Hyksos

Amenemhat II, oko 1929 - 1895 BC


Aamu/Asians

The last great ruler of the Middle Kingdom, Amenemhat III, allowed Semitic-speaking Canaanite settlers from the Near East into the delta region to provide a sufficient labour force for his especially active mining and building campaigns. These ambitious building and mining activities, however, combined with severe Nile floods later in his reign, strained the economy and precipitated the slow decline into the Second Intermediate Period during the later Thirteenth and Fourteenth dynasties. During this decline, the Canaanite settlers began to seize control of the delta region, eventually coming to power in Egypt as the Hyksos.

 
Khnumhotep II, Absha

Khnumhotep II Na istočnom kraju sjevernog zida nalazi se velika stoji brojka od Khnumhotep II primio ponudu svega nekoliko vrsta životinja i ptica. Ono što čini ovaj grob ističe među 39 velikih stijena-cut grobnice u Beni Hasan je dobro poznat prizor Aamu skupine, Azijski nomadi trgovci koji su ponekad smatraju Hiksa ili barem njihovih prethodnika; grupa, na čelu s čovjeka po imenu Absha (ili Abisha, Abišaj), bio je dovođenje prinose na pokojnika.

 

Abram u Egiptu


Abram

Ali kad je zemljom zavladala glad, Abram se spusti u Egipat da ondje proboravi, jer je velika glad harala zemljom.  Kad je bio na ulazu u Egipat, reče svojoj ženi Saraji: "Znam da si lijepa žena. Kad te Egipćani vide, reći će: 'To je njegova žena', i mene će ubiti, a tebe na životu ostaviti. Nego reci da si mi sestra, tako da i meni bude zbog tebe dobro i da, iz obzira prema tebi, poštede moj život." Zbilja, kad je Abram ušao u Egipat, Egipćani vide da je žena veoma lijepa.(15) Vide je faraonovi dvorani pa je pohvale faraonu i odvedu ženu na faraonov dvor. (16) Abramu pođe dobro zbog nje; steče on stoke i goveda, magaraca, slugu i sluškinja, magarica i deva. (17) Ali Jahve udari faraona i njegov dom velikim nevoljama zbog Abramove žene Saraje. (18) I faraon pozva Abrama pa reče: "Što si mi to učinio? Zašto mi nisi kazao da je ona tvoja žena? (19) Zašto si rekao: 'Ona mi je sestra', pa je ja uzeh sebi za ženu? A sad, evo ti žene; uzmi je i hajde!" (20) Faraon ga onda preda momcima, a oni ga otprave s njegovom ženom i sa svime što bijaše njegovo. - Postanak
  • Saraja je veoma lijepa - S-araja (svijetle puti, Aryan)

Abraham i Sara su u hinduizmu, Brahma i Sarasvati. Prvi arijci su se naselili u dolini Saraswati, između naga (zmija). Saraswati je podzemna rijeka koja izvire svakih 12 godina, tako se nekad kaže za šušumnu jer je između dvije rijeke. I tu imamo incest, Sarasvati je bila kćer od Brahme.

Dok je boravio kao pridošlica u Geraru, (2) rekao je Abraham za svoju ženu Saru da mu je sestra. I Abimelek, kralj gerarski, uze Saru sebi. ...

Potom Abimelek dozva Abrahama te mu reče: "Što si nam učinio! Čime sam se ja ogriješio prema tebi da izložiš mene i moje kraljevstvo velikoj grehoti? Ponio si se prema meni kako ne valja. (10) Što si, dakle na umu imao", upita dalje Abimelek, "kad si tako radio?" (11) Abraham uzvrati: "Zbilja sam držao da nema Božjeg straha u ovome mjestu, pa će me ljudi ubiti zbog moje žene. (12) A onda, ona je uistinu moja sestra: kći je moga oca, iako ne i moje majke, pa je pošla za me. (13) A kad me Bog udaljio od doma očeva, rekoh joj: Ovu mi uslugu učini: kamo god dođemo, reci o meni da sam ti brat." - Postanak

 

Hyksos, c. 1700 - 1548 BC


Hiksi

The Hyksos (derives from the Egyptian expression heqau khaswet or heqa-khaset; "rulers [of] foreign lands") were a people of diverse origins, possibly from Western Asia, who settled in the eastern Nile Delta some time before 1650 BC. The arrival of the Hyksos led to the end of the Thirteenth Dynasty and initiated the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt. In the context of Ancient Egypt, the term "Asiatic" may refer to people native to areas east of Egypt.

Immigration by Canaanite populations preceded the Hyksos. Canaanites first appeared in Egypt at the end of the 12th Dynasty c. 1800 BC or c. 1720 BC and established an independent realm in the eastern Nile Delta. The Canaanite rulers of the Delta regrouped and founded the Fourteenth Dynasty, which coexisted with the Egyptian Thirteenth Dynasty and was based in Itjtawy. The power of the 13th and 14th Dynasties progressively waned, perhaps due to famine and plague.

In about 1650 BC, the Hyksos invaded the territory of both dynasties and established the Fifteenth Dynasty. The collapse of the Thirteenth Dynasty caused a power vacuum in the south, which may have led to the rise of the Sixteenth Dynasty, based in Thebes, and possibly of a local Abydos Dynasty. The Hyksos eventually conquered both, albeit for only a short time in the case of Thebes. From then on, the 17th Dynasty took control of Thebes and reigned for some time in peaceful coexistence with the Hyksos kings, perhaps as their vassals. Eventually, Seqenenre Tao, Kamose and Ahmose waged war against the Hyksos and expelled Khamudi, their last king, from Egypt c. 1550 BC.

The Hyksos practised horse burials, and their chief deity, their native storm god, Hadad, they associated with the Egyptian storm and desert god, Set. The Hyksos were a mixed people of mainly Semitic-speaking origin.

The Hyksos brought several technical innovations to Egypt, as well as cultural imports such as new musical instruments and foreign loanwords. The changes introduced include new techniques of bronze-working and pottery, new breeds of animals, and new crops. In warfare, they introduced the horse and chariot, the composite bow, improved battle axes, and advanced fortification techniques. Because of these cultural advances, Hyksos' rule became decisive for Egypt's later empire in the Middle East during the New Kingdom.

The Hyksos had Canaanite names, as seen in those with names from ancient Semitic religion such as Anat or Baal. Several of their pharaohs did in fact adopt the Egyptian title hekw chasut (foreign overlords) for themselves, along with Egyptian throne names.

In recent years the idea of a simple Hyksos migration, with little or no war, has gained support. According to this theory, the Egyptian rulers of the Thirteenth Dynasty were preoccupied with domestic famine and plague, and they were too weak to stop the new migrants from entering and settling in Egypt. Even before the migration, Amenemhat III carried out extensive building works and mining, through which the Hyksos might have arrived in Egypt and overthrown native Egyptian rule. Supporters of the peaceful takeover of Egypt claim there is little evidence of battles or wars in general in this period. They also maintain that the chariot didn't play any relevant role, e.g. no traces of chariots have been found at the Hyksos capital of Avaris, despite extensive excavation. Janine Bourriau's cites lack of Hyksos-style wares as evidence against a Hyksos invasion.

Contemporary with the Hyksos, there was a widespread Indo-Aryan expansion in central and south Asia. The arrival of the Hyksos in Egypt, along with the arrival of the Hurrians in Syria and the Kassites in Babylonia, has been connected with this migration. The Hyksos used the same horsedrawn chariot as the Indo-Aryans, and Egyptian sources mention a rapid conquest. While the majority of the Hyksos are thought to have been Semitic, the Hyksos are usually believed to have contained Indo-Europeans and Hurrians among the leadership. According to William L. Ochsenwald, it is certain that the Hyksos contained Hurrians who were under Indo-Aryan rule and influence. Claude Frédéric-Armand Schaeffer states that the Hyksos were related to the Hurrians and the Mitanni. While the earliest names of Hyksos rulers are Semitic, names of later Hyksos rulers have been identified as having Indo-Aryan, Hurrian or uncertain etymologies. These names are associated with the second wave of Hyksos invasion in the 17th century BC, which was composed of a mixed group of well organized warriors that were different from the earlier Asiatic Hyksos princes that arrived in Egypt in the 18th century BC. John Bright cites this as evidence that there might have been an Indo-Aryan element among the Hyksos. Philip Khuri Hitti wrote that the Hyksos were a mixed group which in addition to Semites included Hurrians, Hittites, Mitanni and Habiru. Hitti connected the arrival of the Hyksos with the Indo-European migrations at the time, and cites the introduction of the horse and the chariot by them to Egypt as evidence of their Indo-European connections. In any regards, the Indo-Europeans were few in number and rapidly became assimilated into the Semitic majority, which explains why only small traces of their separate linguistic identity survive.

Since the early 20th century, the possibility of Hurrian, and particularly Indo-European influences among the Hyksos, has been hotly contested by non-European scholars.

The story of the Hyksos was known to the Greeks, who identify it within their own mythology with the expulsion from Egypt of Belos (Baal) and the daughters of Danaos, associated with the origin of the Argive Dynasty.

 

Kanaan

Sinovi su Hamovi: Kuš i Misrajim, Put i Kanaan.

Od Kanaana potječe Sidon, njegov prvenac, i Het. Dalje: Jebusejci, Amorejci, Girgašani, Hivijci, Arkijci, Sinijci, Arvađani, Semarjani i Hamaćani. Poslije se kanaanska plemena razgranaše, tako da se granica Kanaanaca protezala od Sidona prema Geraru sve do Gaze pa prema Sodomi, Gomori, Admi i Sebojimu sve do Leše. To su sinovi Hamovi prema svojim plemenima i jezicima, po svojim zemljama i narodima.

Kanaan

Spominjanje Gospodara GA-na-na u semitskih Eblaite tableta (od 2350 pne) iz arhiva Reci Mardikh tumači nekih učenjaka da spomenuti božanstvo Dagona naslov "Lord of Canaan" Ako je točno, to bi značilo da Eblaites bili svjesni Kanaan kao entitet od 2500 godina prije Krista. Jonathan Tubb navodi da je pojam GA-na-na "može pružiti trećeg tisućljeća referencu na Kanaanaca ", dok u isto vrijeme tvrdeći da je prvi sigurno referenca je u 18. stoljeću prije Krista.

Sidon

Sidon (hebr. צִידוֹן; današnji arapski naziv: صيدا Saida) je grad u drevnoj Feniciji, smješten sjeverno od Tira.

Prva knjiga Ljetopisa - Mnogo cedrovine, jer su Sidonci i Tirci dovozili mnogo cedrovih drva Davidu.

Knjiga Ezrina- dadoše novac kamenarima i drvodjelcima; Sidoncima i Tircima poslaše hranu i piće i ulje da dovezu drva cedrova s Libanona do Jafe po dopuštenju perzijskoga kralja Kira.

Izaija- Umuknite, stanovnici primorja, trgovci sidonski, kojih su glasnici brodili morem po vodi velikoj.

Het

Asirci su ih nazivali Khatta ili Khate, Egipćanima su poznati kao Kheta ili Khata. Ti nazivi su varijacije Hatija ili Chatti, opisane na spomenicima Asirije i Egipta.

Pojam Hetita u klinastom pismu (najraniji oblik pisanja Sumerana) pojavljuje se kao Khittae predstavlja nekad moćan narod s istoka poznat kao Khitai, također na hebrejskom kao Khitti, Kheth i Khettai. Khitai i Khettai sačuvani su kroz stoljeća u poznatiji naziv, Cathay. Borili se s egipatskom vojskom Ramzesa II u 13. stoljeću prije Krista.

Od Khittae su nastali Kitijci ili Chittim (grčki Kition, rimski Citium, židovski Cethimus). Khittae je biblijsko ime za današnji Cipar.

Amorejci

Amoriti ili Amorićani (hebrejski ’emōrî, egipatski Amar, akadski Tidnum ili Amurrūm (što odgovara sumerskom MAR.TU ili Martu). Isprva nomadi na području Sirije i Libanona, kasnije naseljavaju gradove u Mezopotamiji.

 

Hattians


The expanded Hittite Empire (red) replaces Hatti c. 1290 BC and borders the Egyptian kingdom (green)

The Hattians were an ancient people who inhabited the land of Hatti in central Anatolia. The group was documented at least as early as the empire of Sargon of Akkad (c. 2300 BC), until it was gradually absorbed c. 2000–1700 BC by the Indo-European Hittites, who were subsequently associated with the "land of Hatti".

Land of Hatti

The region was known as `Land of the Hatti' from c. 2350 BCE until 630 BCE, attesting to the influence of the Hattian culture there. They spoke a language called Hattic and did not seem to have a written language of their own, using cuneiform script for trade dealings. As the region was heavily forested, the Hatti built their homes of wood and made their living through trade of timber, ceramics, and other resources. Their religion focused on the worship of a Mother Goddess. They kept domesticated animals and made clothing and blankets from sheep's wool. As an agrarian society, they also domesticated the fields and planted grains which they primarily lived on but also supplemented their diet through hunting. Since their religion was based on the concept that everything in nature was sacred and possessed a divine spirit, however, it does not seem that hunting for meat was a common practice and may have only been engaged in for specific festivals.

The oldest name for central Anatolia, "Land of the Hatti", was found on Mesopotamian cuneiform tablets from the period of Sargon the Great of Akkad c. 2350–2150 BC: on those tablets Assyrian-Akkadian traders implored King Sargon for help. This appellation continued to exist for about 1,500 years until 630 BC, as stated in Assyrian chronicles. According to later Hittite documents, Sargon the Great had fought with the Luwian king Nurdaggal of Burushanda, while Sargon's successor Naram-Sin of Akkad had battled Pamba, king of Hatti and 16 other confederates.

The use of the word "Proto-Hittite" to refer to Hattians is inaccurate. Hittite (natively known as Nešili, "[in the language] of Neša") is an Indo-European language, linguistically distinct from the Hattians. The Hittites continued to use the term Land of Hatti for their new kingdom. The Hattians eventually merged with people who spoke Indo-European languages like Hittite, Luwian, and Palaic.


Approximate extent of Hittite rule, c. 1350–1300 BC, with Arzawa rule and Lukkans to the west, and Mitanni rule to the southeast.

Hattians

The Hattians were organised in city-states and small kingdoms or principalities. These cities were well organized and ruled as theocratic principalities.


Hattians

Controlling a significant number of city states, they had established lucrative trade with the region of Sumer (southern Mesopotamia) by the year 2700 BCE. The historian Erdal Yavuz writes:

Anatolia offered a mild climate with reliable and regular rainfall necessary for a regular agricultural production. Besides the timber and stone essential for construction, but deficient in Mesopotamia, Anatolia had rich mines which provided copper, silver, iron, and gold.

Their trade with the cities of Mesopotamia enriched the region and helped to develop their "kingdom". The historian Marc Van De Mieroop includes the Hatti among the "nations" and "nation-states" in the diplomatic and trade consortium he refers to as The Club of the Great Powers. This `club', as Van De Mieroop designates it, included Mitanni, Babylonia, Assyria, Hatti, and Egypt, though by the time Kingdom of the Hatti was involved with international relations (c. 1500-1200 BCE), they were governed by the Hittites.

In 2500 BCE the Hatti established their capital high on a hill at the city of Hattusa and held lands securely in the surrounding areas, administering laws and regulating trade in a number of neighboring states.  Between c. 2334-2279 BCE the great Sargon of Akkad invaded the region after sacking the city of Ur in 2330 BCE. He then turned his attention to Hattusa but failed to gain an advantage over the city’s defenses which were especially strong in that it was located high on a well-defended and fortified plateau. Following Sargon’s campaigns in the region, his grandson Naram-Sin (2261-2224 BCE) continued his policies, fighting against the Hattic King Pamba late in the 23rd century BCE with as little success as his grandfather had. In spite of the constant harrassment from the Akkadians, Hattic art flourished around 2200 BCE and, by 2000 BCE, their civilization was at its height with prosperous trading colonies established between Hattusa and their other city of Kanesh and, of course, continuing trade relations with Mesopotamia.

In 1700 BCE, the Kingdom of the Hatti was again invaded, this time by the Hittites, and the great city of Hattusa was stormed and destroyed by a king named Anitta from the neighboring Kingdom of Kussara. Excavations at the site show that the city was burned to the ground. King Anitta had such contempt for the city he had vanquished that he cursed the ground and further cursed whoever should re-build Hattusa and try to rule there. Even so, not long after, the city was re-built and re-populated by a later king of Kussara who called himself Hattusili.  Van De Mieroop describes this, writing:

A ruler called Hattusili created the Hittite state in the early or mid-seventeenth century. Heir to the throne of Kussara, he rapidly defeated his competitors in central Anatolia. Among his conquests was the city of Hattusa, located in the center of the region in a strategic and well-protected site thanks to its position on a hilltop. He made Hattusa his capital, and possibly changed his name to coincide with that of the city.

The name Hattusili means `One from Hattusa' but it is not clear whether the king took that name after the reconstruction of the city or he was already known by that designation. Through the famous document, The Edict of Telepinu (16th century BCE), which was a stipulation of laws and ordinances based on past precedents, modern scholars have learned much of the history of the rulers of the Old Kingdom of the Hittites (as Hatti is referenced) and know that Hattusili I was also known as `Man of Kussara'. It is likely, therefore, that he took his new name once he had occupied Hattusa. As there remain a scarcity of records from this period, scholars disagree over when Hattusili I took his name or why. It is also not known whether the city was re-built after Anitta's conquest (and therefore Hattusili had to take it by force) or if Hattusili simply occupied the site and built on the ruins of the old city.

The lands of the Hatti were systematically conquered by the Hittites and the people merged into the culture of their conquerors. The Hittites were known as the Nesili to themselves and their contemporaries and the name `Hittite' comes from the Hebrew scribes who wrote the biblical narratives of the Old Testament. They may have migrated to the region or, more probably, lived alongside the Hatti for many years before hostilities between the two peoples began. By 1650 BCE, the Hittites, under Hattusili I, defeated the last of the Hatti resistance and rose to complete dominance of the area. The Hatti region of Anatolia, however, was still known as the 'Land of the Hatti' until 630 BCE, as is known from references found in the writings of both the Egyptians and the Assyrians. The importance of the Land of the Hatti in international relations is attested to by The Amarna Letters, cuneiform tablets found in the late 19th century CE in Amarna, Egypt, which are correspondence between the Egyptian Pharoah  and the kings of Mitanni, Babylonia, Assyria, and Hatti. Van De Mieroop writes:

The kings saw themselves as equals and addressed each other as brothers. They discussed diplomatic matters, especially the exchange of precious goods and of royal women, which reinforced the ties between them. While most of the letters were written in Babylonian, there were two in Hittite and one each in Hurrian and Assyrian. These Amarna letters cover a short period of at most thirty years from ca. 1365 to 1335, but it is certain that this type of correspondence was maintained throughout the period at several locations.

Physiognomy

Some scholars thought that Hattians and Hittites had perhaps different personal characteristics, though most Anatolian societies in the Bronze Age were multi-lingual. Egyptian depictions of the Battle of Kadesh reportedly show long-nosed Hattian soldiers, while their Hittite leaders looked different according to Turkish archaeologist Ekrem Akurgal.

The artistic renderings from Hatti at this time depict the common people with longer noses and markedly different facial features than those of their leaders, clearly demonstrating the Hittite lords and their Hattic vassals.

Language

The Hattian spoke Hattic, a non-Indo-European language of uncertain affiliation. Hattic is now believed by some scholars to be related to the Northwest Caucasian language group. Trevor Bryce writes:

Evidence of a 'Hattic' civilization is provided by the remnants of one of the non-Indo-European languages found in the later Hittite archives.The language is identified in several of the texts in which it appears by the term hattili- '(written) in the language of Hatti.' The few texts that survive are predominantly religious or cultic in character. They provide us with the names of a number of Hattic deities, as well as Hattic personal and place-names.

About 150 short specimens of Hattian text have been found in Hittite cuneiform clay tablets. Hattian leaders perhaps used scribes who wrote in Old Assyrian. Ekrem Akurgal wrote, "the Anatolian princes used scribes knowing Assyrian for commerce with Mesopotomia as at Kanesh (Kültepe)" to conduct business with Assyria. From the 21st to the mid-18th centuries BC, Assyria established trade outposts in Hatti, such as at Hattum and Zalpa.

Scholars have long assumed that the predominant population of the region of Anatolia "in the third millennium [BC] was an indigenous pre-Indo-European group called the Hattians." But it is thought possible that speakers of Indo-European languages were also in central Anatolia by then. The scholar Petra Goedegebuure has proposed that before the conquest of the Hittites, an Indo-European language, probably Luwian, had already been spoken alongside the Hattic language for a long time.

Hattian became more ergative towards the New Hittite period. This development implies that Hattian remained alive until at least the end of the 14th century BC.

 

Hittites


Hittites

It is generally assumed that the Hittites came into Anatolia some time before 2000 BC. While their earlier location is disputed, it has been speculated by scholars for more than a century that the Kurgan cultures of the Pontic Steppe, in present-day Ukraine, around the Sea of Azov spoke an early Indo-European language during the third and fourth millennia BC.

The arrival of the Hittites in Anatolia in the Bronze Age was one of a superstrate imposing itself on a native culture (in this case over the pre existing Hattians and Hurrians), either by means of conquest or by gradual assimilation. In archaeological terms, relationships of the Hittites to the Ezero culture of the Balkans and Maikop culture of the Caucasus have been considered within the migration framework. The Indo-European element at least establishes Hittite culture as intrusive to Anatolia in scholarly mainstream (excepting the opinions of Colin Renfrew, whose Anatolian hypothesis assumes that Indo-European is indigenous to Anatolia, and, more recently, Quentin Atkinson.

 

The land of Hatti, located in central Anatolia, was the heartland of the Hittite Kingdom. The people of the Late Bronze Age Hittite Kingdom described themselves as the “People of the Land of Hatti,” but this name provides little help in the understanding of the dominate culture of the region. Indeed, the evidence is ambiguous as to whether any culture could be considered dominant. The population of this region was diverse, a portion was indigenous but there were also Luwians from the Aegean Coast, Syrians and Hurrians from Mesopotamia as well as others from around the Near East.


The Lion Gate of Hattusa

One explanation for how such a mixed people of different cultures and languages could be unified is revealed in their name. By denoting the geographical region, “Land of Hatti” when they spoke of themselves demonstrates that the region itself may have given them their collective identity. So that, regardless of their many backgrounds, the people who lived in the Land of Hatti were able to come together under their kings and forge an enduring legacy.


The Hittite Empire at its height around 1300 BCE

Imperial Legacy

During the height of the Hittite Empire’s power they would enter into an epic struggle with the Egypt. First the Hittites, led by their great conqueror, Suppililiuma, would topple Egypt’s long time ally in Syria, the Hurrian Kingdom of Mitanni. Then there was a rare moment in history. With the death of the pharaoh Tutankhamun in 1322 BCE Egypt’s 18th Dynasty was near collapse. In desperation the widowed Queen Ankesenamun reached out to the Hittite king, seeking one of his sons as a new husband.

The message from Ankesenamun reached the Hittite King as he oversaw the final stages of the siege of Carchemish, the last Mitanni stronghold. For a moment Suppililiuma held the Near East in his imperial grip but as fate would have it ultimate victory would slip through his fingers leaving the region to be ravaged by war for the next 50 years.


The Hittite copy of the treaty with Egypt

Finally, following the famous Battle of Kadesh in 1274 BCE, the Hittites and Egyptians would reconcile and sign one of the most notable treaties of all antiquity. However it was too late. In the East the Assyrians had become so strong that they could not be denied their own imperial destiny and from the West the chaos that history has labeled the “Sea Peoples” was about to descend. Over a period of centuries the Hittite Empire would diminish and then fade. Only to be found again by Texier’s Anatolian questing.


Ramesses II storming the Hittite fortress of Dapur

 

Babylonia - Amorites, c. 1920 - 1530 BC


Amorites

 
Amorites

Sargon I (1920–1881 BC) succeeded as king in Assyria in 1920 BC, he eventually withdrew Assyria from the region, preferring to concentrate on continuing the vigorous expansion of Assyrian colonies in Anatolia, and eventually southern Mesopotamia fell to the Amorites, a Northwest Semitic-speaking people from the northern Levant. During the first centuries of what is called the "Amorite period", the most powerful city states in the south were Isin, Eshnunna and Larsa, together with Assyria in the north. - Babylonia


Amorites

Amorites

Haplogroup T-L206  
Y-chromosome T1a - Y-chromosome J2

Zalloua and Wells 2004 and al-Zaheri 2003 uncovered the earliest known migration of J2, from Sumeria to Canaan. In 2001, Nebel et al. found that, "According to Underhill et al. (2000), Eu 9 (H58) evolved from Eu 10 (H71) through a T→G transversion at M172 (emphasis added)," and that in today's populations, Eu 9 (the post-mutation form of M172) is strongest in the Caucasus, Asia Minor and the Levant, whilst Eu 10 becomes stronger and replaces the frequency of Eu 9 as one moves south into the Arabian Peninsula, so that people from the Caucasus met with Arabs near and between Mesopotamia (formerly Sumeria) and the Negev Desert, as "Arabisation" spread from Arabia to the Levant and Turkey, as well as many peoples (e.g. Jews, Armenians, Lebanese) having returned from diasporas.

Per research by Di Giacomo 2004, J-M172 haplogroup spread into Southern Europe" from either the Levant or Anatolia, likely parallel to the development of agriculture. As to the timing of its spread into Europe, Di Giacomo points to events which post-date the Neolithic, in particular the demographic floruit associated with the rise of the Ancient Greek world. Semino et al. derived older age estimates for overall J2 (having used the Zhivotovsky method c.f. Di Giacomo), postulating its initial spread with Neolithic farmers from the Near East. However, its subclade distribution, showing localized peaks in the Southern Balkans, southern Italy, north/central Italy and the Caucasus, does not conform to a single 'wave-of-advance' scenario, betraying a number of still poorly understood post-Neolithic processes which created its current pattern. Like Di Giacomo, the Bronze Age southern Balkans was suggested by Semino 2004 to have been an important vector of spread.

  • We suggest; Y-DNA T1a & J2

 

Babylonia

Amurru, 1940 BC


Babylon

 

Amorites su drevni narod koji je u drugoj polovici 3. tisućljeća pr. Kr. naseljavao područja sjevernog Levanta i Mezopotamije (današnja Sirija i Irak). Isprva nomadi na području Sirije i Libanona, kasnije naseljavaju gradove u Mezopotamiji. Postupno su prihvatili akadsku kulturu, jezik i običaje, pa su kasniji kraljevi amorićanskih dinastija čak nosili i akadska imena (npr. Hamurabi). Tijekom 2. tisućljeća pr. Kr. Amorićani su poklekli pod napadima Hetita i Kasita.

  • 1894 p.n.e. na obalama Eufrata osniva se Babilon, BAB-ILUM – božja vrata
  • HAMURABI – preuzima vlast u Amorejskim gradovina i ujedinjuje ih u centralističku monarhiju (oko 1792-1750 p.n.e.)
  • HAMURABIJEV ZAKONIK – strogo zakonodavstvo na osnovi načela: "Oko za oko, zub za zub"

By the time of the last days of the Third Dynasty of Ur, immigrating Amorites had become such a force that kings such as Shu-Sin were obliged to construct a 170 miles (270 km) wall from the Tigris to the Euphrates to hold them off. These Amorites appear as nomadic clans ruled by fierce tribal chiefs, who forced themselves into lands they needed to graze their herds. Some of the Akkadian literature of this era speaks disparagingly of the Amorites, and implies that the Akkadian and Sumerian speakers of Mesopotamia viewed their nomadic and primitive way of life with disgust and contempt, for example:


Babylonian city

The MAR.TU who know no grain... The MAR.TU who know no house nor town, the boors of the mountains... The MAR.TU who digs up truffles... who does not bend his knees (to cultivate the land), who eats raw meat, who has no house during his lifetime, who is not buried after death.

"They have prepared wheat and gú-nunuz (grain) as a confection, but an Amorite will eat it without even recognizing what it contains!"

 
Babylonia - Babylon

 

Mari

The Amorites (Sumerian MAR.TU, Akkadian Tidnum or Amurrūm, Egyptian Amar, Hebrew אמורי ʼĔmōrī, Ancient Greek Αμορίτες) were a tribe who could be found in literature, residing in such places as the Land of Canaan, land of Amurru and the Land of the Amorites. On the Ancient Egyptian monuments, the Amorite is called ‘Amar (Amarii)’ and in the cuneiform tablets of Tel el-Amarna, they are referred to as the Amurra. The Babylonians had called this area of Canaan in Syria-Palestine, “the land of the Amorites” and sometime referred to them as ‘Westerners.’ In the bible, the Amorites are physically described as a powerful people of great stature “like the height of the cedars,” (Amos 2:9).

Amorites from the city of Mari

Some evidence of the ancient Amorites was found in one of their old main cities called, ‘Mari’ which is located in modern-day Syria on the Euphrates. Today, the city of Mari is known under the modern name of ‘Tall al-Ḥarīrī.’ Mari was also known to be the ancient city of the Sumerians. The ancient texts found in this city date from 18B.C. and are written in the Akkadian-language, and  refer to the Amorites by the name of the warlike tribe, ‘Banuyamina.’ The meaning of the compound Hebrew name, Banu- Yamina is another form of the English name, Benjamin. Benjamin was one of the Tribes of Israel.


Mari, c. 3000 BC


Second Mariote Kingdom, c. 2500 - 2290 BC


Second Eblaite Empire, c. 2300. - 2000 BC


Third Mariote Kingdom, c. 2266 - 1761 BC


Yamhad, c. 1810 - 1517 BC

 

Third Eblaite Kingdom, c. 2000 BC- 1600 BC


Ebla - J2

The third Eblaite kingdom is designated "Mardikh III"; it is divided into periods "A" (c. 2000–1800 BC) and "B" (c. 1800–1600 BC). In period "A", Ebla was quickly rebuilt as a planned city. The foundations covered the remains of Mardikh II; new palaces and temples were built, and new fortifications were built in two circles-one for the low city and one for the acropolis. The city was laid out on regular lines and large public buildings were built. Further construction took place in period "B". The first known king of the third kingdom is Ibbit-Lim, who described himself as the Mekim of Ebla. A basalt votive statue bearing Ibbit-Lim's inscription was discovered in 1968; this helped to identify the site of Tell-Mardikh with the ancient kingdom Ebla. The name of the king is Amorite in the view of Pettinato; it is therefore probable the inhabitants of third kingdom Ebla were predominantly Amorites, as were most of the inhabitants of Syria at that time.

 

West Semitic languages

The grouping, supported by Semiticists like Robert Hetzron and John Huehnergard, divides the Semitic language family into two branches: Eastern and Western. The East Semitic languages consist of the extinct Eblaite and Akkadian languages, while the remaining majority of Semitic languages form the West Semitic languages grouping.

It consists of the clearly defined sub-groups: Modern South Arabian, Old South Arabian, Ethiopic, Arabic and Northwest Semitic (this including Hebrew, Aramaic and the extinct Amorite and Ugaritic languages). Ethiopic and South Arabian show particular common features, and are often grouped together as South Semitic.


West Semitic languages

 

MAR.TU

The Amorites (Sumerian MAR.TU, Akkadian Tidnum or Amurrūm, Egyptian Amar, Hebrew אמורי ʼĔmōrī, Ancient Greek Amorites 2Αμορίτες) were a tribe who could be found in literature, residing in such places as the Land of Canaan, land of Amurru and the Land of the Amorites. On the Ancient Egyptian monuments, the Amorite is called 'Amar (Amarii)' and in the cuneiform tablets of Tel el-Amarna, they are referred to as the Amurra. The Babylonians had called this area of Canaan in Syria-Palestine, “the land of the Amorites" and sometime referred to them as 'Westerners.' In the bible, the Amorites are physically described as a powerful people of great stature "like the height of the cedars," (Amos 2:9).

Marduk

Marduk is spelled DAMAR.UTU in Sumerian, literally, "the calf of Utu" or "the young bull of the Sun".


Marduk

Amorites in the Bible

A tebi ostavljam Šekem, nešto više nego tvojoj braći, što sam ga svojim mačem i lukom osvojio od Amorejaca." - Postanak

Ja pred njima istrijebih Amorejce visoke k'o cedar, jake poput hrašća, ja uništih i plod na njima i korijen pod njima. Ja vas izvedoh iz zemlje egipatske i četrdeset vas godina vodih po pustinji da zaposjednete zemlju amorejsku. - Amos

West Semitic - Amorites

In the earliest Sumerian sources concerning the Amorites, beginning about 2400 BC, the land of the Amorites ("the Mar.tu land") is associated not with Mesopotamia but with the lands to the west of the Euphrates, including Canaan and what was to become Syria by the 3rd century BC, then known as The land of the Amurru.

They appear as an uncivilized and nomadic people in early Mesopotamian writings from Sumer, Akkad and Assyria, especially connected with the mountainous region now called Jebel Bishri in northern Syria called the "mountain of the Amorites". The ethnic terms Mar.tu (Westerners), Amurru (likely derived from 'aburru', pasture) and Amar were used for them in Sumerian, Akkadian and Ancient Egyptian respectively. From the 21st century BC, possibly triggered by a long major drought starting about 2200 BC, a large-scale migration of Amorite tribes infiltrated southern Mesopotamia. They were one of the instruments of the downfall of the Third Dynasty of Ur, and Amorite dynasties both usurped native rulers of long-extant Babylonian city-states such as Isin, Larsa, Eshnunna and Kish and also established new ones, the most famous of which was to become Babylon, although it was initially a minor and insignificant state.

Known Amorites wrote in a dialect of Akkadian found on tablets at Mari dating from 1800–1750 BC. Since the language shows northwest Semitic forms, words and constructions, the Amorite language is a Northwest Semitic language, and possibly one of the Canaanite languages. The main sources for the extremely limited knowledge about Amorite are the proper names, not Akkadian in style, that are preserved in such texts. The Akkadian language of the native Semitic states, cities and polities of Mesopotamia (Akkad, Assyria, Babylonia, Isin, Kish, Larsa, Ur, Nippur, Uruk, Eridu, Adab, Akshak, Eshnunna, Nuzi, Ekallatum etc.), was from the east Semitic, as was the Eblaite of the northern Levant. - Amorites

 

The crystal ‘lens’ from Nineveh (Kuyunjik, Iraq)


The first glass was Sumerian. (1)

In 1853, Sir David Brewster (1781-1868) presented a lens to the British Association for the Advancement of Science that had been found in excavations by Austen Henry Layard (1817-1894) at Nineveh (Kuyunjik, Iraq). It had been found in deposits dated around 600 BC and although its provenance was not in question, doubts were raised about its function. Whilst it clearly works as a lens, it was thought to have been used as a decoration in a piece of jewellery.

More about Optics in Prehistory

 

Babylonian map of the world

Babylonian "map of the world" in the British Museum, London was long claimed as the earliest extant map. The map was composed in Babylonia and is the only Babylonian map drawn on an international scale. It is a Neo-Babylonian (Persian Period, circa 500 BCE) copy of an original dating to the Sargonid Period, circa late eighth or seventh century BCE. The clay tablet is a drawing and textual description of the Babylonian cosmos. It is oriented to the north-west. (It is uncertain whether the accompanying cuneiform text was composed together with the map.) It is the only known map of the world dating from the Neo-Babylonian Period. All other maps have a purely local focus.

More about the Babylonian Map of the World

 

The Baghdad Batteries: (AD225-640)

Railway construction in Baghdad in 1936, uncovered a copper cylinder with a rod of iron amongst other finds from the Parthian period. In 1938, these were identified as primitive electric cells by Dr. Wilhelm Konig, then the director of the Baghdad museum laboratory, who related the discovery to other similar finds (Iraqi cylinders, rods and asphalt stoppers, all corroded as if by some acid, and a few slender Iron and Bronze rods found with them). He concluded that their purpose was for electroplating gold and Silver jewellery.

More about the Baghdad Batteries

Baterija iz Bagdada

Je li se struja koristila tisućama godina prije nego što smo je “otkrili”?

Kada mislimo o struji, većina nas se sjeti Benjamina Franklina i Nikole Tesle. Godina Franklinovog sudbonosnog otkrića bila je 1752.

No, postojanje baterije iz Bagdada sugerira mogućnost mnogo šokantnijeg znanstvenog napretka u tom polju – prije 2 000 godina! Baterija je otkrivena 1936. godine i smatra se da je kreirana u Mezopotamiji. Sastoji se od cigle u obliku vrča i unutar toga ima galvanizirane željezne čavle omotane listom bakra, a neki arheolozi teoretiziraju da se koristila i neka kiselina koja je generirala električnu struju unutar vrča.

Ako je to točno, taj bi uređaj za dva tisućljeća nadmašio zasad priznatu godinu otkrića struje – otkrića elektrokemijskih ćelija, koje je otkrio Alessandro Volta.

Jesu li se ili nisu ovakvi uređaji koristili kao baterije dosta je nejasno i arheolozi se ne slažu, no također ne znaju za što bi im trebala struja koja nastaje jer nemamo nikakvih povijesnih zapisa tog vremena. Neki smatraju da se uređaj koristio za galvaniziranje objekata, no dokaz za korištenje uređaja u tu svrhu nije pronađen.

No, znamo da bi baterije u teoriji mogle funkcionirati. Barem je dvaput provedeno repliciranje baterija i u oba je eksperimenta dokazano da su baterije zaista sposobne proizvoditi elektricitet kad bi bile napunjene kiselinom. No, zasad je stvarna svrha ovih uređaja nepoznata.


Baterija iz Bagdada

 

Amorites & Canaanites


Canaanites delegation to Tutankhamun


Amorites & Canaanites

   
Canaanites

 
Canaanites

 

Anat - Antu

Anat first appears in Egypt in the 16th dynasty (the Hyksos period) along with other northwest Semitic deities. She was especially worshiped in her aspect of a war goddess, often paired with the goddess `Ashtart. In the Contest Between Horus and Set, these two goddesses appear as daughters of Re and are given as allies to the god Set, who had been identified with the Semitic god Hadad.

During the Hyksos period Anat had temples in the Hyksos capital of Avaris and in Beth-Shan (Israel) as well as being worshipped in Memphis. On inscriptions from Memphis of 15th to 12th centuries BCE, Anat is called "Bin-Ptah", Daughter of Ptah. She is associated with Reshpu, (Canaanite: Resheph) in some texts and sometimes identified with the native Egyptian goddess Neith. She is sometimes called "Queen of Heaven". Her iconography varies. She is usually shown carrying one or more weapons.

In the New Kingdom Ramesses II made ‘Anat his personal guardian in battle and enlarged Anat's temple in Pi-Ramesses. Ramesses named his daughter (whom he later married) Bint-Anat 'Daughter of Anat'. His dog appears in a carving in Beit el Wali temple with the name "Anat-in-vigor" and one of his horses was named ‘Ana-herte 'Anat-is-satisfied'.

Consort Ba‘al Hadad, Yahweh  & Set

Anat-Yahu

The papyri suggest that, "Even in exile and beyond, the veneration of a female deity endured." The texts were written by a group of Jews living at Elephantine near the Nubian border, whose religion has been described as "nearly identical to Iron Age II Judahite religion". The papyri describe the Jews as worshiping Anat-Yahu (mentioned in the document AP 44, line 3, in Cowley's numbering). Anat-Yahu is described as either the wife (or paredra, sacred consort) of Yahweh or as a hypostatized aspect of Yahweh.

Sumerian goddess Antu

Antu or Antum was the first consort of Anu, and the pair were the parents of the Anunnaki and the Utukki. Antu was a dominant feature of the Mesopotamian akit festival until as recently as 200 BC, her later pre-eminence possibly attributable to identification with the Greek goddess Athena. Antu was replaced as consort by Ishtar or Inanna, who may also be a daughter of Anu and Antu.

In Akkadian, the form one would expect Anat to take would be Antu, earlier Antum. This would also be the normal feminine form that would be taken by Anu, the Akkadian form of An 'Sky', the Sumerian god of heaven. Antu appears in Akkadian texts mostly as a rather colorless consort of Anu, the mother of Ishtar in the Gilgamesh story, but is also identified with the northwest Semitic goddess ‘Anat of essentially the same name. It is unknown whether this is an equation of two originally separate goddesses whose names happened to fall together or whether Anat's cult spread to Mesopotamia, where she came to be worshipped as Anu's spouse because the Mesopotamian form of her name suggested she was a counterpart to Anu.


Anat - Irminsul

Asenath "holy to Anath" was the wife of the Hebrew patriarch Joseph.

Anat is also presumably the goddess whom Sanchuniathon calls Athene, a daughter of El, mother unnamed, who with Hermes (that is Thoth) counselled El on the making of a sickle and a spear of iron, presumably to use against his father Uranus. However, in the Baal cycle, that rôle is assigned to Asherah / ‘Elat and ‘Anat is there called the "Virgin."

  • Antum, Antu = Ante, Antun, Antonija..

Amantes or Abantes is a name of an ancient "Greek tribe" in the most northern part of Epirus. An ancient "Greek polis" Amantia, was named after them.

Amantini was the name of a Pannonian Illyrian tribe.  The Amantini were close to Sirmium. - Syrmia (Sremska Mitrovica)

  • Amantes or Abantes, Amantini, Antes, Ante.. (goddess Antu/Anat)

 

Irminsul


Irminsul na stećcima.


Irminsul


Irminsul kao motiv na stećcima.


Irminsul u Trakiji (Thracian cult complex – Heroon, Bulgaria).


Irminsul sa borovom šišarkom (Olmek stone, Mexico).

Irmnisul od korijena "irm-": sanskrit: IRMA = ide, raste, neprekidno, držač, potporni stup univerzuma.

 

Caryatid


Hathor

 
Hathor

 

 
Caryatid Dalmatinka (Hathor)

 

Qetesh - Resheph - Min


British Museum EA 191
Qeh. identified as ‘Ke(d)eshet, lady of heaven’, Egyptian god Min & Canaanite god Reshep. Deir el-Medina (Dynasty 19)

Qetesh is a goddess, who was adopted during the late Bronze Age from the religion of Canaan into the ancient Egyptian religion during its New Kingdom. She was a fertility goddess of sacred ecstasy and sexual pleasure, and became a popular deity.

The name was probably vocalized by Egyptians as, *Qātiša, from the Semitic root Q-D-Š meaning 'holy'. Her city of worship was Qadesh in present day Syria.

On stele representing the deity, Qetesh is represented as a frontal nude standing on a lion, often between Min of Egypt and the Canaanite warrior god Resheph. She holds a snake in one hand and a bouquet of lotus flowers in the other as symbols of creation. Association with Hathor may be seen in imagery as well.

On stele reprsenting the deity, Qetesh is represented as a frontal nude standing on a lion, often between Min of Egypt and the Canaanite warrior god Resheph. She holds a snake in one hand and a bouquet lotus flowers in the other as symbols of creation.

Qetesh is associated with Anat, Astarte, and Asherah. She also has elements associated with the goddesses of Mycenae, the Minoan goddesses of Crete, and certain Kassite goddesses of the metals trade in tin, copper, and bronze between Lothal and Dilmun.

On some versions of the Qetesh stele her register with Min and Resheph is placed over another register showing gifts being presented to ‘Anat the goddess of War and below a register listing the lands belonging to Min and Resheph.

 
Qetesh

It has also been suggested that the parallelism between the names of the Sumerian goddess, Inanna, and her West Semitic counterpart, Ishtar, continued in Canaanite tradition as Anath and Astarte, particularly in the poetry of Ugarit. The two goddesses were invariably linked in Ugaritic scripture and are also known to have formed a triad (known from sculpture) with a third goddess who was given the name/title of Qadesh

Triple goddess merged into one

Qudshu-Astarte-Anat is a representation of a single goddess who is a combination of three goddesses: Qetesh (Athirat, Asherah), Astarte, and Anat. It was a common practice for Canaanites and Egyptians to merge different deities through a process of syncretism, thereby turning them into one single entity. The "Triple-Goddess Stone", once owned by Winchester College, shows the goddess Qetesh with the inscription "Qudshu-Astarte-Anat", displaying their association as being one goddess, and Qetesh (Qudshu) in place of Athirat. Qadshu is used as an epithet of Athirat, the Great Mother Goddess of the Canaanites.

Resheph je usvojen kao službeni božanstvo u Egiptu pod Amenhotepa II za vrijeme osamnaeste dinastije Egipta kao bog konja i kola. Prvobitno usvojen u kraljevskom kultu, Resheph je postao popularno božanstvo. U dvadesetoj dinastiji nestaje iz kraljevskih natpisa. Resheph se često pojavljuje s Qetesh i Min. Većina njegovih stela nalaze se u Deir el-Medini, naselju levantinskih obrtnika.

Min (Egipatski mnw) je drevni egipatski bog čiji je kult nastao u predinastičkih doba (4. tisućljeća prije Krista). Bio je zastupljen u raznim oblicima, ali je često zastupljena u muškom obliku, prikazan s penis u erekciji koji je drži u lijevoj ruci i potvrdio desna ruka drži mlatilice.

Qetesh - Kadesh (Syria) = Gad + Asher (Sluškinja Zilpa)

 

Royal Scarabs from Canaan

This is a photograph of the inscribed side of a scarab (the other side represents the beetle); it has been provided for our consideration by Kevin Bermeister of Sydney.

It is representative of a type of seal from Canaan (Syria-Palestine) in the Bronze Age: a standing ruler is surrounded by Egyptian symbols and hieroglyphs.
   
Here are some  examples of official stamp-seals found in that region, dated to the period Middle Bronze Age IIB (18th, 17th, and 16th centuries before the current era).


From Othmar Keel and Sylvia Schroer,
Studien zu den Stempelsiegeln aus Palästina / Israel

The glyphs on our scarab find a close counterpart in example 33 (from Jericho), which also shows (together with 34 and 37) that the object held in the person's hand is a large flower (not a weapon). 

However, 36 has an `ankh, the Egyptian symbol of life, and two nfr signs, bespeaking "good and beautiful",  all adding up to "a very good life", perhaps; the same combination appears on 37,  with the flower as well. The 'ankh is now known to be the top vertebra of a bull, and 34b might well be significant evidence of this, since it apparently represents a spinal column. The nfr hieroglyph has the heart with the windpipe, and possibly the lips, which combine to express the emotional response to beauty and goodness. The two instances on 35 are inverted, while 38 seems to have an inverted 'ankh with nfr, for "good life".

 

Inachus

Inachus was the first king of Argos. Inachus is the most ancient god or hero of Argos. Most modern mythologists understand Inachus as one of the river gods, all sons of Titans Oceanus and Tethys and thus to the Greeks, part of the pre-Olympian mythic. In Greek iconography, Walter Burkert notes, the rivers are represented in the form of a bull with a human head or face.

Jerome and Eusebius (both citing Castor of Rhodes), and as even late as 1812, John Lemprière euhemeristically asserted that he was the first king of Argos reigning for 50 years (B.C. 1807).

The ancients regarded Inachus as an immigrant who had come across the sea as the leader of an Egyptian or Libyan colony, and had united the Pelasgians, whom he found scattered on the banks of the Inachus. They who make Inachus to have come into Greece from beyond the sea regard his name as a Greek form for the Oriental term Enak, denoting “great” or “powerful,” and this last as the base of the Greek ἄναξ, “a king.”

  • Inachus = Enoch

 

Epaphus

Epaphus, also called Apis, was a king of Egypt. Epaphus was the son of Zeus and Io who married his stepfather Telegonus, king of Egypt. The name/word Epaphus means "Touch". This refers to the manner in which he was conceived, by the touch of Zeus' hand. He was born in Egypt, on the river Nile, after the long wanderings of his mother. He was then concealed by the Curetes, by the request of Hera, but Io sought and afterward found him in Syria.

Epaphus is regarded in the myths as the founder of Memphis, Egypt. With his wife, Memphis he had one daughter, Libya.

Epaphus also criticized Phaëton's heraldry, which prompted him to undertake his fateful journey in his father Phoebus' chariot of the sun. Belus, another mythological king of Egypt, is a grandson of Epaphus.

Apophis is recorded as worshiping Set exclusively, as described in the following passage:

[He] chose for his Lord the god Set. He did not worship any other deity in the whole land except Set. - Papyrus Sallier 1 (Apophis and Sekenenre)

David Rohl identifies Epaphus with the Hyksos pharaoh Apophis.

 

Argive genealogy in Greek mythology

Inachus & Epaphus

Inachus Melia
Zeus Io Phoroneus
Epaphus Memphis
Libya Poseidon
Belus Achiroë Agenor Telephassa

Argive Origins

  • Ur III period > Hyksos > Egypt > Libya & Mycenae (Thebes, Argos)

 

Yaqub-Har / Yakov


Yaqub-Har

Meruserre Yaqub-Har (Yakubher, Yak-Baal) je bio egiptski faraon, vladao je u drugom prelaznom periodu.

Dinastija kojoj je Yaqub-Har pripadao još se raspravlja. Vladao je krajem 14. dinastije ili početkom 15. dinastije, 17. ili 16. stoljeće pne. Vladavinu Yaqub-Har svjedoči više od 27 skarabeja-pečata. Tri su pronađena u Kanaanu, četiri u Egiptu, jedan u Nubiji a preostalih 19 su nepoznatog podrijetla.

Došavši tako iz Padan Arama, Jakov sretno stigne u grad Šekem, koji se nalazi u zemlji kanaanskoj.

Poslije toga Josip naredi liječnicima koji su se nalazili u njegovoj službi da mu oca balzamiraju, i oni balzamiraše Izraela. Trebalo je četrdeset dana: toliko, naime, traje balzamiranje. - Postanak

Shechem - Jacob's Well - Mount Gerizim

 

Jakov - Jaculus


Jaculus

Jacob's Ladder, spiralne stepenice, treba primjetiti da i Jaculus i Adder znače zmiju.

The jaculus (or iaculus, pl. jaculi, meaning "thrown" in Latin) is a small mythical serpent or dragon. It can be shown with wings and sometimes has front legs. It is also sometimes known as the javelin snake.


Cronus / Saturn

Vedski Brahmanda tj. kozmičko jaje, oko kojeg se uvija Amanta shesha/Balarama. Od ovoga dolazi bezgrešno začeće, na lat. bezgrešno je immaculate, korijen je u riječi iaculus = zmija i duh sveti (kundalini šakti ženska sila) je golubica.

I u južnoameričkim kulturama su postojali bogovi kombinacije zmije i ptice (quetzal = rajska ptica koatl = zmija), kod Ilira je mit o stvaranju uključivao zmiju i lastavicu.

Zmija i ptica je česta kombinacija, jer na drvu života zmija može ići u podzemlje i vidljivi svijet, ptica u vidljivi svijet i nebo. Dolazilo je do fuzije, zmija bi postala krilata, npr. wadjet u Egiptu, južnoameričke pernate zmije, zmajevi...Zmaj ide u sve tri sfere drva života, u alkemiji predstavlja sva četiri elementa. U Indiji Dravidi su štovali zmiju, a Arijci pauna.

 

Zmije i golubovi

U Novom zavjetu Isus spominje mudrost zmije i bezopasnost golubice, duh sveti se predstavlja golubicom.

Budite dakle mudri kao zmije, a bezazleni kao golubovi! - Matej

U Bibliji piše: "kao što je Mojsije digao zmiju u pustinji, tako ima biti podignut i Sin čovječji, tako da svako ko vjeruje ima život vječni".

I u Bibliji piše da je razapet na stauros (zmija s + tauros bik), to je stup ili koplje.

U riječi Krist (kao Krišna ili Krista kako je zvan u dijelovima Indije) imamo kri što označava u krya yogi prvih pet čakri i ST. Kruna je krunska čakra., Isus odlazi u nebo jer se radi o prosvjetljenju kad se otvori krunska čakra, otud izraz sedmo nebo. I Muhamed je na konju Buraku odletio u sedmo nebo.

Isus je bio sin od oca, kao što i Baraba na hebrejskom znači sin od oca.

Kršćanski gnostici ofiti su štovali zmiju oko križa i tako su doživljavali priču o Isusu, na amuletima je prikazivan u obliku zmije. Oni su znali da se radi o kundalini energiji, i same Isusove riječi da je kraljevstvo božje u vama to potrvrđuju.

1. Korinćanima

Ne znate li? Hram ste Božji i Duh Božji prebiva u vama. Ako tko upropašćuje hram Božji, upropastit će njega Bog. Jer hram je Božji svet, a to ste vi.

Ili zar ne znate? Tijelo vaše hram je Duha Svetoga koji je u vama, koga imate od Boga, te niste svoji. Jer kupljeni ste otkupninom. Proslavite dakle Boga u tijelu svojem!

Prva Ivanova

Ljubljeni, sad smo djeca Božja i još se ne očitova što ćemo biti. Znamo: kad se očituje, bit ćemo njemu slični, jer vidjet ćemo ga kao što jest.


Kundalini - zmije i golubovi


Jacob's Ladder

Jakov ostavi Beer Šebu i zaputi se u Haran. (11) Stigne u neko mjesto i tu prenoći, jer sunce bijaše već zašlo. Uzme jedan kamen s onog mjesta, stavi ga pod glavu i na tom mjestu legne. (12) I usne san: ljestve stoje na zemlji, a vrhom do neba dopiru, i anđeli Božji po njima se penju i silaze. (13) Uza nj je Jahve te mu govori: "Ja sam Jahve, Bog tvoga praoca Abrahama i Bog Izakov. - Postanak

Jacob's Mystical 72 Step Ladder - 72 denotes Fullness

The ancients say that Jacob's Ladder had 72 steps. The number 72 denotes, Celestial Council, Fullness of the Nature (Name) of God and Resurrection. According to Hebrew history, each step on the Ladder represented a name of God. The 72 Names of God. It is called, The Shem hamphorash, meaning the unpronouncible name; which has the numerical value of 72. The Tetragramation (YHWH or YHVH) with all 7 or 10 of the Hebrew vowels.

The ancient prophetic Levitical Choir sang. They sang the unprouncible name of God, the Tetragramation (YHWH) using the 7-10 mystical vowels; all 72 names of God which equals 72.


72 names of God - Illyrici BOOG

Jacob's Ladder is a revelation of the most mysterious nature of God within man, the heights and depths of ascending and descending. Jesus Himself said that He is that Ladder. He is the Original Blueprint of biological manifestation of God's DNA. John 1:51

What's in the number 144 or 144,00 ? 72 x 2=144. In Rev. 21:17, we find the measurement of the wall of the holy city, New Jerusalem. This is not a literal skyscraper city somewhere in another part of the universe, that will one day float down to the Middle East. (That is a very dangerous and erroneous teaching.) Verses 9-10 clearly states that the New Jerusalem is the Bride, the Lamb's wife. Furthermore, Jesus told us that we are the city set on a hill.

The measurements of the wall (realm) in this metaphysical city is 144 cubits. 144 cubits = 300 ft or 72 yards, this is the measure of a man. God has given us the 5-fold Ministry to grow us up "..unto a Perfect (complete-mature) Man, unto the Measure of the stature of the Fullness of Christ." Ephesians 4:13 As stated early, 72 denotes Fullness.

Notice the similarity in the Human Backbone and Spine with Jacob's Ladder

There are 33 vertebrae in the human spinal column: 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar in the small of the back, 5 fused vertebrae forming a solid bone, the sacrum (tail bone). Looks like an inverted pyramid and was also called  "the seat of immortality."  In the coccyx, at the bottom of the sacrum are fused 4 bones. If you were to multiply the number of vertebrae, 33 by 2, counting both sides of the vertebrae on the spinal column we will find the number 66. (33 x 2=66) 6 is the number of man, for he was created on the 6th day, there are also 66 books of the Bible given to man. (66 + 6=72) See the similarities of Jacob's Ladder and the Spinal Column. 

Below notice the Human Skull. It has 22 bones, it sits at the top of the spinal column. The Hebrew alphabet has 22 letters, the 22nd letter,  Tav, means Light. At the top of Jacob's Ladder stood Yahweh, the Light of the world. The light of the body is the eye (mind-brain), says Jesus.


The Human Skull Has 22 Bones. 22, the Number of Light

Now look at our DNA below. You will clearly see Jacob's Ladder, the double helix and chromosomes. Within our DNA is Light (bio-photons), as Jacob saw the Lord of Light standing at the top of this spiral staircase that leads to heaven within. Each level of consciousness changes the mis-sequence codes or forgotten names of God to the original, until All is restored and we become the Tetragammation.

DNA

Jakovljev san u Betelu - Kuća božja


Shiva linga

Jakov se probudi od sna te reče: "Zaista se Jahve nalazi na ovome mjestu, ali ja nisam znao!" (17) Potresen, uzviknu: "Kako je strašno ovo mjesto! Zaista, ovo je kuća božja, ovo su vrata nebeska!" (18) Rano ujutro Jakov uzme onaj kamen što ga bijaše stavio pod glavu, uspravi ga kao stup i po vrhu mu izlije ulja. (19) Ono mjesto on nazva Betel, dok je ime tome gradu prije bilo Luz. (20) Tada učini zavjet: "Ako Bog ostane sa mnom i uščuva me na ovom putu kojim idem, dade mi kruha da jedem i odijela da se oblačim, (21) te se zdravo vratim kući svoga oca, Jahve će biti moj Bog. (22) A ovaj kamen koji sam uspravio kao stup bit će kuća Božja.

Ja sam Bog koji ti se ukazao u Betelu, gdje si uljem pomazao stup i gdje si mi učinio zavjet. - Postanak

Baetylus

U Delfima je bio postavljen omphalos, kamen u obliku pinealne žlijezde/epifize na kojem prebiva Apolon i oko njega su bile kundalini zmije. Apolon je unutarnje ili vanjsko sunce. Isti taj kamen je u Rimu bio poznat kao Baetyl, po njemu će Židovi poslije za epifizu imati naziv Bethel.

Pitija je bila zmijska proročica u Delfima, Pitagora bi značilo "zmijski guru".


The Emesa temple to the sun god Elagabalus with baetyl at center

Baetylus (also Bethel, or Betyl, from Semitic bet el "house of god") is a word denoting sacred stones that were supposedly endowed with life. A baetyl is also mentioned in the Bible at Bethel in the Book of Genesis in the story of Jacob's Ladder.

In the Phoenician mythology related by Sanchuniathon, one of the sons of Uranus was named Baetylus. The worship of baetyls was widespread in the Phoenician colonies, including Carthage, even after the adoption of Christianity, and was denounced by Augustine of Hippo.

Apollo Agyieus

Apollo Agyieus (Ancient Greek: Ἀγυιεύς, translit. Aguieus) was an epithet of the Greek god Apollo describing him as the protector of the streets, public places, and the entrances to homes. As such he was worshiped at Acharnae, Mycenae, and at Tegea. The origin of the worship of Apollo Agyieus in the last of these places is related by Pausanias.


Coin of Apollo Agyieus from Ambracia, depicting the conical representation of the god

The cult of Apollo Agyieus was aniconic, and this facet of Apollo was worshiped in the form of a pointed column or obelisk, often kept by the front door of a private home, or in the open country, rather than in a temple. This symbol is similar to a sign like an edged cone found on the gate of a temple in the Hittite city Bojatzkoi; an inscription names the god Apulunas as the protector of the gate. The Greeks named him Agyieus, as the protector God who draws off evil. Some writers have held that the omphalos of the oracle at Delphi was a modified pillar of Agyieus. When standing before a house, the stone objects would be decorated with offerings of ribbon, or wreaths of myrtle or bay.


Apollo sa sedam zraka

Yoni

Znak kršćanstva je vesica pisces ili riba. Ta riba je yoni od Šakti, to predstavlja ženski spolni organ i stoljećima je prije bilo štovano. U yoni ulazi Šivin penis linga i to tvori lingam (u Egiptu imamo slično sa Isis i Ozirisovim penisom koji je predstavljen obeliskom tj. muškim falusom). Yin i yang u taoizmu je iskrivljena verzija riječi linga i yoni. Eto odakle u Vatikanu ideja za ovu konstrukciju i obelisk. Muška u ženskoj energiji, vidimo i da je pod ocrtan sa zvijezdom sa 8 krakova. Osmerokraka zvijezda je u Babilonu predstavljala veneru tj. Ishtar, žena ima xx kromosome koji tvore 8 krakova. Gledano alkemijski, osmerokraka zvijezda simbolizira eter, božansku svijest kao rezultat spajanja M i Ž. Obelisk je Ozirisov penis u formi bika (ispred je bazilika sv. Petra, basilisk).

Ovo simbolizira i crtani Asterix. Jaki Obeliks je muška energija, lukavi Asterix (Astarte) je ženska energija.


Shiva linga - Bethel - House of God

Shiva linga - Bethel

Bet + El = Kuća božja
Bet + Lehem (Bit-Laḫmi) = Kuća kruha


Borba s Bogom - Izrael

Nato ga onaj zapita: "Kako ti je ime?" Odgovori: "Jakov." (29) Onaj reče. "Više se nećeš zvati Jakov nego Izrael, jer si se hrabro borio i s Bogom i s ljudima i nadvladao si."- Postanak

Jakob tada postaje Izrael "onaj koji se hrva sa Bogom", tj. Is Ra El. El bog sunca Ra i mjeseca Isis, spajanje dva aspekta.

 
Spomenik kaduceju je i u Astani, masonskom gradu. Drži ga predsjednik sabora Reiner koji je Židov.

Isis, Oziris i Set

Oziris i Set su bili braća, Set je raskomadao Ozirisa uz pomoć 72 zavjerenika i Isis je skupljala njegovo tijelo. Nekako se uspjela oploditi i rodila je Horusa tj. sunce. Horus i Set tj zalazeće sunce će poslije svaki dan voditi bitke. Horus (odatle riječ horizont) potiskuje Seta, a u sumrak (sun set) Set Horusa. Horus je Setu odsjekao testise, kad sunce zalazi to predstavlja mjesec i veneru. A Set je Horusu iskopao oko, Horus izlazi bez mjeseca, ali sa venerom. Horusovo oko je ustvari venera, isto kao Šivino svevideće oko.


Isis Osiris

Dvije kobre na čelu tj. mjestu trećeg oka faraona su se zvale ureaus (isto vatrena zmija), znak za prosvjetljene. Oko od boga Ra/Horusa/Ozirisa se zove još i Wadjet, prema zmijskoj boginji koja se prikazivala hijeroglifom zmije i sunca, kasnije će židovi ovo preuzeti. Ovaj hijeroglif će u gnozi evoluirati u amulete abraxas i chnoubis. Ti hijeroglifi su sjedinjavali zmiju sa lavom, pijetlom ili jastrebom, sve je to unutarnje ili vanjsko sunce. Wadjet predstavlja žlijezde u glavi. Set je Horusu oko razdijelio na šest dijelova i onda je Toth spojio oko. Šest dijelova su čula, Wadjet je šesto čulo, intuitivno treće oko.


Isis - Ra, El = Israel


Penuel - Pinealna žlijezda - Lice Boga

Onda zapita Jakov: "Reci mi svoje ime!" Odgovori onaj: "Za moje me ime ne smiješ pitati!" I tu ga blagoslovi. (31) Onom mjestu Jakov nadjene ime Penuel jer - reče - "Vidjeh Boga licem u lice, i na životu ostadoh." (32) Sunce je nad njim bilo ogranulo kad je prošao Penuel .- Postanak


Penuel

Pinealna žlijezda

Jakob sreće Boga "licem u lice" na mjestu Beth-el (Kuća božja) i to mjesto naziva Peniel (Lice Boga), jer se otvaranjem trećeg oka susrećemo sa Bogom.


Betel - Peniel

Pinealna žlijezda, koja znači otvaranje trećeg oka i krunske čakre, je na vrhu kaduceja, u Vatikanu imamo pine tree ili češer zbog toga., i na papinom štapu. Češer je simbol prosvjetljenja i besmrtnosti, jer je bor zimzelen.

The Pineal Gland and the Chemistry of Consciousness


Penuel

Pinokio znači pine tj. pinealna žlijezda plus occhio tj. treće oko. Drvodjelac se uvijek spominje u mitologijama, on označava spiritualni put.


Apolon na kamenuu obliku češera

Phanes

Phanes/Protogonos je bio "sin božji", sličan Dionizu/Zagreus, Mitri i Serapisu rođen iz kozmičkog jaja oko kojeg se zmija omotala, riječ phane znači pojaviti se, zasvjetliti na grčki.


Phanes

Epifiza

Pinealna žlijezda se još zove epifiza, zato je kršćanski blagdan epifanija ili bogojavljanje, javlja se bog u epifizi (zove se i Teofanija, teo/bog). Epiphanes = epi phanes.


Pinealna žlijezda - epifiza

Sv. Epifanije je izvjestio da se 6. siječnja slavi u Aleksandriji rođenje Aiona od strane djevice Kore (Perzefone). Tako imamo i Epinikije, ode pobjedniku (epi+Nikea božica pobjede), u Grčkoj ih je pjevao pjesnik Pindar.

Phineus was a king of Thrace and seer who appears in accounts of the Argonauts' voyage.

U "Hipostazi arhonata", gnostičkom spisu iz Nag Hamadija Adamu je poslana sa neba Epinoia, da ga prosvjetli i probudi, skine mu veo sa lica (epifiza kao prosvjetljenje).


Epifiza

Riječ epinoia bez samoglasnika tj. PN možemo povezati sa pine (češer), pneuma (božanski dah), pan (znači sve, Pan kao grčki bog sa frulom sa sedam cijevi, Pan kao kruh tj. mana božja...), paun, penta.

Epifanija/bogojavljanje ili sveta tri kralja, u Indiji se u čast Šive crta tri horizontalne linije, trinetra na mjestu trećeg oka, ili se crta Šivin trozubac trišula.

Kovčeg saveza - Betel - Pinhas

I kod kovčega zavjeta imamo aluziju na pinealnu žlijezdu. Kovčeg zavjeta je čuvan u istom Beth elu, a čuvao ga je Aaronov unuk Phinehas.

Tada svi Izraelci i sav narod odoše u Betel te plakahu i stajahu ondje pred Jahvom; cio su dan postili do večeri, prinosili paljenice i žrtve pomirnice pred Jahvom. (27) I tad opet Izraelci upitaše Jahvu, jer se u ono vrijeme Kovčeg saveza Božjega nalazio na tome mjestu, (28) i Pinhas, sin Aronova sina Eleazara, posluživaše ga. - Suci


Penuel - Pinealna žlijezda - Epifiza


Hyksos - Creta

At the end of the 12th dynasty a people called "Hyksos" settled down in the eastern delta. After a presence in the country for about 150 years another hyksos dynasty (15) made a fortified capital of Avaris.

The period of their rule was a time of peace and prosperity for Egypt. They respected the native religions, maintained ancient Egyptian as the official language of the government, and allowed many Egyptians to serve in the high levels of the administration of the state.

They had their own gods but never imposed these on the indigenous people and the language in the administration continued to be Egyptian. They only one domestic god they worshipped was - Set, who they identified as their own god of storms.  They seem to have adopted Egyptian manners, laws, and had trade relations with the Minoans and Babylonians. They were recognized by later Egyptians and listed as legitimate kings, but no tombs from these half a dozen rulers have been found and their personal names were non-Egyptian.

The kings claimed themselves pharaohs with all the regalia and tradition attached to that title and the more than hundred years they ruled northern Egypt was mainly a time of peace and prosperity. 

A big advantage in combat was their introduction of horses (a new animal to the Egyptians), previously unknown elements in the Egyptian army and they also introduced improved weapons. At most they had control down to the middle Egyptian town of Hermopolis and thus divided the Nile Valley into two parts with the Egyptian dynasties 16 and 17 ruling the south.

Avaris - Minoan connection

Avaris was the capital of Egypt under the Hyksos. It was located at modern Tell el-Dab'a. The site at Tell el-Dab'a, covering an area of about 2 square kilometers, is in ruins today, but excavations have shown that, at one point, it was a well-developed center of trade with a busy harbour catering to over 300 ships during a trading season. Artifacts excavated at a temple erected in the Hyksos period have produced goods from all over the Aegean world. The temple even has Minoan-like wall paintings that are similar to those found on Crete at the Palace of Knossos. A large mudbrick tomb has also been excavated to the west of the temple, where grave-goods, such as copper swords, have been found.

Avaris, along with Tel Kabri in Israel and Alalakh in Syria, also has a record of Minoan civilization, which is otherwise quite rare in the Levant. Manfred Bietak, an Austrian archaeologist and the excavator of Tell Dab'a, has speculated that there was close contact with the rulers of Avaris, and that the large building representing the frescoes allowed the Minoans to have a ritual life in Egypt.

 

Creto-semitica

I have always been reluctant to use the term MINOAN, which was coined by Arthur Evans from the name of Minos, the legendary King of Crete, and is currently applied to an epoch stretching from around 3000, or else 2000, BCE, but certainly in the time when palaces were built.  What I wanted to know was whether Minos reigned in the period of Linear A (before the 15th Century BCE) or Linear B (the era when Mycenaean Greek was the official language used at Knossos, as it was in the cities of the mainland, such as Pylos). Given the tradition that Minos lived a few generations before the Trojan War, the end of the Bronze Age seemed to be the correct time for him.

The story of Minos and his Minotaur, in which young people from Greece were brought to Crete as a sacrificial form of tribute, suggests to me that Minos was a tyrant who had conquered Crete and was subduing Greece, and that the language and era of Linear A was his. Seeing that a Semitic language is detectable in Linear A documents, the question now becomes: was Minos Semitic or Hellenic?

Since Minos was traditionally associated with Europa and Kadmos (clearly from the Semitic East, qadm) he would not be Hellenic but Semitic.

The terrm 'Eteocretan' (Duhoux Étéocrétois) seems to say echt-Cretan, original Cretan; but it is applied to the language of the late tablets inscribed with a Semitic language in Greek alphabetic letters (Cyrus Gordon). The implication seems to be that the original Cretans were Semitic. But I doubt this. The so-called Eteocretans may have been the dominant people of the Minoan period (17th century onwards) but they were Semitic interlopers who had invaded the island and imposed their rule. A possible reason for this invasion was the expulsion of the 'Hyksos' Semites  from northern Egypt, though Crete might have become part of this empire even earlier. (Conversely, the Philistines who settled in Palestine at the end of the Bronze Age, and who reportedly came from Kaphtor [Amos 9:7, Jer 47:4; cp. the Kaphtorim from Kaphtor in the region of Gaza, Dt 2:23] which is undoubtedly Crete [Kaptara] may have been Semitic; the Philistian language has not been clearly identified )

In this scenario a strong but not necessarily exclusive Hellenic presence pervaded Crete before the Semitic invasion, and there was a resurgence in the Mycenean period and beyond, to the present day. My suspicion is that the two logo-syllabic (unhelpfully called 'hieroglyphic') writing systems were constructed acrophonically on the basis of Hellenic.The northern script is found at Knossos and Mallia; the southern script is represented by the Phaistos disc and a few tablets, and the disc has been read by Steven Fischer as an account of a naval invasion, written in a Hellenic dialect; and I suggest that it might well be the Semites who are attacking Phaistos. Thereafter, the official script is Linear A (which is a stylized form of the Knossos script, not the Phaistos script).

With regard to Kadmos: he is said to have introduced writing to the Greeks, and this is usually  thought to refer to the Grecian alphabet, which emerges in the 8th Century BCE, the time of Homer. Another possibility is that the model of the acrophonic logo-syllabary, as known from Byblos and elsewhere, was what came from the East, and was the basis for the two pictophonic writing systems of Crete, specifically the Knossos and Phaistos scripts.

(1) Kingship

Evidence for kingship is hard to find in Crete, and at this point I am struggling to detect a word for it in the Linear A and Eteocretan documents that are available at present.

When the language is West Semitic (Phoenician, Hebrew, Arabic) the word is malku/malik/melek. In East Semitic (Akkadian, Babylonian, Assyrian) it is sharru($arru). In the decipherment of the Ugaritic cuneiform alphabet script, and in the cracking of the West Semitic (Phoenician) alphabet, and its predecessor the West Semitic (Byblian) syllabary, mlk was an important clue. See my summary article, which does not mention mlk!

<https://www.academia.edu/12894458/The_origin_of_the_alphabet>
<http://cryptcracker.blogspot.co.nz/2014/09/goldwasser-alphabet.html>  My search for an instance of m-r-k (r represents l or r) in the Cretan texts has been fruitless, thus far.

Nevertheless, there may be a word for 'ruler' in Praisos 2 (Eteocretan): MOSEL, Hebrew moshel (Gordon 1966, 11).

And malik can be seen (and also sar) in Cypro-Cretan (Cypro-Minoan) documents:

Enkomi cylinder, lines 2-3  <https://sites.google.com/site/collesseum/cypriancylinder>.
Cyprian tablet from Ugarit (RS 20.25) line 19 https://sites.google.com/site/collesseum/ccnamelist

On the Hagia Triada tablets a term SARU occurs (86, 94, 95, 123); also SARO (9, 17, 19, 42); and  SARYA (11. 18, 28, 30, 32).

Jan Best (11-15) has studied HT 11b. one of the SARYA tablets (he transcribes SARA2 as sari, 'my king').

He notes that the two words accompanying it could be Semitic titles. My version of these would be:

RUZUNA = Hbr razon, 'dignitary, potentate' (root rzn, 'have weight'); in Proverbs 14: 28 it is in parallel with mlk, 'king').

SAQERI = Hbr sokher, 'trader'; in I Kings 10:28, it refers to 'the king's buyers' (Solomon's agents).

The tablet ends with the KURO, meaning 'total', and that seems to correspond to Semitic kullu, Hbr kol, 'all'.

(2) Numbers

In Creto-Semitica (1) Kingship,  I struggled to find a Semitic word for 'king'. In Linear A texts, SARU was a faint possibility (East Semitic sharru 'king', or Hebrew sar  'prince, officer, leader'), but no trace of West Semitic malku. However, Eteocretan  MOSEL (written in Greek alphabet letters) could be moshel 'ruler' (Hebrew).

We now begin a quest for numbers/numerals in Linear A texts ('Eteocretan A', perhaps) and ' Eteocretan H' texts (Hellenic, in that they use the Greek alphabet, but the language is the same as in some, if not all, Linear A inscriptions). I must ask from the outset this serious question: if the language is indeed West Semitic, why did they not use the Byblos syllabary in the Bronze Age, and the Phoenician alphabet in the Iron Age, since Linear A and the Greek alphabet are not suited to a language which has so many different sounds needing to be separately recorded?

If we could find the words for the numbers (the names of the numerals) we could see immediately which language family we are looking at, whether Afro-Asiatic (Hamito-Semitic), 'Euro-Asiatic' (Indo-European), 'Anatolic',  'Caucasic' (Hurrian), Finno-Ugric or an unknown unique tongue. In the latter case, it has been said that what we see in the Linear A and Eteocretan documents bears no resemblance to any known language (Yves Duhoux, Brent Davis); but practitioners of the 'discredited' etymological method of decipherment will beg to differ, along several separate paths, of course, and mine will be the Via Semitica.

We know the signs of the Cretan numerical scheme:  it is a decimal system, with digits (|) for 1 to 9, and horizontal strokes  (--)  for tens; but these ideograms conceal the names of the numbers from us.

We accept that KURO introduces the total of the numbers in lists, particularly on Hagia Triada tablets, but there is an example from Zakros: Tablet ZA 15ab concerns wine, as the five occurrences of the VIN ideogram testify. There are ten words in its list, and as usual we wonder whether they are names of persons (anthroponyms), places (toponyms), or things (common nouns); each has an accompanying numeral.

The first line of ZA 15ab has: *47 ku na sa VINa (and no numeral).

SA is a simple Y-shaped representation of a cuttle-fish (*sapia, sêpia).

NA is an eye with a tear-flow (nama)

KU is dog-head, with an eye and a protruding tongue (kuôn).

AB 47 is a  circle with  X, and it might be YI, or a variant of AB46 YE, representing a person walking.

A sequence yikuna looks very Semitic, as a verbal form, from the root kwn, 'be'; but the additional SA produces a possible word from the root k-n-s or k-n-sh, 'gather, collect'. When we come to examine the formulas on offering-tables, we will encounter unakanasi, and 'collect' would fit the context of giving and gathering that a Semitic reading reaps from those inscriptions. Here the introductory word might refer to the wine that has been collected; it is a heading and therefore does not have a number.

ZA 4ab tells a similar story about wine, but it is damaged, and the first line is lost; it shares two words with ZA 15ab: kadi and sipiki. ZA 5b also has sipiki, again with a wine connection, but much of the text is lacking on both sides. Hebrew spq denotes 'abundance' and has been used with reference to wine;  but Semitic sh-p-k has the meaning 'pour'; the universe is riddled with coincidences, and perhaps neither of these choices is valid. WS kad 'jar' or 'jug' was for liquids or grains. If these two items were containers (for pouring wine), then the rest of the words would presumably refer to vessels; but speculation is cheap. Incidentally, the  -i ending could be the indicator of masculine plural (kadi, 'jugs')

Note also that  the Zakros scribe distinguishes I and NO clearly (on ZA 6, for example): the sign for NO is an upraised hand (in my view it symbolizes kheirôn nomos, the law of force) with a prominent thumb on the right side; the I-character might be a suppliant's olive branch wound round with wool (' iketêria elaia) with the end of the thread projecting on the right. Also of importance for us is the sign AB34 (on ZA 6a.1) which, I have long maintained, stands for KRA (it represents a side-view of an eyeball with the pupil, glênê); and it is not a mere variant of AB35, KRO (klôstêr, 'thread' or 'line') which shows a cord wound on a stick, a measuring 'line'; this  same character is the origin of Q in the alphabet (qaw, a 'line'). KRA appears in a Linear A legend  on a bowl from Knossos (KN Zcb), in a word kratiri  (=kratêr).

Turning now to the KURO in ZA 15, the sum of all the numbers (57+10+3+6+2+5+4+5+3) is 95; but the kuro total is divided into two parts: VINa 78, RA VINa 17.

HT 122b  has an interesting addition to this practice (again there are two totals):

kuro 31 (122a 8) kuro 65 (122b 5) potokuro 97(?) (122b 6).

The potokuro must mean 'grand total', or 'sum total' of the two totals. If it is a Semitic term, perhaps it is bat (Hbr bath) kul, 'daughter total'; but this could possibly imply that the new total is less than its two parent-totals, but not necessarily; I have not found an analogy for this.

Here is another thought: it says 'pan-total', 'all in all'. Could  poto be related to pant- or pantô(s), as a Greek loan-word? My suspicion is that there was a Hellenic dialect lurking in Crete (before the Mycenians came) and it may even be recorded on the imprinted disc from Phaistos, near Hagia Triada.

KIRO is another word on the administration tablets; it is believed to mean something like  'deficit'; at the moment I can only suggest a faintly possible connection with Hebrew kl', 'hold back, withhold')

Is there an equivalent to kuro  in the late Eteocretan H inscriptions? These are not accounting documents, so there is no counterpart for 'total'. But on Praisos 1 and 3  there is a sequence KLES  (Kappa Lambda Epsilon Sigma). Cyrus Gordon understood  kl es as West Semitic kol 'ish, 'every man'.

One Semitic numeral that stands out in decipherment exercises is the number three (3): t-l- t/sh-l-sh. My search in Linear A texts has not brought anything like that to light. But Gordon has highlighted three possible numerals in Praisos 2 (and Yves Duhoux did not take sufficient account of these in his critique of Gordon's Semitic hypothesis):

SPhA[A] (Hbr sheba`) 'seven'; TSAA (Hbr tesha`) 'nine'; SAR (Hbr  `eser) 'ten' (or perhaps TORSAR, 'twelve').

There is enough material here already to show that these two Cretan media of writing (Linear A, Greek alphabet) were not adequate for recording West Semitic:  S syllabograms and Sigma had to cover a batch of sibilants (s, ts, shin, sin,  t, z); and 'gutturals' had no letters to accommodate them ('alep, `ayin, gh, h, h., h). This will also make it easy for the sceptical to dismiss my case.

(3) Vessels

Words for containers have already been considered in section 2, namely kadi (jars?) and sipiki ('pourers', jugs?) in ZA 4 and Za 15. we move now to HT 31 (unfortunately one-third of its text is obliterated); it has depictions of various vessels with their names written above them, and these are probably Semitic. Actually, this tablet should have been saved for the grand finale of my presentation of the evidence, so that it could function as the verifying "tripod" (a Linear B tablet with a Greek  word ti-ri-po-de, and a drawing of a three-legged vessel confirmed Michael Ventris's decipherment). By coincidence, this Linear A document (HT 31) also depicts a tripod vessel, but there is apparently no name above it. However, my climax will focus on reading sentences (see CRETAN SEMITIC TEXTS), but at this point it is a matter of identifying Semitic vocabulary.

What I am offering on my websites is a contribution to the decipherment of some intractable West Semitic and Aegean scripts: the West Semitic logo-syllabary, the logo-consonantary (proto-alphabet), and the new syllabary of early Israel; also the Kaptarian Linear A syllabary of Crete , and the Alashiyan syllabary of Cyprus; and finally some new ideas for reading Eteocretan inscriptions. The use of the Greek alphabet for the West Semitic language of the Eteocretans is surprising, given the existence of the Phoenician alphabet, which was entirely suited to their needs. The same can be said of the Semitic “Minoans” and their adoption of the Cretan syllabary (Linear A), with its scope for a mere dozen consonants, when their language had at least twenty-two, and possibly twenty-seven (as shown by the long and short Canaanian alphabets). Incidentally, this phenomenon should be kept in mind by anyone attempting to describe the phonology of the “Minoan” language.[1]

Eteocretan should mean echt (or true) Cretan; but accepting the Semitic Eteocretans as the original Cretans or Kaptarians is questionable: possibly Hellenes preceded the Semites, but were subdued by them for a while, under West Semitic rulers such as the archetypal Minos, and then the tables were turned.[2] In this regard, Homer’s list of ethnic groups in Crete (Odyssey 19.172)[3] is either instructive or inscrutable: “Akhaians, great-hearted Eteokretans, Kudonians, Dorians, Pelasgians”.

And he mentions Knôsos as the great city where Minôs reigned; but he does not say in which group Minos belonged.

Are Akhaians placed first, because they were there first? Strabo (around the beginning of the current era, CE) reports that the Dorians occupied the east of Crete, the Kudonians the west, and the Eteokretans the south, at Praesos where the temple of Diktian Zeus was.[4] The Akhaians and Pelasgians have disappeared. Perhaps the mysterious Pelasgians (the term is generally understood as meaning non-Greek and pre-Hellenic) were the indigenes of Crete. But the “Akhaian” newcomers introduced the syllabary to the island, under Phoenician influence.

Traditionally, Kadmos (whose very name bewrays him as a Semite from the East, Phoenician qadmu) taught the art of writing to the Greeks. This information should be applied to the invention of the pictophonic syllabary in the Bronze Age in Crete, rather than the alphabet in the Iron Age in Greece, though it is true that in each case the Phoenicians provided the writing materials: first, the idea of a simple acrophonic syllabary with pictophonic characters (as employed in Gubla, Greek Byblos); and second, an alphabet (the Phoenician consonantary), to which the Greeks added vowel-letters, using consonant-signs that were superfluous to their purposes (Alpha the glottal stop became A, for example). But it was in Crete that the Phoenicians taught Greeks to write syllabically. It seems that the two early writing systems of Crete (emanating from Knossos in the north and from Phaistos in the south) are based on a Hellenic language[5] (and this idea has been tested in the inventory of Cretan syllabograms appended here). Minos and his dynasty were interlopers, perhaps from the time of the Hyksos empire in Egypt, when Phoenicians were scouring the world in their ships.

The term “Minoan” was coined by Arthur Evans; it is like “Victorian”, referring to an era and a culture, and named after a monarch; and perhaps the Semites of Crete did consider themselves to be Minoans in some sense; and somehow they became Eteocretans, but they were really Neo-Cretans, and their genetic heritage may still linger in the population.

Nanno Marinatos has produced a book (2010) in which she argues that “palatial Crete” (Bronze-Age Kaptar) belonged in the Near East, comprising Anatolia, Syria, the Levant, and Egypt. She quotes Evans at the head of her Introduction: “Throughout its course Minoan civilization continued to absorb elements from the Asiatic side”. Marinatos reminds us that Kothar, the West Semitic god of arts and crafts, had his abode in Kaptar (and he was also at home in Egyptian Memphis, as Ptah, and perhaps in Mesopotamia as Heyan, if that is Ea/Enki).[6] Accordingly, Marinatos proposes a religious koine of the Mediterranean world, and if Minoan religion was West Semitic, like the Minoan language, then she must be right. Deities and details of the religion have been set aside here, but there is no doubt that the West Semitic pantheon can be found in the Kaptarian documents.[7]

[1] Davis 2014: 193-268 (Linguistic analysis of Linear A).

[2] Marinatos 2010: 1-8 for a historical reconstruction of the Kaptar period.

[3] This and other ancient pieces of evidence are assembled in Duhoux 1982:9-12.

[4] Duhoux 1982: 10.

[5] Steven Fischer (1988) takes this stance, but he calls the Minoans “Greeks” (“East Hellenes”, p. 69).

[6] Marinatos 2010: 1; Gibson 1978: 54-55, Wyatt 1998: 88-90, for the Ugaritic myth (KTU 1.3, vi, 5-20) showing Kothar as the deity connecting the various realms of the Near East, also including Gubla (Byblos), and possibly Keilah (Gibson, citing1 Samuel 23:1, which has the Philistines attacking this town in Israel) or simply “the summit” (Wyatt).

[7] Gordon 1966: 31; Best 1989: 12-24.

 

Ke-re-ta (Minoan) c. 2100 - 1600 BC

Kretska talasokracija je civilizacija nastala na otoku Kreti, a procvat je imala od 2700. do 1450. pr. Kr., kada ju zamijenjuje Mikenska grčka kultura. Krečani su bili uglavnom trgovački narod koji se je bavio sa prekomorskom trgovinom. Njihova kultura, od otprilike 1700. p. n. e. nadalje, prikazuje veliki stepen organizacije, bez ikakvog traga vojnog plemstva koje je karakteriziralo buduće civilizacije.

  • Prirodna katastrofa oko 1600 p.n.e. erupcija vulkana Thera.
  • Oko 1420 p.n.e. Krečane zamijenjuju Mikenjani.
  • Negdje oko 1100 p.n.e. stižu Dorani.
Sustav za pisanje Zemljopisno područje Vrijeme trajanja
Kretsko hijeroglifsko Kreta (istok od osi Knossos-Phaistos) c. 2100-1700 BC
Linear A Kreta (osim krajnjem jugozapadu), Egejskim otocima (Kea, Kythera, Melos, Thera) i grčkom kopnu (Laconia) c. 1800-1450 BC
Linear B Kreta (Knossos), i kopna (Pylos, Mycenae, Thebes, Tiryns) c. 1450-1200 BC

 

 

Knos na grčkom otoku Kreti smatra se najstarijim evropskim gradom. U periodu između 3.000 i 1.400 god. prije nove ere Kreta je postala kolijevka jedne napredne civilizacije. Početkom 2. milenija pr.n.e. postao je centar proizvodnje i obrade bronze, koju su Krećani u velikoj mjeri izvozili. Pomorska trgovina obogatila je Kretu, te se oko 2.000 godine pr.n.e. na otoku grade prve palače, u velikim centrima, Knosu, Gurniji, Maliji i Festu.

Najpoznatija od njih je svakako palača u Knosu, koja je bila sagrađena, odnosno dograđivana kasnije u nekoliko faza, između 17. i 15. stoljeća pr.n.e. Prostirala se na 24 hiljade četvornih metara i imala je 1.300 prostorija. Bio je to kompleks sačinjen od prostorija namijenjenih stanovanju, te za administrativne, gospodarske i religijske svrhe. Kompleks je imao tekuću vodu, te sistem kanalizacija. Ono što prvo upada kod arhitekture u oči jesu karakteristični stupovi crvene boje, koji imaju užu bazu, a šire se prema vrhu.

Kretska religija fokusira se na ženska božanstva, a žene su također bile svećenice. Na pronađenim freskama vidi se kako je izgledala ženska moda. Žene su nosile veste sa kratkim rukavima, i slojevite naborane dugačke suknje. Te su veste bile otvorene do pupka, te dozvoljavale grudima da budu otkrivene Muškarci su nosili pregače i kiltove.

Profesor Cyrus H. Gordon (Forgotten Scripts; Evidence for the Minoan language) otvorio je novo područje proučavanja pokazavši da je rano kretsko pismo, pod nazivom Linearno A, predstavljalo semitski jezik. Zaključio je da je ''uzorak, za razliku od sadržaja, hebrejske i kretske civilizacije u izuzetnoj mjeri sličan" i istaknuo da se ime otoka Kreta, piše Ke-re-ta, što je podudarno s hebrejskom riječju ke-re-et (ozidani grad), i ima svoj pandan u semitskoj priči o kralju Kereta.

 

Bull-Leaping Fresco

 

 

Zlatno Tele i Brončana Zmija

Pošto se kralj posavjetovao, načini dva zlatna teleta i reče narodu: "Dosta ste uzlazili u Jeruzalem! Evo, Izraele, tvoga boga koji te izveo iz zemlje egipatske." (29) Zatim postavi jedno tele u Betelu, a drugo smjesti u Dan. - 1. Kraljevima

Treće godine kraljevanja Hošee, sina Elina, u Izraelu, postao je judejskim kraljem Ezekija, sin Ahazov. (2) Bilo mu je dvadeset i pet godina kad se zakraljio. Kraljevao je dvadeset i devet godina u Jeruzalemu. Materi mu je bilo ime Abija, Zaharijina kći. (3) Činio je što je pravo u očima Jahvinim, sasvim kao njegov otac David. (4) On je uklonio uzvišice, srušio je stupove, sasjekao je ašere i razbio zmiju od mjedi koju bijaše načinio Mojsije. - 2. Kraljevima

Nakon Solomonove smrti, 12 Izraelovih plemena se podijelilo na 10 plemena koji su činili Izrael i oni su štovali zlatno tele (bik), i kraljevstvo Judeju od 2 plemena i oni su štovali brončanu zmiju.

Tau Križ - Ankh

A Slava Boga Izraelova vinu se s kerubina, nad kojima lebdijaše, prema pragu Doma. I pozva čovjeka odjevena u lan, koji imaše za pojasom pisarski pribor, (4) te mu reče: "Prođi gradom Jeruzalemom i znakom 'tau' obilježi čela sviju koji tuguju i plaču zbog gnusoba što se u njemu čine!" (5) A drugima reče na moje uši: "Pođite za njim gradom i ubijajte bez milosrđa. Oči vaše neka se ne sažale i nemajte smilovanja. (6) Pobijte starce, mladiće, djevojke, djecu i žene; istrijebite ih sve do posljednjega. Ali na kome bude znak 'tau', njega ne dirajte. - Ezekiel

Crux anxata ili ankh križ, kojeg viđamo kod faraona, sastoji se od tau križa, koji je simbol bika jer kao ima rogove. Kružnica iznad predstavlja ru ili zmiju vječnosti ouroboros. Tau + ru, taurus tj. bik.


Ankh

Bik i Zmija

Bik i zmija često idu zajedno, zmija Apep plus Apis su sinkretizirali u Apopis koji je bio glavno božanstvo Hiksa, poslije kad postanu Židovi opet će štovati zmiju i bika tj. tau križ.

Za Ptolomejevića je sinkretiziran bog Serapis, seraph zmija plus apis, sličan Ozirisu. Mitra i Serapis su predstavljani zmijama, Serapisu je iz glave izlazilo sedam sunčevih zraka kao sedam čakri.

Prema egipatskom svetom biku je nazvan otok Santorini, san toro. Minotaur (poveznica sa Egiptom je Min/Mn, bog plodnosti u obliku bika plus taur=bik). U Grčkoj je božanstvo bilo Ophiotaurus, pola zmija pola bik.

Sicilija je dobila ime po sv. Ceciliji. koja je znala svirati sve instrumente i na Siciliji je umrla (njeno ime vjerojatno potječe od egipatskog instrumenta sistrum). Zastava Sicilije je tronoga trinacria, slično kao irski triskelion, što na grčkom znači tronogi. To sve potječe od Ekapade, tronogog aspekta boga Šive u Indiji.

Asklepija se može povezati sa Mitrom i Serapisom, Imhotepom u Egiptu.. U Mezopotamiji imamo sličan simbol, Ningishzidu, uvijanje dviju zmija oko Tammuza, njega možemo povezati sa Hermes/Toth bogovima.

Asklepija je zamijenio Hermes tj. Merkur, kretska dvostruka sjekira  sa dvije zmije koje se uvijaju oko nje do pinealne žlijezde na vrhu štapa, današnji znak medicine. Ovo je sličan motiv kao i egipatski sunčev disk, asirski ashur ili iranska ahura mazda (Faravahar), imamo isto dvije zmije i dva krila koja predstavljaju otvoren um i čakre, oko unutrašnjeg sunca. dvije polovice mozga otvorene.

Hermes je korijen kao i ormuz, hurmuz tj. drugo ime za ahuru mazdu ili orzmund zmija čiji je otac bio a. mazda. na jugozapadu Irana je danas regija Hormoz, nekad je bilo tu carstvo Ormuz. U Aleksandriji će se pojaviti kasnije gnostička sekta Ormus, čiji je osnivač bio Ormesius, njima će se priključiti terapeuti i eseni.

Koheni

Koheni su Egiptu bili svećenici Anubisa, koji je pratitelj mrtvih kao i Hermes, spajanjem helenske i egipatske kulture početkom nove ere ova dva božanstva će sinkretizirati u Hermanubisa. Anubis korespondira sa sazviježđem veliki pas i zvijezdom Sirius, Ima glavu šakala, vukovi su npr. povezivani sa svijetom mrtvih. On je bio sin Ozirisa i Neftis, suncem u utobi zemlje i boginje mjeseca. koja je bila bitna za određivanje razine Nila. Isto će Hermes sinkretizirati sa svojom egipatskom verzijom Totom, koji je zapisivao težinu duše koje je mjerio Anubis, novi će se bog zvati Hermes trismegistos. Coheni su bili inicirani zmiijski svećenici, Anubis je isto nosio kaducej. Leviti su bili pjevači i pomagači u hramu.


Kohen

Mojsije sa rogovima

Mojsije je prikazivan u umjetnosti sa rogovima, to je znak i njegove prosvjetljenosti. Rogovi ili sunčeve zrake kao kruna ili halo isu znak otvorenosti krunske čakre su često prikazivani kod prosvjetljenih ljudi, nekako je to prešlo i na prikaz sotone, jako čudno.

Obično je kod prosvjetljenih sedam ili dvanaest sunčevih zraka, jer ima po Vedama sedam ili dvanaest stupnjeva svijesti. Brahma, Višnu i Šiva emaniraju sedan zraka, sedam Kumara prenosi zrake Chohanima tj. gospodarima zraka koji ih raspoređuju na zemlji.


Mojsije sa rogovima

 

Sophia

Korijen golubice columbe vjerojatno je coluber/colubra, zmija. Riječ column tj. stup = coluber + MN egipatski bog bik. Axis mundi ili kolumn je predstavljana bikom oko kojeg ide zmija. Pa imamo riječ kolobar tj. opseg, op ili oph je zmija kao u riječi optički.

Slovo S je uvijek označavalo zmiju, i po obliku i sss je imitiralo zmiju, npr. riječ za mudrost S plus ophia tj. zmija, Sophia. Sophia je bila ženska energija koju su gnostici štovali.

 
Sophia i sedam Nebesa

Gnoza

Svaka religija ima priču za mase tj. vanjski krug i onu gnostičku, za inicirane i one koje žele znati, u svakoj gnozi je poznata zmija. Radi se u biti o jednoj religiji i gnozi u više varijacija. Unutarnji krug je uvijek želio biti hijerarhijski odvojen, u srednjem vijeku se koristio kod nas crkvenoslavenski ili latinski, pape su zato odbacivale svjetovno ime i uzimale zvučno sveto ime. U Aleksandriji, na istom su se mjestu našli grčki platonisti, perzijski magi, budistički misionari, židovski mistici, egipatski svećenici, neoplatonisti, kabalisti, alkemičari (npr. Coelho koji je napisao Alkemičara je Kohan, alkemija je hermetička praksa s velikim utjecajem na prvo kršćanstvo), gnostička društva tipa ormiti/ormus, ofiti ili naesseni. To sve znači zmija, naesseni su proizašli iz essena, sekte judaizma od kojih je uzeta osnova za kršćanstvo (nazareni su bili podsekta esena, poslije je to krivo prevedeno u Nazareth).


Svaka religija je imala priču za mase i onu za inicirane gnostike, i u svakoj se gnozi znalo za zmiju.

Eseni su štovali Meriku, to je vjerojatno venera, po njoj je Amerika dobila ime. Svi su imali znak križa ili koplja oko kojeg se uvija zmija, slovo S nekad. Gnostičke sekte koje su imale znanje o zmiji su bili Katari/Albigensi, koji su proganjani od katoličke crkve (imali su znak bika i zmije, po njima je sv. Katarina aleksandrijska zaštitinica filozofa i znanstvenika ) i kod nas krstjani tj. bogumili..

U Bosni su prvi progoni krstjana počeli od Stjepana/Stefana Tomaša, koji im je u mladosti pripadao, kasnije se pokatoličio, njegov amblem je bio slovo T i S koje se uvija oko T, sa krunom na vrhu. Bogumili su nastali na učenjima perzijskog dualizma manihejstva (spoj kršćanstva i zoroastrizma), vjerovali su u reinkarnaciju i bio je jak kult zmije i bika.


Stefan Tvrtko

Knossos Crete

Gnoza će dobiti ime po Knossosu.

The name Knossos was formerly Latinized as Cnossus or Cnossos, and occasionally Knossus, Gnossus, or Gnossos.

 

Bik i Zmija

 
Knossos Crete

Ur of the Chaldeans Index New Kingdom