Maykop culture

Proto Indo-Europeans ca. 4500 - 4000 BC


Migration of Neolithic population during the second half of V millennium BC

Indo-European (Maykop) branches of G2a2

G2a-L140 and its subclades are also found in the Caucasus, Central Asia and throughout India, especially among the upper castes, who represent the descendants of the Bronze Age Indo-European invaders. The combined presence of G2a-L140 across Europe and India is a very strong argument in favour of an Indo-European dispersal.

G2a-L140 came from Anatolia to eastern and Central Europe during the Neolithic (a fact proven by ancient DNA test). Once in Southeast Europe men belonging to the U1 branch founded the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture (with men of other haplogroups, notably I2a1b-L621) around modern Moldova. The Cucuteni-Trypillian people traded actively with the neighbouring with the Steppe cultures, and from 3500 BCE, at the onset of the Yamna period in the Pontic-Caspian Steppe, the Cucuteni-Trypillian people started expanding east into the steppe of what is now western Ukraine, leaving their towns (the largest in the world at the time), and adopting an increasingly nomadic lifestyle like their Yamna neighbours. By the time the Proto-Indo-Europeans started their massive expansion, G2a-U1 men belonging to the L13 and L1264 subclades would have joined R1b and R1a tribes in the invasion of Europe, then of Central and South Asia.

 

Samara / Dnieper-Donets culture

 
Samara culture - Dnieper-Donets culture - Khvalynsk - Sredny Stog culture

The Samara culture was an eneolithic culture of the early 5th millennium BC at the Samara bend region of the middle Volga, at the northern edge of the steppe zone. Related sites are Varfolomievka on the Volga (5500 BC), which was part of the North Caspian culture, and Mykol'ske, on the Dnieper. The later stages of the Samara culture are contemporaneous with its successor culture in the region, the early Khvalynsk culture (4700–3800 BC), while the archaeological

  • Preceded by; Bug-Dniester culture, Dnieper-Donets culture
  • Followed by; Khvalynsk culture

 

Sredny Stog culture, 5th millennium BC

Y-DNA G2a2 & Q, R1b


Sredny Stog culture

The Sredny Stog culture seems to have had contact with the agricultural Cucuteni-Trypillian culture in the west and was a contemporary of the Khvalynsk culture.

Sredny Stog culture should be considered as an areal term, with at least four distinct cultural elements co-existing inside the same geographical area.

The culture ended at around 3500 BC, when the Yamna culture expanded westward replacing Sredny Stog, and coming into direct contact with the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture in the western Ukraine.

  • Preceded by; Khvalynsk culture
  • Followed by; Cernavodă culture, Yamnaya culture

 

Domestication of the Horse

Y-DNA R1b

The Earliest Possible Indicator is the inclusion of horses in sacrificial rituals with domesticated cattle and sheep. Domesticated cattle and sheep were adopted across the western steppes between about 5000-4500 BCE. Horses certainly had a new ritual and symbolic importance in Volga-region sites dated between 5000-4500 BCE. They were the principal meat animal, followed by sheep and cattle, at the contemporary settlements of Ivanovskaya and Varfolomievka. If they were domesticated, these were the oldest domesticated horses.

At the cemetery of Khvalynsk on the Volga River, archaeologists led by Igor Vasiliev found 158 human graves dated by radiocarbon to about 4500 BCE with the bones of 52 sacrificed sheep/goat, 23 cattle, and 11 horses (Petrenko 1984; Agapov, Vasiliev, and Pestrikova 1990). Animal leg and head parts were offered in all phases of the funerals: on the grave floor, in the grave fill, at the edge of the grave, and in 12 sacrificial deposits stained with red ochre, found above the graves. Horse leg parts occurred by themselves in eight graves. They were grouped with sheep/goat and cattle bones in one grave and in one sacrificial deposit, in rituals that excluded obviously wild animals.

At a contemporary cemetery, S’yezzhe, two horse heads were found in a similar ochre-stained deposit with carved images of horses.


Khvalynsk

Mace, Pontic–Caspian Steppe

Polished stone maces were another steppe artifact type that appeared in Tripolye B1 villages. The cat, unlike an ax, can not really be used for anything except cracking heads. It was a new weapon type and symbol of power in Old Europe, but maces had appeared across the steppes centuries earlier in DDII, Khvalynsk, and Varfolomievka contexts.

Followed by Pit-grave culture (Yamna)


Pit-grave culture

Indo-European migrations


Pit-grave migration


c. 4500-4000 BC


c. 4000-3500 BC

 

Basic phylogenetic tree for R1b


Haplogroup R1b

 M343

R-M343* (R1b*). No cases have been reported.

 L278 
PH155

R-PH155 (R1b1b) has been found in individuals from Bahrain, Bhutan, Ladakh, Tajikistan, Turkey, Xinjiang, and Yunnan.

L754
V88

R-V88 (R1b1a2): the most common forms of R1b found among males native to Sub-Saharan Africa, also found rarely elsewhere.

L389
 V1636

R-V1636 (R1b1a1b) is rare, but has been found in Bulgaria, Turkey, a Tomsk Tatar, the Italian Province of Salerno, and an individual of unknown descent in Puerto Rico.

 P297 
 M73 

Subclades of R-M73 (R1b1a1a1) are rare and common only in Eastern Europe, Siberia and Central Asia.

 M269 

Subclades of R-M269 (R1b1a1a2; previously R1b1a2) are now extremely common throughout Western Europe, but are also found at lower levels in many other parts of Western Eurasia and the Mediterranean.

 

Geographical distribution

R1b1a1a1 (R-M73)

Malyarchuk et al. (2011) found R-M73 in 13.2% (5/38) of Shors, 11.4% (5/44) of Teleuts, 3.3% (2/60) of Kalmyks, 3.1% (2/64) of Khakassians, 1.9% (2/108) of Tuvinians, and 1.1% (1/89) of Altaians. The Kalmyks, Tuvinians, and Altaian belong to a Y-STR cluster marked by DYS390=19, DYS389=14-16 (or 14-15 in the case of the Altaian individual), and DYS385=13-13.

Dulik et al. (2012) found R-M73 in 35.3% (6/17) of a sample of the Kumandin of the Altai Republic in Russia. Three of these six Kumandins share an identical 15-loci Y-STR haplotype, and another two differ only at the DYS458 locus, having DYS458=18 instead of DYS458=17. This pair of Kumandin R-M73 haplotypes resembles the haplotypes of two Kalmyks, two Tuvinians, and one Altaian whose Y-DNA has been analyzed by Malyarchuk et al. (2011). The remaining R-M73 Kumandin has a Y-STR haplotype that is starkly different from the haplotypes of the other R-M73 Kumandins, resembling instead the haplotypes of five Shors, five Teleuts, and two Khakassians.

While early research into R-M73 claimed that it was significantly represented among the Hazara of Afghanistan and the Bashkirs of the Ural Mountains, this has apparently been overturned. For example, supporting material from a 2010 study by Behar et al. suggested that Sengupta et al. (2006) might have misidentified Hazara individuals, who instead belonged to "PQR2" as opposed to "R(xR1a)." However, the assignment of these Hazaras' Y-DNA to the "PQR2" category by Behar et al. (2010) is probably ascribable to the habit that was popular for a while of labeling R-M269 as "R1b" or "R(xR1a)," with any members of R-M343(xM269) being placed in a polyphyletic, catch-all "R*" or "P" category. Myres et al. (2011), Di Cristofaro et al. (2013), and Lippold et al. (2014) all agree that the Y-DNA of 32% (8/25) of the HGDP sample of Pakistani Hazara should belong to haplogroup R-M478/M73. Likewise, most Bashkir males have been found to belong to U-152 (R1b1a1a2a1a2b) and some, mostly from southeastern Bashkortostan, belonged to Haplogroup Q-M25 (Q1a1b) rather than R1b; contra this, Myres et al. (2011) found a high frequency of R-M73 among their sample of Bashkirs from southeast Bashkortostan (77/329 = 23.4% R1b-M73), in agreement with the earlier study of Bashkirs. Besides the high frequency of R-M73 in southeastern Bashkirs, Myres et al. also reported finding R-M73 in the following samples: 10.3% (14/136) of Balkars from the northwest Caucasus, 9.4% (8/85) of the HGDP samples from northern Pakistan (these are the aforementioned Pakistani Hazaras), 5.8% (4/69) of Karachays from the northwest Caucasus, 2.6% (1/39) of Tatars from Bashkortostan, 1.9% (1/54) of Bashkirs from southwest Bashkortostan, 1.5% (1/67) of Megrels from the south Caucasus, 1.4% (1/70) of Bashkirs from north Bashkortostan, 1.3% (1/80) of Tatars from Kazan, 1.1% (1/89) of a sample from Cappadocia, Turkey, 0.7% (1/141) of Kabardians from the northwest Caucasus, 0.6% (3/522) of a pool of samples from Turkey, and 0.38% (1/263) of Russians from Central Russia.

Besides the aforementioned Pakistani Hazaras, Di Cristofaro et al. (2013) found R-M478/M73 in 11.1% (2/18) of Mongols from central Mongolia, 5.0% (1/20) of Kyrgyz from southwest Kyrgyzstan, 4.3% (1/23) of Mongols from southeast Mongolia, 4.3% (4/94) of Uzbeks from Jawzjan, Afghanistan, 3.7% (1/27) of Iranians from Gilan, 2.5% (1/40) of Kyrgyz from central Kyrgyzstan, 2.1% (2/97) of Mongols from northwest Mongolia, and 1.4% (1/74) of Turkmens from Jawzjan, Afghanistan. The Mongols as well as the individual from southwest Kyrgyzstan, the individual from Gilan, and one of the Uzbeks from Jawzjan belong to the same Y-STR haplotype cluster as five of six Kumandin members of R-M73 studied by Dulik et al. (2012). This cluster's most distinctive Y-STR value is DYS390=19.

Karafet et al. (2018) found R-M73 in 37.5% (15/40) of a sample of Teleuts from Bekovo, Kemerovo oblast, 4.5% (3/66) of a sample of Uyghurs from Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, 3.4% (1/29) of a sample of Kazakhs from Kazakhstan, 2.3% (3/129) of a sample of Selkups, 2.3% (1/44) of a sample of Turkmens from Turkmenistan, and 0.7% (1/136) of a sample of Iranians from Iran. Four of these individuals (one of the Teleuts, one of the Uyghurs, the Kazakh, and the Iranian) appear to belong to the aforementioned cluster marked by DYS390=19 (the Kumandin-Mongol R-M73 cluster); the Teleut and the Uyghur also share the modal values at the DYS385 and the DYS389 loci. The Iranian differs from the modal for this cluster by having 13-16 (or 13-29) at DYS389 instead of 14-16 (or 14-30). The Kazakh differs from the modal by having 13-14 at DYS385 instead of 13-13. The other fourteen Teleuts and the three Selkups appear to belong to the Teleut-Shor-Khakassian R-M73 cluster from the data set of Malyarchuk et al. (2011); this cluster has the modal values of DYS390=22 (but 21 in the case of two Teleuts and one Khakassian), DYS385=13-16, and DYS389=13-17 (or 13-30, but 14-31 in the case of one Selkup).

A Kazakhstani paper published in 2017 found haplogroup R1b-M478 Y-DNA in 3.17% (41/1294) of a sample of Kazakhs from Kazakhstan, with this haplogroup being observed with greater than average frequency among members of the Qypshaq (12/29 = 41.38%), Ysty (6/57 = 10.53%), Qongyrat (8/95 = 8.42%), Oshaqty (2/29 = 6.90%), Kerey (1/28 = 3.57%), and Jetyru (3/86 = 3.49%) tribes. A Chinese paper published in 2018 found haplogroup R1b-M478 Y-DNA in 9.21% (7/76) of a sample of Dolan Uyghurs from Horiqol township, Awat County, Xinjiang.

R1b1a1a2 (R-M269)

R-L23 (R-Z2103) subclade has been found to be prevalent in ancient DNA associated with the Yamna culture. According to Haak et al. (2015), a massive migration from the Yamna culture northwards took place ca. 2,500 BCE, accounting for 75% of the genetic ancestry of the Corded Ware culture, noting that R1a and R1b may have "spread into Europe from the East after 3,000 BCE". All the seven Yamna samples belonged to the R1b-M269 subclade.

R-M269 likely originated in Western Asia and was present in Europe by the Neolithic period. The distribution of subclades within Europe is substantially due to the various migrations of the Bronze and Iron Age. Western European populations are divided between the R-P312/S116 and R-U106/S21 subclades of R-M412 (R-L51).

Distribution of R-M269 in Europe increases in frequency from east to west. It peaks at the national level in Wales at a rate of 92%, at 82% in Ireland, 70% in Scotland, 68% in Spain, 60% in France (76% in Normandy), about 60% in Portugal, 53% in Italy, 45% in Eastern England, 50% in Germany, 50% in the Netherlands, 42% in Iceland, and 43% in Denmark. R-M269 reaches levels as high as 95% in parts of Ireland. It has also been found at lower frequencies throughout central Eurasia, but with relatively high frequency among the Bashkirs of the Perm region (84.0%). This marker is present in China and India at frequencies of less than one percent. In North Africa and adjoining islands, while R-V88 (R1b1a2) is more strongly represented, R-M269 appears to have been present since antiquity. R-M269 has been found, for instance, at a rate of ~44% among remains dating from the 11th to 13th centuries at Punta Azul, in the Canary Islands. These remains have been linked to the Bimbache (or Bimape), a subgroup of the Guanche. In living males, it peaks in parts of North Africa, especially Algeria, at a rate of 10%. In Sub-Saharan Africa, R-M269 appears to peak in Namibia, at a rate of 8% among Herero males. In western Asia, R-M269 has been reported in 40% of Assyrian males. (The table below lists in more detail the frequencies of M269 in regions in Asia, Europe, and Africa.)

Apart from undiverged, basal R-M269*, there are (as of 2017) two primary branches of R-M269:

  • R-L23 (R1b1a1a2a) and
  • R-PF7558 (R1b1a1a2b)

R-L23 (Z2105/Z2103; a.k.a. R1b1a1a2a) has been reported among the peoples of the Idel-Ural (by Trofimova et al. 2015): 21 out of 58 (36.2%) of Burzyansky District Bashkirs, 11 out of 52 (21.2%) of Udmurts, 4 out of 50 (8%) of Komi, 4 out of 59 (6.8%) of Mordvins, 2 out of 53 (3.8%) of Besermyan and 1 out of 43 (2.3%) of Chuvash were R1b-L23.

Subclades within the paragroup R-M269 (xL23) – that is, R-M269* and/or R-PF7558 – appear to be found at their highest frequency in the central Balkans, especially Kosovo with 7.9%, Macedonia 5.1% and Serbia 4.4%.Unlike most other areas with significant percentages of R-L23, Kosovo, Poland and the Bashkirs of south-east Bashkortostan are notable in having a high percentage of R-L23(xM412) also known as R1b1a1a2a(xR1b1a1a2a1) – at rates of 11.4% (Kosovo), 2.4% (Poland) and 2.4% south-east Bashkortostan.(This Bashkir population is also notable for its high level of R-M73 (R1b1a1a1), at 23.4%.) Five individuals out of 110 tested in the Ararat Valley of Armenia belonged to R-M269(xL23) and 36 to R-L23*, with none belonging to known subclades of L23.

In 2009, DNA extracted from the femur bones of 6 skeletons in an early-medieval burial place in Ergolding (Bavaria, Germany) dated to around AD 670 yielded the following results: 4 were found to be haplogroup R1b with the closest matches in modern populations of Germany, Ireland and the USA while 2 were in Haplogroup G2a.

The following gives a summary of most of the studies which specifically tested for M269, showing its distribution (as a percentage of total population) in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia as far as China and Nepal.

 

Caucasians - Typically Europoid - Hybrid race

Late Dnieper-Donets - Typically Europoid

The physical remains recovered from graves have been described as typically Europoid. They are predominantly characterized as late Cro-Magnons with more massive and robust features than the gracile Mediterranean peoples of the Balkan Neolithic.

Samara - Sacrificial objects

The culture is characterized by the remains of animal sacrifice, which occur over most of the sites. There is no indisputable evidence of riding, but there were horse burials, the earliest in the Old World. Typically the head and hooves of cattle, sheep, and horses are placed in shallow bowls over the human grave, smothered with ochre. Some have seen the beginning of the horse sacrifice in these remains, but this interpretation has not been more definitely substantiated. We know that the Indo-Europeans sacrificed both animals and people, but so did many other cultures.

  • Mutated Adam/Abel (G2a2, I2a & T1a) & Steppa people Cain (R1a, R1b) = Hybrid Europoid (Indo-European race)

 

Proto-Indo-European religion

They practiced a polytheistic religion centered on sacrificial rites, probably administered by a class of priests.

Animals were slaughtered (*gʷʰn̥tós) and dedicated to the gods (*déiwos) in the hope of winning their favour. The king as the high priest would have been the central figure in establishing favourable relations with the gods.

The Kurgan hypothesis suggests burials in barrows or tomb chambers. Important leaders would have been buried with their belongings, and also with members of their household or wives (sati). The practice of human sacrifice is inferred from the Luhansk sacrificial site.

  • Human sacrifice (altars priests) & Ritual cannibalism

 

Merheleva Ridge


Merheleva Ridge

Merheleva Ridge site was built in about 4000 BC, corresponding to the Dnieper-Donets or early Yamna culture.

The site is believed to be a complex of temples and sacrificial altars topping a hill with sides sculpted into steps.

Archaeologists have confirmed that evidence of graves has been found at the Luhansk site, which they believe to have been the result of human sacrifice, rather than due to its use as a burial ground.

According to The Guardian, remains of sacrifice victims, ashes and ceramics have been found at the site, but no jewellery or treasure. The complex has a base area of three-quarters of a square mile, is estimated to be 60 metres (192 ft) high, and was probably used for 2,000 years.

In Kurgan No. 4, three graves of the Berezhnovsko-Maevskaya group of the Late Bronze Age Srubna culture were found above three graves of the Early Bronze Age Catacomb culture, with 13 graves and sacrificial pits. One of the skulls found was dated to ca. 3000 BC. Four stone statues were found near the graves.

 

Pyramides (ou pas) en Ukraine?


Merheleva Ridge

Merheleva Ridge (ukrainien: гряда Мергелева, également transcrit Mergeleva) est le site d'un temple datant du chalcolithique ainsi que d’un complexe funéraire composé principalement de quatre grands monticules de pierres (pas exactement en marne) kourganes situés près de Perevalsk, dans l’oblast de Luhansk, en Ukraine, à environ 30 km à l'ouest-sud-ouest de la ville de Luhansk. Ce complexe aurait été bâti en 4000 avant JC, correspondant à la Dniepr-Donets ou au début de la culture Yamna , et serait resté en usage dans l’âge du bronze,  du fer, et  jusqu'au 5ème siècle avant JC Sarmatie . Le site a été découvert en 2004, elle fut officialisée le 7 Septembre 2006.

La découverte et les fouilles

Le site a été découvert en 2004 par des écoliers participant à un camp organisé par l'archéologie à Alchevsk, par le professeur d'histoire Vladimir Paramonov, qui organise des expéditions d'écoliers à la colline depuis 1995.

Le site a très certainement été bâti il y a environ cinq millénaires, au moment du début de l’âge du bronze . Le site est considéré comme un complexe de temples et d’autels sacrificiels près d'une colline dont les côtés sont sculptés en plusieurs étapes.

Viktor Klochko, l'archéologue en charge du chantier des fouilles, et le vice-ministre de la Science du Tourisme et de la protection du patrimoine culturel et au ministère de l’administration régionale de Luhansk, a déclaré que la découverte était d'importance internationale comme le premier monument de ce genre dans l'Europe orientale:

«Cela change toute notre conception de la structure sociale et le niveau de développement des éleveurs et des agriculteurs qui étaient les ancêtres directs de la plupart des peuples européens."

Les archéologues ont confirmé que des tombes ont été trouvées sur le site de Luhansk, ils croient qu’elles sont le résultat de sacrifices humains, et sont sceptiques à l’idée d’utilisation comme lieu de sépulture. Selon The Guardian, des restes de victimes sacrifiées, de cendres et de céramique ont été trouvés sur le site, mais aucun bijou ni quelque autre trésor ne s'y trouvait.

Le complexe possède une superficie de base de 1,3km² sur 60 mètres (192 pi) de hauteur, et était probablement utilisé durant 2 000 ans.

A Kurgan n°4, trois tombes du groupe Maevskaya Berezhnovsko, soit de  l'Âge du Bronze final et de culture Srubna ont été trouvées, plus encore trois autres tombes de l'âge du Bronze ancien et de la culture des catacombes. Au total 13 tombes et fosses sacrificielles ont été mises au jour.

L'un des crânes trouvés a été daté de 3000 av JC. Parallèlement, quatre statues de pierre ont été trouvées près des tombes.

Mauvaise identification en tant que pyramide, clarification, et censure

Les rapports initiaux indiquaient que les archéologues avaient découvert une structure pyramidale.

Klochko a alors blâmé la presse: «(…) Les médias se sont trompés», explique Viktor Klochko. Nous n'avons rien trouvé qui ressemble à une pyramide égyptienne, cela bien que le site soit sur une colline. Toutefois, cette découverte est intéressante en soi.»

Il est surprenant  (ou pas) qu’une censure sévit autour de cette découverte archéologique, surtout lorsque que l’on se souvient des premiers mots de Viktor Klochko, bien plus enthousiaste à l’époque, considérant alors que la découverte était de portée internationale :« C'est le premier monument de ce type aussi ancien que l’on ait retrouvé en Europe de l'Est. Il va changer notre conception de la structure sociale et notre visiion du développement des civilisations d'éleveurs de bétail et de fermiers qui étaient les ancêtres directs de la plupart des peuples européens. » Il suffit de comparer ces deux annonces pour se rendre compte qu’un truc cloche dans les déclarations. WikiStrike dénonce haut et fort cette «nouvelle» intervention des Etats, russe ici, car rien ni personne n’est supérieur à la vérité.

Pour nous, ce site aurait mérité une plus forte médiatisation. En occultant certaines informations, la Russie de Medvedev (Ou de Poutine) avoue à voix basse: «On a à faire ici à une découverte majeure mais dont l’écho ne nous servirait pas.»

Un journaliste russe, Stanislav Mogilny, a déclaré à la télévision russe : « Ce qui me surprend le plus, c’est la taille de cet énorme complexe », et de finir par: «C’est tout simplement incroyable, un exploit titanesque». (Source: R.magazine.)

 

Sredny Stog culture (Molochna River)


Proto-Indo-Europeans


Molochna Rive

 
Moloch

Molochna River (Ukrainian: Молочна, Russian: Моло́чная Molochnaya), is a river in the Zaporizhia Oblast of south Ukraine. Literally the name of the river translates as Milky.

Moloch is the biblical name of a Canaanite god associated with child sacrifice. Human sacrifice is the ritualistic killing of human in order to please or appease a god or supernatural beings in order to achieve a desired result. Child sacrifice is thought to be an extreme extension of the idea that, the more important the object of sacrifice, the more devout the person giving it up is.


Eurasiatic languages


Eurasiatic languages = Lower Danubian language = Barbarian languages

 

The Neolithic Continuity

Eurasiatic languages (Lower Danube language) > Proto-Indo-European language (Maykop) > Indo-European language

  • Eurasiatic languages - Y-DNA G2a2, I2a, T1a (Lower Danubian Civilization)
    • Altaic languages - Y-DNA Q, R1b (Khvalynsk / Sredny Stog culture)
    • Fino-Uralic languages - Y-DNA N1. R1a (Botai culture)
    • Dené–Caucasian languages - Y-DNA R1b (Early Yamna culture)
    • Indo-European language - Y-DNA R1a, R1b, J & G2a2. T1a, I2a (Yamna/Maykop culture)

 

Fusional & Agglutinative languages

Fusional languages or inflected languages are a type of synthetic language, distinguished from agglutinative languages by their tendency to use a single inflectional morpheme to denote multiple grammatical, syntactic, or semantic features. For example, the Spanish verb comer ("to eat") has the first-person singular preterite tense form comí ('I ate'); the single suffix represents both the features of first-person singular agreement and preterite tense, instead of having a separate affix for each feature.

Examples of fusional Indo-European languages are: Kashmiri, Sanskrit, Pashto, New Indo-Aryan languages such as Punjabi, Hindustani, Bengali; Greek (classical and modern), Latin, Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian, Irish, German, Faroese, Icelandic, Albanian, all Baltic and Slavic languages. Northeast Caucasian languages are weakly fusional.

Another notable group of fusional languages is the Semitic languages group; however, Modern Hebrew is much more analytic than Classical Hebrew “both with nouns and with verbs”. Colloquial varieties of Arabic are more analytic than the standard language, having lost all noun declensions, and in many cases also featuring simplified conjugation.

Examples of agglutinative languages include:


Fusional & Agglutinative languages

  • Haplogroup CT
    • Haplogroup DE
      • Haplogroup D-CTS3946 (Agglutinative languages)
      • Haplogroup E-M96 (Agglutinative languages)
    • Haplogroup CF
      • Haplogroup C-M130 (Agglutinative languages)
      • Haplogroup F-M89
        • Haplogroup GHIJK
          • Haplogroup G-M201 (Agglutinative languages)
          • Haplogroup HIJK
            • Haplogroup H (Agglutinative languages)
            • Haplogroup IJK
              • Haplogroup IJ
                • Haplogroup I-M170 (Fusional language) Indo-European languages
                • Haplogroup J-M304 (Fusional language) Semitic languages
              • Haplogroup K-M9
                • Haplogroup LT
                  • Haplogroup L-M20 (Agglutinative languages)
                  • Haplogroup T-M184 (Agglutinative languages)
                • Haplogroup K2
                  • Haplogroup K2a
                    • Haplogroup NO
                      • Haplogroup N-M231 (Agglutinative languages)
                      • Haplogroup O-M175 (Agglutinative languages)
                  • Haplogroup K2b
                    • Haplogroup K2b1
                      • Haplogroup S-B254 (Agglutinative languages)
                      • Haplogroup M-P256 (Agglutinative languages)
                    • Haplogroup P
                      • Haplogroup P1
                        • Haplogroup Q-M242 (Agglutinative languages)
                        • Haplogroup R
                          • Haplogroup R1 (Agglutinative languages)
                            • Haplogroup R1a (Agglutinative languages)
                            • Haplogroup R1b (Agglutinative languages)
                              • Haplogroup R-V88 (Fusional language)

Epigravettian & Iron Gates culture (Fusional language)

Haplogroup I2a & Haplogroup R1b-L754 > R-V88 - Indo-European & Semitic languages

Origins of Fusional language: Epigravettian

 

Turkic peoples - Altaic languages - Agglutinative language

Y-DNA Q & R1b


Altaic languages


Fino-Uralic languages - Agglutinative language


Fino-Uralic languages

It is known that a number of non-Indo-European languages were spoken in the proto-historical part of prehistoric Europe. Northeastern Europe has Uralic languages, which have been spoken in the region since prehistoric times.

 

Pit-Comb Ware culture, c. 4200 - 2300 BC

Y-DNA N1, R1a


Pit–Comb Ware culture

Ceramic

Comb Ceramic was not limited in Europe, being widely distributed in the Baltic, Finland, the Volga upstream flow, south Siberia, Lake Baikal, Mongolian Plateau, the Liaodong Peninsula and the Korean Peninsula. The oldest ones have been discovered from the remains of Liao civilization - Xinglongwa culture (6200 BC - 5400 BC).

Genetics

Malmström et al. (2009) tested 19 ancient mtDNA sequences from Gotland, Sweden. They identified 8 individuals belonging haplogroup U4, 6 to haplogroup U5 (including three U5a), one to haplogroup V, one to haplogroup K, one to haplogroup T. No haplogroup could be attributed for the last 2 samples based on the HVR test alone (16311C).

Kudruküla (Narva river mouth) 5,600-year-old Pit-Comb site shows Y-haplogroup R1a5-YP1272 and mt-haplogroups U5b1d1, U4a, U2e1. Y-haplogroup R1a5-YP1272 14,000 years ago has a common ancestor with the main Indo-European haplogroup R1a-M198.

Overall, PCW to the south-east of the Baltic sea had the following autosomal components: 65% "ancient East-European hunter-gatherer" (first attested in the Kunda culture but with a 4-fold lower percentage); 20% "Yamna" (never before attested in the north); 15% "ancient West-European hunter-gatherer" (the main component of the Kunda culture).

Language

According to Mallory and Adams, the dominant view before 1997 was that the spread of the Comb Ware people was correlated with the diffusion of the Uralic languages, and thus an early Uralic language would have been spoken throughout this culture. However, another more recent view is that the Comb Ware people may have spoken a Paleo-European or Paleosiberian languages , as some toponyms and hydronyms also indicate a non-Uralic, non-Indo-European language at work in some areas. Even then, linguists and archaeologists both have also been skeptical of assigning languages based on the borders of cultural complexes, and it's possible that the Pit-Comb Ware Culture was made up of several languages, one of them being Proto-Uralic.

 

Botai culture, c. 3700 - 3100 BC


Botai culture - First Horse Riding


Y-chromosome N

The Botai culture (~3700 bc, north-central Kazakhstan) was perhaps the first to domesticate the horse. They may have spoken an early Uralic dialect.


Dené–Caucasian languages - Agglutinative language


Dené–Caucasian languages

Dené–Caucasian is a largely discredited broad language family that includes the widely-separated languages spoken in the Northern Hemisphere: Sino-Tibetan, Yeniseian, Burushaski and North Caucasian in Asia; Na-Dené in North America; and from Europe the Vasconic (including Basque).

Morris Swadesh included all of the members of Dené–Caucasian in a family that he called "Basque-Dennean" (when writing in English, 2006/1971: 223) or "vascodene" (when writing in Spanish, 1959: 114). It was named for Basque and Navajo, the languages at its geographic extremes. According to Swadesh (1959: 114), it included "Vasconic, the Caucasian languages, Ural-Altaic, Dravidian, Tibeto-Burman, Chinese, Austronesian, Japanese, Chukchi (Siberia), Eskimo-Aleut, Wakash, and Na-Dene", and possibly "Sumerian".

 

Early Yamna culture - Dené–Caucasian languages

Y-DNA R1b1a1a2 (R-M269) - Agglutinative language


Early Yamna culture, c. 3500 BC


Yamna/Maykop culture

Indo-European language - Fusional language


Y-DNA G2a2, I2a, T1a & J, R1a, R1b

  • Epigravettian > Iron Gates culture (Nostratic languages)
    • Neolithic Lower Danube & Neolithic Western Anatolia (Eurasiatic languages)
      • Maykop culture (Proto Indo-European language)
        • Yamna/Maykop culture (Indo-European language)

 

Maykop culture, c. 3700 - 3000 BC

Y-DNA G2a2, I2a, T1a


Maykop culture

The Maykop culture (scientific transliteration: Majkop, Russian: майкоп, ), c. 3700 BC–3000 BC, was a major Bronze Age archaeological culture in the western Caucasus region of southern Russia.  It extends along the area from the Taman Peninsula at the Kerch Strait to near the modern border of Dagestan and southwards to the Kura River. The culture takes its name from a royal burial found in Maykop kurgan in the Kuban River valley.

Territory

In the south it borders the approximately contemporaneous Kura-Araxes culture (3500—2200 BC), which extends into eastern Anatolia and apparently influenced it. To the north is the Yamna culture, including the Novotitorovka culture (3300—2700), which it overlaps in territorial extent. It is contemporaneous with the late Uruk period in Mesopotamia.

The Kuban River is navigable for much of its length and provides an easy water-passage via the Sea of Azov to the territory of the Yamna culture, along the Don and Donets River systems. The Maykop culture was thus well-situated to exploit the trading possibilities with the central Ukraine area.

New data revealed the similarity of artifacts from the Maykop culture with those found recently in the course of excavations of the ancient city of Tell Khazneh in northern Syria, the construction of which dates back to 4000 BC.

Radiocarbon dates for various monuments of the Maykop culture are from 3950 - 3650 - 3610 - 2980 calBC.

After the discovery of the Leyla-Tepe culture in the 1980s, some links were noted with the Maykop culture.

The Leyla-Tepe culture is a culture of archaeological interest from the Chalcolithic era. Its population was distributed on the southern slopes of the Central Caucasus (modern Azerbaijan, Agdam District), from 4350 until 4000 B.C. Similar amphora burials in the South Caucasus are found in the Western Georgian Jar-Burial Culture.

The culture has also been linked to the north Ubaid period monuments, in particular, with the settlements in the Eastern Anatolia Region. The settlement is of a typical Western-Asian variety, with the dwellings packed closely together and made of mud bricks with smoke outlets.

It has been suggested that the Leyla-Tepe were the founders of the Maykop culture. An expedition to Syria by the Russian Academy of Sciences revealed the similarity of the Maykop and Leyla-Tepe artifacts with those found recently while excavating the ancient city of Tel Khazneh I, from the 4th millennium BC.

In 2010, nearly 200 Bronze Age sites were reported stretching over 60 miles from the Kuban River to Nalchik, at an altitude of between 4,620 feet and 7,920 feet. They were all "visibly constructed according to the same architectural plan, with an oval courtyard in the center, and connected by roads."

Culture

Its inhumation practices were characteristically Indo-European, typically in a pit, sometimes stone-lined, topped with a kurgan (or tumulus). Stone cairns replace kurgans in later interments.

The Maykop kurgan was extremely rich in gold and silver artifacts; unusual for the time.

Art

In the early 20th century, researchers established the existence of a local Maykop animal style in the artifacts found. This style was seen as the prototype for animal styles of later archaeological cultures: the Maykop animal style is more than a thousand years older than the Scythian, Sarmatian and Celtic animal styles.

Attributed to the Maykop culture are petroglyphs which have yet to be deciphered.

Hephaestus


Golden bull figurine

Horse breeding

The Maykop people lived sedentary lives, and horses formed a very low percentage of their livestock, which mostly consisted of pigs and cattle.

Archaeologists have discovered a unique form of bronze cheek-piece, which consists of a bronze rod with a twisted loop in the middle that threads through the nodes and connects to the bridle, halter strap, and headband. Notches and bumps on the edges of the cheek-pieces were, apparently, to attach nose and under-lip straps.

Some of the earliest wagon wheels in the world are found in Maykop culture area. The two solid wooden wheels from the kurgan of Starokorsunskaya in the Kuban region have been dated to the second half of the fourth millennium.

Terrace agriculture The construction of artificial terrace complexes in the mountains is evidence of their sedentary living, high population density, and high levels of agricultural and technical skills. The terraces were built around the fourth millennium BC. and all subsequent cultures used them for agricultural purposes. The vast majority of pottery found on the terraces are from the Maykop period, the rest from the Scythian and Alan period. The Maykop terraces are among the most ancient in the world, but they are little studied. The longevity of the terraces (more than 5000 years) allows us to consider their builders unsurpassed engineers and craftsmen.

Recent discoveries

Recent discoveries by archaeologist Alexei Rezepkin include:

  • The most ancient bronze sword on record, dating from the second or third century of the 4th millennium BC. It was found in a stone tomb near Novosvobodnaya, and is now on display in the Hermitage in St. Petersburg. It has a total length of 63 cm and a hilt length of 11 cm.
  • The most ancient column.
  • The most ancient stringed instrument, resembling the modern Adyghian shichepshin, dating from the late 4th millennium B.C., now also in the Hermitage Museum.

Pontic steppe Origins

Its burial practices resemble the burial practices described in the Kurgan hypothesis of Marija Gimbutas, has been regarded by some as an Indo-European intrusion from the Pontic steppe into the Caucasus. However, according to J.P. Mallory,

... where the evidence for barrows is found, it is precisely in regions which later demonstrate the presence of non-Indo-European populations.

The culture has been described as, at the very least, a "kurganized" local culture with strong ethnic and linguistic links to the descendants of the Proto-Indo-Europeans. It has been linked to the Lower Mikhaylovka group and Kemi Oba culture, and more distantly, to the Globular Amphora and Corded Ware cultures, if only in an economic sense. Yet, according to Mallory,

Such a theory, it must be emphasized, is highly speculative and controversial although there is a recognition that this culture may be a product of at least two traditions: the local steppe tradition embraced in the Novosvobodna culture and foreign elements from south of the Caucasus which can be charted through imports in both regions.

Iranian Origins

According to Mariya Ivanova the Maikop origins were on the Iranian Plateau:

Graves and settlements of the 5th millennium BC in North Caucasus attest to a material culture that was related to contemporaneous archaeological complexes in the northern and western Black Sea region. Yet it was replaced, suddenly as it seems, around the middle of the 4th millennium BC by a “high culture” whose origin is still quite unclear. This archaeological culture named after the great Maikop kurgan showed innovations in all areas which have no local archetypes and which cannot be assigned to the tradition of the Balkan-Anatolian Copper Age. The favoured theory of Russian researchers is a migration from the south originating in the Syro-Anatolian area, which is often mentioned in connection with the socalled “Uruk expansion”. However, serious doubts have arisen about a connection between Maikop and the Syro-Anatolian region. The foreign objects in the North Caucasus reveal no connection to the upper reaches of the Euphrates and Tigris or to the floodplains of Mesopotamia, but rather seem to have ties to the Iranian plateau and to South Central Asia. Recent excavations in the Southwest Caspian Sea region are enabling a new perspective about the interactions between the “Orient” and Continental Europe. On the one hand, it is becoming gradually apparent that a gigantic area of interaction evolved already in the early 4th millennium BC which extended far beyond Mesopotamia; on the other hand, these findings relativise the traditional importance given to Mesopotamia, because innovations originating in Iran and Central Asia obviously spread throughout the Syro-Anatolian region independently thereof.

Azerbaijan

More recently, some very ancient kurgans have been discovered at Soyuqbulaq in Azerbaijan. These kurgans date to the beginning of the 4th millennium BC, and belong to Leylatepe Culture. According to the excavators of these kurgans, there are some significant parallels between Soyugbulaq kurgans and the Maikop kurgans:

"Discovery of Soyugbulaq in 2004 and subsequent excavations provided substantial proof that the practice of kurgan burial was well established in the South Caucasus during the late Eneolithic [...] The Leylatepe Culture tribes migrated to the north in the mid-fourth millennium, B.C. and played an important part in the rise of the Maikop Culture of the North Caucasus."

 

Indo-Anatolian homeland in the Caucasus

On the Y-DNA data

Particularly striking is the genetic signature from the steppe on the Y chromosome. From this the researchers conclude that the majority of migrants were males. Kristian Kristiansen, chief archaeologist in the Willerslev team, also has an idea of ​​how this could be explained: “Maybe it’s a rite of initiation, as it was spread among the steppe peoples,” he says.

The younger sons of the Yamnaya herders, who were excluded from the succession, had to seek their fortune on their own. As part of a solemn ritual, they threw themselves to wolves’ skins and then swarmed in warlike gangs to buy their own herds by cattle-stealing.

(…)

An ally that they seem to have brought from their homeland may also have contributed to the genetic success of the steppe people: Yersinia pestis, the plague bacterium. Its genes were found by researchers from the Max Planck Institute in Jena – and apparently it emerged exactly at the same time as the Yamnaya thrust began.

About the Hittites

(…) And yet now, where Asia and Europe meet geographically, there is no trace of the Yamnaya genes. The wander-loving people from the Pontic-Caspian steppe apparently found neither the way across the Balkans nor through the Caucasus mountains.

Now the researchers are puzzled: How can it be that a language goes on a walk, without the accompanying speakers coming along? Is it possible that the Indo-European seeped into Anatolia, much like the English language spread today without the need for Englishmen?

Archaeologist Kristiansen does not believe it. The researchers would find it hard to reconsider their theories, he says: “Especially the first chapter of the story has to be rewritten.”

He suspects that there was a predecessor of the Yamnaya culture, in which a kind of Proto-Proto-Indo-European was spoken. And he also has a suspicion, where this people could have drifted around: The Caucasus, says Kristiansen, was their homeland.


Spread of Indo-European languages

 

Armenian hypothesis

Where did the Indo-European languages originate? Some linguists said Anatolia years ago. Others said the Caspian steppes years ago.

Recent DNA-research has led to renewed suggestions of a Caucasian homeland for a 'proto-proto-Indo-European'. It also lends support to the Indo-Hittite hypothesis, according to which both proto-Anatolian and proto-Indo-European split-off from a common mother language "no later than the 4th millennium BCE."

Haak et al. (2015) states that "the Armenian plateau hypothesis gains in plausibility" since the Yamnaya partly descended from a Near Eastern population, which resembles present-day Armenians. Yet, they also state that "the question of what languages were spoken by the 'Eastern European hunter-gatherers' and the southern, Armenian-like, ancestral population remains open."

David Reich, in his 2018 publication Who We Are and How We Got Here, states that "the most likely location of the population that first spoke an Indo-European language was south of the Caucasus Mountains, perhaps in present-day Iran or Armenia, because ancient DNA from people who lived there matches what we would expect for a source population both for the Yamnaya and for ancient Anatolians." Nevertheless, Reich also states that some, if not most, of the Indo-European languages were spread by the Yamnaya people.

According to Kroonen et al. (2018), Damgaard et al. (2018) "show no indication of a large-scale intrusion of a steppe population." They further note that the earliest attestation of Anatolian names, in the Armi state, must be dated to 3000-2400 BCE, contemporaneous with the Yamnaya culture, concluding that "a scenario in which the Anatolian Indo-European language was linguistically derived from Indo-European speakers originating in this culture can be rejected." They further note that this lends support to the Indo-Hittite hypothesis, according to which both proto-Anatolian and proto-Indo-European split-off from a common mother language "no later than the 4th millennium BCE."

Wang et al. (2018) note that the Caucasus served as a corridor for gene flow between the steppe and cultures south of the Caucasus during the Eneolithic and the Bronze Age, stating that this "opens up the possibility of a homeland of PIE south of the Caucasus."

Kristian Kristiansen, in an interview with Der Spiegel in may 2018, stated that the Yamnaya culture may have had a predecessor at the Caucasus, where "proto-proto-Indo-European" was spoken.

Mycenaeans, Old Hittites, Iberian Bell Beakers, and some Indo-Iranian groups had a tiny (or absolutely no) share of steppe ancestry, and western Iberians, Greeks, Anatolians, Illyrians, Southern Italians, or Iranians have a majority of non-steppe-related haplogroups. But the oldest-attested Late Indo-European languages were attested precisely in these regions, and a lot of modern people with steppe ancestry and steppe-related haplogroups today from Estonia, Finland, Hungary, or Bashkortostan don’t speak Indo-European.

 

The Ararat Homeland of Aryan Tribes

The family includes several dead languages like Venetian, Gothic, Gaelic, Illyrian, Luvian, Menki, Tocharian, Thracian, Phrygian, and Hittite as well. Some of them refer to the Aryan family of languages purely traditionally, for example, the modern Persian Farsi, which due to the Arab conquest has undergone great changes. The medieval Pahlavi was more of a dialect of the Arabic language, that is, it would be more accurate to refer it to the Semitic group.

Russian scientists Tamaz Gamkrelidze and Vyacheslav Ivanov were able to convincingly prove that the ancestral home of the Aryans-Indo-Europeans is the Armenian Highlands and the adjacent regions of Asia Minor and Mesopotamia.

The hypothesis of New Zealand scientists Gray and Atkinson, who managed to determine Western Armenia (commonly known as Anatolia, geographically Asia Minor) as the location of the division of the single proto-language, is pretty related to the Russian theory.

Moreover, it was possible to come to the same conclusion on the basis of linguistic and historical research. Now, it is possible to state with full certainty that the Armenian Highlands, Asia Minor, and Mesopotamia are the homeland of the Aryan tribes.

On the vast space of the Eurasian continent mastered by the Aryan tribes, there were many tribes that entered the Aryan world. Therefore, for the geographical designation of the ancient Aryan community, the term Aryan rather than Indo-European looks more appropriate.

After several millennia, the Aryan tribes from the west and the north came to India (around 1500 BC), forming an Aryan community, where the knowledge and books of the oldest Aryan teachings, (A)Vedagir (Armenian: Վեդագիր, վեդա (Vedic), գիր (writing), Vedas), were preserved.

Armenians still call their homeland Avedyats Yerkir (First Vedic Country, i.e. the First Country of Inner Knowledge). In addition, the Armenian word avet means commandment while the Bible is commonly referred to as Avetaran in Armenian.

In India, the Armenian (A)Ved(t)agir underwent partial changes – (A)Ved(t)a-girGir-(A)VedaRig-Veda.

The Rigveda is a collection of (a)ved(t)s of the alien Aryan tribes. One of the key concepts of the Vedic philosophy, the yog, was derived from either the Armenian word goy (existent) or the distorted eak (being). Hence the Greek ego and the name of God in the ancient Aramaic, Jehovah (Eak ov a, anyone existent). Compare it with All(e)ah, All-embracing.

The Vedas came from the Armenian avet and vedun. Compare the first word with ava(n)duyt (tradition). It got mixed with giwt (gyut, the basis of knowledge), hence the word gitutyun (science) and giteliq (knowledge). As for the second word, it got mixed with giwtun (gitun, knowledgeable), hence the phrase Bhagavat Gita. As for the latter, it undoubtedly came from voga havat giwt a/e (Hoqa + havat + giteliq, spirit(s) + faith + knowledge.)

And the Russian word Bog (God) was derived from vog – voq (soul, compare with voch voq chka, literally there is no soul (there is no one here)).

Vedas makes up an entire epoch in the spiritual life of the ancient Slavs as well as eastern and western European peoples. In ancient India, the Ararat and the northern (Slavs) Aryan tribes met each other. Based on the culture of the indigenous ethnic groups, they created the artificial language of the priests, the Sanskrit, and a unique Indian culture.

It only remains to add that one of the most common Armenian names, the sacred name Aram, was the ancient Aryan name of Syria and was the basis for the name of the Aramaic people as well as the synonym for the word Aryan. It was closely related to Armenians and Armenoids by origin. Jesus Christ was also an Aramean.

There is also no point in it as it has been already done by another linguist, Sanskrit specialist Alla Ter-Hakobyan, who wrote several books on how she managed to find as many as 5,000 identical roots (roots, not words!) in Sanskrit and Armenian. This number of coincidences isn’t typical for any language, and it says quite a lot. But some scientists do not see or just do not want to accept the obvious similiarities…

 

Stećci

"Ono što nam arheološki dokazi Stare Europe sugeriraju jeste da se ne radi o fenomenu koji je prisutan samo u jednoj izoliranoj kulturi. Mi nalazimo arhitektonske, umjetničke i religiozne elemente stećaka gotovo u svim ranim kulturama koje spadaju u jedno specifično prahistorijsko doba na tlu Balkana. Prema svojoj arhitektonskoj strukturi, ali i dekorativnim te religioznim elementima, stećci predstavljaju odraz staroevropskih svetilišta, kao i minijaturnih reprodukcija kuća, hramova, oltara... Običaj proizvodnje takvih minijaturnih reprodukcija nalazimo u kulturi Starčevo koja se prostirala središnjim dijelom Balkana, od devetog do sedmog tisućljeća prije nove ere. Slične arheološke nalaze pronalazimo u kulturi Vinče u Srbiji, pa onda u kulturi Porodin pokraj Bitole u Makedoniji. Minijaturne rekonstrukcije prahistorijskih hramova i zavjetne oltare za kultne potrebe koji su odraz stećaka, nalazimo također u prahistorijskim kulturama sjeverne Grčke, pa zatim u Rumunjskoj, Mađarskoj, Bugarskoj i Ukrajini. Stotine prapovijesnih artefakta ovih, ali i drugih kultura s ovog područja, svjedoče o jednom bezgraničnom svijetu koji je dijelio zajedničke arhitektonske oblike i elemente, dekorativnu i vjersku simboliku."

"Ono što je proizašlo iz moje studije jeste to da je osnovna funkcija stećaka bila višestručna. Poznato je kako su staroeuropske kulture sahranjivale osobe ženskog spola i djecu između ili unutar kuća neolitskih naselja, što potvrđuje da je moderni i popularni naziv za stećke vječna kuća ili vječni dom i najprikladniji, a potiče direktno iz te antičke tradicije. Uostalom, nalazimo stećke u obliku kuća na raznim lokacijama Bosne i Hercegovine. Osim toga, arhitektura stećaka inkorporira ne samo različite oblike staroeuropskih hramova, nego i svetu simboliku koja je vezana za pitagorejsku doktrinu; četiri vječna osnovna elementa - Zrak, Vatra, Voda i Zemlja, pitagorejsku doktrinu o besmrtnosti duše i svetu simboliku u bliskom odnosu sa kulturama koje su gradili piramide, a to jeste simbol za Horizont i koncept slojevitog svemira. Sa znatiželjom nalazimo istu simboliku na stotinu artefakata što potiču iz tisućljetne tradicije Stare Europe. Znači da su stećci svjedoci ne samo jednog jedinstvenog i duševno razvijenog društva, nego i da je to društvo bilo vrlo dobro upoznato sa spiritualnim konceptima koji su karakteristični za antičke kulture poput egipatske ili meksičke. To jedinstveno kulturno i spiritualno blago je nerazdvojivo spojeno u sve oblike stećka, a dolazi do naglašenog izražaja u stećcima izduženog pentagonalnog oblika."

"Barem u principu, sljedbenici bogumilske vjere su odbacivali bogatstvo i feudalno izrabljivanje državne vlasti. Bogumili su, također, odbijali dominantnu istočnu kršćansku crkvu i njezinu hijerarhiju, njezine hramove, sakramente i svečanosti u izvedbi svećenika. Na isti način su odbacivali sve materijalne objekte koji su koristili Pravoslavci tokom održavanja molitve i osuđivali uporabu ikona, pretežno križa, te štovanje relikvija i svetaca. Bogumili i patareni su pretežno bili vjerski propovjednici, ravnodušni prema svjetovnim poslovima. Masovna proizvodnja desetak tisuća monolitnih stećaka sa bogatim ukrasnim motivima je u totalnoj kontradikciji sa skromnom vjerskom doktrinom bogumila i patarena. S druge strane nam se predstavlja sličan problem u vezi sa srednjovjekovnom teorijom stećaka kao povlasticom ortodoksnog ili katoličkog Kršćanstva. Naime, od sedamdesetak tisuća registriranih stećaka, samo pet tisuća imaju ukrasne motive. Od pet tisuća ukrašenih stećaka samo 438 imaju kao glavni ukrasni element različite forme križeva. To znači da najvažniji religiozni simbol potencijalno podložan različitim crkvama, zajedno sa ostalim varijantama stećaka u obliku križa, ne predstavlja niti dvadeset posto ukrašenih stećaka. Pitanje koje iz ove činjenice spontano proizlazi glasi: kako je moguće da najreprezentativniji simbol obje, i rimokatoličke i istočne pravoslavne crkve, obuhvaća takav mali broj stećaka? Ako uz predhodne činjenice još dodamo da je većina križeva koje nalazimo na stećcima paganskog podrijetla u obliku swastike ili antropomorfnog oblika, logičan zaključak može biti samo jedan; stećci nisu ekskluzivna povlastica srednjovjekovnih crkava i kultura."

 

 

 
Svastike na stećcima

"Na području Stare Europe ne nalazimo samo stećke i armenske hačkare, ororots, nego i bjeloruske kamene idole poznate pod nazivom baba. Poput stećaka i armenskih hačkara, bjeloruski babari često su upisani simbolikom swastike ili antropomorfnim oblicima križa. Postoje stotine primjera babara, a rasuti su po cijeloj teritoriji Bjelorusije. Valja naglasiti da se kulturni utjecaj i tradicija bezgraničnog svijeta Stare Europe prostirao od Balkana do današnje Anatolije, pa i sve do velikog broja bivših sovjetskih republika. Istina je da su stećci na tlu Balkana, zajedno s armenskim hačkarima i bjeloruskim babarima, puno starijeg podrijetla nego što je to akademski stipendijum pretpostavljao. U doprinos tome ide i podatak da su simboli prahistorijske kulture Vinča identični armenskim antičkim simbolima u kamenu. Ovo zapanjujuće otkriće je predstavljeno u lokalitetu Capo di Ponte u talijanskoj Valcamonici, tokom 33 simpozija za umjetnost u kamenu 2009 godine. Zaključak izvještaja službene akademske stipendije bio je jednoglasan: armenska prahistorijska umjetnost u kamenu potječe iz kulture Vinča, što nam svjedoči o postojanju najstarije interkulturalne mreže i komunikacije između kultova Stare Europe i stare Armenije, u periodu od šest tisuća godina prije Krista." - Nenad M. Đurđević


Hačkar u Armeniji ili armenski stećak

Odlomci iz Đurđevićeve studije

"Stećci se uglavnom nalaze u Bosni i Hercegovini, Hrvatskoj, Srbiji i Crnoj Gori. Iako većina postojećih teorija pripisuje stvaranje stećaka bogumilskom socijalno-religijskom pokretu, ovi spomenici se ne nalaze na mjestima gdje je ova doktrina nastala i bila uglavnom propovijedana, naime, u Bugarskoj i Makedoniji.."

"Stećci u obliku kuće mogu se naći gotovo svugdje u Bosni, ali i u susjednim zemljama. Ponekad su ukrašeni motivima i natpisima, ali najčešće su neukrašeni. Stećke u obliku kuća nalazimo u formi velikog kamena (monolita), kao i položene na postolja. Korištenje velikih temelja od kamena je zajedničko obilježje koje možemo naći kod mnogih stećaka. Daljnji dokazi jasno pokazuju da takva arhitektonska praksa nije isključivo produkt srednjovjekovnog razdoblja, već je dubokoukorijenjena u tisućljetnu Staroeuropsku kulturu i tradiciju.."
...
"Kugle (jabuke) su često smještene uzduž zabata i mogu se pojaviti pojedinačno, u parovima ili utroje. Ponekad, čvorovi se koriste za ukrašavanje središnjih dijelova okomitih strana, kao elaboracija središnjeg polja. Također ih možemo naći na vrhovima zašiljenih stela. U nekim slučajevima, pripisuju ih osmanskom naslijeđu, jer slične kugle nalazimo na grobovima muslimanskih vođa. Alternativno, smatraju se prerogativom različitih srednjevjekovnih crkava, jer su često prikazane na kamenim križevima iz tog razdoblja. U srpskom ili hrvatskom jeziku te kugle nazivaju "jabuka". Čak i danas postoji običaj da se jabuke stavljaju na vrh i krakove križeva, a posebno nad grobovima mladih djevojaka i mladića. Unatoč tome, dokazi ukazuju da kugle, kao i mnogi drugi simboli pronađeni na stećcima u cijeloj Bosni i Hercegovini, Hrvatskoj i Srbiji, ne proizlaze iz srednjovjekovne umjetnosti ili tradicije, već vode podrijetlo u 7000 godina staroj civilizaciji Stare Europe.."

"U skladu s mojim osobnim iskustvom i dokazima koji su nastali tijekom terenskog istraživanja u Visočkoj dolini, zajedno s usmenim svjedočenjima poljoprivrednika koji nerijetko pomiču ove spomenike u poljoprivredne svrhe, primjeri stećaka bez ljudskih skeletnih ostataka, kao što su lubanje, bedrene kosti itd. nadmašuju u velikoj mjeri one u kojima su takvi ostatci nađeni."

 

An Armenian cave yielded the oldest leather footwear in the world

However, examining the material in the two radiocarbon laboratories in Oxford and California produced surprising results and proved that the primary assumptions made by the archaeologists were not even close to what the laboratories showed. It was stated that it was 5,637 to 5,387 years old and archaeologists who worked on the site in Armenia simply couldn’t believe that a shoe could be so ancient.

 

Sredny Stog (SS) culture Nalchik kurgan cemetery


After Mallory "In search of", p. 205


Similar to shown below male-female burial at Chapli, males are on their right and females on their left, deseased are furnished with tools, and covered with ochre

Nalchick precedes the Maykop culture which takes its name from the famous royal barrow at Maykop southeast of the Sea of Azov. The massive quantity of gold and silver ornaments and vessels has long been the subject of archaeological debate: what were their precise chronological and cultural relations with the Bronze Age cultures of the Near East, Anatolia, and their neighbors in the Caucasus? The sites of the Maykop culture appear to cluster in the Kuban region from whence they extend eastwards across the northern Caucasus. Burials are typically found beneath kurgans which generally employ stone constructions such as cromlechs and stone cists. The deceased are found buried either in the supine position with legs flexed, or on their sides. Copper objects are a frequent burial accompaniment.

The origins, interpretation and absolute dates of Nalchik and the Maykop culture are perennial topics of debate. Their origin, for example, is variously attributed to a yet unidentified local Neolithic population, or to a northward expansion of the Eneolithic cultures of the Caucasus. More important from our poinf of view is the elaboration of their burials, with stone constructions which many archaeologists see as a source for the stone-built tombs encountered in the Lower Mikhaylovka and Kemi Oba cultures.

Similarly, they offer ceramic parallels for some of the cultures on the steppe. Finally, in their strategic position between the steppe and the major metallurgical centers of the Caucasus, the northern Caucasus becomes an important factor in the cultural development of the Pontic-Caspian in the Later Eneolithic and Bronze Ages.

 

Kurgan


Tumulus - Kurgan

 

Istok


Inanna (Ishtar), Utu (Shamash), Enki (Ea) & Isimud (Usumu)


Shamash with rays rising from his shoulders and holding a saw-toothed knife with which he cuts his way through the mountains of the east at dawn.

Istok


Megalitska opservatorija Kokino

 

Znak "П" sa točkom u sredini - Istok


Istočna kapija neba sa izlazećim suncem


Znak П sa točkom u vinčanskim simbolima.


Znak П sa točkom na dolmenu na Kavkazu.


Dolmen na Sardiniji (Arzachena Tomb).

Vinčanski znak i dolomeni na Kavkazu i Sardiniji imaju istu poruku: П sa točkom.

  • Haplogrupa I2a (Dinarska, Kavkaska, Sardinijska)


Na ovom stećku je samo П, točke nema, ali ipak neka veza ima, jer na ovoj kapiji je horoz kao simbol jutarnjeg sunca.

П, п - Ćirilica = P, p - Latinica

Riječi sanskrita sa početnim П (P latinicom) znače:

purvaza = istok
praci = istok
pragdiz = istok
pracya = istok
paurastya = istok
paurva = istok
purva = istok, prvi
purvaka = prvi
purvya = prvi
prajc = prvi
pramukha = prvi
prathamaka = prvi
purvataram) = prvi
pura = prvi

 

The dolmen Kolikho, c. 1850 BC

Mysterious monolithic structures of the Caucasus


The dolmen Kolikho

 

Myth and Fable

Adygei legend says that once upon a time there were giants in the Caucasus. they were kind and strong creatures, and as it often happens, there were small and spiteful people near them. they were sharp, cunning, whining and artful people who were driven away by their former neighbours for their meanness and treachery. the giants gave refuge and a part of their lands to them. They were so kind that they made stone houses for their guests and they carried them on their shoulders to the most beautiful and dry places, to the banks of rivers and lakes. Instead of doors they breached round holes through which little people went hunting on lop-eared hares. However the giants were repaid for their kindness. In order to tame the giants the little people blinded them and began to give them different herbs and because of it, the giants began to lose their minds and conflict with each other. Once the giants freed themselves from charms a war began, resulting in everyone’s death with just the stone houses remaining’.

 

Kernosovka stelae of Sredny Stog culture

From Dnepropetrovsk Historical museum collection of 86 stelae ranging from Sredny Stog to Kipchak


Kernosovka stele, publicised in 1973


Natalia stele, publicised in 1862

Other stelae from Dnepropetrovsk Historical Museum collection of 86 stelae

   

 

 
Stele below depict males


The crown-type hat of jewelry-adorned female below depicts a discernable tamga insignia


Stele below apparently depict a female in a conical hat holding a ritual drinking cup.

We have already noted the potential importance of the Caucasus in stimulating the Neolithic economy in the Pontic-Caspian region. The association of the northern Caucasus with the Pontic-Caspian is much more clearly seen in the Eneolithic period. One of the earliest north Caucasian sites of importance is the cemetery at Nalchik. Here were found 147 burials placed under very low kurgans which together formed an extensive low kurgan covering an area of about 300 square meters. Although twelve of the burials were found in the supine position with legs flexed (as we frequently encounter in the steppe), the majority were deposited on their sides, males on their right and females on their left. Ochre frequently accompanied the burials. Grave goods included pendants fashioned from animal teeth, flint tools, and a series of marble bracelets. The earliest burials at Nalchik are dated to the Eneolithic. Other than a few other burials and a single settlement site, there is little local context for the Nalchik cemetery which appears to straddle the world of both the steppe and the Caucasus.

 

Stećci - Babe


Lijevo je motiv na kamenom stupu u Ukrajini - Motiv na stećku u Donjem Vrbnu,


Motivi na kamenu-babi u Ukrajini (lijevo) i na stećcima-babama.

 
Lepenski vir - Motiv na stećku u selu Dići kod Ljiga.


Avignon, Musée Calvet


Stele from the Petit Chasseur in Sion, Switzerland, dating from 2700–2150 BC

South Caucasus, Transcaucasia


Stone stele found in Boyahmadli village of Ağdam region of Azerbaijan


Prometheus - Pḥatḗr


Prometheus Brings Fire

Prometheus, Προμηθεύς, pronounced [promɛːtʰéu̯s] - Pḥatḗr

Prometheus is a Titan, culture hero, and trickster figure who is credited with the creation of man from clay, and who defies the gods by stealing fire and giving it to humanity, an act that enabled progress and civilization. Prometheus is known for his intelligence and as a champion of humankind and also seen as the author of the human arts and sciences generally. He is sometimes presented as the father of Deucalion, the hero of the Greek flood story.

The punishment of Prometheus as a consequence of the theft is a major theme of his mythology, and is a popular subject of both ancient and modern art. Zeus, king of the Olympian gods, sentenced the Titan to eternal torment for his transgression. The immortal Prometheus was bound to a rock, where each day an eagle, the emblem of Zeus, was sent to feed on his liver, which would then grow back overnight to be eaten again the next day. (In ancient Greece, the liver was often thought to be the seat of human emotions.) Prometheus is freed at last by the hero Heracles.

In another myth, Prometheus establishes the form of animal sacrifice practiced in ancient Greek religion. Evidence of a cult to Prometheus himself is not widespread. He was a focus of religious activity mainly at Athens, where he was linked to Athena and Hephaestus, other Greek deities of creative skills and technology.

In the Western classical tradition, Prometheus became a figure who represented human striving, particularly the quest for scientific knowledge, and the risk of overreaching or unintended consequences.

Hesiod's Theogony and Works of the Days

The first recorded account of the Prometheus myth appeared in the late 8th-century BC Greek epic poet Hesiod's Theogony (507–616). He was a son of the Titan Iapetus by Clymene, one of the Oceanids. He was brother to Menoetius, Atlas, and Epimetheus. Hesiod, in Theogony, introduces Prometheus as a lowly challenger to Zeus's omniscience and omnipotence.

In the trick at Mekone (535–544), a sacrificial meal marking the "settling of accounts" between mortals and immortals, Prometheus played a trick against Zeus. He placed two sacrificial offerings before the Olympian: a selection of beef hidden inside an ox's stomach (nourishment hidden inside a displeasing exterior), and the bull's bones wrapped completely in "glistening fat" (something inedible hidden inside a pleasing exterior). Zeus chose the latter, setting a precedent for future sacrifices (556–557). Henceforth, humans would keep that meat for themselves and burn the bones wrapped in fat as an offering to the gods. This angered Zeus, who hid fire from humans in retribution. In this version of the myth, the use of fire was already known to humans, but withdrawn by Zeus. Prometheus, however, stole fire back in a giant fennel-stalk and restored it to humanity (565–566). This further enraged Zeus, who sent the first woman to live with humanity (Pandora, not explicitly mentioned). The woman, a "shy maiden", was fashioned by Hephaestus out of clay and Athena helped to adorn her properly (571–574). Hesiod writes, "From her is the race of women and female kind: of her is the deadly race and tribe of women who live amongst mortal men to their great trouble, no helpmeets in hateful poverty, but only in wealth" (590–594).

Prometheus is chained to a rock in the Caucasus for eternity, where his liver is eaten daily by an eagle, only to be regenerated by night, due to his immortality. The eagle is a symbol of Zeus himself. Years later, the Greek hero Heracles slays the eagle and frees Prometheus from his torment (520–528).

"Prometheus", the thief of fire

 

Maykop/Pontus - Proto-Hattians


Cappadocia - Pontus


Maykop migrations


Proto-Hattians

 
Y-DNA G2a & T1a

 

Hephaestus - Pḥatḗr


Hephaestus

Fall from Olympus

Hera ejected Hephaestus from the heavens because he was "shrivelled of foot". He fell into the ocean and was raised by Thetis (mother of Achilles and one of the 50 Nereids) and the Oceanid Eurynome.

Return to Olympus

Hephaestus was one of the Olympians to have returned to Olympus after being exiled.

 

Hephaestus and Aphrodite


Mars and Venus Surprised by Vulcan

Though married to Hephaestus, Aphrodite had an affair with Ares, the god of war. Eventually, Hephaestus discovered Aphrodite’s affair through Helios, the all-seeing Sun, and planned a trap during one of their trysts. While Aphrodite and Ares lay together in bed, Hephaestus ensnared them in an unbreakable chain-link net so small as to be invisible and dragged them to Mount Olympus to shame them in front of the other gods for retribution.

The gods laughed at the sight of these naked lovers, and Poseidon persuaded Hephaestus to free them in return for a guarantee that Ares would pay the adulterer's fine. Hephaestus states in The Odyssey that he would return Aphrodite to her father and demand back his bride price.

Hephaestus was somehow connected with the archaic, pre-Greek Phrygian and Thracian mystery cult of the Kabeiroi, who were also called the Hephaistoi, "the Hephaestus-men", in Lemnos. One of the three Lemnian tribes also called themselves Hephaestion and claimed direct descent from the god.

  • Hephaestus Y-DNA T1a
  • Ares Y-DNA R1a, R1b

 

Caucasus - Colchian culture


Colchian culture

Prehistory and earliest references

The eastern Black Sea region in antiquity was home to the well-developed Bronze Age culture known as the Colchian culture, related to the neighboring Koban culture, that emerged toward the Middle Bronze Age. In at least some parts of Colchis, the process of urbanization seems to have been well advanced by the end of the second millennium BC, centuries before Greek settlement. The Colchian Late Bronze Age (fifteenth to eighth century BC) saw the development of significant skill in the smelting and casting of metals. Sophisticated farming implements were made, and fertile, well-watered lowlands and a mild climate promoted the growth of progressive agricultural techniques.

Colchis was inhabited by a number of related, but distinct, tribes whose settlements lay along the shore of the Black Sea. Chief among those were the Machelones, Heniochi, Zydretae, Lazi, Chalybes, Tabal/Tibareni/Tubal, Mossynoeci, Macrones, Moschi, Marres, Apsilae, Abasci, Sanigae, Coraxi, Coli, Melanchlaeni, Geloni and Soani (Suani). These Colchian tribes differed so completely in language and appearance from the surrounding Indo-European nations that the ancients provided various wild theories to account for the phenomenon.

Colchian art


Colchian gold diadem

Colchians

 
Y-chromosome G2a - Y-chromosome J1

 

Vainakhish peoples

Y-DNA J2a


Vainakhish peoples

Ancient J-M410 has been found, in a mesolithic context, in a tooth from the Kotias Klde Cave in western Georgia dating 9.529-9.895 cal. BP. This sample has been assigned to the Caucasus hunter-gatherers (CHG) autosomal component.

A 2011 study by Oleg Balanovsky and a number of other geneticists showed that the Y-DNA haplogroup J2a4b* (a subclade of J2, located mainly in the Middle East, Caucasus and Mediterranean) was highly associated with Nakh peoples. J2a4b* accounted for the majority of the Y-chromosomes of Ingush and Chechen men, with the Ingush having a much higher percentage, 87.4%, than Chechens, who had 51–58% depending on region (the lowest being in Malgobek, the highest in Dagestan and Achkhoy-Martan). In their paper, Balanovsky et al. speculated that the differences between fraternal Caucasian populations may have arisen due to genetic drift, which would have had a greater effect among the Ingush than the Chechens due to their smaller population (another possible reason for the difference is the greater absorption of foreign peoples into the Chechen populace, reflecting an older theory that the Ingush are more 'archaic' than other Caucasian peoples). The Chechens and Ingush have the highest frequencies of J2a4b* yet reported (other relatively high frequencies, between 10 and 20 percent, are found in the Mediterranean and Georgia).

6000 - 4000 BC Y-DNA J2a4b

Neolithic era. Pottery is known to the region. Old settlements near Ali-Yurt and Magas, discovered in the modern times, revealed tools made out of stone: stone axes, polished stones, stone knives, stones with holes drilled in them, clay dishes etc. Settlements made out of clay bricks discovered in the plains. In the mountains there were discovered settlements made out of stone surrounded by walls some of them dated back 8000 BC.


Y-DNA J2

4000 - 3000 BC Y-DNA J2a4b & G2a2

Use of the wheel (3000 BC), horseback riding, metal works (copper, gold, silver, iron) dishes, armor, daggers, knives, arrow tips. The artifacts were found near Naser-Kort, Muzhichi, Yi-E-Borz (now Surkhakhi), Abi-Goo (now Nazran).

 

Koban culture c. 1100 - 400 BC

Y-DNA G2a2, J2 & R1b


Bronze axe with iron inlay decoration from Klin-Yar, c. 700 BC

Legend of Kouzan-Am Lake

Legend has explicit parallels with Biblical Sodom and Gomorrah, and the Islamic Lot. The story tells us that there once there was a very rich settlement at the place where now there is a lake. Despite their wealth, the people of this city were very greedy. Once God Dela sent his representatives in the guise of beggars, to test people. They asked all residents to give them food, but residents of the city in response to abused and driven away, and only one poor family in the village shared with them their food.

Legend has it that a poor family left a burnt bread for themselves and gave a piece of white bread for their guests. Leaving the house, the guests told the family that after some time has passed, behind the front door water will be collected in puddles, and when this happens they should gather the bare necessities, leave their home, and go to the mountains. Since poor families do not disobey and so did everything as they told to do by the guests.

They told the rich of the impending disaster, and asked to follow them, but their greed would not allow them to leave their treasures. That the evening the family watched a terrible catastrophe, they saw the water cover their house along with those who remained. In memory of terrible events Vainakhs named the lake, lake of sorrow and cruelty, Kezanoi lake.

 

 

Proto-Celtic

 
Cernunnos

 

Znatan dio europskih sjekira može se dovesti u vezu s pontskima, što tu potvrđuje doticanje i smjer gibanja stepskih ratničkih nomadskih skupina.

 

Ages of Man

The first extant account of the successive ages of humanity comes from the Greek poet Hesiod (between 750 and 650 BC), in his poem Works and Days (lines 109–201). His list is:

  • Golden Age – The Golden Age is the only age that falls within the rule of Cronus. Created by the immortals who live on Olympus, these humans were said to live among the gods, and freely mingled with them. Peace and harmony prevailed during this age. Humans did not have to work to feed themselves, for the earth provided food in abundance. They lived to a very old age but with a youthful appearance and eventually died peacefully. Their spirits live on as "guardians". Plato in Cratylus (397e) recounts the golden race of men who came first. He clarifies that Hesiod did not mean men literally made of gold, but good and noble. He describes these men as daemons upon the earth. Since δαίμονες (daimones) is derived from δαήμονες (daēmones, meaning knowing or wise), they are beneficent, preventing ills, and guardians of mortals.
  • Silver Age – The Silver Age and every age that follows fall within the rule of Cronus's successor and son, Zeus. Men in the Silver age lived for one hundred years under the dominion of their mothers. They lived only a short time as grown adults, and spent that time in strife with one another. During this Age men refused to worship the gods and Zeus destroyed them for their impiety. After death, humans of this age became "blessed spirits" of the underworld.
  • Bronze Age – Men of the Bronze Age were hardened and tough, as war was their purpose and passion. Zeus created these humans out of the ash tree. Their armor was forged of bronze, as were their homes, and tools. The men of this Age were undone by their own violent ways and left no named spirits; instead, they dwell in the "dank house of Hades". This Age came to an end with the flood of Deucalion.
  • Heroic Age – The Heroic Age is the one age that does not correspond with any metal. It is also the only age that improves upon the age it follows. It was the heroes of this Age who fought at Thebes and Troy. This race of humans died and went to Elysium.
  • Iron Age – Hesiod finds himself in the Iron Age. During this age humans live an existence of toil and misery. Children dishonor their parents, brother fights with brother and the social contract between guest and host (xenia) is forgotten. During this age might makes right, and bad men use lies to be thought good. At the height of this age, humans no longer feel shame or indignation at wrongdoing; babies will be born with gray hair and the gods will have completely forsaken humanity: "there will be no help against evil."

Goldene & Silver Age = Early & Late neolitic


Lord Of The Rings

Mordor - Caucasus

Mordor from Sindarin Black Land and Quenya Land of Shadow) is the realm and base of the arch-villain Sauron. It was located in the southeast of northwestern Middle-earth, east of the great river Anduin.


Mordor - Maykop/Caucasus

 

Orcs - Hybrid race

Orc is from Old English orcneas, which appears in the epic poem Beowulf, and refers to one of the races who are called the offspring of Cain during the initial description of Grendel ("Þanon untydras ealle onwocon,/eotenas ond ylfe, ond orcneas", ll. 111–112). In a letter of 1954 Tolkien gave orc as "demon" and claimed he used the word because of its "phonetic suitability"-its similarity to various equivalent terms in his Middle-earth languages. In an essay on Elven languages, written in 1954, Tolkien gives meaning of 'orc' as "evil spirit or bogey" and goes on to state that the origin of the Old English word is the Latin name Orcus-god of the underworld.


Orcs

Old English glossaries record the word orc corresponding with Latin Orcus (deity of the Underworld), and synonymous with þyrs/ðyrs "ogre" (cognate to Old Norse: þurs), as well as "hell devil". The Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal defines ork in the very closely related Old Dutch language as a verslindend monster ("devouring monster"), and points at a possible origin in the Old Dutch nork "petulant, crabbed, evil person".

The Latin: Orcus is glossed as "Old English: Orc, þyrs, oððe hel-deofol" as given in the first Cleopatra Glossary (10th century), and on this entry Thomas Wright wrote, "Orcus was the name for Pluto, the god of the infernal regions, hence we can easily understand the explanation of hel-deofol. Orc, in Anglo-Saxon, like thyrs, means a spectre, or goblin."

Probably the lone literary example is from Beowulf, and its poet found use of the orc- stem in orcneas, one of the tribes of creatures named alongside elves and ettins (giants) that have been condemned by God:

þanon untydras ealle onwocon
eotenas ond ylfe ond orcneas
swylce gigantas þa wið gode wunnon
lange þrage he him ðæs lean forgeald
Beowulf, Fitt I, vv. 111–14

 

Thence all evil broods were born,
ogres and elves and evil spirits
—the giants also, who long time fought with God,
for which he gave them their reward
—John R. Clark Hall, tr. (1901)

The compound orcneas is designated "evil spirits" above, but its accurate meaning is uncertain. Klaeber suggested it consisted of orc < L. orcus "the underworld" + neas "corpses" and that the translation "evils spirits" failed to do justice.

The lexicography has been complicated by the Bosworth-Toller dictionary's conjecture that orcneas devolved from the form *orcen possibly meaning "(?) a sea-monster," possibly related to Icelandic: orkn (örkn).

 
Orcs

At the time of the War of the Ring, Sauron had gathered great armies to serve him. These included Easterlings and Haradrim, who spoke a variety of tongues, and Orcs and Trolls, who usually spoke a debased form of the Common Speech. Within Barad-dûr and among the captains of Mordor (the Ringwraiths and other high-ranking servants such as the Mouth of Sauron), the Black Speech was still used, the language devised by Sauron during the Dark Years of the Second Age. In addition to ordinary Orcs and Trolls, Sauron had bred a stronger strain of Orcs, the Uruk-hai, and very large Trolls known as Olog-hai who could endure the sun. The Olog-hai knew only the Black Speech.


Orcs

 

Indo-European migrations

Indo-European migrations

 

Tri Nojina sina - Caucasians


Tri Nojina sina

Sinovi Noini, koji su iz korablje izišli, bijahu: Šem, Ham i Jafet. Ham je praotac Kanaanaca. (19) Ovo su trojica Noinih sinova i od njih se sav svijet razgranao.

  • Maykop Caucasus
    • Šem - Mesopotamia, Iran..
    • Ham - Canaan, Egypt..
    • Jafet - Anatolia, Northeastern Iran, Turkmenistan..

 

Japheth, Orcs (Ares)

Jafet najstariji brat - Phater


Orcs, Ares

Iapetus as the progenitor of mankind has been equated with Japheth (יֶפֶת), the son of Noah, based on the similarity of their names and the tradition, reported by Josephus (Antiquities of the Jews), which made Japheth the ancestor of the "Japhetites".

Japheth = Iapetus
Japheth/Iapetus, Prometheus, Pontus, Hephaestus/Ptah = Phater (korijenski minimum PT)

Jafet

Šemu - praocu svih sinova Eberovih i starijem bratu Jafetovu - rodili se sinovi.

Sinovi su Jafetovi: Gomer, Magog, Madaj, Javan, Tubal, Mešak, Tiras.

A sinovi su Gomerovi: Aškenaz, Rifat i Togarma.

Javanovi su opet sinovi: Eliša, Taršiš, Kitijci i Dodanci. Od njih su se razgranali narodi po otocima. To su Jafetovi sinovi prema svojim zemljama - svaki s vlastitim jezikom - prema svojim plemenima i narodima.

Gomer

Gomer(גֹּמֶר, Standard Hebrew Gómer, Tiberian Hebrew Gōmer, Greek: Γαμὲρ, romanized: Gamér) was the eldest son of Japheth (and of the Japhetic line), and father of Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah, according to the "Table of Nations" in the Hebrew Bible (Genesis 10).

The eponymous Gomer, "standing for the whole family," as the compilers of the Jewish Encyclopedia expressed it, is also mentioned in Book of Ezekiel 38:6 as the ally of Gog, the chief of the land of Magog.

The Hebrew name Gomer refers to the Cimmerians, who dwelt in what is now southern Russia, "beyond the Caucusus", and attacked Assyria in the late 7th century BC. The Assyrians called them Gimmerai; the Cimmerian king Teushpa was defeated by Assarhadon of Assyria sometime between 681 and 668 BC

Josephus placed Gomer and the "Gomerites" in Anatolian Galatia: "For Gomer founded those whom the Greeks now call Galatians, but were then called Gomerites." Galatia in fact takes its name from the ancient Gauls (Celts) who settled there. However, the later Christian writer Hippolytus of Rome in c. 234 assigned Gomer as the ancestor of the Cappadocians, neighbours of the Galatians. Jerome (c. 390) and Isidore of Seville (c. 600) followed Josephus' identification of Gomer with the Galatians, Gauls and Celts.

According to tractate Yoma, in the Talmud, Gomer is identified as "Germamya".

Cimmerians

According to Herodotus, the Cimmerians inhabited the region north of the Caucasus and the Black Sea during the 8th and 7th centuries BC (i.e. what is now Ukraine and Russia), although they have not been identified with any specific archaeological culture in the region.

A people named Kimmerioi is described in Homer's Odyssey 11.14 (c. late 8th century BC), as living beyond the Oceanus, in a land of fog and darkness, at the edge of the world and the entrance of Hades.

According to Herodotus (c. 440 BC), the Cimmerians had been expelled from their homeland between the Tyras (Dniester) and Tanais (Don) rivers by the Scythians. Unreconciled to Scythian advances, to ensure burial in their ancestral homeland, the men of the Cimmerian royal family divided into groups and fought each other to the death. The Cimmerian commoners buried the bodies along the river Tyras and fled across the Caucasus and into Anatolia. Herodotus also names a number of Cimmerian kings, including Tugdamme (Lygdamis in Greek; mid-7th century BC), and Sandakhshatra (late-7th century).

In 654 BC or 652 BC – the exact date is unclear – the Cimmerians attacked the kingdom of Lydia, killing the Lydian king Gyges and causing great destruction to the Lydian capital of Sardis. They returned ten years later during the reign of Gyges' son Ardys; this time they captured the city, with the exception of the citadel. The fall of Sardis was a major shock to the powers of the region; the Greek poets Callinus and Archilochus recorded the fear that it inspired in the Greek colonies of Ionia, some of which were attacked by Cimmerian and Treres raiders.

The Cimmerian occupation of Lydia was brief, however, possibly due to an outbreak of plague. They were beaten back by Alyattes. This defeat marked the effective end of Cimmerian power.

The term Gimirri was used about a century later in the Behistun inscription (c. 515 BC) as an Assyro-Babylonian equivalent of Iranian Saka (Scythians). Otherwise, Cimmerians disappeared from the historical record.

The Biblical name "Gomer" has been linked by some to the Cimmerians.

According to Georgian national historiography, the Cimmerians, in Georgian known as Gimirri, played an influential role in the development of the Colchian and Iberian cultures. The modern Georgian word for "hero", გმირი gmiri, is said to derive from their name.

The Cimmerians finally settled in Cappadocia, known in Armenian as Գամիրք, Gamir-kʿ (the same name as the original Cimmerian homeland in Mannae).

The modern Armenian city of Gyumri (Arm.: Գյումրի [ˈgjumɾi]), founded as Kumayri (Arm.: Կումայրի), derived its name from the Cimmerians who conquered the region and founded a settlement there.

Some researchers have attempted to trace various place names to Cimmerian origins. It has been suggested that Cimmerium gave rise to the Turkic toponym Qırım (which in turn gave rise to the name "Crimea").

Jeremija - "narodi iz sjeverne zemlje"

Aškenaz

Skiti su nastali iz Aškenaz, sina Gomera, sina Jafeta, prvi put se spominju u asirskim zapisima kao "Askuza" ili "Ishkuzai." Asirci govore o Askuza da dolaze sa sjevera početkom 7. stoljeća prije Krista. Kod Herodota Askuza su postali Skythai (Skiti).

Jeremija - Podignite stijeg u zemlji, zatrubite u rog među narodima! Pripremite na nj narode, sazovite na nj kraljevstva - Ararat, Mini, Aškenaz! Postavite protiv njega pozivnike, nek' nasrnu konji k'o dlakavi skakavci

Magog

Magog su Megrelians

Madaj

Madaj su Medijci,  u Bibliji se  pojavljuju sa Perzijancima. Darije je Medijac.

Danijel - Mene, Mene, Tekel, Parsin.  A te riječi znače: Mene: izmjerio je Bog tvoje kraljevstvo i učinio mu kraj; Tekel: bio si vagnut na tezulji i nađen si prelagan; Parsin: razdijeljeno je tvoje kraljevstvo i predano Medijcima i Perzijancima."

Javan

Javan je hebrejska riječ za Grčku (Jonija), koja se pojavljuje pet puta u Starom zavjetu a povezana je s Ion

Izaija - Postavit ću im znak i poslat ću preživjele od njih k narodima u Taršiš, Put, Lud, Mošek, Roš, Tubal i Javan - k dalekim otocima koji nisu čuli glasa o meni ni vidjeli moje Slave - i oni će naviještati Slavu moju narodima.

Eliša

Aeolians - Alashiya

Ezekiel - A grimiz i skrlet s eliških otoka staviše ti za krovišta..

Taršiš

Tartessos was a harbor city and the surrounding culture on the south coast of the Iberian Peninsula (in modern Andalusia, Spain), at the mouth of the Guadalquivir River. It appears in sources from Greece and the Near East starting during the first millennium BC. Herodotus, for example, describes it as beyond the Pillars of Heracles (Strait of Gibraltar).

The Tartessians were rich in metal. In the 4th century BC the historian Ephorus describes "a very prosperous market called Tartessos, with much tin carried by river, as well as gold and copper from Celtic lands". Trade in tin was very lucrative in the Bronze Age, since it is an essential component of bronze and is comparatively rare. Herodotus refers to a king of Tartessos, Arganthonios, presumably named for his wealth in silver.

The people from Tartessos became important trading partners of the Phoenicians, whose presence in Iberia dates from the 8th century BC and who nearby built a harbor of their own, Gadir (Greek: Γάδειρα, Latin: Gades, present-day Cádiz).

U Bibliji se pojavljuju kao "Taršiš", također poznat kao Tarsis ili Tarsisch.

Prva knjiga o kraljevima - Kralj je imao taršiško brodovlje na moru zajedno s Hiramovim brodovljem, i svake treće godine dolazilo je taršiško brodovlje donoseći zlato, srebro i slonovu kost, majmune i paune.

Tartessos (Taršiš) u Španjolskoj.  Pillars of Heracles (Strait of Gibraltar), Heraklovi stupovi. Taršiš najzapadnija zemlja poznatoga svijeta.

Tarsus has long been an important stop for traders and a focal point of many civilisations.

 
Tartessos - Tarsus

Kitijci

Kitijci su stanovnici otoka Cipar

Knjiga Brojeva - "Narodi pomorski sabiru se sa sjevera, a brodovlje od strane Kitima. Podjarmljuju Ašur, podjarmljuju Heber, pa i njega će propast stići vječita."

Dodanci

Rodos, Dodanim (דודנים) ili Rodanim, (רודנים), (Greek: Ρόδιοι).
Od kojih su nastali:  Dodona - Epirus & Dardania - Illyria

Tubal - Cain

Sila rodi Tubal-Kajina, praoca onih koji kuju bakar i željezo

Tabal Gruzijski povjesničar Ivane Javakhishvili smatra da su Tabal, Tubal, Jabal i Jubal bile rane kartvelian plemenske oznake.

Tibareni, proto-gruzijsko pleme nastanjeno duž crnomorske obale Anatolije (antički Pontus).

Thobel (Tubal): "Thobelites, who are now called Iberes".

According to Catalan legend, Japheth's son Tubal is said to have sailed from Jaffa with his family and arrived at the Francolí river of the Iberian Peninsula in 2157 BC, where he founded a city named after his son Tarraho, now Tarragona. He then proceeded to the Ebro (like Iberia, named after his second son Iber), where he built several more settlements, including Amposta. His third son's name is given as Semptofail. - Catalan language

Mešak

Mushki - Whether they moved into the core Hittite areas from the east or west has been a matter of some discussion by historians. Some speculate that they may have originally occupied a territory in the area of Urartu; alternatively, ancient accounts suggest that they first arrived from a homeland in the west (as part of the Armeno-Phrygian migration), from the region of Troy, or even from as far as Macedonia, as the Bryges.

Mecsek - is a mountain range in southern Hungary. It is situated in the Baranya region, in the north of the city of Pécs.

Tiras

Josip - Tiras je predak od "Thirasians" (Tračani), ljudi "plamene kose" (crvene ili plave kose) prema Ksenofanu. Tiras ili Tyras u antici je bio i naziv Dnjestra rijeke, Grčke kolonije u neposrednoj blizini ušća i autohtonog stanovništva okolnih područja - Tyragetae. Getae bili su jedna od glavnih komponenti Tračana (Herodot 4.93, 5.3).

.. a Tračani da su plavooki i riđokosi. - Ksenofan

 

Caucasian Bronze Age

Y-DNA G2a, I2a, J2, T1a & R1b1b2


Y-DNA R1b

Sinovi su Jafetovi: Gomer, Magog, Madaj, Javan, Tubal, Mešak, Tiras..

Sila rodi Tubal-Kajina, praoca onih koji kuju bakar i željezo (Pontus-Maykop).
  • Tubal - Tibareni, proto-gruzijsko pleme nastanjeno duž crnomorske obale Anatolije (antički Pontus).

 

Tubal-cain

Y-DNA T1a & R1b


Estela antropomorfa de Minuciano III, Pontremoli, Italia


Tubal-cain

 

The Myths and History of Red Hair

The Greeks

The Greek philosopher Aristotle is reputed to have made the following comments about red hair:

"The reddish are of bad character."

"Those with tawny coloured hair are brave; witness the lions. [But those with] reddish [hair] are of bad character; witness the foxes."

"Fishermen, divers for murex, and generally those whose work is on the sea, have red hair."

Another mention of red hair comes from Xenophanes, who referred to it when discussing the natural tendency of man to confer upon God a human form:

"The Ethiopians claim that their gods are flat-nosed and black-skinned; the Thracians, that they are blue-eyed and have red hair...if oxen, horses, and lions had hands with which to draw and make works like men, horses would represent the gods in the likeness of a horse, oxen in that of an ox, and each one would make for them a body like the one he himself possessed."

This mention of the Thracians having red hair brings to mind Herodotus' description of the Budini, a tribe in the region of Scythia that had "blue-grey eyes and red hair." In fact it's now clear that there must have been at least some red-haired people living in the areas referred to by the Greeks as Scythia and Thrace, as comments such as these are now backed up by the discovery of Thracian art that clearly depicts people of a red-haired appearance. I've also read that in Greek and Roman theatre slaves were given red wigs as identifiers and that this stemmed from the fact that their slaves often came from these northern territories.

Incidentally, the Greek playwright, Euripides was also described as having a freckled appearance - although whether he had red hair or not we can't be sure. It should also be noted that in Homer's Iliad both Menelaus and Achilles are described as being red-haired.

The Romans

The Romans tended to associate red hair with the Gaulish and Germanic tribes that they encountered in the north, as the following comments illustrate:

"Their tall stature, their long red hair, their huge shields, their extraordinarily long swords; still more, their songs as they enter into battle, their war-whoops and dances, and the horrible clash of arms as they shake their shields in the way their fathers did before them - all these things are intended to terrify and appal."
- Livy, on the Gauls.

"The red hair and large limbs of the inhabitants of Caledonia point clearly to a Germanic origin."
- Tacitus, on the inhabitants of northern Britain.

"The colour of the Ethiopian is not singular among his countrymen, nor is red hair tied up in a knot a peculiarity among the Germans."
- Seneca, on the Germans.

There is also a story that Caligula made prisoners from Gaul grow their hair long and dye it red, so that he could display them to the public on his triumph in Rome.

A telling indication of how red hair was viewed in ancient Rome may be found in an epigram written by Martial about a slave named Zoilus. He wrote "Zoilus, with your red hair, dark complexion, short foot, and bleary eye, it would be miraculous if you were virtuous." However, it wasn't all bad for red hair, as it is said that the Romans also used to import it from northern Europe in order to make wigs.

Iran

The 19th century British politician and Viceroy of India, George Nathaniel Curzon, once noted that the Tajiks (aboriginal Iranians) often had "reddish-brown" hair.

Ismail I, Shah of Persia, also had red hair;

"His hair is reddish; he wears only moustachios, and uses his left hand instead of his right. He is as brave as a gamecock, and stronger than any of his lords..." From Giovanni Angiolello

The Heathen of Harran

James Frazer, in his seminal work, The Golden Bough, mentioned that redheads were once sacrificed in Harran. He wrote:

"The heathen of Harran offered to the sun, moon, and planets human victims who were chosen on the ground of their supposed resemblance to the heavenly bodies to which they were sacrificed; for example, the priests, clothed in red and smeared with blood, offered a red-haired, red-cheeked man to "the red planet Mars" in a temple which was painted red and draped with red hangings."

 

Red Hair and Royalty

British royals


The picture depicts some of the red-haired daughters of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville.


Henry II


Richard the Lionheart


Elizabeth Woodville


Elizabeth of York


Elizabeth I


Alexander II, King of Scotland


Mary Queen of Scots

The father of Henry II, Geoffrey Plantagenet, was a redhead. He was described as "handsome, red-headed, jovial, and a great warrior."

Mary Tudor, Queen of France was likewise red-haired.

As was Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester. He was one of the leaders of the Albigensian Crusade and was renowned for his cruelty. I came across the following passage on a web-page about the Cathars;

It is in Toulouse that the commander Simon de Montfort - known as "The butcher of Occitanie", or "The Crusade Lion" (depending on the side!)- finds his end his skull crushed in 1218 by a catapulted stone thrown by the women of the city (he was recognized by his distinct red hair!!).

Another Earl with red hair was Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Gloucester. He was known as the Red Earl because of it.

The Holy Roman Emperors Otto II and Otto III were also red-haired. In fact, Otto II was known as Otto the Red. Other red-haired Holy Roman Emperors include Frederick I Barbarossa and Frederick II. The following is a description of Frederick II given by the chronicler Sibt Ibn al-Jawzi;

"The Emperor was covered with red hair, was bald and myopic. Had he been a slave, he would not have fetched 200 dirhams at market."

Baldwin IV, King of Jerusalem was also ginger. He was known as the leper and was described as "a blue-eyed, freckled, leprous evil-doer."

Other noted red-haired royals include Isabella I of Castile, Joanna of Castile (aka Joanna the Mad) and Louis II, King of Hungary, Bohemia and Croatia.

Garden of Eden Index Kura-Araxes culture