidence was countered in the early 19th century by some Jefferson's grandchildren, who asserted that a son of Thomas Jefferson's sister, by the name of Carr, had been the father of Hemings' children. However, a 1998 study of Jefferson male-line DNA found that it matched that of a descendant of Sally Hemings' youngest son, Eston Hemings. Most historians now believe that Jefferson had a relationship with Hemings for 38 years, and probably fathered her six known children, four of whom lived to adulthood. In addition, the testing conclusively disproved any connection between the Hemings descendant and the Carr male line.

Thomas Jefferson

Spencer Wells, the geneticist that heads the Genographic Project in search of the scientific "Adam"In the film, Spencer Wells indicated that Thomas Jefferson's Y-Chromosome was "Phoenician",

Read more: http://phoenicia.org/jefferson.html#ixzz4TYNwmee2 and the National Geographic study "Who were the Phoenicians," revealed that Thomas Jefferson, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States belonged to Y-chromosome Haplogroup K2. The quote from Wells that follows is the scientific explanation of what was discovered in studying Jefferson's DNA.

video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rpibDIWKF5k

 

Tartessos - Tarsus

Tartessos (Greek: Ταρτησσός) or Tartessus was a semi-mythical harbor city and the surrounding culture on the south coast of the Iberian Peninsula (in modern Andalusia, Spain), at the mouth of the Guadalquivir River. It appears in sources from Greece and the Near East starting during the first millennium BC. Herodotus, for example, describes it as beyond the Pillars of Heracles (Strait of Gibraltar).

September 1923 archaeologists discovered a Phoenician necropolis in which human remains were unearthed and stones found with illegible characters. It may have been colonized by the Phoenicians for trade because of its richness in metals.

Tarsus has long been an important stop for traders and a focal point of many civilisations.


Phoenician Trade

 
Tartessos - Tarsus

 

Etruscan civilization

Etrusca Disciplina - Haruspicium


Diagram of the sheep's liver found near Piacenza with Etruscan inscriptions on the bronze sheep's Liver of Piacenza

In the religion of Ancient Rome, a haruspex (plural haruspices; also called aruspex) was a person trained to practice a form of divination called haruspicy (haruspicina), the inspection of the entrails (exta—hence also extispicy (extispicium)) of sacrificed animals, especially the livers of sacrificed sheep and poultry. The reading of omens specifically from the liver is also known by the Greek term hepatoscopy (also hepatomancy).

Jer kralj babilonski stoji na početku puta, na raspuću dvaju putova, i pita znamenja - miješa strijele, ispituje terafime i motri jetru. - Ezekiel

The striking parallel not just of the prevalence of the practice of haruspicy, but the specific artifact type of liver models recording the significance of the various parts of the liver has given rise to the hypothesis of a strong cultural connection between Etruria and the Ancient Near East. From as early as 1900, Ludwig Stieda sought to compare the Etruscan with the Babylonian artifacts. The parallel is taken as one of the main pieces of evidence by those arguing for Etruscan origins in Anatolia, alongside Herodotus' (1.94) claim that the "Tyrrhenians" descended from the Lydians, and the linguistic relationship between Etruscan and Lemnian.

Etru-scan = Jetru-scan

  • Etrusca Disciplina = jetruška disciplina
  • Haruspicium, haru= žgara, unutrašnji organi (Radovan Damjanović)

 

Etrurci 1

Etrurci 2

Tajna etrurskog pisma

Ramesside period Index Amenmose