Kura-Araxes culture

Early trans-Caucasian culture

Kura-Araxes culture

Kura-Araxes branches of G2a2

Around the same time as the Indo-European ethnogenesis was taking shape in the Pontic Steppe during the Maykop (3700-3000 BCE) and Yamna (3500-2300 BCE) cultures, another Early Bronze Age society was developping on the other side of the Caucasus: the Kura-Araxes culture (3400-2000 BCE). Although the Kura-Araxes people were less militaristic and more sedentary, they also underwent a major expansion, first west to Anatolia, south to the Fertile Crescent and east toward the Iranian plateau, possibly all the way to Pakistan, where they would have influenced the Indus Valley Civilisation. It is likely that the descendants of the Kura-Araxes culture eventually colonised Greek islands, including Crete, where they would have founded the Minoan Civilisation (2600-1100 BCE), Europe's oldest civilisation.

During the Classical Antiquity ancient Greek islanders, who were descended in great part from the Minoans, colonised southern Italy, bringing their Kura-Araxes lineages with them.

c. 3500-3000 BC

c. 3000-2000 BC


Shulaveri-Shomu culture, c. 6000 BC - 4200 BC

Y-DNA J2a1 & G2a1

In around ca. 6000–4200 B.C the Shulaveri-Shomu and other Neolithic/Chalcolithic cultures of the Southern Caucasus were using local obsidian for tools; were raising animals such as cattle and pigs; and growing crops, including grapes. - Shulaveri-Shomu culture

  • Preceded by; Halaf - Hassuna culture
  • Followed by; Leyla-Tepe culture


Noa, zemljoradnik, zasadio vinograd

Sweet new wine, must, sweetness

Korablja se zaustavi na brdima Ararata.. Noa, zemljoradnik, zasadio vinograd. (21) Napio se vina i opio, pa se otkrio nasred šatora.

Current evidence suggests that wine originated in the Caucasus Mountains. This mountain range spans from Armenia through Azerbaijan, Georgia, northern Iran, and eastern Turkey, and contains some of the highest peaks in Europe. The ancient wine production evidence dates from between 8000 B.C. and 4100 B.C., and includes an ancient winery site in Armenia, grape residue found in clay jars in Georgia, and signs of grape domestication in eastern Turkey. The people who made the first wines were of the Shulaveri-Shomu culture. They were a people of the Stone Age who used obsidian for tools, raised cattle and pigs, and most importantly, grew grapes.

The oldest known winery (4100 B.C.) is located among a group of caves outside the Armenian village of Areni. The village is still known for winemaking and makes red wines with a local grape also called Areni. Areni is thought to be quite old, but whether or not it is actually the world’s first grape has yet to be determined.

We have the civilizations of Greece and Phoenicia to thank for the spreading of wine grapes throughout Europe.

From Caucasus, wine grapes have followed human civilization as it expanded southward and westward and into the Mediterranean. These sea-fairing civilizations of the Phoenicians and Greeks were the most responsible for the spread of wine throughout Western Europe. With each new region that was planted, the grapes slowly mutated and adapted to their unique environments. This slow divergence over thousands of years is what created the incredible diversity of over the 1300 identified wine varieties we have today.

There are 1368 identified wine varieties included in Wine Grapes (2012). Diversity appears to increase in areas like Italy (ancient Rome) and France, where wine has been an important facet of the culture.


Kartvelian languages

Kartvelian languages

The Kartvelian languages (Georgian: ქართველური ენები, Kartveluri enebi, also known as Iberian and formerly South Caucasian

Iberians (Caucasian Iberians) > Habiru (Fertile Crescent) > Iberians (Iberian Peninsula)


Leyla-Tepe culture, c. 4350 - 4000 BC

Y-DNA J2a1, G2a1 & G2a2

Leyla-Tepe culture

  • Preceded by; Shulaveri-Shomu culture, Danubian culture (Boian culture)
  • Followed by; Kura-Araxes culture


Old Europe

Boian culture, c. 4300 - 3500 BC

Boian culture

  • Preceded by; Linear Pottery culture
  • Followed by; Kura-Araxes culture


Kura-Araxes culture, c. 3400 - 2000 BC

Early expansion of the Kuro-Araxes culture (light shading) shown in relation to subsequent cultures in the area, such as Urartu (dark shading).

The Kura–Araxes culture or the early trans-Caucasian culture was a civilization that existed from about 4000 BC until about 2000 BC.

The earliest evidence for this culture is found on the Ararat plain; it spread northward in Caucasus by 3000 BC.).

Altogether, the early trans-Caucasian culture enveloped a vast area approximately 1,000 km by 500 km, and mostly encompassed, on modern-day territories, the Southern Caucasus (except western Georgia), northwestern Iran, the northeastern Caucasus, eastern Turkey, and as far as Syria.

It gave rise to the later Khirbet Kerak-ware culture found in Syria and Canaan after the fall of the Akkadian Empire.

Early history

The formative processes of the Kura-Araxes cultural complex, and the date and circumstances of its rise, have been long debated.

Shulaveri-Shomu culture preceded the Kura–Araxes culture in the area. There were many differences between these two cultures, so the connection was not clear. Later, it was suggested that the Sioni culture of eastern Georgia possibly represented a transition from the Shulaveri to the Kura-Arax cultural complex.

At many sites, the Sioni culture layers can be seen as intermediary between Shulaver-Shomu-Tepe layers and the Kura-Araxes layers. This kind of stratigraphy warrants a chronological place of the Sioni culture at around 4000 BCE.

Nowadays scholars consider the Kartli area, as well as the Kakheti area (in the river Sioni region) as key to forming the earliest phase of the Kura–Araxes culture. To a large extent, this appears as an indigenous culture of Caucasus that was formed over a long period, and at the same time incorporating foreign influences.

There are some indications (such as at Arslantepe) of the overlapping in time of the Kura-Araxes and Uruk cultures; such contacts may go back even to the Middle Uruk period.


Rather quickly, elements of Kura–Araxes culture started to proceed westward to the Erzurum plain, southwest to Cilicia, and to the southeast into the area of Lake Van, and below the Urmia basin in Iran, such as to Godin Tepe. Finally, it proceeded into the present-day Syria (Amuq valley), and as far as Palestine.

Its territory corresponds to large parts of modern Armenia, Azerbaijan, Chechnya, Dagestan, Georgia, Ingushetia, North Ossetia, and parts of Iran and Turkey.

At Sos Hoyuk, in Erzurum Province, Turkey, early forms of Kura-Araxes pottery were found in association with local ceramics as early as 3500-3300 BC. During the Early Bronze Age in 3000-2200 BC, this settlement was part of the Kura-Araxes phenomenon.
At Arslantepe, Turkey, around 3000 BCE, there was widespread burning and destruction, after which Kura-Araxes pottery appeared in the area.

According to Geoffrey Summers, the movement of Kura-Araxes peoples into Iran and the Van region, which he interprets as quite sudden, started shortly before 3000 BC, and may have been prompted by the 'Late Uruk Collapse' (end of the Uruk period), taking place at the end of Uruk IV phase c. 3100 BC.


At some point the culture's settlements and burial grounds expanded out of lowland river valleys and into highland areas. Although some scholars have suggested that this expansion demonstrates a switch from agriculture to pastoralism and that it serves as possible proof of a large-scale arrival of Indo-Europeans.


The economy was based on farming and livestock-raising (especially of cattle and sheep). They grew grain and orchard crops, and are known to have used implements to make flour. They raised cattle, sheep, goats, dogs, and in later phases, horses.

Before the Kura-Araxes period, horse bones were not found in Transcaucasia. Later, beginning about 3300 BCE, they became widespread, with signs of domestication.


In the earliest phase of the Kura–Araxes culture, metal was scarce. In comparison, the preceding Leilatepe culture's metalwork tradition was far more sophisticated.

The Kura–Araxes culture would later display "a precocious metallurgical development, which strongly influenced surrounding regions". They worked copper, arsenic, silver, gold, tin, and bronze.

Their metal goods were widely distributed, from the Volga, Dnieper and Don-Donets river systems in the north to Syria and Palestine in the south and Anatolia in the west.


The culture is closely linked to the approximately contemporaneous Maykop culture of Ciscaucasia. As Amjad Jaimoukha puts it,

"The Kura-Araxes culture was contiguous, and had mutual influences, with the Maikop culture in the Northwest Caucasus. According to E.I. Krupnov (1969:77), there were elements of the Maikop culture in the early memorials of Chechnya and Ingushetia in the Meken and Bamut kurgans and in Lugovoe in Serzhen-Yurt. Similarities between some features and objects of the Maikop and Kura-Araxes cultures, such as large square graves, the bold-relief curvilinear ornamentation of pottery, ochre-coloured ceramics, earthen hearth props with horn projections, flint arrowheads, stone axes and copper pitchforks are indicative of a cultural unity that pervaded the Caucasus in the Neolithic Age."

Late in the history of this culture, its people built kurgans of greatly varying sizes, containing widely varying amounts and types of metalwork, with larger, wealthier kurgans surrounded by smaller kurgans containing less wealth. This trend suggests the eventual emergence of a marked social hierarchy. Their practice of storing relatively great wealth in burial kurgans was probably a cultural influence from the more ancient civilizations of the Fertile Crescent to the south.

According to Giulio Palumbi (2008), the typical red-black ware of Kura–Araxes culture originated in eastern Anatolia, and then moved on to the Caucasus area. But then these cultural influences came back to Anatolia mixed in with other cultural elements from the Caucasus.

Kura-Araxes mounds

In the 3rd millennium B.C., one particular group of mounds of the Kura–Araxes culture is remarkable for their wealth. This was the final stage of culture's development. These burial mounds are known as the Martqopi (or Martkopi) period mounds. Those on the left bank of the river Alazani are often 20–25 meters high and 200–300 meters in diameter. They contain especially rich artefacts, such as gold and silver jewelry.

Burial customs

Inhumation practices are mixed. Flat graves are found but so are substantial kurgan burials, the latter of which may be surrounded by cromlechs. This points to a heterogeneous ethno-linguistic population.

Analyzing the situation in the Kura-Araxes period, T.A. Akhundov notes the lack of unity in funerary monuments, which he considers more than strange in the framework of a single culture; for the funeral rites reflect the deep culture-forming foundations and are weakly influenced by external customs. There are non-kurgan and kurgan burials, burials in ground pits, in stone boxes and crypts, in the underlying ground strata and on top of them; using both the round and rectangular burials; there are also substantial differences in the typical corpse position. Burial complexes of Kura–Araxes culture sometimes also include cremation.

Ethno-linguistic makeup

Hurrian and Urartian language elements are quite probable, as are Northeast Caucasian ones. Some authors subsume Hurrians and Urartians under Northeast Caucasian as well as part of the Alarodian theory although this is far from being universally accepted, and some scholars reject this connection. The presence of Kartvelian languages was also highly probable. Influences of Semitic languages and Indo-European languages are highly possible, though the presence of the languages on the lands of the Kura–Araxes culture is more controversial.

In the Armenian hypothesis of Indo-European origins, this culture (and perhaps that of the Maykop culture) is identified with the speakers of the Anatolian languages.

The expansion of Y-DNA subclade R-Z93 (R1a1a1b2), according to Mascarenhas et al. (2015), is compatible with "the archeological records of eastward expansion of West Asian populations in the 4th millennium BCE, culminating in the so-called Kura-Araxes migrations in the post-Uruk IV period." According to Pamjav et al. (2012), "Inner and Central Asia is an overlap zone" for the R -Z280 and R -Z93 lineages, implying that an "early differentiation zone" of R-M198 "conceivably occurred somewhere within the Eurasian Steppes or the Middle East and Caucasus region as they lie between South Asia and Eastern Europe". According to Underhill et al. (2014/2015), R1a1a1, the most frequent subclade of R1a, split into R-Z282 (Europe) and R-Z93 (Asia) at circa 5,800 before present, in the vicinity of Iran and Eastern Turkey. According to Underhill et al. (2014/2015), "this suggests the possibility that R1a lineages accompanied demic expansions initiated during the Copper, Bronze, and Iron ages."



Elam Ashur Arpachshad Lud Aram
Salah Uz Hul Gether Mash
Peleg Joktan


Šemu - praocu svih sinova Eberovih i starijem bratu Jafetovu - rodili se sinovi. Šemovi su sinovi: Elam, Ašur, Arpakšad, Lud i Aram.

A Aramovi su sinovi: Us, Hul, Geter i Maš.

Arpakšad rodi Šelaha, Šelah rodi Ebera. Eberu su se rodila dva sina: jednomu bješe ime Peleg, jer se za njegova vijeka zemlja razdijelila. Njegovu je bratu bilo ime Joktan. Od Joktana se rodiše: Almodad, Šelef, Hasarmavet, Jerah, Hadoram, Uzal, Dikla, Obal, Abimael, Šeba, Ofir, Havila i Jobab. Sve su to sinovi Joktanovi. Njihova se naselja protezahu od Meše sve do Sefara, brdovitih krajeva na istoku. To su sinovi Šemovi prema svojim plemenima, jezicima i zemljama, po svojim narodima.

  • Peleg = Pelasgians
  • Havilah = Avala
  • Elam - Elamo-Dravidian languages
  • Ašur - Semitic languages
  • Arpakšad - Eber (Iberians) - Kartvelian languages
  • Lud (Luwian) - Indo-European languages
  • Aram - Semitic languages


Man's golden age

The tablet (29.16.422 in the Nippur collection of the University Museum) is one of the unpublished pieces belonging to the Sumerian epic poem whose hero Enmerkar ruled in the city of Erech sometime during the fourth millennium B. C. The passage enclosed by the black line describes the blissful and unrivalled state of man in an era of universal peace before he had learned to know fear and before the "confusion of tongues"; its contents, which are very reminiscent of Genesis XI:1, read as follows:

In those days there was no snake, there was no scorpion, there was no hyena,
There was no lion, there was no wild dog, no wolf,
There was no fear, no terror,
Man had no rival.

In those days the land Shubur (East), the place of plenty, of righteous decrees,
Harmony-tongued Sumer (South), the great land of the "decrees of princeship,"
Uri (North), the land having all that is needful,
The land Martu (West), resting in security,
The whole universe, the people in unison,
To Enlil in one tongue gave praise.


Pobrkan govor svima

Sva je zemlja imala jedan jezik i riječi iste. (2) Ali kako su se ljudi selili s istoka, naiđu na jednu dolinu u zemlji Šinearu i tu se nastane. (3) Jedan drugome reče: "Hajdemo praviti opeke te ih peći da otvrdnu!" Opeke im bile mjesto kamena, a paklina im služila za žbuku. (4) Onda rekoše: "Hajde da sebi podignemo grad i toranj s vrhom do neba! Pribavimo sebi ime, da se ne raspršimo po svoj zemlji!" (5) Jahve se spusti da vidi grad i toranj što su ga gradili sinovi čovječji. (6) Jahve reče. "Zbilja su jedan narod, s jednim jezikom za sve! Ovo je tek početak njihovih nastojanja. Sad im ništa neće biti neostvarivo što god naume izvesti. (7) Hajde da siđemo i jezik im pobrkamo, da jedan drugome govora ne razumije." (8) Tako ih Jahve rasu odande po svoj zemlji te ne sazidaše grada. (9) Stoga mu je ime Babel, jer je ondje Jahve pobrkao govor svima u onom kraju i odande ih je Jahve raspršio po svoj zemlji.

  • Istok = Ister (lower Danube)
  • Šinear = Sumer


Istok/Ister (lower Danube) - Šinear (Sumer)

Old Europe > Sumer

The first use of the plow in the Near East also dates from the Urik period. Plows, wheels, boats and donkeys were almost certainly in use before the Uruk period in Old Europe.


Uruk period, 4100 - 3100 BC

Standardized, small, hand-made coarse ware bowl with a beveled rim that was clear quite a common piece.

Uruk pottery (ca. 4000-3100 BC) was a burnished or polished monochrome (red-slipped or grey) wares, typically utilitarian, undecorated (unlike earlier Ubaid painted pottery) and mass-produced (fast wheel-made). Jars of this period often have bulging bellies, large mouths, short necks, and occasionally tubular spouts on the shoulder. For example below we see a standardized, small, hand-made coarse ware bowl with a beveled rim that was clear quite a common piece. This was probably produced using a mould, and some experts have suggested that the standard size was associated with rationing of barley or bread.

Cuneiform script is an early form of writing that emerged in the so-called Uruk IV period (ca. 4000-3100 BC). Initially a pictographic representation, it became more abstract as the number of characters were simplified and reduced. It disappeared from use in the 2nd C, and was only deciphered in the 19th C. Cuneiform documents were written on clay tablets using a stylus made of a blunt reed to make wedge shaped symbols (cuneus is Latin for wedge). As with Egyptian hieroglyphics and Chinese ideograms cuneiform was not a language even if the Sumerians did assign word-sounds to the symbols. Later the Akkadians added their own words to the same cuneiform symbols. It probably disappeared from use because it was not an alphabetic way of writing, and could not really compete with the alphabetic systems of the Phoenicians or Greeks. The cuneiform is seen today as a tool for theocratic (priestly) rule born out of the economic necessity to keep track of the agricultural wealth of the city-states. Given the formal status of the cuneiform, they were often associated with a formal signature using a cylinder seal.

The example below dates from ca. 3000 BC and it contains the calculations of basic ingredients needed to produce cereal products, including different types of beer. It would appear the “fermented cereal juice” was very popular with the Sumerians. The reality is that the number systems and measurement units were not consistent, the quantities remained constant over decades so probably did not reflect reality, and no production processes or recipes are listed. So it is not sure that the juice could be called a beer, or that it contained any alcohol.

Dating and periodization

Periodization is after archaeological layers at Uruk. Thus, Uruk XVIII–XIV are not part of the "Uruk period" proper but are comprised by the Ubaid period. The Uruk period proper corresponds to the layers Uruk XIV–IV, with the late phase Uruk IV lasting ca. 3300–3100 BC. Uruk III reaches up to 3000 BC and into the Early Dynastic period.

Uruk expansion

Around 3600 BC, during the Middle Uruk period, Uruk trade networks started to expand to other parts of Mesopotamia, and as far as North Caucasus. According to archaeologist Konstantine Pitskhelauri, this expansion started even earlier, at the end of the 5th millennium BC, and continued in the 4th millennium.

Large masses of Uruk migrants settled in the South, and later in the North Caucasus. The sites in this general area include Habuba Kabira in Syria, and Arslantepe in Turkey. Uruk expansion to the northeast included sites like Godin Tepe in Iran. Tepe Gawra, in northwest Iraq, is another important site with deep stratigraphy that includes the Uruk period in later layers. Hamoukar is a large site in northeastern Syria that has been recently excavated; it includes Uruk and pre-Uruk layers.

Uruk enclaves have also been identified at Tell Brak and Nineveh in northern Mesopotamia, and on the Syrian Euphrates at Qrayya, and Jebel Aruda. On the Euphrates in Anatolia, Uruk enclaves were found at Hassek Hoyuk, Samsat, and Tepecik (Elazığ Province, near Keban Dam).

Early city-states

These early city-states had strong signs of government organization (though social stratification was not strongly evident until very late in this period and the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period, beginning around 3100 BC), evident even in items such as cheap, mass-produced beveled rim bowls which were made to be discarded. These bowls may have been handed out at community outings, such as large-scale constructions. The cities grew to cover up to 250 acres (1 km²) and supported up to 10,000–20,000 people by the end of the period.

End of the Uruk period

A few commentators have associated the end of the Uruk period with the climate changes linked to the Piora Oscillation, an abrupt cold and wet period in the climate history of the Holocene Epoch, another explanation given is the arrival of the East Semitic tribes represented by the Kish civilization.

  • Preceded by; Old Europe (Lower Danube)



Storage jar decorated with mountain goats (ibex) from Iran central and dated to early 4000 BC.

Chalcolithic vessels are unglazed bichrome pottery having a buff body decorated with dark paint. These early ceramics were made by hand in a variety of techniques, including coil, mold, and slab construction (the potters wheel had still not been invented). Decoration consists of geometric patterns, sometimes including motifs from nature. For example below we have storage jar decorated with mountain goats (ibex) from central Iran and dated to early 4000 BC.


Godin Tepe - Susa

Goblet and cup, Iran, Susa I style, 4th millennium BC

Susa II and Uruk influence

Susa came within the Uruk cultural sphere during the Uruk period. An imitation of the entire state apparatus of Uruk, proto-writing, cylinder seals with Sumerian motifs, and monumental architecture is found at Susa. According to some scholars, Susa may have been a colony of Uruk.

There is some dispute about the comparative periodization of Susa and Uruk at this time, as well as about the extent of Uruk influence in Susa. Recent research indicates that Early Uruk period corresponds to Susa II period.

D. T. Potts, argue that the influence from the highland Iranian Khuzestan area in Susa was more significant at the early period, and also continued later on. Thus, Susa combined the influence of two cultures, from the highland area and from the alluvial plains. Also, Potts stresses the fact that the writing and numerical systems of Uruk were not simply borrowed in Susa wholesale. Rather, only partial and selective borrowing took place, that was adapted to Susa's needs. Despite the fact that Uruk was far larger than Susa at the time, Susa was not its colony, but still maintained some independence for a long time, according to Potts. An architectural link has also been suggested between Susa, Tal-i Malyan, and Godin Tepe at this time, in support of the idea of the parallel development of the protocuneiform and protoelamite scripts.

Some scholars believe that Susa was part of the greater Uruk culture. Holly Pittman, an art historian at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia says, "they [Susanians] are participating entirely in an Uruk way of life. They are not culturally distinct; the material culture of Susa is a regional variation of that on the Mesopotamian plain". Gilbert Stein, director of the University of Chicago's Oriental Institute, says that "An expansion once thought to have lasted less than 200 years now apparently went on for 700 years. It is hard to think of any colonial system lasting that long. The spread of Uruk material is not evidence of Uruk domination; it could be local choice".

Followed by;  Proto-Elamite > Indus Valley Civilisation


Lactose tolerance in India

The T*13910 variant is also found in North Africans. Thus it probably originated earlier than 7500 ya, in the Near East, but the earliest farmers did not have high levels of lactase persistence and did not consume significant amounts of unprocessed milk.

According to Gallego Romero et al. (2011), their research on lactose tolerance in India suggests that "the west Eurasian genetic contribution identified by Reich et al. (2009) principally reflects gene flow from Iran and the Middle East." Gallego Romero notes that Indians who are lactose-tolerant show a genetic pattern regarding this tolerance which is "characteristic of the common European mutation." According to Romero, this suggests that "the most common lactose tolerance mutation made a two-way migration out of the Middle East less than 10,000 years ago. While the mutation spread across Europe, another explorer must have brought the mutation eastward to India - likely traveling along the coast of the Persian Gulf where other pockets of the same mutation have been found." In contrast, Allentoft et al. (2015) found that lactose-tolerance was absent in the Yamnaya culture, noting that while "the Yamnaya and these other Bronze Age cultures herded cattle, goats, and sheep, they couldn’t digest raw milk as adults. Lactose tolerance was still rare among Europeans and Asians at the end of the Bronze Age, just 2000 years ago."


Near East and Indus River

"The Fertile Crescent in the Near East is one of the independent origins of the Neolithic, the source from which farming and pottery-making spread across Europe from 9,000 to 6,000 years ago at an average rate of about 1 km/yr. There is also strong evidence for causal connections between the Near-Eastern Neolithic and that further east, up to the Indus Valley"

This suggests that Neolith cultures spread out west and east from the Fertile Crescent. In the east from Syria/Iraq and Iran it moved into present day Pakistan. Then from the highlands in Western Pakistan it dropped down into the Indus Valley maturing to the great Indus Valley cities like Harappa and Mohenjo Daro.

The available 14C data with the archaeological evidence for early Neolithic sites in South Asia to analyze the spatio-temporal continuity of the Neolithic dispersal from the Near East through the Middle East and to the Indian subcontinent. We reveal an approximately linear dependence between the age and the geodesic distance from the Near East, suggesting a systematic (but not necessarily uniform) spread at an average speed of about 0.65 km/yr.

Western Pakistan is hilly plateau and in geographic terms continuation of the Iranian plateau. This area of Pakistan has lots of pre Indus Valley sites most famous of the Mehrgarh which as beenb dated to about 7,000 BCE well before Harappa or Mohenjo Daro sites on the Indus floodplain. The hilly plateau is proximal to the west bank of the Indus.

Map below. Pre Indus sites on the plateau to the east of Indus are shown in red stars (these are just selection) in modern day Iran, Afghanistan and Western Pakistan. From this high ground neolithic cultures spread down east to the Indus River as shown in the arrows. Harappa and Mohenjo Daro (in diamond red) went on to become the defining cities of the Indus Valley Civilization all centred around the River Indus - which gave the civilizations it's name.

The average Neolithic dispersal speed graph.

The interaction between sites in the high plateau of Iran, Afghanistan, Western Pakistan and the verdant Indus River Basin in Pakistan has been known for some time.

"This paper presents a systematic review of the archaeological evidence for cultural interaction between the Helmand and the Indus during the 3rd millennium BCE. A series of artefacts found at Shahr-i Sokhta and nearby sites (Iranian Seistan) that were presumably imported from Baluchistan and the Indus domain are discussed, together with finds from the French excavations at Mundigak (Kandahar, Afghanistan)"

Here below is map of tge early civilization's all of which have interaction and trade. This is based on Posi et al Map. BMAC is Bractrian Margiana Archaelogical Complex. The remarkable thing is almost all are based around great rivers. Nile-Egypt, Tigris/Euphrates-Mesoptotamia, Amu Darya-BMAC, Heland River-Helmand Complex, Indus River- Harappa/IVC.

The above map is based on Tosi et al 1979. The boundaries are approximate for obvious reasons.




Jedna od najstarijih civilizacija nastala je u Mezopotamiji (grč. međurječje). Nastala je između rijeka Eufrata i Tigrisa te anatolijskih i iranskih planina na sjeveroistoku, arapske pustinje na zapadu i Perzijskog zaljeva na jugu. Mezopotamijsko područje je u razdoblju od 4000. pr. Kr. do 1000. pr. Kr. dalo značajnu civilizaciju u kojoj su se izmjenjivali razni narodi: Sumerani, Akađani, Amorejci... Zajednička karakteristika naroda Mezopotamije je uporaba "najstarijeg" klinastog pisma kojeg su oni i izmislili. Sumerani su prvi tvorci ove visoko razvijene kulture.




  • Ubaid: 5300 - 4100 p.n.e. (Keramika neolitika do bakrenog doba)
  • Uruk razdoblje: 4100 - 2900 p.n.e.
    • Uruk XIV-V: 4100 - 3300 p.n.e.
    • Uruk IV razdoblje: 3300 - 3100 p.n.e.
    • Jemdet Nasr razdoblje (Uruk III): 3.100-2.900 p.n.e.
  • Rano dinastičko razdoblje
    • Rano dinastičkio razdoblje I: 2900-2800 p.n.e.
    • Rano dinastičkio razdoblje II: 2800-2600 p.n.e. (Gilgameš)
    • Rano dinastičkio razdoblje IIIa: 2600-2500 p.n.e.
    • Rano dinastičkio razdoblje IIIb: c. 2500-2334 p.n.e.
  • Akadsko Carstvo: c. 2334-2218 p.n.e. (Sargon)
  • Gutian razdoblje: c. 2218-2047 p.n.e.
  • Ur razdoblje III: c. 2047-1940 p.n.e.

Sumer was the southernmost region of ancient Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq and Kuwait) which is generally considered the cradle of civilization. The name comes from Akkadian, the language of the north of Mesopotamia, and means “land of the civilized kings”. The Sumerians called themselves “the black headed people” and their land, in cuneiform script, was simply “the land” or “the land of the black headed people”. In the biblical Book of Genesis Sumer is known as Shinar. According to the Sumerian King List, when the gods first gave human beings the gifts necessary for cultivating society, they did so by establishing the city of Eridu in the region of Sumer. While the Sumerian city of Uruk is held to be the oldest city in the world, the ancient Mesopotamians believed that it was Eridu and that it was here that order was established and civilization began.


The Ubaid Period

The region of Sumer was long thought to have been first inhabited around 4500 BCE. This date has been contested in recent years, however, and it now thought that human activity in the area began much earlier. The first settlers were not Sumerians but a people of unknown origin whom archaeologists have termed the Ubaid people (from the excavated mound of al-Ubaid where the artifacts were uncovered which first attested to their existence) or the Proto-Euphrateans (which designates them as earlier inhabitants of the region of the Euphrates River).

Whoever these people were, they had already moved from a hunter-gatherer society to an agrarian one prior to 5000 BCE. Excavations from al-Ubaid and other sites throughout southern Iraq have uncovered stone tools from the Ubaid people such as hoes, knives, and adzes and clay artifacts which included sickles, bricks, painted pottery, and figurines. These people were the first agents of civilization in the region. At what point the people who came to be known as Sumerians entered the area is not known.

The Sumerian King List

Mesopotamians generally, and the Sumerians specifically, believed that civilization was the result of the gods’ triumph of order over chaos.

According to the Sumerian scholar Samuel Noah Kramer, “The first ruler of Sumer, whose deeds are recorded, if only in the briefest kind of statement, is a king by the name of Etana of Kish, who may have come to the throne quite early in the third millennium B.C. In the King List he is described as `he who stabilized all the lands’.” The Sumerian King List is a cuneiform document, written by a scribe of the city of Lagash, sometime around 2100 BCE which lists all of the kings of the region, and their accomplishments, in an attempt to show continuity of order in society dating back to the beginning of civilization.

As the Mesopotamians generally, and the Sumerians specifically, believed that civilization was the result of the gods’ triumph of order over chaos, the King List is thought to have been created to legitimize the reign of a king named Utu-Hegal of Uruk (who ruled c. 2100 BCE) by showing him as the most recent in a long line of rulers of the region. Etana is famous from the myth of the man who ascends to heaven on the back of an eagle and, like other kings mentioned in the list (Dumuzi and Gilgamesh among them) was known for superhuman feats and heroism. Utu-Hegal, it is thought, was trying to link himself to such earlier hero-kings through the creation of the King List. Since the Mesopotamians believed that the gods had set everything in motion, and that human beings were created as co-laborers with the gods to maintain order and hold back chaos, the early writers of history in the region concentrated more on the links between the rulers and their gods. Writing down the history of human accomplishments seems to have been considered a matter of little importance for these writers and, as a result, the early history of Sumer has been deduced from the archaeological and geological record more than a written tradition and much information is still unavailable to modern scholars.

Ruins of Ur

The Rise of Cities

Whenever the Sumerian civilization was first established in the region, by 3600 BCE they had invented the wheel, writing, the sail boat, agricultural processes such as irrigation, and the concept of the city (though China and India also lay claim to `the first cities’ in the world). It is generally accepted that the first cities in the world rose in Sumer and, among the most important, were Eridu, Uruk, Ur, Larsa, Isin, Adab, Kullah, Lagash, Nippur, and Kish. The city of Uruk is held to be the first true city in the world. It has been noted, again by Kramer, that these names are not Sumerian but come from the Ubaid people and so were founded, at least as villages, much earlier than c. 5000 BCE. Other cities in Sumer were Sippar, Shuruppak, Bad-tibira, Girsu, Umma, Urukag, Nina, and Kissura. All were of varying size and scope with Uruk the largest and most powerful at its prime.

With the establishment of the cities of Sumer, their history unfolds from approximately 5000 BCE to 1750 BCE when “the Sumerians ceased to exist as a people” (Kramer) after Sumer was invaded by the Elamites and Amorites. After the Ubaid Period (c. 5000-4100 BCE) came the Uruk Period (4100-2900 BCE) in which cities began to emerge across the landscape and the city of Uruk rose in prominence. Though the period is named for the `first city’ of Uruk, Eridu was considered the first city by the Sumerians themselves, as previously noted. Trade was firmly established with foreign lands at this time and writing evolved from pictograms to cuneiform script. It is thought that trade was the main motivator in the development of writing as there now had to be some means for accurate, long-distance, communication between the merchants of Sumer and their agents abroad. The kingship also arose at this time and the city-states of Sumer came to be ruled by a single monarch who was assisted by a council of elders (which included both men and women). The kings following Etana were Semites, not Sumerians, as attested to by their names such as Enmebaraggesi of Kish. It is not until after the rule of eight kings passed that Sumerian names begin to appear in the King List.

Map of Sumer and Elam

The Akkadian Empire in Sumer

The Early Dynastic Period (2900-2334 BCE) saw the subtle shift from a priest-king (known as an ensi) to a more modern-day concept of `king’ known as a Lugal (`big man’). The city-states of Sumer during this time fought for control of arable land and water rights until the rise of the First Dynasty of Lagash in 2500 BCE. Under their king Eannutum, Lagash became the centre of a small empire which included most of Sumer and parts of neighboring Elam. This empire was still extant under the king Lugal-Zage when a young man, who later claimed to have been the king’s gardener, seized the throne. This was Sargon of Akkad who would go on to found the Akkadian Empire (2334-2154 BCE), the first multi-national empire in the world and, it is thought, based on the model set by Eannutum. The Akkadian Empire ruled over the majority of Mesopotamia, including Sumer, until a people known as the Gutians invaded from the north (the area of modern-day Iran) and destroyed the major cities. The Gutian Period (c. 2154-2047 BCE) is considered a dark age in Sumerian history (and Mesopotamian history overall) and the Gutians were universally reviled by Sumerian writers in later histories, most of which consider them a punishment sent by the gods.

The Sumerian Renaissance

The last period in Sumerian history is known as The Ur III Period (2047-1940 BCE) so named for the Third Dynasty of the city of Ur. This period is also known as The Sumerian Renaissance due to the remarkable advances in culture – touching upon virtually every single aspect of civilized human life – which were made. The kings of Ur, Ur-Nammu and Shulgi, set cultural advancement as the goal of their administrations and maintained a peace which allowed for art and technology to flourish. Whether invented before or during the Ur III Period, the tools, concepts, and technological innovations in place during the Third Dynasty of Ur solidified the Sumerian’s place in history as the creators of civilization as we know it. In Samuel Noah Kramer’s book History Begins at Sumer he lists 39 “firsts’ in history from the region among which are the first schools, the first proverbs and sayings, the first messiahs, the first Noah and the Flood stories, the first love song, the first aquarium, the first legal precedents in court cases, the first tale of a dying and resurrected god, the first funeral chants, first biblical parallels, and first moral ideas. The Sumerians also essentially invented time in that their sexigesimal system of counting (a system based on the number 60) created the 60-second minute and the 60-minute hour. They also divided the night and day into periods of 12 hours, set a limit on a `work day’ with a time for beginning and ending, and established the concept of `days off’ for holidays. The historian Bertman writes, “The hand of Mesopotamia still determines the hourly length of the traditional workday and even the length of our electronic entertainment (half-hour or hour TV shows) when our workday has stopped” (334). Bertman further notes that the modern day practice of checking one’s horoscope comes from ancient Sumer and that the astrological signs one is born under were first noted and named by the ancient Mesopotamians.

A Sumerian Wall Plaque Showing Libation Scenes

Ur-Nammu wrote the first legal code in Sumer which became the precedent for the much later, and better known, Code of Hammurabi of Babylon. The historian Paul Kriwaczek writes, “Ur-Nammu’s universal legal pronouncements present a good example of the unifying drive of Ur’s kings: the compulsion to regulate every aspect of life” (149). Sumer, under the unifying force of the Third Dynasty of Ur, became a Patrimonial State (“meaning one constructed on the pattern of the patriarchal family ruled by a father figure”, as Kriwaczek notes) in which the monarch served as the father figure who guided his children along a proper path toward prosperity. Ur-Nammu’s son, Shulgi, is considered the greatest of the Neo-Sumerian kings who continued his father’s policies but went further. In an effort to both impress his people, and distinguish himself from his father, Shulgi ran 100 miles (160.9 kilometres) between the religious centre of Nippur and the capital city of Ur and back again – in one day – in order to officiate at the festivals in both cities. Though some have considered the hymn which recounts his achievement as a kingly boast and highly exaggerated, scholars have determined that he could, in fact, have made his famous run and, further, that it was in keeping with the spirit of Shulgi’s rule. Creating a sense of awe and admiration in their subjects seems to have been central to the governing power of the kings of Ur at this time.

Sumer's Decline & Legacy

Under Shulgi’s reign, a wall was constructed 155 miles long (250 kilometres) to keep out the Semitic-speaking tribes known as the Martu or Tidnum but better known by their biblical name of Amorites. Shulgi’s son, grandson, and great-grandson all renovated and strengthened the wall to keep those they called `the barbarians’ out of Sumer proper but the barrier proved ineffective. The wall could not be properly manned or maintained and, further, was not anchored to any solid barrier at the end points and so invaders could simply follow the wall on the one side to either end point and then walk around it. The forces of neighboring Elam breached the wall and marched on Ur, sacking it and carrying away the king.

Following the Ur III Period and the fall of Ur, many Sumerians migrated north. Sumerian was no longer spoken as a language (though it was still written), having been largely replaced by the Semitic Akkadian, and the Sumerian culture was ended. Their legacy, however, continues in many aspects of civilization which those in the modern day take for granted as always existing. Even so, something as basic as the twenty-four hour day was invented, once upon a time, in Sumer.




Zapanjujuća činjenica o Sumeranima je da su znali da godina ima 365 dana, 6 sati i 11 minuta, što se od današnjih proračuna razlikuje samo tri minute! Podijelili su dan na 86400 sekundi, dakle, 24 sata od 60 minuta sa po 60 sekundi. Pisali su tvrdim pisaljkama na glinenim pločicama pa je njihovo pismo nazvano klinasto pismo.

Pretpostavlja se da su Sumerani napisali prvi knjige na svijetu, da su znali za statički elektricitet i električnu energiju. Imali su znanje iz područja optike, a moguće je da su znali i za mikroskop. Njihovo znanje iz astronomije bilo je ne odlično, nego izvanredno. Znali su za Uran i Neptun, mada se Uran samo ponekad može vidjeti golim okom, dok se Neptun ne može vidjeti. Sumerani su znali da se sve planete i njihovi sateliti istog datuma i u istoj točki svakih 2268 miliona dana tj. svakih 6300 godina od 360 dana nalaze u istoj ravnini na nebu. Ali naravno to nije sve od njihovog astronomskog znanja. Kao što smo već rekli njihovo astronomsko znanje je ogromno, pa je logično da ono nije ograničilo samo na naš planetarni sustav. Oni su poznavali i zagonetno zviježđe Sirijus B koje je otkriveno tek 1862. godine i to teleskopom s promjerom od 40 cm. I opet, po stoti put se moramo pitati kako su oni mogli vidjeti nešto što smo mi tek uspjeli vidjeti prije gotovo 150 godina?

Prema zapisima koje su nam ostavili Sumerani, Anunnaki su došli na Zemlju radi vađenja ruda. Vladar Anunnakija zvao se Anu i imao je sina Enkija koji je bio glavni znanstvenik. Shvatio je da je to pretežak posao za njegove ljude pa je dao svome sinu zadatak. Enki je od svog oca dobio zadatak da stvori novo biće, roba radnika. Biće je moralo biti dovoljno napredno da obavlja složene poslove. Nakon mnogo neuspjeha, Enki je uspio. Stvorio je Homo sapiensa.

Vođe Anunnakija bili su zadovoljni te su ih stavili da rade u rudnicima. No Enki je želio više. Želio je stvoriti biće po svom ugledu, slično ne samo fizički nego i mentalno, intelektualno, emotivno i duhovno. Ostali Anunnakiji bili su ljuti i pokušali su uništiti Enkijevu kreaciju.


The Sumerian Sciences

Writing (Cuneiform) - The Sumerian writing known as cuneiform is often (mistakenly) cited as the oldest writing in the world. It was achieved by pressing a 'stylus' made of reed or wood into soft clay tablets. The first signs were pictographic, later improved upon by the Babylonians, who created a syllabic script.

A strong link has been shown to exist between the scripts of the 'Old Europe' Vinca culture and the Sumerians. It was long assumed that the Sumerians were the originators of writing, but recent archaeology has shown that the Vinca existed c. 6,000 - 3,500 BC, with evidence of the Vinca 'proto' script from as early as 5,500 BC. This evidence clearly suggests that the Vinca were the originators of script, and not the Sumerians, to whom they apparently passed it on during their mass migration following the collapse of their 2,000 year old civilisation.

Associated with writing is the development of cylinder-seals, which were also a Sumerian invention.
The first written documents, from around 3,500 BC, are receipts and lists of items.

Amongst the thousands of cuneiform clay tablets discovered, there are three major Sumerian texts left to us; The Epic of Creation (Enuma Elish), The Epic of the Flood and The Epic of Gilgamesh.

The discovery of both Sumerian and Indus valley seals demonstrates a level of communication between the two great cultures. Both of which disappeared overnight at around the same time.

The earliest known epic poetry is that of the Sumerians. Its origin has been traced to a preliterate heroic age, not later than 3000 bce, when the Sumerians had to fight, under the direction of a warlike aristocracy, for possession of this fertile Mesopotamian land. Among the extant literature of this highly gifted people are fragments of narrative poems recounting the heroic deeds of their early kings: Enmerkar, Lugalbanda, and Gilgamesh. By far the most important in the development of Mesopotamian literature are the five poems of the Epic of Gilgamesh. This cycle tells the odyssey of a king, Gilgamesh, part human and part divine, who seeks immortality. A god who dislikes his rule, fashions a wild man, Enkidu, to challenge him. Enkidu first lives among wild animals, then goes to the capital and engages in a trial of strength with Gilgamesh, who emerges victorious. The two, now friends, set out on various adventures, in one of which they kill a wild bull that the goddess of love had sent to destroy Gilgamesh because he spurned her marriage proposal. Enkidu dreams the gods have decided he must die for the death of the bull, and, upon awakening, he does fall ill and die. Gilgamesh searches for a survivor of the Babylonian flood to learn how to escape death. The survivor shows him where to find a plant that renews youth, but after Gilgamesh gets the plant it is snatched away by a serpent. Gilgamesh returns, saddened, to his capital.



Cuneiform is a system of writing first developed by the ancient Sumerians of Mesopotamia c. 3500-3000 BCE. It is considered the most significant among the many cultural contributions of the Sumerians and the greatest among those of the Sumerian city of Uruk which advanced the writing of cuneiform c. 3200 BCE. The name comes from the Latin word cuneus for 'wedge' owing to the wedge-shaped style of writing. In cuneiform, a carefully cut writing implement known as a stylus is pressed into soft clay to produce wedge-like impressions that represent word-signs (pictographs) and, later, phonograms or `word-concepts' (closer to a modern day understanding of a `word'). All of the great Mesopotamian civilizations used cuneiform (the Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Elamites, Hatti, Hittites, Assyrians, Hurrians and others) until it was abandoned in favour of the alphabetic script at some point after 100 BCE.

Early Cuneiform

The earliest cuneiform tablets, known as proto-cuneiform, were pictorial, as the subjects they addressed were more concrete and visible (a king, a battle, a flood) but developed in complexity as the subject matter became more intangible (the will of the gods, the quest for immortality). By 3000 BCE the representations were more simplified and the strokes of the stylus conveyed word-concepts (honour) rather than word-signs (an honourable man). The written language was further refined through the rebus which isolated the phonetic value of a certain sign so as to express grammatical relationships and syntax to determine meaning. In clarifying this, the scholar Ira Spar writes:

This new way of interpreting signs is called the rebus principle. Only a few examples of its use exist in the earliest stages of cuneiform from between 3200 and 3000 B.C. The consistent use of this type of phonetic writing only becomes apparent after 2600 B.C. It constitutes the beginning of a true writing system characterized by a complex combination of word-signs and phonograms—signs for vowels and syllables—that allowed the scribe to express ideas. By the middle of the Third Millennium B.C., cuneiform primarily written on clay tablets was used for a vast array of economic, religious, political, literary, and scholarly documents.

The great literary works of Mesopotamia such as the famous Epic of Gilgamesh were all written in cuneiform.

Golden Earrings From King Shulgi

Cuneiform Literature

The great literary works of Mesopotamia such as the Atrahasis, The Descent of Inanna, The Myth of Etana, The Enuma Elish and the famous Epic of Gilgamesh were all written in cuneiform and were completely unknown until the mid 19th century CE, when men like the brilliant translator George Smith (1840-1876 CE) and Henry Rawlinson (1810-1895 CE) deciphered the language and translated it into English. Rawlinson's translations of Mesopotamian texts were first presented to the Royal Asiatic Society of London in 1837 CE and again in 1839 CE. In 1846 CE he worked with the archaeologist Austin Henry Layard in his excavation of Nineveh and was responsible for the earliest translations from the library of Ashurbanipal discovered at that site. George Smith was responsible for deciphering The Epic of Gilgamesh and in 1872 CE, famously, the Mesopotamian version of the Flood Story, which until then was thought to be original to the biblical Book of Genesis.

Along with other Assyriologists (among them, T. G. Pinches and Edwin Norris), Rawlinson spearheaded the development of Mesopotamian language studies, and his Cuneiform Inscriptions of Ancient Babylon and Assyria, along with his other works, became the standard reference on the subject following their publication in the 1860's CE and remain respected scholarly works into the modern day. George Smith, regarded as an intellect of the first rank, died on a field expedition to Nineveh in 1876 CE at the age of 36. Smith, a self-taught translator of cuneiform, made his first contributions to deciphering the ancient writing in his early twenties, and his death at such a young age has long been regarded a significant loss to the advancement in translations of cuneiform in the 19th century CE.



The Sumerians are amongst the first people to leave sophisticated records of their astronomical observations. Their fascination with the heavens is apparent in the large number of seals and cuneiform tablets unearthed of an astronomical nature.

The Sumerians were the first to divide both space and time by units of six.

The modern division of the year into 12 months, the 24 hours of each day, the division of hours into 60 minutes and 60 seconds, and the divisions of the circle/sphere by 360 degrees, each composed of 60 minutes and 60 seconds of an arc, are all Sumerian developments. This same division by units of six has been observed at several of prominent British megaliths.

Aubrey Burl said of it:

'From Brodgar, where there was once 60 stones, to the Stripple stones with a probable thirty, the builders may have counted in multiples of six. Stennes had twelve. The inner and outer rings at Balfarg have been computed at twenty-four and twelve respectively. Twenty-four has been suggested for Cairnpappel, thirty-six for Arbor Low, and the same number for the devils quoits'.

The Sumerians were also aware of the importance of Pleiades, showing it in several seals and images.

In addition to being thought of as the seven great gods gathered together, the morning setting of Pleiades was used to mark the beginning and end of the agricultural year.

The Sumerians called the twelve major zodiacal constellations the 'Shiny Herd'.

Sumerian Translation Modern name
PA.BIL (Archer)
Heavenly Bull
Pincers, Tongs
Her father was Sin
Heavenly Fate
Which claws and cuts
Lord of the waters
Field dweller

Possible 'Cardinal' animals. From Susa. c. 3,000 B.C.

This cylinder seal (VA/243 -State Museum, East Berlin), shows a 'star' with several (eleven) planets surrounding it. However, as there are no known records of the Sumerians having knowledge of any more than five planets in our solar-system the jury's out over what it represents.


Beer Brewing

Article: The Independent. 22nd March 1997.

Chemical analysis has identified a 6,000-year-old brewery at an archaeological site in what is now modern Iran. The evidence, which was published recently in the scientific journal Nature, suggests that fermentation of barley was first practised in Sumer - southern Babylonia - between 4000 and 3000 BC. The Sumerian civilisation occupied the flood plain between the lower Tigris and Euphrates rivers, land that is today mainly shared by Syria and Iraq. One of the oldest literate civilisations, the Sumerians had a sophisticated system of agriculture, in which irrigation was used to grow cereal crops, including barley.

Towards the end of last year, archaeologists found a jar from the late fourth millennium BC at Goden Tepe (just inside the border of Iran). It has grooves containing traces of calcium oxalate, the main component of 'beerstone', a substance that settles on the surfaces of storage tanks of fermented drinks brewed from barley. The only other foodstuffs to contain an appreciable amount of oxalates are spinach and rhubarb, neither of which plays a key part in the human diet.

The archaeologists working on this ancient artefact, Rudolph Michel and Patrick McGovern of the University of Pennsylvania, and Virginia Badler of the University of Toronto, have concluded that it was used as a vessel for a fermented barley drink. If this is indeed the case, then they have stumbled across the earliest record of such brewing in history.


Angels & Gigantes

Sinovi Božji i kćeri ljudske

Kad su se ljudi počeli širiti po zemlji i kćeri im se narodile, opaze sinovi Božji da su kćeri ljudske pristale, pa ih uzimahu sebi za žene koje su god htjeli.

  • Sinovi Božji - Bene na Elohim (izravno stvaranje, termin za anđele), Septuagint - Anđeli Božji
  • Kćeri ljudske - Benoth Adam (kćeri Adamve)

Onda Jahve reče: "Neće moj duh u čovjeku ostati dovijeka; čovjek je tjelesan, pa neka mu vijek bude stotinu dvadeset godina."
U ona su vremena - a i kasnije - na zemlji bili Nefili, kad su Božji sinovi općili s ljudskim kćerima pa im one rađale djecu. To su oni od starine po snazi glasoviti ljudi.

  • Nephilim dolazi od glagola Nephal, što znači pasti, biti odbačen, odcijepljen... Također nazvani i HaGibborim - oni močni/silni/ogromni.
  • Gigantes (Septuagint) - Gigas, rođeni na zemlji


Ali je jak narod koji u onoj zemlji živi, gradovi su utvrđeni i vrlo veliki. A vidjesmo ondje i potomke Anakove.

"Zemlja kroz koju smo prošli da je izvidimo zemlja je što proždire svoje stanovništvo. Sav narod što ga u njoj vidjesmo ljudi su krupna stasa.
Vidjesmo ondje i divove - Anakovo potomstvo od divova. Činilo nam se da smo prema njima kao skakavci. Takvi bijasmo i njima."

The Egyptian Execration texts of the Middle Kingdom (2055-1650 BC) mention a list of political enemies in Canaan, and among this list are a group called the "ly Anaq" or people of Anaq. The three rulers of ly Anaq were Erum, Abiyamimu, and Akirum.


"A o onom danu i času nitko ne zna, pa ni anđeli nebeski, ni Sin, nego samo Otac.
Kao u dane Noine, tako će biti i Dolazak Sina Čovječjega.
Kao što su u dane one - prije potopa - jeli i pili, ženili se i udavali do dana kad Noa uđe u korablju
i ništa nisu ni slutili dok ne dođe potop i sve odnije - tako će biti i Dolazak Sina Čovječjega.

2. Petrova

Doista, ako Bog anđela koji sagriješiše nije poštedio nego ih je sunovratio u Tartar i predao mračnom bezdanu da budu čuvani za sud;
ako staroga svijeta ne poštedje, nego sačuva - osmoga - Nou, glasnika pravednosti, sručivši potop na svijet bezbožni;


Želim vas podsjetiti, premda jednom zauvijek sve znate, kako je Gospodin izbavio narod iz Egipta, a zatim uništio nevjerne.
I anđele, koji nisu čuvali svojeg dostojanstva nego su ostavili svoje prebivalište, sačuvao je za sud velikoga Dana, okovane u mraku vječnim okovima;

1. Korinćanima

Zato žena treba da ima "vlast" na glavi poradi anđela.



Anakovo potomstvo

The Anunnaki: The Seven Great Gods

An - Enlil - Enki - Ninhursag - Nanna - Utu - Inanna

In the earliest texts, the term Anunnaki is applied to the most powerful and important deities in the Sumerian pantheon: the descendants of the sky-god An. This group of deities included the "seven gods who decree": An, Enlil, Enki, Ninhursag, Nanna, Utu, and Inanna.

The major deities of the Mesopotamian pantheon, which included the Anunnaki, were believed to participate in the "assembly of the gods", through which the gods made all of their decisions. This assembly was seen as a divine counterpart to the semi-democratic legislative system that existed during the Third Dynasty of Ur (c. 2112 BC - c. 2004 BC).

Bog ustaje u skupštini "bogova", usred "bogova" sud održava. (2) "Dokle ćete sudit' krivo, ić' na ruku bezbožnima? (3) Štitite slaba i sirotu, vratite pravicu jadniku i siromahu! (4) Izbavite potlačenog i ubogog: istrgnite ga iz ruku bezbožnih!" (5) Ne shvaćaju nit' razumiju, po mraku hodaju: poljuljani su svi temelji zemlje. (6) Rekoh doduše: "Vi ste bogovi i svi ste sinovi Višnjega! (7) Ali ćete k'o svi ljudi umrijeti, past ćete kao svatko od velikih!" (8) Ustani, Bože, i sudi zemlju, jer si s pravom gospodar svih naroda. - Psalam 82
  • Enoch - Anakovo potomstvo


Enki - Enlil

Enki - Enlil

  • Enki = Silvan (Danube) Y-DNA I2a
  • Enlil = Boreas (Hyperborea) Lake Baikal Y-DNA R-V88


Enki - Shiva

Enki - Shiva

Enki (/ˈɛŋki/; Sumerian: dEN.KI(G)𒂗𒆠) is the Sumerian god of water, knowledge (gestú), mischief, crafts (gašam), and creation (nudimmud), and one of the Anunnaki.


The epithet Gangadhara, "Bearer of the river Ganga" (Ganges). The Ganga flows from the matted hair of Shiva. The Gaṅgā (Ganga), one of the major rivers of the country, is said to have made her abode in Shiva's hair.


Alfa & Omega

Ja sam Alfa i Omega, Početak i Svršetak

Ninhursag Enki

Egipatski hijeroglif
volovske glave
volovska glava
Feničko alef Grčko alfa

Alfa i omega, izraz načinjen od imena prvoga i posljednjega slova u grčkom alfabetu (A, alfa, Ω, omega) a znači: »početak i svršetak«, »sve«. Preuzet je iz Biblije.



Nintu with their early failures to fashion proper workers

Ninhursag, also known as Damgalnuna or Ninmah, was the ancient Sumerian mother goddess of the mountains, and one of the seven great deities of Sumer. She is principally a fertility goddess. Temple hymn sources identify her as the "true and great lady of heaven" (possibly in relation to her standing on the mountain) and kings of Sumer were "nourished by Ninhursag's milk". Sometimes her hair is depicted in an omega shape and at times she wears a horned head-dress and tiered skirt, often with bow cases at her shoulders. Frequently she carries a mace or baton surmounted by an omega motif or a derivation, sometimes accompanied by a lion cub on a leash. She is the tutelary deity to several Sumerian leaders.

Possibly included among the original mother goddesses was Damgalnuna (great wife of the prince) or Damkina (true wife), the consort of the god Enki. The mother goddess had many epithets including shassuru or 'womb goddess', tabsut ili 'midwife of the gods', 'mother of all children' and 'mother of the gods'. In this role she is identified with Ki in the Enuma Elish. She had shrines in both Eridu and Kish.

Ninmah ("Great Queen"); Nintu ("Lady of Birth"); Mamma or Mami (mother).



Mami is a goddess in the Babylonian epic Atra-Hasis and in other creation legends. She was probably synonymous with Ninhursag. She was involved in the creation of humankind from clay and blood. As Nintu legends states she pinched off fourteen pieces of primordial clay which she formed into womb deities, seven on the left and seven on the right with a brick between them, who produced the first seven pairs of human embryos. She may have become Belet Ili ("Mistress of the Gods") when, at Enki's suggestion, the gods slew one among themselves and used that god's blood and flesh, mixed with clay, to create humankind. Also known as Belet-ili, or Nintu. Alternative forms of her name include Mama and Mammitum.

  • Ninhursag = Mama


Ninhursag symbol - Omega Ω


Her symbol, resembling the Greek letter omega Ω, has been depicted in art from approximately 3000 BC, although more generally from the early second millennium BC. It appears on some boundary stones-on the upper tier, indicating her importance. The omega symbol is associated with the Egyptian cow goddess Hathor, and may represent a stylized womb. The symbol appears on very early imagery from Ancient Egypt. Hathor is at times depicted on a mountain, so it may be that the two goddesses are connected.


Hermes lyre

Nikola Tesla's idea of a flag Illyria should have.

Hermes lyre - Orpheus


Influence on Egypt

In Sumer 'the crucial transition from village to city took place inthe Early and Middle Uruk periods which, according to radio carbondating, probably lasted between 700 and 1,000 years (about 4300-3450 BC).'

The ancient site of Uruk was occupied for 5,000 years from early in the Ubaid period until the 3rd century AD. In the fourth millennium BC Uruk was the most important city in Mesopotamia and included two major religious centers: Kullaba, where there was a temple of An, the god of the sky, and Eanna, where the Goddess Inanna (later known as Ishtar) was worshipped.

The earliest known examples of writing are found on clay tablets from Uruk dating to about 3300 BC. Already it was a complete system with more than 700 different signs. The first tablets recorded the transfer of commodities such as grain, beer and livestock or were lists used by scribes learning how to write."

The influence of Uruk even reached as far west as Egypt in the Naqada II (or Gerzean) period contemporary with the Late Uruk and Jemdet Nasr periods [about 3100-2900 BC]. Lugged and spouted jars were characteristic of Late Uruk pottery. Cylinder seals also first appeared in Egypt at that time. Some were imports from the east, but others had been made locally and used Mesopotamian or Iranian motifs. Late Pre-dynastic (before about 2920 BC) art from Egypt also showed some influence from Mesopotamia. In particular, carved ivory knife handles and slate palettes contained Mesopotamian motifs, even though the objects themselves were typically Egyptian.

- Michael Roaf  Cultural Atlas of Mesopotamia


Ninhursag - Hathor

Ninhursag & Hathor symbol (Omega Ω)



Hathor is an ancient Egyptian goddess associated, later, with Isis and, earlier, with Sekhmet but eventually was considered the primeval goddess from whom all others were derived. She is usually depicted as a woman with the head of a cow, ears of a cow, or simply in cow form. In her form as Hesat she is shown as a pure white cow carrying a tray of food on her head as her udders flow with milk. She is closely associated with the primeval divine cow Mehet-Weret, a sky goddess whose name means "Great Flood" and who was thought to bring the inundation of the Nile River which fertilized the land.


Through this association, Hathor came to be regarded as the mother of the sun god Ra and held a prominent place in his barge as it sailed across the night sky, into the underworld, and rose again at dawn. Her name means "Domain of Horus" or "Temple of Horus" which alludes to two concepts. The first allusion is to the part of the sky where the king (or dead king) could be rejuvenated and continue rule (or live again) while the second is to the myth that Horus, as sun god, entered her mouth each night to rest and returned with the dawn. In both cases, her name has to do with re-birth, rejuvenation, inspiration, and light. Her relationship with the sky identified her with Venus, the evening and morning star.


The sistrum is her instrument which she used to drive evil from the land and inspire goodness. She is the patron goddess of joy, celebration, and love and was associated with Aphrodite by the Greeks and with Venus by the Romans. She was always, from the earliest times, associated with women and women's health in body and in mind. In time, women came to identify with Hathor in the afterlife the same way that, previously, all people identified with the god Osiris. She was an immensely popular and influential goddess. Scholar Geraldine Pinch comments on this, writing:

Hathor was the golden goddess who helped women to give birth, the dead to be reborn, and the cosmos to be renewed. This complex deity could function as the mother, consort, and daughter of the creator god. Many lesser goddesses came to be regarded as "names" of Hathor in her contrasting benevolent and destructive aspects. She was most commonly shown as a beautiful woman wearing a red solar disk between a pair of cow's horns (137).

The red solar disk, as well as a number of Hathor's personal attributes, would come to be associated with the later goddess Isis. In time, Isis absorbed more and more of the characteristics of Hathor until she supplanted her as the most popular and widely worshipped in Egypt.

Mythical origins

Although in time she came to be considered the ultimate personification of kindness and love, she was initially literally a blood-thirsty deity unleashed on mankind to punish humans for their sins. An ancient tale similar to that of the biblical flood tells of the great god Ra becoming enraged at human ingratitude and evil and releasing Sekhmet upon humanity to destroy them. Sekhmet descends on the world in a fury of destruction, killing everyone she finds and toppling their cities, crushing their homes and tearing up fields and gardens. At first, Ra is pleased because humanity had forgotten him and the gifts of the gods and had turned to only thinking of themselves and following after their own pleasure. He watches Sekhmet's swath of destruction with satisfaction until the other gods intervene and ask him to show mercy. They point out that Sekhmet is going too far in teaching this "lesson" to humanity and how, soon, there will be no human beings left on earth to benefit from it.

Hathor & Nefertari

Ra regrets his decision and devises a plan to stop Sekhmet's blood lust. He orders Tenenet, the Egyptian goddess of beer, to brew a particularly strong batch and then has the beer dyed red and delivered to Dendera. Sekhmet, by this time, is crazed with the thirst for more blood and, when she comes upon the blood-red beer, she quickly seizes it and begins drinking.

She becomes drunk, falls asleep, and wakes up as Hathor the benevolent. Humanity was spared destruction and their former tormentor became their greatest benefactress. Following her transformation, Hathor bestowed only beautiful and uplifting gifts on the children of the earth and assumed such high status that all the later goddesses of Egypt can be considered forms of Hathor. She was the primordial Mother Goddess, ruler of the sky, the sun, the moon, agriculture, fertility, the east, the west, moisture and childbirth. Further, she was associated with joy, music, love, motherhood, dance, drunkeness and, above all, gratitude.


Worship of Hathor

Unlike other deities of ancient Egypt, whose clergy needed to be of the same sex as the deity they served, those who served Hathor could be men or women. Hathor's cult center was at Dendera, Egypt, but she was widely regarded and worshipped throughout Egypt to the extent that she was also honored as a goddess of the afterlife in the Field of Reeds (the Egyptian land of the dead). Originally, when one died in ancient Egypt, whether male or female, one assumed the likeness of Osiris (lord and judge of the dead) and was blessed by his qualities of moral integrity. So popular was Hathor, however, that, in time, the female dead who were deemed worthy to cross into the Field of Reeds assumed Hathor's likeness and qualities while the male dead continued to be associated with Osiris. Geraldine Pinch writes:

The Coffin Texts and the Book of the Dead have spells to help the deceased live forever as a follower of Hathor. In a Late Period story, Hathor rules the underworld, emerging to punish those who behave unjustly on earth. By the Greco-Roman period, dead women in the afterlife identified themselves with Hathor instead of Osiris. It was only after Isis took over many of her attributes that Hathor lost her place as the most important of Egyptian goddesses (139).


Hathor's popularity is attested to by the number of minor goddesses who shared her attributes and were considered aspects of the Mother Goddess. The most important of these were the Seven Hathors who were present at the birth of a human being and decreed their fate. Hathor was, in early times, worshipped in the form of a cow or as a cow with stars above her. Later she was pictured as a woman with the head of a cow and, later still, as a woman complete with a human face but sometimes with the ears or horns of a cow. The Seven Hathors shared these attributes but also had a red ribbon which they used to bind evil forces and dark demons. The Seven Hathors were venerated highly in life for their ability to assist in matters of love and protection from harm and, after death, for their protective abilities against the forces of darkness.


As a goddess who transcended life and death, Hathor was widely worshipped and came to be idenified with a deity inscriptions call The Distant Goddess. This is a goddess who abandons her father Ra and assumes the form of a wild feline to elude any attempts to find her or catch her. She vanishes into the distant desert and hides in the arid plains. This goddess was identified with Mehit, a protective goddess, with Sekhmet, Bastet, Mut, and others but quite often with Hathor. A god is sent forth by Ra to find his daughter and bring her home and, when this happens, she brings with her the inundation of the Nile River which overflowed its banks and brought life to the people. Before she released the life-giving waters, however, she had to be placated and shown appreciation. Geraldine Pinch writes:

When the Distant Goddess returned, she brought the inundation with her, but she had to be pacified with music, dancing, feasting, and drunkenness. This was the mythical justification for the wild, ecstatic elements in Hathor's cult. It was proper for the whole of creation to rejoice when Hathor appeared again in all her radiant beauty and joined forces with her father (138).

She took the form of a woman, goose, cat, lion, malachite, sycamore fig, to name but a few. However, Hathor's most famous manifestation is as a cow and even when she appears as a woman she has either the ears of a cow, or a pair of elegant horns. When she is depicted as entirely a cow, she always has beautifully painted eyes.

  • U hebrejskom kalendaru bik je prvi znak, otuda Torah. Torah je anagram od Hathor, Ha-thor (egipatska krava).






Caryatid Dalmatinka (Hathor)


Hathor - Prithvi/Thorani


Prithvi or Prithvi Mata (Sanskrit: पृथ्वी, pṛthvī, also पृथिवी, pṛthivī) "the Vast One" is the Sanskrit name for the earth as well as the name of a devi (goddess) in Hinduism and some branches of Buddhism. She is also known as Bhūmi. She is consort of Vishnu and Dyaus Pita both.

As Pṛthvī Mātā ("Mother Earth") she is complementary to Dyaus Pita ("Father Sky"). In the Rigveda, Earth and Sky are primarily addressed in the dual as Dyavapṛthivi.

She is associated with the cow. Prithu, an incarnation of Viṣṇu, milked her in cow's form.

The name is also used for national personification of Indonesia, where the country is internally referred as Ibu Pertiwi.

As Pṛthvī Mātā ("Mother Earth") she is complementary to Dyaus Pita ("Father Sky"). In the Rigveda.

The name Dyauṣ Pitṛ is cognate with Illyrian Dei-pátrous ["sky-father"]; Damatura ["earth-mother"]

Phra Mae Thorani

Vasundharā or Dharaṇī is a chthonic goddess from Buddhist mythology in Southeast Asia. Similar earth deities include Pṛthivī, Kṣiti, and Dharaṇī.

She is known by various names throughout Southeast Asia. In Khmer, she is known by her title Neang Kongheng (នាងគង្ហីង, lit. "lady princess"), or as Preah Thorani' (ព្រះធរណី). In Thai and other Tai languages, she is known as Thorani (from Pali: dhāraṇī, lit. 'ground, earth"') in various appellations, including Nang Thorani (นางธรณี), Mae Thorani (แม่ธรณี), and Phra Mae Thorani (พระแม่ธรณี).

  • Hathor = Thorani
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