Göbekli Tepe

First Temple, c. 10950 - 9600 BC

Göbekli Tepe First Temple

Göbekli Tepe

Göbekli Tepe is an ancient city in south-east Turkey (just at the northern edge of the Fertile Crescent) where 11,000 year-old megaliths (predating Stonehenge by 6,000 years) have been discovered. Experts are suggesting that it is the world’s first holy place. Seven-ton stone pillars are arranged in circles, but there are no signs of a settlement (e.g. cooking hearths, trash pits, figurines). Nearby, evidence of the world’s oldest domesticated strains of wheat have been found, dated to about 10,500 years ago. Other sites in the region have shown that within a 1,000 years settlers will have corralled sheep, cattle and pigs. So it looks as if a major socio-cultural effort occurred before the emergence of agriculture. Pillar carvings are of lions, spiders, snakes and scorpions, and not deer or cattle. Was it a burial ground, or a centre of a death cult, or perhaps it had a role to play in helping people master the fears of the unknown?

This article highlights a number of additional features about this particular site. Firstly, stone toolmakers usually lived and worked near water and game, but this mound is located at the highest elevation of the mountain range, approximately 305 m above the surrounding plain. The closest water source is 5 km away. No evidence of livestock has been found at the site, so the builders may have had to travel down to hunt or farm.

Based on the abundance of stone tools and bones from wild animals, this site is classified as Aceramic or Pre-Pottery Neolithic. This means there is no evidence of pottery, not even ceramic figurines, as is common among other sites classified as Pottery Neolithic. Most tools were made of flint, along with a few made out of bones and antlers. Mortars, pestles, and other stone vessels were made of basalt or limestone and used in the absence of pottery. Other items of daily life hint that Göbekli Tepe’s residents were much like the other stone toolmakers in the region. They wore small drilled beads, a common jewelry for this period, found with decorated stone vessels, and stone cups and bowls with crafted designs.




But what makes this site special is the architecture, with terrazzo floors, massive stone pillars, and even some abstract art. Archaeologist uncovered buildings containing several rectangular rooms and round structures, with terrazzo floors. The round structures were made out of massive stone pillars, arranged into concentric circles. Each circle was between 9 m and 30 m in diameter. The terrazzo was made of burnt limestone and clay and then polished to give it a spotted appearance. Terrazzo produced in this way creates a flooring surface that is extremely durable and resistant to moisture. The most outstanding feature were the T-shaped monolithic pillars. Each column is made from a single piece of stone and ranges in height from 1.5 m to 5.5 m and weighs up to 16 tons. Researchers have discovered ancient quarries where the pillars were cut, located a quarter mile away in the surrounding limestone outcropping. At least three of the unfinished columns still lie there, and they appear to have been made with simple flint tools. So far only four circles have been uncovered, containing 47 T-shaped pillars. According to a geomagnetic survey of the mound, which included ground-penetrating radar, there are possibly up to twenty such circular areas. The sheer size of the pillars and the effort required to create these monumental spaces suggest that they were not homesteads but something much more significant. Most archeologists now believe that Göbekli Tepe was a sanctuary or retreat used for spiritual or communal purposes rather than a city with homes and children.

If so, this does not fit the secular view of human culture, which assumed hunter-gatherers eventually learned to farm, settled down, and only then made monuments. This site has forced archaeologists to consider the possibility that the human drive to build and worship came first.

If we stopped there, the story of Göbekli Tepe would be fascinating enough. But there is more. Not only did the builders create beautiful terrazzo floors and transport 16-ton pillars, but they also fashioned their pillars and stoneware with decorative human and animal motifs. All the pillars were built with the same abstract design. The rectangular top looks like a head, and then human arms and hands were sometimes carved into the body. These human forms were often clothed with loincloths, jewelry, and belts, complete with buckles.

The majority of the artwork at Göbekli Tepe depicts animals. Snakes are most common, but you can also find foxes, boars, asses, cranes, ducks, vultures, scorpions, spiders, bulls, and rams. The fox seems to have played a significant role in the lives of these people. At the center of two circular structures are twin pillars with foxes on them. In one impressive pillar, the fox is held under the right elbow of the human figure, who also appears to be wearing a fox skin. Nowhere else among Pre-Pottery Neolithic sites is the fox image given this much importance. No known ancient religion gives the fox such a significant role, and its role at Göbekli Tepe is still a matter of debate.

Few of the creatures depicted in the stone carvings are among the piles of bones found at the site. Instead, over 90% of the bones are of hoofed animals such as the wild ass. So it appears that the carved animals were not decorations about daily life but had symbolic significance.

So how do we classify a place such as Göbekli Tepe? Was it a religious sanctuary? Could the enclosures have been hunting lodges with symbols telling the stories of hunts past? What is apparent is that the people of Göbekli Tepe devoted enormous energy, time, and craft to construct and maintain these buildings. It has been estimated that hundreds of people would need many years to complete just one structure.




Göbekli Tepe - All Too Human

I must point out that one of the most difficult things about Göbekli Tepe has been the Historians and Archaeologists that have invested so much into a paradigm of human development, that they found it nearly impossible to accept the realities that Göbekli Tepe presented. This has hampered progress, funding and peer review of Göbekli Tepe. This shows how even the most empirical Researchers and Scientists are all too human and fall prey to the fear of a rewriting of history to a more accurate context.  It is my profound hope that Göbekli Tepe helps to change this point of view in some material way. 

Here are just some of the new insights Göbekli Tepe has produced:

Earliest Organized Society Yet Discovered

Organized society is now at least 13,000 years old and perhaps far older as there is evidence that at least another society lead up to this site.  This nearly doubles the period that was assumed before. It was assumed prior to Göbekli Tepe, that the Sumerians were the first Organized Society, and perhaps in some measure this is still valid but not by every measure (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Civ...). We see signs of a very high level of cooperation spanning almost 3000 years at Göbekli Tepe. (This Data is published and not currently challenged).

Possible Earliest Written Language Yet Discovered


At Göbekli Tepe we are confronted with what appears to be the earliest yet discovery of a human writing.  This is very early days but there appears to be about 20 symbols in use.  This in itself does not portend to a complete language but there is promising signs in some of the most recent digs at the site.  Prior to this discovery it was assumed that it was a product of the ancient sumerian culture in perhaps 3200 BCE. Göbekli Tepe may move this back to at least 10,000 BCE. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lis...) (This Data is published but not to the level of a determination of a complete written language)

Earliest Use Of Advanced Tools Yet Discovered

The neolithic period is still called the "Stone age" and at this point the defining characteristics, stone tools and "primitive clans" needs massive adjustment. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neo...).  There is nothing 'Stone age" about this culture.  Stone tools did not carve these amazing artistic reliefs.  Stone tools did not create an almost a perfect circle through stone pillars.   One can try to debate that stone tools were used to create what we see here, but that would have to face Occam's razor for believability. (This Data is published however many still hold to the current view that all you see at this site was performed with stone tools)).

Earliest Plant Domestication Yet Discovered

Plant domestication is clear.  They grew crops and perhaps irrigation systems and cultivation systems. Prior assumptions placed this to about 6000 BCE (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agr...).  Today the closest known ancestors of modern Einkorn Wheat is found on the slopes of Karaca Dağ, a mountain just 60 miles northeast of Göbekli Tepe.  This strain has been domesticated and dates back to about the time this site was in peak use (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ein...) (This Data is published in some forms, eg: the location of the first domesticated wheat crops, however many still challenge the view early Neolithic cultures had the insight or technology to domesticate plants.  More data should be published soon).

Possible Earliest Use Of The Wheel Yet Discovered

There is very provocative evidence (thus far unpublished, no photo) that the people of Göbekli Tepe used at the very least "Pull Sleds" or in a more fantastic possibility, "Wheeled Carts".  There are "roads" that show tracks formed in what was mud and limestone that clearly shows that this took place over 100s if not 1000s of years.  Prior to this discovery it was thought only the Sumerians processed the knowladge of the wheel in perhaps 3000 BCE (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wheel) and the use of sleds in 5000 BCE. (This Data is not published and would be very vigorously challenged).

Earliest Production Of Beer And Bread Yet Discovered

Göbekli Tepe has the earliest discovery of bread making and the corollary to this, beer production.  Prior to the discovery of these Beer making Vats, it was assumed that this was first produced in what is now modern China about 5000 BCE (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/His...).  Here is a rather old citation at National Geographic on the discovery of Beer Vats (http://ngm.nationalgeographic.co...). (This Data is not yet fully published and is not currently challenged.  However it would likely be challenged once published).

Earliest Megalithic Buildings Yet Discovered

Massive building projects on the scale seen at Göbekli Tepe were never attributed to Neolithic people.  The prior example was at Stonehenge, it was built perhaps 6000 years later. The design, engineering, workmanship and overral site complexity is not in the same realm as Göbekli Tepe. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meg...) (This Data is published and not currently challenged).

A Peaceful Society

Thus far all the evidence we see at Göbekli Tepe the people lived in relative peace for over 3000 years.  The site shows none of the signs one would expect from conflicts.  This does not 100% rule out the possibility, but thus far there is none of the expected evidence one would expect.  There have not been any human remains discovered so we do not have this information to go by.  But we also do not see any signs that victory in battle would produce in countless other ancient and modern cultures. 

We also know this, it takes a rather sophisticated culture to build and operate such a complex.  It takes and even more forward thinking culture to completely bury a site that was in continuous use for 3000 years and to do it with such delicate care.

Thus far we have been convinced by most accounts that no long term organized society existed without great battles and conquests. Prior to this discovery it seemed most cultures could not last perhaps a few hundred years peacefully.  If this turns out to be confirmed at Göbekli Tepe we will have a completely new insight on how a culture can thrive through what was certainly very difficult times.

Göbekli Tepe has like every major discovery created more questions than it has yet to answer.  For example, where did everyone live?  There are no signs of human habitation thus far unearthed. Professor Schmidt has found himself also at odds about the use of this site.  He had postulated that this site was purely ceremonial however his new findings may now change this view.
(This Data is published and is 100% conjecture as is all insights on ancient cultures.  However there is quite a bit of published evidence that concludes a peaceful culture.  This data will be very fiercely challenged).

In Our Lifetimes...

This is just some of the grand discoveries that has been found up until this point.  The site is not even 15% unearthed (we have unearthed 3 Circle complexes, there are at least 20 more with other structures yet to be unearthed, some may be older then 13,000 years). There are no doubts that there will be far more truly world changing discoveries.  And just as fascinating is the cultures that lead up to Göbekli Tepe as it is clear there had to be a few thousand years of evolution of culture to produce what we see here today.

All of us will stand witness, in this generation, to discoveries that perhaps our ancient family hoped us to rediscover, as a testament to not only what we could do, but who we really are.



Göbekli Tepe - Zodiac


Göbekli Tepe - Phallus



Göbekli Tepe - Twelve Tribes

Twelve Tribes

Twelve Tribes


Y-chromosome - Twelve Tribes

Y-chromosomal Adam
A00 A0-T
A0 A1
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
IJ   K
I J        LT  K2
L T NO K2b    K2c  K2d  K2
N   O   K2b1      P
K2b1a   K2b1b  K2b1c  M P1 P2
K2b1a1   K2b1a2   K2b1a3 S Q R

Basic stock Palaeanthropic stock
1. Y-DNA F 7. Y-DNA K2b
2. Y-DNA H 8. Y-DNA N
3. Y-DNA I  > Y-DNA I2 (Epigravettian) 9. Y-DNA O
4. Y-DNA J 10. Y-DNA P
5. Y-DNA L 11. Y-DNA Q
6. Y-DNA T 12. Y-DNA R > Y-DNA R1 (Epigravettian)


12 Anđela, sinova neba - Twelve Tribes

9. Ovo su imena njihovih poglavara: Samjaza, koji im bijese vođa, Urakabarameel, Akibeel, Tamiel, Ramuel, Danel, Anane, Zavebe, Samsaveel, Ertael, Turel, Jomjael, Arazjal. To bijahu poglavari dvjesto anđela, a svi bijahu s njima. - Enoch


Hittites gods - Twelve Tribes

Twelve Hittite gods of the Underworld

The Greek myth about the succession of the divine kingship told in the Theogony of Hesiod and elsewhere is paralleled in a Hittite version of a Hurrian myth. In it, Anu, Kumarbi, and the storm god respectively, parallel Uranus, Cronos, and Zeus in the Theogony.


Gaia (Earth) & Uranus (Sky) was create the Twelve Titans

According to Hesiod's Theogony, Uranus mated with Gaia to create the twelve Titans: Oceanus, Coeus, Crius, Hyperion, Iapetus, Theia, Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoebe, Tethys and Cronus; the Cyclopes: Brontes, Steropes and Arges; and the Hecatoncheires ("Hundred-Handed Ones"): Cottus, Briareos, and Gyges.

Gaia Uranus
Oceanus Crius Iapetus Rhea Mnemosyne Tethys
Coeus Hyperion Theia Themis Phoebe Cronus
The Titans
Brontes Steropes Arges
The Cyclopes
Cottus Briareos Gyges
The  Hecatoncheires


Twelve Olympians - Twelve Tribes

Twelve Olympians

Fragment of a Hellenistic relief (1st century BC – 1st century AD) depicting the Twelve Olympians carrying their attributes in procession; from left to right, Hestia (scepter), Hermes (winged cap and staff), Aphrodite (veiled), Ares (helmet and spear), Demeter (scepter and wheat sheaf), Hephaestus (staff), Hera (scepter), Poseidon (trident), Athena (owl and helmet), Zeus (thunderbolt and staff), Artemis (bow and quiver), Apollo (lyre)


Rome - Twelve Tribes

Vijeće bogova ili viši zbor bogova, odnosno consortium deorum, sačinjen od dvanaest vrhovnih rimskih božanstva (Jupiter, Neptun, Mars, Apolon, Vulkan, Merkur, Junona, Minerva, Venera, Dijana, Vesta i Cerera)


Amphictyonic League - Twelve Tribes

In the Archaic period of Greek history, an amphictyony, a "league of neighbors", or Amphictyonic League was an ancient religious association of Greek tribes formed in the dim past, before the rise of the Greek polis.

It had twelve founders and was organized to protect the great temples of Apollo in Delphi (Phocis) and of Demeter near Thermopylae (Locris). The twelve founders enumerated by Aeschines were the Aenianes or Oetaeans (Αἰνιᾶνες, Οἰταῖοι), the Boeotians (Βοιωτοί) of Thebes, the Dolopes (Δόλοπες), the Dorians (Δωριείς) of Sparta, the Ionians (Ἴωνες) of Athens, the Phthian Achaeans (Ἀχαιοί), the Locrians (Λοκροί) (Opuntians, Ὀπούντιοι and Ozolians, Ὀζολαί), the Magnesians (Μάγνητες), the Malians (Μαλιεῖς), the Perrhaebians (Περραιβοί), the Phocians (Φωκεῖς), the Pythians (Πύθιοι) of Delphi, and the Thessalians (Θεσσαλοί). Among the descendants of Hellen are mentioned Aeolus, Ion, Achaeus, Dorus, Graecos and Makedon. - Amphictyonic League

Delphic Amphictyonic League Coin

The Delphic Amphictyonic League coin shows the veiled head of Demeter with a wheat wreath and one wheat ear. The reverse is a serpent coiled around a net-covered omphalos which was a sacred religious stone (or baetylus) in the shape of a navel. In Greek lore, Zeus sent two eagles across the world to meet at its center, the “navel” of the world. Omphalos stones marking the center were erected in several places around the Mediterranean Sea; the most famous of those was at Delphi.

In ancient Greece an amphyictyony was an association of neighboring states formed around a religious center. The most important was the Great Amphictyonic League  or Delphic Amphictyony. Originally composed of 12 tribes dwelling around Thermopylae, the league was centered first on the shrine of Demeter and later became associated with the Temple of Apollo at Delphi. Member states sent two kinds of deputies (pylagorai and hieromnēmones) to a council (pylaia) that met twice a year and administered the temporal affairs of the shrines and their properties, supervised the treasury, and conducted the Pythian Games. In the 4th century BC the league rebuilt the Delphic temple. Although primarily religious, the league exercised a political influence through its membership oath, forbidding destruction of member cities or the cutting off of water supplies; the hieromnēmones could punish offenders and even proclaim a sacred war against them.

Dodecapolis (Greek: Δωδεκάπολις) confederation of twelve cities.


Israelites - Twelve Tribes

Twelve Israel tribes

Kad je Višnji baštinu dijelio narodima, kad je razmještao sinove čovječje, odredi im međe po broju Božjih sinova: - Ponovljeni zakon


Twelve Tribes & Lost Sheep

13 = 12 + 1

Lost tribe, Y-DNA G

Abrahamske tradicije:

  • 13 Izraelovih sinova, 12 sinova i Josip koji je prodan u Egipt.
  • 13 izraelskih plemena, 12 plemena i Levijevo pleme.
  • 13 at Jesus Christ's last supper, there were thirteen people around the table, counting Christ and the twelve apostles.
  • 13 is a total of 1 Prophet and 12 Imams in the Islamic School of Thought.

First Goat Herders Y-DNA G (Lost Sheep)

Mesolithic in Europe

The Mesolithic began with the Holocene warm period around 11,660 BP and ended with the introduction of farming, the date of which varied in each geographical region. Regions that experienced greater environmental effects as the last glacial period ended have a much more apparent Mesolithic era, lasting millennia. In northern Europe, for example, societies were able to live well on rich food supplies from the marshlands created by the warmer climate. Such conditions produced distinctive human behaviors that are preserved in the material record, such as the Maglemosian and Azilian cultures. Such conditions also delayed the coming of the Neolithic until as late as 5000–4000 BCE in northern Europe.

There is some evidence for the beginning of construction at sites with a ritual or astronomical significance, including Stonehenge, with a short row of large post holes aligned east-west, and a possible "lunar calendar" at Warren Field in Scotland, with pits of post holes of varying sizes, thought to reflect the lunar phases. Both are dated to around 8,000 BCE.


Central Europe refuge, c. 11000 BC


Haplogroup I1 - Central Europe refuge

y-Haplogroup I1 STR "Cluster" Analysis

Origins; Y-DNA I-M253 5500 BC


Ahrensburg culture / Swiderian culture

Y-chromosome C1 & I1

Ahrensburg culture, c. 10000 - 9000 BC - Swiderian culture, c. 11000 - 8200 BC

In the late phase of this epi-Paleolithic period, the Sauveterrean culture evolves into the so-called Tardenoisian and influences strongly its southern neighbour, clearly replacing it in Mediterranean Spain and Portugal. The recession of the glaciers allows human colonization in Northern Europe for the first time. The Maglemosian culture, derived from the Sauveterre-Tardenois culture but with a strong personality, colonizes Denmark and the nearby regions, including parts of Britain.


Maglemosian culture, c. 9000 - 6000 BC

Maglemosian culture


Doggerland, a mesolithic paradise, c. 10000 - 6000 BC

8,200 y.a. Storegga landslide tsunamis and Flooding of Doggerland.  There were three main tsunamis over a 200 year span. The shoreline waves were estimated to be as high as 32 meters. These were similar in scale, scope and fatalities to the devastating 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami. Many northern Haplogroups show evidence of a major 'population bottleneck' event at just this time.


Pesse canoe, c. 8000 BC

Pesse canoe

The Pesse canoe is believed to be the world's oldest known boat, and certainly the oldest canoe. Carbon dating indicates that the boat was constructed during the early mesolithic period between 8040 BCE and 7510 BCE. It is now in the Drents Museum in Assen, Netherlands.





Maglemosian-Kongemose, Kunda-Narva, Neman-Zedmar and related cultures

11500 to 5000 ybp; North & Northeast Europe

Bramanti et al. (2009) tested Mesolithic remains from several locations across Europe, and found one haplogroup U5a (9,800 ybp) at the Chekalino site in the Volga-Ural region of Russia, one U5a1 (10,000 to 8,000 ybp) at the Lebyazhinka site in the Middle Volga region of Russia, one U5b2 (9,200 ybp) at the Falkensteiner Höhle cave in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, one U5a2a and one U5b2 (both 8,700 ybp) at the Hohlenstein-Stadel cave, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, one U4 (8,850 ybp) at Bad Dürrenberg in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, one U4 and one U5b2 (both 8350 ybp) from the Kunda Culture in Lithuania, two U5b2 (both 6450 ybp) from the Narva Culture in Lithuania, two U5b1 (6,000 to 5,000 ybp) from the Zedmar Culture in Poland and one U5a (4,250 ybp) from the Drestwo site in northeast Poland.

Anatolian refuge, c. 11000 BC

Preceded by Epigravettian - Y-DNA I2

Basic stock, Y-DNA I2 - Anatolia, Cappadocia

Anatolian refuge, c. 10950 BC - Cappadocia


Origins Y-DNA I2a, I2b i I2c Anatolia, Cappadocia


Haplogrupa I2

Megalithic culture

Haplogrupa I2 - stablo

Haplogrupa İ2 je u ljudskoj genetici, haplogrupa muških Y-kromosoma u jugoistočnoj Europi i prednjoj Aziji.

Iz haplogrupe I2 proizlaze I2a, I2b i I2c.


Haplogrupa I2c

 I2C (L596, L597) može se podijeliti u četiri skupine: A, AB, B i C.

  • Groupa A geografski ograničena u Švicarsku, Njemačku, Nizozemsku, Švedsku, Poljsku, Veliku Britaniju i Irsku.
  • Groupa AB je pronađena u sjeverozapadnom Iranu, oko Kavkaza (Armenija i Gruzija), u Turskoj i Francuskoj.
  • Groupa B nalazi se u niskim frekvencijama u zapadnoj Aziji (Turska, Gruzija, Sjeverne Osetije, Armenije, Azerbaijian i sjeverozapadnog Irana), u jugoistočnoj Europi (Moldaviji, Rumunjski, Bugarski, Albaniji, Kreti), u Balto-slavenskim zemljama (Rusiji, Ukrajini, Bjelorusiji, Litvi, Poljskoj, Slovačkoj, Češkoj), kao u Njemačkoj, Austriji, Italiji, Španjolskoj i Velikoj Britaniji.
  • Groupa C ima sličan raspored kao i A skupina, također pronađen u Francuskoj, Italiji i Norveškoj.


Haplogrupa I2b

I2b (L416, L417, L418) je vrlo mali subclade zabilježen je u samo nekoliko uzoraka iz Italije, Njemačke, Škotske i Irana


Haplogoupa I2a

Distribucija Haplogrupe I2a


Haplogoupa I2a1

Distribucija Haplogrupe I2a1

Haplotip I2a1b tipična je za dinarske i kavkaske etnogrupe, ponajviše kao 1/2 do 3/4 pučanstva za Hrvate, islamske Bošnjake, Crnogorce, kavkaske Swanete, Dargyne i kurdske Delamite (Zazaki), zatim manje oko 1/4 do 1/3 populacije za zapadne Srbe (jekavski Prečani), Moldavce, ine Kurde, Abhaze i Teheran, a rjedje s nižim udjelom za ostale susjedne narode jugoistočne Europe i prednje Azije tj. Starog istoka.

  1. 1/2 do 3/4 pučanstvo Hrvatske, islamski Bošnjaci, Crnogorci
  2. 1/4 do 1/3 pučanstvo Srbje (jekavski Prečani), Moldavci, Kurdi, Abhaze i Teheran
  3. 1/2 do 3/4 kavkaski Swanete, Dargyne i kurdski Delamite (Zazaki)
  4. (İ2a1/Eu8) starosjedioci na Sardiniji i s manjim udjelima u Baskiji, Italiji, Francuskoj...


Lost Megalithic civilization, c. 11000 - 9600 BC

Megalithic builders - Y-DNA I2a, I2b, I2c


The Code



The Temple of Man - R.A. Schwaller De Lubicz



Great Sphinx of Giza

Great Sphinx of Giza - Na Rubu Znanosti - John A. West, Egipat


Great Pyramid of Giza

Great Pyramid of Giza


Bosanske piramide?



Izgubljena znanja



Paleocontact theory

Ancient astronauts - Paleocontact theory


Prehistoric Construction Techniques

The earliest examples of stone masonry in both the 'Old' and 'New' worlds demonstrates a high skill level, something which is often suggested as being a result of the existing knowledge of carpentry at the transition in working from wood to stone. This idea is borne out somewhat in Egypt where for example, the masonry of the ceilings in the temples of 1st dynasty Saqqara were carved to imitate the 'reed-bundle' ceilings of pre-dynastic Egypt. There is however, no evidence of such a transition in the Americas.

The transport and use of unnecessarily large blocks of stone, the specific selectivity of stone type along with various examples of 'extreme' masonry at numerous sacred and ancient monuments is starting to reveal a reverence for stone itself, an idea which has foundation in mythology, religion and can still be seen today at Jerusalem, Mecca, the 'Lignum' of India and at the crowning of any new king or Queen in UK (i.e. Scottish 'Stone-of-scone', English 'kings-stone') etc.

It is noticeable that there are several specific construction techniques in the masonry of (apparently unrelated) cultures from around the ancient world. The specific similarity in design, technique and engineering skills is, in  certain cases very suggestive of a common source of knowledge, or at the least - of contact between cultures. In response, it has been argued that such similarities are 'co-evolutionary', being the natural result of working with stone.

The following examples demonstrate the sophisticated skills of the prehistoric masons.

Folded Corners

Several structures show the blocks cut with an internal angle, so as to 'fold' the stone around corner's. It is suggested that this was incorporated as an earthquake 'preventative'.


Valley-Temple, Ghiza, Egypt. - There are several stones with this design feature in the valley-temple. It is interesting to note that the stones  have been cut so as to continue only a short distance around the corner which hints at the idea that style might have been involved (rather than, or as well as, function).

Luxor, Egypt. (Left), Machu Pichu, Peru (Right)

Multi Facetted Stones

It is often suggested that this design feature was incorporated into constructions as an 'earthquake' preventative. The fact that the constructions exist in such good condition after so long, in itself supports this idea.

Multi-faceted stones - Valley-temple, Ghiza, Egypt

While the Egyptian examples (above), followed a horizontal plane, the South American examples (below), are polygonal, apparently following neither vertical nor horizontal planes, a process which would have required a considerably higher level of technical skill. 

The Inca masonry of south America is probably the finest the world has ever seen. 

S. America, Cuzco. 'Stone of the twelve Angels'. (2)

Sacsayhuaman - One of the greatest walls of all time

One of the 300 Ahu Platforms surrounding Easter Island. Made of Basalt and with blocks several tons each, The style of masonry shows a stark similarity to South American masonry examples above.

Metal Block-Ties

Another construction feature commonly suggested as an earthquake preventative is the means used to join huge blocks together. It is believed that copper (or silver) was used at Tiahuanaco (below), both of which are soft metals.

Some examples from the 'Old-World' (Namely Egypt, and Cambodia)..

From left to right: Angkor Watt,  Karnak, and Denderra

And from the 'New-World'.: Tiahuanaco, and  Ollantaytambo

It has also been suggested that these 'ties' were employed to 'ground' structures properly (often made of conducting Quartzite).

Quarry-Marks (for splitting stone)

The megalithic builders employed the same method of splitting quartz, at different locations all around the world. This is not unusual, as it is probably the best method, and is still widely used today. By far the easiest way of splitting Quartz stone is to chip a series of holes into the stone, which are then packed with 'wedges and shims' (made of wood). Following the addition of water, the wedges expanded and the stone splits along the line.

Examples from S. America: Left: Machu Pichu (1) and Right: Cuzco.

From Egypt: Menkaure's pyramid, Giza (left), and at Aswan (right)

From Carnac, France, (left), and Castleruddery, Ireland (right)

More examples from Portugal (left), and From Malta (right).

(Click here for more on this subject

'Manoeuvring Protuberances'

These small protuberances are found on the oldest (and arguably most sacred) Egypt and South American constructions. They are generally assumed to have functioned as 'hitching points' for manoeuvring the blocks into place, however there are several examples where they have been left as if to demonstrate some other meaning...

The 'Boss' mark on the stone above the passage entry into the 'King's chamber' in the great pyramid is often suggested as being the remains of one of these protuberances.

They are found on the exterior granite facing-stones of Menkaure's Pyramid at Giza.

It is possible to see how the process of smoothing off of the granite casing stones was started on the Eastern face of Menkaures pyramid. The smoothing process was achieved with the use of Dolerite mauls which were able to pound the softer granite. This process can still be seen today at the Aswan granite quarries, where the granite for Giza originally came from.

The same marks are also found in the Osireion, at Abydoss. One of the several reasons to support the theory that it was contemporary with the Valley temple at Ghiza.

Similar 'protuberances' can be seen at several Inca sites in South America.

At Ollantaytambo, Peru, the 'protuberances' take on a whole different meaning altogether, as they could almost be classed as stylised over functional.

Although both locations have the same 'protuberances', the Inca block-work was multi-faceted, while at Ghiza, they were laid in even courses.

Mortise and Tenon Joints

It is perhaps surprising to find that some of the earliest known examples of masonry exhibit a sophisticated understanding of joinery. This particular construction feature is reasonably explained as having followed the transition from building structures first from wood then stone.


Some examples of the Various 'Mortise and Tenon' joins used in the construction of The Osirion, at Abydoss, in Egypt. This is considered one of the oldest buildings in Egypt, and is quoted as having only one other structure of contemporary design, that being the Valley-Temple at Giza. Both structures used the technique of continuous-lintelled trilithon's, seen also at Stonehenge III.

(Click here for a comparison of the two structures)

Mortise-and-tenon joints had, of course, been used previously in Bronze Age ships in Egypt, as in the construction of the Khufu’s boat at Giza (ca. 2600 B. C.) and Senwosret III’s boats (ca. 1850 B.C.) at Dashur (Lipke 1984, 64; Steffy 1994, 25-27, 32-36, Patch and Haldane 1990).  These early Egyptian examples of mortise-and-tenons, however, were freestanding and not pegged to lock adjacent strakes to one another.  Rather, their primary function was to align the planks during construction, which were then fastened to each other with ligatures.  This tradition of shipbuilding appears to have persisted at least as late as the 5th century B.C. when Herodotus observed nearly identical construction methods still in use in Egypt.  In his oft-cited quotation, Herodotus noted that short planks were joined to each other with long, close-set tenons, which were then bound in the seams from within with papyrus fibers (Haldane & Shelmerdine 1990).  There is no mention of locking the close-set tenons with pegs.  The Egyptians were, however, fully aware of pegged mortise-and-tenon joints at last since the Old Kingdom (Dynasty III: ca. 2700-2600 B. C.) and used them in woodwork requiring this type of fastening (Lucas & Harris 1962, 451), but, as far as we can determine, they did not resort to their use in shipbuilding, unless they restricted their use to seagoing ships only, for which we have surviving examples. (9)

The Stonehenge Sarsen Stones: In its complete form the outermost stone setting would have consisted of a circle of 30 upright sarsen stones, of which 17 still stand, each weighing about 25 tons. The tops of these uprights were linked by a continuous ring of horizontal sarsen lintels, only a small part of which is now still in position. The stones in the sarsen circle were carefully shaped and the horizontal lintels joined not only by means of simple mortise-and-tenon joints, but they were also locked using what is effectively a dovetail joint. The edges were smoothed into a gentle curve which follows the line of the entire circle.

The sarsen-ring at Stonehenge (whose official inner diameter is 97ft or 1162.8 primitive inches), has a circumference of 3652.4 primitive inches. Note: This is also exactly one ‘quarter-aroura’, as measured in ancient Egypt (1). Sir Norman Lockyer also detected similarities between the masonry of the Blood/Chalice-well at Glastonbury and that which he had seen in Egypt.


The pictures above illustrate the sophisticated construction techniques applied to the Stonehenge sarsen-stones, which are dated at approximately 2,500 BC, however if we follow Lockyer's lead, and look closer at Egyptian masonry, we find similar features were applied to construction of the the Osirion (above), a temple dated to a far earlier time, and a site suggested by Lockyer to have alignments suggesting an association to the summer-solstice sunrise (2).

(More about Stonehenge)

And finally, from the Indus Valley Culture...

This incredible stone casting is from Harappa in Pakistan (c. 2,500-2,100 BC).

Prehistoric Drilling

It was claimed by Petrie that early dynastic Egyptians used drills for some of their constructions. The following images suggest he was right.

Evidence for drilling in ancient Egypt. Marks in the kings-coffer suggest that it too was hollowed by core-drilling. 

The Capstones of Pierres Plates in France have what appear to be drill-marks on the top-sides.

The 'Drill-marks' on some stones match those on others, suggesting they were split in half.

(More about Pierres plates)

Surgical Drilling in Prehistory

Although not directly connected with construction, evidence for drilling goes back several thousand years, as testified by the numerous examples of prehistoric dentistry and Trepanning, both involving drilling procedures.

Article: MSNBC (2006) - Proving prehistoric man’s ingenuity and ability to withstand and inflict excruciating pain, researchers have found that dental drilling dates back 9,000 years.

Primitive dentists drilled nearly perfect holes into live but undoubtedly unhappy patients between 5500 B.C. and 7000 B.C., an article in Thursday’s issue of the journal Nature reports. Researchers carbon-dated at least nine skulls with 11 drill holes found in a Pakistan graveyard.

Trepanation: Skulls with signs of trepanning were found practically in all parts of the world where man has lived. Trepanning is probably the oldest surgical operation known to man: evidence for it goes back as far as in 40,000 year-old Cro-Magnon sites. The Egyptians invented the circular trephine, made by a tube with serrated borders, which cuts much easier by means of rotation, and which was then extensively used in Greece and Rome, and gave origin to the "crown" trephine, used in Europe from the first to the 19th century.

(Link to full article: http://www.cerebromente.org.br/n02/historia/trepan.htm )

(More about Prehistoric Surgery)

Hundreds of uniformly drilled holes on the stones at Mnajdra, Malta.

(More about Drilling in Prehistory

The Use of Concrete in Ancient Structures

'The Hair in the Rock', Egypt: Prof. Dr. Joseph Davidovits of the French Geopolymer Institute discovered a hair sticking out of a boulder of the Cheops (Khufu) pyramid of Giza). He concluded that either the hair was older than the rock surrounding it, (meaning the rock formed later), or the boulder is synthetic. Either of which is pretty amazing.

Examination and measurements of the boulders used in building the pyramid show an unusually high moisture content (apparently the kind one would expect to find in concrete).

The photo (right), is from the pavement surrounding the pyramids at Giza. It has been shown that this pavement was  accurately levelled to less than 0.5 inch across the whole site, which makes it a spectacular masonry achievement in its own right. However, of more immediate interest is the thin sliver of limestone that has remained next to the black basalt rock behind it.

The original advocate for this theory was Prof. Dr. Joseph Davidovits, whose original statements in the 1980's were at first ridiculed, but which have now, following rigorous analysis, appear to have been reasonably substantiated. The following scientific treaty was written in 2006 and supports Davidovit's original theory. (Although Egyptologists still adamantly refuse to accept such an idea it is gradually gaining  support).

Article: Science Daily. 2006: Professor Finds Some Pyramid Building Blocks Were Concrete.

In partially solving a mystery that has baffled archaeologists for centuries, a Drexel University professor has determined that the Great Pyramids of Giza were constructed with a combination of not only carved stones but the first blocks of limestone-based concrete cast by any civilization.

The longstanding belief is that the pyramids were constructed with limestone blocks that were cut to shape in nearby quarries using copper tools, transported to the pyramid sites, hauled up ramps and hoisted in place with the help of wedges and levers. Barsoum argues that although indeed the majority of the stones were carved and hoisted into place, crucial parts were not. The ancient builders cast the blocks of the outer and inner casings and, most likely, the upper parts of the pyramids using a limestone concrete, called a geopolymer.

The type of concrete pyramid builders used could reduce pollution and outlast Portland cement, the most common type of modern cement. Portland cement injects a large amount of the world's carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and has a lifespan of about 150 years. If widely used, a geopolymer such as the one used in the construction of the pyramids can reduce that amount of pollution by 90 percent and last much longer. The raw materials used to produce the concrete used in the pyramids -- lime, limestone and diatomaceous earth -- can be found worldwide and is affordable enough to be an important construction material for developing countries.

(Click here for  full article)

As well as the suggestion that the blocks themselves may have been  made of cement, Petrie  himself identified that it was also used between the blocks. The whole of the Great pyramid was originally covered with a coat of polished limestone blocks. The faces of these blocks have butting surfaces cut to within 1/100 of an inch of mathematical perfection. Petrie said this of it:

...'the mean variation of the cutting of the stone from a straight line and from a true square is but 0.1 inch in a length of 75inches up the face, an amount of accuracy equal to the most modern opticians' straight edges of such a length. These joints, with an area of some 35 square feet each, were not only worked as finely as this, but were cemented throughout. Though the stones were brought as close as 1/500 of an inch, or, in fact, into contact, and the mean opening of the join was 1/50 of an inch, yet the builders managed to fill the joint with cement, despite the great area of it, and the weight of the stone to be moved- some 16 tons. To merely place such stones in exact contact at the sides would be careful work, but to do so with cement in the joints seems almost impossible'. (8)

The highly polished limestone casing stones that covered the pyramid were fixed with a 'fine aluminosilicate cement'. The finished pyramid contained approximately 115,000 of these stones, each weighing ten tons or more. These stones were dressed on all six of their sides, not just the side exposed to the visible surface, to tolerances of .01 inch. They were set together so closely that a thin razor blade could not be inserted between the stones.

Egyptologist Petrie expressed his astonishment of this feat by writing: - 'Merely to place such stones in exact contact would be careful work, but to do so with cement in the joint seems almost impossible; it is to be compared to the finest opticians' work on the scale of acres".

Extract from Petrie - The use of plaster by the Egyptians is remarkable; and their skill in cementing joints is hard to understand. How, in the casing of the Great Pyramid, they could fill with cement a vertical joint about 5 X 7 feet in area, and only averaging 1/50 inch thick is a mystery; more especially as the joint could not be thinned by rubbing, owing to its being a vertical joint, and the block weighing about 16 tons. Yet this was the usual work over 13 acres of surface, with tens of thousands of casing stones, none less than a ton in weight.

Extract from Petrie -   From several indications it seems that the masons planned the casing and some at least of the core masonry also, course by course on the ground. For on all the casing, and on the core on which the casing fitted, there are lines drawn on the horizontal surfaces, showing where each stone was to be placed on those below it. If the stones were merely trimmed to fit each other as the building went on, there would be no need to have so carefully marked the place of each block in this particular way; and it shows that they were probably planned and fitted together on the ground below. Another indication of very careful and elaborate planning on the ground is in the topmost space over the King's Chamber; there the roofing-beams were numbered, and marked for the north or south sides; and though it might be thought that it could be of no consequence in what order they were placed, yet all their details were evidently schemed before they were delivered to the builders' hands. This care in arranging all the work agrees strikingly with the great employment of unskilled labourers during two or three months at a time, as they would then raise all the stones which the masons had worked and stored ready for use since the preceding season.

(Other examples of extreme Egyptian masonry)

Maltese concrete (Torba)

Ggantija, Malta -  The temples on Malta are claimed to be some of the oldest free-standing temples in the world. A. Service (6), mentions the 'contemporary cement of the floor' in the pavement of the Ggantija temple on Gozo, Malta (see left), and although the idea was not accepted for a long time, Maltese archaeologists are now of the opinion that Torba (as it is called on Malta), was formed by compacting crumbled rock and rock dust then adding water (7), creating a tough and durable rock-like material on-par with the best and strongest concrete used today.

The pictures below show how some of the temple floors were paved with huge stones, a process also visible at several Maltese temples (Tarxien, left and Ggantija, right).

(More about the Constructions of Prehistoric Malta)

The Specific Selection of Stone:

While it is apparent that the megalithic builders showed a preference for certain stone types, the reason for this has yet to be explained satisfactorily. The extra distance and effort required to employ specific stones in ancient structures offers us with a clue as to the possible motivation of the builders.

The immense White-quartz, portal-stones at Castelruddery Henge-Circle in Ireland.

(More about the Specific Selection of Stone in Prehistory)

Anatolia & Epigravettian

Anatolia & Land of four rivers (Epigravettian)


The Black Sea Flood, c. 9600 BC

The black sea flood


Geology of a catastrophe - the when and where of the black sea flood

YANKO-HOMBACH, Valentina, Avalon Institute of Applied Sci, Charleswood Technology Centre, 3227 Roblin Boulevard, Winnipeg, MB R3R 0C2, Canada, valyan@avalon-institute.org and TSCHEPALIGA, Andrei, Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sci, 29, Staromonetniy per, Moscow, 109017, Russia

Deeply engrained in the collective memory and religion of humanity is the Great Flood, also called Noahs Flood. Recently, W. Ryan and W. Pitman, (1999,2003)have attributed this flood to the Black Sea basin. Their proposal that a catastrophic postglacial (8.35 ka BP)rise in the level of the Black Sea accelerated the dispersion of early Neolithic foragers and farmers into the interior of Europe, forming the historical basis for the biblical story of Noahs Flood, has spurred a tremendous interest by the public, the scientific community, and the media. This presentation summarises the results of extensive geological and palaeooceanograpic studies of the Black Sea and the former Manych Strait undertaken since 1970. Thousands of cores as well as thousands of kilometres of high-resolution seismic profiles were studied in a large-scale marine-geological survey. The samples obtained were subjected to multidisciplinary studies (micropalaeontology, geochemistry, sedimentology), and correlated with 14C, O and C isotope data. A large amount of geological and archaeological publications were reviewed for comparison. In the context of the Ryan&Pitman Noah Flood hypothesis, the time span of 15.0 ka - 7.0 ka BP is discussed in six crucial stages: (1) The lowest level (about -100 m) of the freshwater Novoeuxinian Lake before 14 ka BP; (2) The rapid increase of the level (from -100 m to -20 m) between ~14.0 and 11.0 ka BP due to a massive overflow from the Caspian Sea to the Black Sea through the Manych Strait; (3) The re-establisment of the Black Sea / Sea of Marmara connection and the concurrent first appearance of Mediterranean immigrants in the Black Sea at ~9.0 ka BP; (4) Alternative to the Bosporus connections between the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara; (5) The gradual and fluctuating character of Holocene transgression; (6) The influence of sea-level change on coastlines and surrounding human culture. It will be shown that although there seems to be not much room for the Ryan&Pitman Noah Flood hypothesis, there does exist much stronger possibility of an earlier flood in the basin due to the massive water overflow from the Caspian Sea through the ancient Manych Strait, reducing available space and food resources for Palaeolithic people and likely causing inland migration and the transition from hunting and gathering to farming and cattle breeding in the region. - Geology of a catastrophe


Proto-writing - Kamyana Mohyla

Kamyana Mohyla (stone tomb) is an archaeological site in the Molochna River. The site encompasses a group of isolated blocks of sandstone, up to twelve meters in height, scattered around an area of some 3000 square meters. No traces of ancient human settlement have been discovered in the vicinity, leading many scholars to believe that the hill served as a remote sanctuary. Faint traces of red paint remain on parts of the surface. Scholars have been unable to agree whether the petroglyphs date from Mesolithic or Neolithic. The latter dating is more popular, although the presumed depiction of a mammoth in one of the caves seems to favour the former date.

Chinese scholars have suggested that such signs were produced by a convergent development, of what might be called a precursor to writing, which evolved independently in a number of societies. Indeed, there are some similarities between Sumerian cuneiform script, and stone markings from Çatalhöyük in Turkey, and Kamyana Mohyla in Southern Ukraine: both predating the Vinča culture by several millennia.




Neolithic signs in China - Crete

Jiahu symbols
Banpo pottery symbols
Jiangzhai pottery symbols
Longshan culture
Crete, Linear A



Göbekli Tepe zodiac


Babylonian zodiac - Chinese zodiac


Agricultural transition

Agricultural transition

Map of the world showing approximate centers of origin of agriculture and its spread in prehistory: the Fertile Crescent (11,000 BP), the Yangtze and Yellow River basins (9,000 BP) and the New Guinea Highlands (9,000–6,000 BP), Central Mexico (5,000–4,000 BP), Northern South America (5,000–4,000 BP), sub-Saharan Africa (5,000–4,000 BP, exact location unknown), eastern North America (4,000–3,000 BP).

Neolithic human settlements

  • Göbekli Tepe in Turkey, 11000–9000 BC
  • Tell Qaramel in Syria, 10700–9400 BC
  • Franchthi Cave in Greece, epipalaeolithic (10000 BC) settlement, reoccupied between 7500–6000 BC
  • Nanzhuangtou in Hebei, China, 8500-7700 BC
  • Jericho in West bank, Neolithic from around 8350 BC, arising from the earlier Epipaleolithic Natufian culture
  • Aşıklı Höyük in Central Anatolia, Turkey, an Aceramic Neolithic period settlement, 8200 – 7400 BC, correlating with the E/MPPNB in the Levant.
  • Nevali Cori in Turkey, 8000 BC
  • Pengtoushan culture in China, 7500 – 6100 BC, rice residues were Carbon-14 dated to 8200-7800 BC in type site
  • Çatalhöyük in Turkey, 7500 BC
  • ‘Ain Ghazal in Jordan, 7250–5000 BC
  • Chogha Bonut in Iran, 7200 BC
  • Jhusi in India, 7100 BC
  • Ganj Dareh in Iran, 7000 BC
  • Lahuradewa in India, 7000 BC
  • Jiahu in China, 7000 to 5800 BC
  • Mehrgarh in Pakistan, 7000 BC
  • Knossus on Crete, 7000 BC
  • Karanovo in Bulgaria, 6200 BC
  • Sesklo in Greece, 6850 BC (with a ±660 year margin of error)
  • Dispilio in Greece, 5500 BC
  • Porodin in Republic of Macedonia, 6500 BC
  • Vrshnik (Anzabegovo) in Republic of Macedonia, 6500 BC
  • Pizzo di Bodio (Varese), Lombardy in Italy, 6320 ±80 BC
  • Sammardenchia in Friuli, Italy, 6050 ±90 BC,
  • Padah-Lin Caves in Burma, 6000 BC
  • Petnica in Serbia, 6000 BC
  • Stara Zagora in Bulgaria, 5500 BC
  • Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, 5500–2750 BC, in Ukraine, Moldova and Romania first salt works
  • Tell Zeidan in northern Syria, from about 5500 to 4000 BC.
  • Tabon Cave Complex in Quezon, Palawan, Philippines 5000 – 2000 BC
  • Hemudu culture in China, 5000 – 4500 BC, large scale rice plantation
  • The Megalithic Temples of Malta, 3600 BC
  • Knap of Howar and Skara Brae, Orkney, Scotland, from 3500 BC and 3100 BC respectively
  • Brú na Bóinne in Ireland, c. 3500 BC
  • Lough Gur in Ireland from around 3000 BC


Easter Island - Polynesians

Haplogroup O

The Polynesian spread of colonization in the Pacific.

Polynesians - Haplogroup O-M119

Easter Island

Easter Island - Polynesians

Göbekli Tepe

Genetic studies have been done on the people and related groups. The Haplogroup O1 (Y-DNA)a-M119 genetic marker is frequently detected in Native Taiwanese, northern Philippines and Polynesians, as well as some people in Indonesia, Malaysia and non-Austronesian populations in southern China.

Paleolithic in Europe Index Megalithic culture