Göbekli Tepe

First Temple, c. 10950 - 9600 BC


Göbekli Tepe

Göbekli Tepe is an ancient city in south-east Turkey (just at the northern edge of the Fertile Crescent) where 11,000 year-old megaliths (predating Stonehenge by 6,000 years) have been discovered. Experts are suggesting that it is the world’s first holy place. Seven-ton stone pillars are arranged in circles, but there are no signs of a settlement (e.g. cooking hearths, trash pits, figurines). Nearby, evidence of the world’s oldest domesticated strains of wheat have been found, dated to about 10,500 years ago. Other sites in the region have shown that within a 1,000 years settlers will have corralled sheep, cattle and pigs. So it looks as if a major socio-cultural effort occurred before the emergence of agriculture. Pillar carvings are of lions, spiders, snakes and scorpions, and not deer or cattle. Was it a burial ground, or a centre of a death cult, or perhaps it had a role to play in helping people master the fears of the unknown?


Göbekli Tepe First Temple

This article highlights a number of additional features about this particular site. Firstly, stone toolmakers usually lived and worked near water and game, but this mound is located at the highest elevation of the mountain range, approximately 305 m above the surrounding plain. The closest water source is 5 km away. No evidence of livestock has been found at the site, so the builders may have had to travel down to hunt or farm.

Based on the abundance of stone tools and bones from wild animals, this site is classified as Aceramic or Pre-Pottery Neolithic. This means there is no evidence of pottery, not even ceramic figurines, as is common among other sites classified as Pottery Neolithic. Most tools were made of flint, along with a few made out of bones and antlers. Mortars, pestles, and other stone vessels were made of basalt or limestone and used in the absence of pottery. Other items of daily life hint that Göbekli Tepe’s residents were much like the other stone toolmakers in the region. They wore small drilled beads, a common jewelry for this period, found with decorated stone vessels, and stone cups and bowls with crafted designs.

But what makes this site special is the architecture, with terrazzo floors, massive stone pillars, and even some abstract art. Archaeologist uncovered buildings containing several rectangular rooms and round structures, with terrazzo floors. The round structures were made out of massive stone pillars, arranged into concentric circles. Each circle was between 9 m and 30 m in diameter. The terrazzo was made of burnt limestone and clay and then polished to give it a spotted appearance. Terrazzo produced in this way creates a flooring surface that is extremely durable and resistant to moisture. The most outstanding feature were the T-shaped monolithic pillars. Each column is made from a single piece of stone and ranges in height from 1.5 m to 5.5 m and weighs up to 16 tons. Researchers have discovered ancient quarries where the pillars were cut, located a quarter mile away in the surrounding limestone outcropping. At least three of the unfinished columns still lie there, and they appear to have been made with simple flint tools. So far only four circles have been uncovered, containing 47 T-shaped pillars. According to a geomagnetic survey of the mound, which included ground-penetrating radar, there are possibly up to twenty such circular areas. The sheer size of the pillars and the effort required to create these monumental spaces suggest that they were not homesteads but something much more significant. Most archeologists now believe that Göbekli Tepe was a sanctuary or retreat used for spiritual or communal purposes rather than a city with homes and children.

 

If so, this does not fit the secular view of human culture, which assumed hunter-gatherers eventually learned to farm, settled down, and only then made monuments. This site has forced archaeologists to consider the possibility that the human drive to build and worship came first.

 

If we stopped there, the story of Göbekli Tepe would be fascinating enough. But there is more. Not only did the builders create beautiful terrazzo floors and transport 16-ton pillars, but they also fashioned their pillars and stoneware with decorative human and animal motifs. All the pillars were built with the same abstract design. The rectangular top looks like a head, and then human arms and hands were sometimes carved into the body. These human forms were often clothed with loincloths, jewelry, and belts, complete with buckles.

 

The majority of the artwork at Göbekli Tepe depicts animals. Snakes are most common, but you can also find foxes, boars, asses, cranes, ducks, vultures, scorpions, spiders, bulls, and rams. The fox seems to have played a significant role in the lives of these people. At the center of two circular structures are twin pillars with foxes on them. In one impressive pillar, the fox is held under the right elbow of the human figure, who also appears to be wearing a fox skin. Nowhere else among Pre-Pottery Neolithic sites is the fox image given this much importance. No known ancient religion gives the fox such a significant role, and its role at Göbekli Tepe is still a matter of debate.

Few of the creatures depicted in the stone carvings are among the piles of bones found at the site. Instead, over 90% of the bones are of hoofed animals such as the wild ass. So it appears that the carved animals were not decorations about daily life but had symbolic significance.

So how do we classify a place such as Göbekli Tepe? Was it a religious sanctuary? Could the enclosures have been hunting lodges with symbols telling the stories of hunts past? What is apparent is that the people of Göbekli Tepe devoted enormous energy, time, and craft to construct and maintain these buildings. It has been estimated that hundreds of people would need many years to complete just one structure.

 

 

 

Göbekli Tepe - All Too Human

I must point out that one of the most difficult things about Göbekli Tepe has been the Historians and Archaeologists that have invested so much into a paradigm of human development, that they found it nearly impossible to accept the realities that Göbekli Tepe presented. This has hampered progress, funding and peer review of Göbekli Tepe. This shows how even the most empirical Researchers and Scientists are all too human and fall prey to the fear of a rewriting of history to a more accurate context.  It is my profound hope that Göbekli Tepe helps to change this point of view in some material way. 

Here are just some of the new insights Göbekli Tepe has produced:

Earliest Organized Society Yet Discovered

Organized society is now at least 13,000 years old and perhaps far older as there is evidence that at least another society lead up to this site.  This nearly doubles the period that was assumed before. It was assumed prior to Göbekli Tepe, that the Sumerians were the first Organized Society, and perhaps in some measure this is still valid but not by every measure (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Civ...). We see signs of a very high level of cooperation spanning almost 3000 years at Göbekli Tepe. (This Data is published and not currently challenged).

Possible Earliest Written Language Yet Discovered

 

At Göbekli Tepe we are confronted with what appears to be the earliest yet discovery of a human writing.  This is very early days but there appears to be about 20 symbols in use.  This in itself does not portend to a complete language but there is promising signs in some of the most recent digs at the site.  Prior to this discovery it was assumed that it was a product of the ancient sumerian culture in perhaps 3200 BCE. Göbekli Tepe may move this back to at least 10,000 BCE. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lis...) (This Data is published but not to the level of a determination of a complete written language)

Earliest Use Of Advanced Tools Yet Discovered

The neolithic period is still called the "Stone age" and at this point the defining characteristics, stone tools and "primitive clans" needs massive adjustment. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neo...).  There is nothing 'Stone age" about this culture.  Stone tools did not carve these amazing artistic reliefs.  Stone tools did not create an almost a perfect circle through stone pillars.   One can try to debate that stone tools were used to create what we see here, but that would have to face Occam's razor for believability. (This Data is published however many still hold to the current view that all you see at this site was performed with stone tools)).

Earliest Plant Domestication Yet Discovered

Plant domestication is clear.  They grew crops and perhaps irrigation systems and cultivation systems. Prior assumptions placed this to about 6000 BCE (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agr...).  Today the closest known ancestors of modern Einkorn Wheat is found on the slopes of Karaca Dağ, a mountain just 60 miles northeast of Göbekli Tepe.  This strain has been domesticated and dates back to about the time this site was in peak use (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ein...) (This Data is published in some forms, eg: the location of the first domesticated wheat crops, however many still challenge the view early Neolithic cultures had the insight or technology to domesticate plants.  More data should be published soon).

Possible Earliest Use Of The Wheel Yet Discovered

There is very provocative evidence (thus far unpublished, no photo) that the people of Göbekli Tepe used at the very least "Pull Sleds" or in a more fantastic possibility, "Wheeled Carts".  There are "roads" that show tracks formed in what was mud and limestone that clearly shows that this took place over 100s if not 1000s of years.  Prior to this discovery it was thought only the Sumerians processed the knowladge of the wheel in perhaps 3000 BCE (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wheel) and the use of sleds in 5000 BCE. (This Data is not published and would be very vigorously challenged).

Earliest Production Of Beer And Bread Yet Discovered


Göbekli Tepe has the earliest discovery of bread making and the corollary to this, beer production.  Prior to the discovery of these Beer making Vats, it was assumed that this was first produced in what is now modern China about 5000 BCE (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/His...).  Here is a rather old citation at National Geographic on the discovery of Beer Vats (http://ngm.nationalgeographic.co...). (This Data is not yet fully published and is not currently challenged.  However it would likely be challenged once published).

Earliest Megalithic Buildings Yet Discovered

Massive building projects on the scale seen at Göbekli Tepe were never attributed to Neolithic people.  The prior example was at Stonehenge, it was built perhaps 6000 years later. The design, engineering, workmanship and overral site complexity is not in the same realm as Göbekli Tepe. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meg...) (This Data is published and not currently challenged).

A Peaceful Society

Thus far all the evidence we see at Göbekli Tepe the people lived in relative peace for over 3000 years.  The site shows none of the signs one would expect from conflicts.  This does not 100% rule out the possibility, but thus far there is none of the expected evidence one would expect.  There have not been any human remains discovered so we do not have this information to go by.  But we also do not see any signs that victory in battle would produce in countless other ancient and modern cultures. 

We also know this, it takes a rather sophisticated culture to build and operate such a complex.  It takes and even more forward thinking culture to completely bury a site that was in continuous use for 3000 years and to do it with such delicate care.

Thus far we have been convinced by most accounts that no long term organized society existed without great battles and conquests. Prior to this discovery it seemed most cultures could not last perhaps a few hundred years peacefully.  If this turns out to be confirmed at Göbekli Tepe we will have a completely new insight on how a culture can thrive through what was certainly very difficult times.

Göbekli Tepe has like every major discovery created more questions than it has yet to answer.  For example, where did everyone live?  There are no signs of human habitation thus far unearthed. Professor Schmidt has found himself also at odds about the use of this site.  He had postulated that this site was purely ceremonial however his new findings may now change this view.
(This Data is published and is 100% conjecture as is all insights on ancient cultures.  However there is quite a bit of published evidence that concludes a peaceful culture.  This data will be very fiercely challenged).

In Our Lifetimes...

This is just some of the grand discoveries that has been found up until this point.  The site is not even 15% unearthed (we have unearthed 3 Circle complexes, there are at least 20 more with other structures yet to be unearthed, some may be older then 13,000 years). There are no doubts that there will be far more truly world changing discoveries.  And just as fascinating is the cultures that lead up to Göbekli Tepe as it is clear there had to be a few thousand years of evolution of culture to produce what we see here today.

All of us will stand witness, in this generation, to discoveries that perhaps our ancient family hoped us to rediscover, as a testament to not only what we could do, but who we really are.

 

Göbekli Tepe

 

Göbekli Tepe - Zodiac

 

Prvi izvještaj o stvaranju - Göbekli Tepe

Stvaranje čovjeka (muško i žensko)


Phallus

Angels

Psalm 82 begins, "God stands in the assembly of El [LXX: assembly of gods], in the midst of the gods he renders judgment", indicating a plurality of gods, although it does not indicate that these gods were co-actors in creation. Philo had inferred from the expression "Let us make man" of the Book of Genesis that God had used other beings as assistants in the creation of man, and he explains in this way why man is capable of vice as well as virtue, ascribing the origin of the latter to God, of the former to his helpers in the work of creation.

The earliest Gnostic sects ascribe the work of creation to angels, some of them using the same passage in Genesis. So Irenaeus tells of the system of Simon Magus, of the system of Menander, of the system of Saturninus, in which the number of these angels is reckoned as seven, and of the system of Carpocrates. In the report of the system of Basilides, we are told that our world was made by the angels who occupy the lowest heaven; but special mention is made of their chief, who is said to have been the God of the Jews, to have led that people out of the land of Egypt, and to have given them their law. The prophecies are ascribed not to the chief but to the other world-making angels.

The Latin translation, confirmed by Hippolytus, makes Irenaeus state that according to Cerinthus (who shows Ebionite influence), creation was made by a power quite separate from the Supreme God and ignorant of Him. Theodoret, who here copies Irenaeus, turns this into the plural number “powers,” and so Epiphanius represents Cerinthus as agreeing with Carpocrates in the doctrine that the world was made by angels.

Book VII challenges the teachings of such heretics as Basilides and his disciple Saturnilus, Marcion of Sinope, and Carpocrates of Alexandria, among others. These heresiarchs all held varying opinions on the God of the Old Testament, from Saturnilus, who Hippolytus states believed that "the God of the Jews is one of the angels", directly opposed by Christ, to Carpocrates who asserted that the Father was for the most part aloof from physical creation, which had been formed by his angels. - Refutation of All Heresies, Hippolytus of Rome

I reče Bog: "Načinimo čovjeka na svoju sliku, sebi slična, da bude gospodar ribama morskim, pticama nebeskim i stoci - svoj zemlji - i svim gmizavcima što puze po zemlji!" (27) Na svoju sliku stvori Bog čovjeka, na sliku Božju on ga stvori, muško i žensko stvori ih. (28) I blagoslovi ih Bog i reče im: "Plodite se, i množite, i napunite zemlju, i sebi je podložite!

There is no Garden of Eden created in the first chapter of Genesis. No tree of life or knowledge was planted, nor is there any prohibition against eating the fruit of the tree. On the contrary, the primal pair, the male and female, are told that every herb and every tree are given to them for food. The theology of the Elohim differs from that of Iahu-Elohim. This agrees with a non-Semitic version of the creation legend (Records, New Series, vol. vi.), in which there is no garden created, no mention of man being placed in the garden to tend it; no tree of life, nor tree of knowledge; and no temptation by the serpent, or story of the Fall.

 

Anunnaki


The Anunnaki: The Seven Great Gods

      
An - Enlil - Enki - Ninhursag - Nanna - Utu - Inanna

In the earliest texts, the term Anunnaki is applied to the most powerful and important deities in the Sumerian pantheon: the descendants of the sky-god An. This group of deities included the "seven gods who decree": An, Enlil, Enki, Ninhursag, Nanna, Utu, and Inanna.

 

Twelve Tribes


Twelve Tribes


Twelve Tribes

 

Y-chromosome - Twelve Tribes

Y-chromosomal Adam
A00 A0-T
A0 A1
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
G HIJK
IJK H
IJ   K
I J        LT  K2
L T NO K2b    K2c  K2d  K2
N   O   K2b1      P
K2b1a   K2b1b  K2b1c  M P1 P2
K2b1a1   K2b1a2   K2b1a3 S Q R

Basic stock Palaeanthropic stock
1. Y-DNA G 7. Y-DNA K2b
2. Y-DNA H 8. Y-DNA N
3. Y-DNA I 9. Y-DNA O
4. Y-DNA J 10. Y-DNA P
5. Y-DNA L 11. Y-DNA Q
6. Y-DNA T 12. Y-DNA R

 

12 Anđela, sinova neba - Twelve Tribes

9. Ovo su imena njihovih poglavara: Samjaza, koji im bijese vođa, Urakabarameel, Akibeel, Tamiel, Ramuel, Danel, Anane, Zavebe, Samsaveel, Ertael, Turel, Jomjael, Arazjal. To bijahu poglavari dvjesto anđela, a svi bijahu s njima. - Enoch

 

Hittites gods - Twelve Tribes


Twelve Hittite gods of the Underworld

The Greek myth about the succession of the divine kingship told in the Theogony of Hesiod and elsewhere is paralleled in a Hittite version of a Hurrian myth. In it, Anu, Kumarbi, and the storm god respectively, parallel Uranus, Cronos, and Zeus in the Theogony.

 

Gaia (Earth) & Uranus (Sky) was create the Twelve Titans

According to Hesiod's Theogony, Uranus mated with Gaia to create the twelve Titans: Oceanus, Coeus, Crius, Hyperion, Iapetus, Theia, Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoebe, Tethys and Cronus; the Cyclopes: Brontes, Steropes and Arges; and the Hecatoncheires ("Hundred-Handed Ones"): Cottus, Briareos, and Gyges.

Gaia Uranus
Oceanus Crius Iapetus Rhea Mnemosyne Tethys
Coeus Hyperion Theia Themis Phoebe Cronus
The Titans
Brontes Steropes Arges
The Cyclopes
Cottus Briareos Gyges
The  Hecatoncheires

 

Twelve Olympians - Twelve Tribes


Twelve Olympians

Fragment of a Hellenistic relief (1st century BC – 1st century AD) depicting the Twelve Olympians carrying their attributes in procession; from left to right, Hestia (scepter), Hermes (winged cap and staff), Aphrodite (veiled), Ares (helmet and spear), Demeter (scepter and wheat sheaf), Hephaestus (staff), Hera (scepter), Poseidon (trident), Athena (owl and helmet), Zeus (thunderbolt and staff), Artemis (bow and quiver), Apollo (lyre)

 

Rome - Twelve Tribes

Vijeće bogova ili viši zbor bogova, odnosno consortium deorum, sačinjen od dvanaest vrhovnih rimskih božanstva (Jupiter, Neptun, Mars, Apolon, Vulkan, Merkur, Junona, Minerva, Venera, Dijana, Vesta i Cerera)

 

Amphictyonic League - Twelve Tribes

In the Archaic period of Greek history, an amphictyony, a "league of neighbors", or Amphictyonic League was an ancient religious association of Greek tribes formed in the dim past, before the rise of the Greek polis.

It had twelve founders and was organized to protect the great temples of Apollo in Delphi (Phocis) and of Demeter near Thermopylae (Locris). The twelve founders enumerated by Aeschines were the Aenianes or Oetaeans (Αἰνιᾶνες, Οἰταῖοι), the Boeotians (Βοιωτοί) of Thebes, the Dolopes (Δόλοπες), the Dorians (Δωριείς) of Sparta, the Ionians (Ἴωνες) of Athens, the Phthian Achaeans (Ἀχαιοί), the Locrians (Λοκροί) (Opuntians, Ὀπούντιοι and Ozolians, Ὀζολαί), the Magnesians (Μάγνητες), the Malians (Μαλιεῖς), the Perrhaebians (Περραιβοί), the Phocians (Φωκεῖς), the Pythians (Πύθιοι) of Delphi, and the Thessalians (Θεσσαλοί). Among the descendants of Hellen are mentioned Aeolus, Ion, Achaeus, Dorus, Graecos and Makedon. - Amphictyonic League


Delphic Amphictyonic League Coin

The Delphic Amphictyonic League coin shows the veiled head of Demeter with a wheat wreath and one wheat ear. The reverse is a serpent coiled around a net-covered omphalos which was a sacred religious stone (or baetylus) in the shape of a navel. In Greek lore, Zeus sent two eagles across the world to meet at its center, the “navel” of the world. Omphalos stones marking the center were erected in several places around the Mediterranean Sea; the most famous of those was at Delphi.

In ancient Greece an amphyictyony was an association of neighboring states formed around a religious center. The most important was the Great Amphictyonic League  or Delphic Amphictyony. Originally composed of 12 tribes dwelling around Thermopylae, the league was centered first on the shrine of Demeter and later became associated with the Temple of Apollo at Delphi. Member states sent two kinds of deputies (pylagorai and hieromnēmones) to a council (pylaia) that met twice a year and administered the temporal affairs of the shrines and their properties, supervised the treasury, and conducted the Pythian Games. In the 4th century BC the league rebuilt the Delphic temple. Although primarily religious, the league exercised a political influence through its membership oath, forbidding destruction of member cities or the cutting off of water supplies; the hieromnēmones could punish offenders and even proclaim a sacred war against them.

Dodecapolis (Greek: Δωδεκάπολις) confederation of twelve cities.

 

Israelites - Twelve Tribes


Twelve Israel tribes

 
Twelve Israel tribes - Mosaic Zodiac from Synagogue in Beit Alpha, Israel, 6th Century

Kad je Višnji baštinu dijelio narodima, kad je razmještao sinove čovječje, odredi im međe po broju Božjih sinova: - Ponovljeni zakon


Mesolithic in Europe

The Mesolithic began with the Holocene warm period around 11,660 BP and ended with the introduction of farming, the date of which varied in each geographical region. Regions that experienced greater environmental effects as the last glacial period ended have a much more apparent Mesolithic era, lasting millennia. In northern Europe, for example, societies were able to live well on rich food supplies from the marshlands created by the warmer climate. Such conditions produced distinctive human behaviors that are preserved in the material record, such as the Maglemosian and Azilian cultures. Such conditions also delayed the coming of the Neolithic until as late as 5000–4000 BCE in northern Europe.

There is some evidence for the beginning of construction at sites with a ritual or astronomical significance, including Stonehenge, with a short row of large post holes aligned east-west, and a possible "lunar calendar" at Warren Field in Scotland, with pits of post holes of varying sizes, thought to reflect the lunar phases. Both are dated to around 8,000 BCE.

 

Central Europe refuge, c. 11000 BC

Y-DNA I1

 
Haplogroup I1 - Central Europe refuge

y-Haplogroup I1 STR "Cluster" Analysis
y-Haplogroup_I1_and_Ancient_European_Migrations.pdf

Origins; Y-DNA I-M253 5500 BC

 

Ahrensburg culture / Swiderian culture

Y-chromosome C1 & I1

 
Ahrensburg culture, c. 10000 - 9000 BC - Swiderian culture, c. 11000 - 8200 BC

In the late phase of this epi-Paleolithic period, the Sauveterrean culture evolves into the so-called Tardenoisian and influences strongly its southern neighbour, clearly replacing it in Mediterranean Spain and Portugal. The recession of the glaciers allows human colonization in Northern Europe for the first time. The Maglemosian culture, derived from the Sauveterre-Tardenois culture but with a strong personality, colonizes Denmark and the nearby regions, including parts of Britain.

 

Maglemosian culture, c. 9000 - 6000 BC


Maglemosian culture

 

Doggerland, a mesolithic paradise, c. 10000 - 6000 BC

8,200 y.a. Storegga landslide tsunamis and Flooding of Doggerland.  There were three main tsunamis over a 200 year span. The shoreline waves were estimated to be as high as 32 meters. These were similar in scale, scope and fatalities to the devastating 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami. Many northern Haplogroups show evidence of a major 'population bottleneck' event at just this time.

 

Pesse canoe, c. 8000 BC


Pesse canoe

The Pesse canoe is believed to be the world's oldest known boat, and certainly the oldest canoe. Carbon dating indicates that the boat was constructed during the early mesolithic period between 8040 BCE and 7510 BCE. It is now in the Drents Museum in Assen, Netherlands.


Anatolian refuge, c. 11000 BC

Preceded by Epigravettian - Y-DNA I2 & R-L754


Y-DNA I2 & R-L754 - Anatolia, Cappadocia


Anatolian refuge, c. 10950 BC - Cappadocia


Cappadocia

Origins Y-DNA I2a, I2b, I2c & R-L754 Anatolia, Cappadocia

 

Megalithic culture

Haplogrupa I2


Haplogrupa I2 - stablo

Haplogrupa I2 je u ljudskoj genetici, haplogrupa muških Y-kromosoma u jugoistočnoj Europi i prednjoj Aziji.

Iz haplogrupe I2 proizlaze I2a, I2b i I2c.

 

Haplogrupa I2c

 I2C (L596, L597) može se podijeliti u četiri skupine: A, AB, B i C.

  • Groupa A geografski ograničena u Švicarsku, Njemačku, Nizozemsku, Švedsku, Poljsku, Veliku Britaniju i Irsku.
  • Groupa AB je pronađena u sjeverozapadnom Iranu, oko Kavkaza (Armenija i Gruzija), u Turskoj i Francuskoj.
  • Groupa B nalazi se u niskim frekvencijama u zapadnoj Aziji (Turska, Gruzija, Sjeverne Osetije, Armenije, Azerbaijian i sjeverozapadnog Irana), u jugoistočnoj Europi (Moldaviji, Rumunjski, Bugarski, Albaniji, Kreti), u Balto-slavenskim zemljama (Rusiji, Ukrajini, Bjelorusiji, Litvi, Poljskoj, Slovačkoj, Češkoj), kao u Njemačkoj, Austriji, Italiji, Španjolskoj i Velikoj Britaniji.
  • Groupa C ima sličan raspored kao i A skupina, također pronađen u Francuskoj, Italiji i Norveškoj.

 

Haplogrupa I2b

I2b (L416, L417, L418) je vrlo mali subclade zabilježen je u samo nekoliko uzoraka iz Italije, Njemačke, Škotske i Irana

 

Haplogoupa I2a


Distribucija Haplogrupe I2a

 

Haplogoupa I2a1


Distribucija Haplogrupe I2a1

Haplotip I2a1b tipična je za dinarske i kavkaske etnogrupe, ponajviše kao 1/2 do 3/4 pučanstva za Hrvate, islamske Bošnjake, Crnogorce, kavkaske Swanete, Dargyne i kurdske Delamite (Zazaki), zatim manje oko 1/4 do 1/3 populacije za zapadne Srbe (jekavski Prečani), Moldavce, ine Kurde, Abhaze i Teheran, a rjedje s nižim udjelom za ostale susjedne narode jugoistočne Europe i prednje Azije tj. Starog istoka.

  1. 1/2 do 3/4 pučanstvo Hrvatske, islamski Bošnjaci, Crnogorci
  2. 1/4 do 1/3 pučanstvo Srbje (jekavski Prečani), Moldavci, Kurdi, Abhaze i Teheran
  3. 1/2 do 3/4 kavkaski Swanete, Dargyne i kurdski Delamite (Zazaki)
  4. (İ2a1/Eu8) starosjedioci na Sardiniji i s manjim udjelima u Baskiji, Italiji, Francuskoj...

 

Megalithic culture

Haplogroup R-L754


Haplogroup R-L754

R1b1a (R-L754)

R-L754 contains the vast majority of R1b. The only known example of R-L754*(xL389,V88) is also the earliest known individual to carry R1b: "Villabruna 1", who lived circa 14,000 years BP (north east Italy). Villabruna 1 belonged to the Epigravettian culture.

 

Megalithic culture

Haplogroup I (mtDNA)


Haplogroup I (mtDNA)

Haplogroup I is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. It is believed to have originated about 21,000 years ago, during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) period in West Asia ((Olivieri 2013); Terreros 2011; Fernandes 2012). The haplogroup is unusual in that it is now widely distributed geographically, but is common in only a few small areas of East Africa, West Asia and Europe. It is especially common among the El Molo and Rendille peoples of Kenya, various regions of Iran, the Lemko people of Slovakia, Poland and Ukraine, the island of Krk in Croatia, the department of Finistère in France and some parts of Scotland.

Origin

Haplogroup I is a descendant (subclade) of haplogroup N1a1b and sibling of haplogroup N1a1b1 (Olivieri 2013). It is believed to have arisen somewhere in West Asia between 17,263 and 24,451 years before present (BP) (Behar 2012b), with coalescence age of 20.1 thousand years ago (Olivieri 2013). It has been suggested that its origin may be in Iran or more generally the Near East (Terreros 2011). It has diverged to at least seven distinct clades i.e. branches I1-I7, dated between 16-6.8 thousand years (Olivieri 2013). The hypothesis about its Near Eastern origin is based on the fact that all haplogroup I clades, especially those from Late Glacial period (I1, I4, I5, and I6), include mitogenomes from the Near East (Olivieri 2013). The age estimates and dispersal of some subclades (I1, I2’3, I5) are similar to those of major subclades of the mtDNA haplogroups J and T, indicating possible dispersal of the I haplogroup into Europe during the Late Glacial period (c. 18–12 kya) and postglacial period (c. 10–11 kya), several millennia before the European Neolithic period. Some subclades (I1a1, I2, I1c1, I3) show signs of the Neolithic diffusion of agriculture and pastoralism within Europe (Olivieri 2013).

It is noteworthy that, with the exception of its northern neighbor Azerbaijan, Iran is the only population in which haplogroup I exhibits polymorphic levels. Also, a contour plot based on the regional phylogeographic distribution of the I haplogroup exhibits frequency clines consistent with an Iranian cradle ... Moreover, when compared with other populations in the region, those from the Levant (Iraq, Syria and Palestine) and the Arabian Peninsula (Oman and UAE) exhibit significantly lower proportions of I individuals ... this haplogroup has been detected in European groups (Krk, a tiny island off the coast of Croatia (11.3%), and Lemko, an isolate from the Carpathian Highlands (11.3%)) at comparable frequencies to those observed in the North Iranian population. However, the higher frequencies of the haplogroup within Europe are found in geographical isolates and are likely the result of founder effects and/or drift ... it is plausible that the high levels of haplogroup I present in Iran may be the result of a localized enrichment through the action of genetic drift or may signal geographical proximity to the location of origin.
— Terreros 2011

A similar view puts more emphasis on the Persian Gulf region of the Near East (Fernandes 2012).
Haplogroup I ... dates to ∼25 ka ago and is overall most frequent in Europe ..., but the facts that it has a frequency peak in the Gulf region and that its highest diversity values are in the Gulf, Anatolia, and southeast Europe suggest that its origin is most likely in the Near East and/or Arabia ...
— Fernandes 2012

 

Lost Megalithic civilization, c. 11000 - 9600 BC

Megalithic builders - Y-DNA I2a, I2b, I2c & R-L754

 

Megarons

The Temple of Man - R.A. Schwaller De Lubicz

Megarons

 

Great Sphinx of Giza

 
Great Sphinx of Giza - Na Rubu Znanosti - John A. West, Egipat

 

Great Pyramid of Giza


Great Pyramid of Giza

 

Bosanske piramide?

 

 

Izgubljena znanja


Tetrahedron

 

Paleocontact theory


Ancient astronauts - Paleocontact theory

 

Lost Ancient Technology

 

The Code - Carl Munck

 

Anatolia & Epigravettian


Anatolia & Land of four rivers (Epigravettian)

 

The Black Sea Flood, c. 9600 BC

 
The black sea flood

 

Geology of a catastrophe - the when and where of the black sea flood

YANKO-HOMBACH, Valentina, Avalon Institute of Applied Sci, Charleswood Technology Centre, 3227 Roblin Boulevard, Winnipeg, MB R3R 0C2, Canada, valyan@avalon-institute.org and TSCHEPALIGA, Andrei, Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sci, 29, Staromonetniy per, Moscow, 109017, Russia

Deeply engrained in the collective memory and religion of humanity is the Great Flood, also called Noahs Flood. Recently, W. Ryan and W. Pitman, (1999,2003)have attributed this flood to the Black Sea basin. Their proposal that a catastrophic postglacial (8.35 ka BP)rise in the level of the Black Sea accelerated the dispersion of early Neolithic foragers and farmers into the interior of Europe, forming the historical basis for the biblical story of Noahs Flood, has spurred a tremendous interest by the public, the scientific community, and the media. This presentation summarises the results of extensive geological and palaeooceanograpic studies of the Black Sea and the former Manych Strait undertaken since 1970. Thousands of cores as well as thousands of kilometres of high-resolution seismic profiles were studied in a large-scale marine-geological survey. The samples obtained were subjected to multidisciplinary studies (micropalaeontology, geochemistry, sedimentology), and correlated with 14C, O and C isotope data. A large amount of geological and archaeological publications were reviewed for comparison. In the context of the Ryan&Pitman Noah Flood hypothesis, the time span of 15.0 ka - 7.0 ka BP is discussed in six crucial stages: (1) The lowest level (about -100 m) of the freshwater Novoeuxinian Lake before 14 ka BP; (2) The rapid increase of the level (from -100 m to -20 m) between ~14.0 and 11.0 ka BP due to a massive overflow from the Caspian Sea to the Black Sea through the Manych Strait; (3) The re-establisment of the Black Sea / Sea of Marmara connection and the concurrent first appearance of Mediterranean immigrants in the Black Sea at ~9.0 ka BP; (4) Alternative to the Bosporus connections between the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara; (5) The gradual and fluctuating character of Holocene transgression; (6) The influence of sea-level change on coastlines and surrounding human culture. It will be shown that although there seems to be not much room for the Ryan&Pitman Noah Flood hypothesis, there does exist much stronger possibility of an earlier flood in the basin due to the massive water overflow from the Caspian Sea through the ancient Manych Strait, reducing available space and food resources for Palaeolithic people and likely causing inland migration and the transition from hunting and gathering to farming and cattle breeding in the region. - Geology of a catastrophe

 

Nostratic languages


A phylogenetic representation of Nostratic as proposed by Bomhard (2008).

Nostratic is a macrofamily, or hypothetical large-scale language family, which includes many of the indigenous language families of Eurasia, although its exact composition and structure vary among proponents. It typically comprises the Indo-European, Uralic, Altaic and Kartvelian languages, as well as the Afroasiatic languages spoken in North Africa, the Horn of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and the Near East, and the Dravidian languages of the Indian Subcontinent (sometimes also Elamo-Dravidian, which connects India and the Iranian Plateau).


Nostratic languages

The present day worldwide distribution of the Nostratic macrofamily of languages according to Sergei Starostin.

 

Proto-writing - Kamyana Mohyla

Kamyana Mohyla (stone tomb) is an archaeological site in the Molochna River. The site encompasses a group of isolated blocks of sandstone, up to twelve meters in height, scattered around an area of some 3000 square meters. No traces of ancient human settlement have been discovered in the vicinity, leading many scholars to believe that the hill served as a remote sanctuary. Faint traces of red paint remain on parts of the surface. Scholars have been unable to agree whether the petroglyphs date from Mesolithic or Neolithic. The latter dating is more popular, although the presumed depiction of a mammoth in one of the caves seems to favour the former date.

Chinese scholars have suggested that such signs were produced by a convergent development, of what might be called a precursor to writing, which evolved independently in a number of societies. Indeed, there are some similarities between Sumerian cuneiform script, and stone markings from Çatalhöyük in Turkey, and Kamyana Mohyla in Southern Ukraine: both predating the Vinča culture by several millennia.

 

 

Neolithic signs in China - Crete

Jiahu symbols
Banpo pottery symbols
Jiangzhai pottery symbols
Longshan culture
Crete, Linear A

 

Mythology


Göbekli Tepe zodiac

 
Babylonian zodiac - Chinese zodiac

Zodijak iz Nakovane

 

Hrvatski znanstvenik dr. Stašo Forenbaher na arheološkom nalazištu Spila u Nakovani na Pelješcu otkrio je dijelove astrologove ploče iz 100. godine prije Krista. O tom iznimno rijetkom arheološkom nalazu, nazvanom Zodijak iz Nakovane, Forenbaher je nedavno, zajedno s kolegom dr. Alexanderom Jonesom, objavio rad u uglednom časopisu Journal for the History of Astronomy.

To je zapravo neočekivano otkriće proizašlo iz istraživanja ilirskog svetišta Spila. Podsjećam, u kolovozu 1999., zajedno s kanadskim kolegom dr. Timothyjem Kaiserom, u pećini Spila u zaseoku Nakovane blizu Orebića otkrio sam ilirsko svetište koje datira između 4. i 1. stoljeća prije Krista – prisjetio se dr. Stašo Forebaher, arheolog i antropolog s Instituta za antropologiju u Zagrebu.

Ulomci su pronađeni u špiljskom svetištu, zajedno s obiljem fine helenističke keramike. Rekonstrukcijom je utvrđeno da se radi o pločicama s ugraviranim zodijakalnim simbolima, najvjerojatnije o dijelovima “astrologove ploče” kakve su koristili antički astrolozi za tumačenje horoskopa svojim klijentima. U svijetu su poznate samo četiri takve ploče.

 

Dolmens

 
Dolmen Sa Coveccada, Mores, Sardinia - Bulgaria dolmens

 
Korean dolmens

 

Agricultural transition


Agricultural transition

Map of the world showing approximate centers of origin of agriculture and its spread in prehistory: the Fertile Crescent (11,000 BP), the Yangtze and Yellow River basins (9,000 BP) and the New Guinea Highlands (9,000–6,000 BP), Central Mexico (5,000–4,000 BP), Northern South America (5,000–4,000 BP), sub-Saharan Africa (5,000–4,000 BP, exact location unknown), eastern North America (4,000–3,000 BP).

Neolithic human settlements

  • Göbekli Tepe in Turkey, 11000–9000 BC
  • Tell Qaramel in Syria, 10700–9400 BC
  • Franchthi Cave in Greece, epipalaeolithic (10000 BC) settlement, reoccupied between 7500–6000 BC
  • Nanzhuangtou in Hebei, China, 8500-7700 BC
  • Jericho in West bank, Neolithic from around 8350 BC, arising from the earlier Epipaleolithic Natufian culture
  • Aşıklı Höyük in Central Anatolia, Turkey, an Aceramic Neolithic period settlement, 8200 – 7400 BC, correlating with the E/MPPNB in the Levant.
  • Nevali Cori in Turkey, 8000 BC
  • Pengtoushan culture in China, 7500 – 6100 BC, rice residues were Carbon-14 dated to 8200-7800 BC in type site
  • Çatalhöyük in Turkey, 7500 BC
  • ‘Ain Ghazal in Jordan, 7250–5000 BC
  • Chogha Bonut in Iran, 7200 BC
  • Jhusi in India, 7100 BC
  • Ganj Dareh in Iran, 7000 BC
  • Lahuradewa in India, 7000 BC
  • Jiahu in China, 7000 to 5800 BC
  • Mehrgarh in Pakistan, 7000 BC
  • Knossus on Crete, 7000 BC
  • Karanovo in Bulgaria, 6200 BC
  • Sesklo in Greece, 6850 BC (with a ±660 year margin of error)
  • Dispilio in Greece, 5500 BC
  • Porodin in Republic of Macedonia, 6500 BC
  • Vrshnik (Anzabegovo) in Republic of Macedonia, 6500 BC
  • Pizzo di Bodio (Varese), Lombardy in Italy, 6320 ±80 BC
  • Sammardenchia in Friuli, Italy, 6050 ±90 BC,
  • Padah-Lin Caves in Burma, 6000 BC
  • Petnica in Serbia, 6000 BC
  • Stara Zagora in Bulgaria, 5500 BC
  • Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, 5500–2750 BC, in Ukraine, Moldova and Romania first salt works
  • Tell Zeidan in northern Syria, from about 5500 to 4000 BC.
  • Tabon Cave Complex in Quezon, Palawan, Philippines 5000 – 2000 BC
  • Hemudu culture in China, 5000 – 4500 BC, large scale rice plantation
  • The Megalithic Temples of Malta, 3600 BC
  • Knap of Howar and Skara Brae, Orkney, Scotland, from 3500 BC and 3100 BC respectively
  • Brú na Bóinne in Ireland, c. 3500 BC
  • Lough Gur in Ireland from around 3000 BC

 

Easter Island - Polynesians

Haplogroup O


The Polynesian spread of colonization in the Pacific.


Polynesians - Haplogroup O-M119


Easter Island


Easter Island - Polynesians


Göbekli Tepe

Genetic studies have been done on the people and related groups. The Haplogroup O1 (Y-DNA)a-M119 genetic marker is frequently detected in Native Taiwanese, northern Philippines and Polynesians, as well as some people in Indonesia, Malaysia and non-Austronesian populations in southern China.

Paleolithic in Europe Index Megalithic culture