Garden of Eden

Neolithic Revolution - Danube River, c. 6200 - 4500 BC


Garden of Eden


Garden of Eden, Danube - Pannonia

Eden - Danube

I Jahve, Bog, zasadi vrt na istoku, u Edenu, i u nj smjesti čovjeka koga je napravio. .. Jahve, Bog, uzme čovjeka i postavi ga u edenski vrt da ga obrađuje i čuva.

Edonia, was an ancient region of Thrace which later became a district of Macedon.

  • Eden = Danube, korjen DN, (Danubian Civilization - Neolithic Revolution)

Istok - Ister

Vrt je zasađen na istoku. Istjera čovjeka istočno od Edena. Kajin ode istočno od Edena. Noa, potop,.. ljudi su se selili s istoka.

Ister od kojeg je nastala Istra.

  • Istok = Danube/Ister = (Ishtar, Eosphorus/Phosphoros, Lucifer, zvijezda Danica (Venera), izlazi pred zoru prije izlaska Sunca na istočnom nebu.)

Flammas eius lúcifer matutínus invéniat: ille, inquam, lúcifer, qui nescit occásum. Christus Fílius tuus, qui, regréssus ab ínferis, humáno géneri serénus illúxit, et vivit et regnat in sæcula sæculórum.

May this flame be found still burning by the Morning Star: the one Morning Star who never sets, Christ your Son, who, coming back from death's domain, has shed his peaceful light on humanity, and lives and reigns for ever and ever. - Flammas eius Lucifer

Inanna (Ishtar), Utu (Shamash), Enki (Ea) & Isimud (Usumu)


Shamash with rays rising from his shoulders and holding a saw-toothed knife with which he cuts his way through the mountains of the east at dawn.

Alal ti vera

Venus, called "Meleket ha-Shamayim," "the queen of heaven," in Jeremiah 7:18 and elsewhere. That the latter means Venus is shown by the cakes which are said to have been baked for her. Among the Assyrians and Babylonians the cake offerings were called "the bread of Ishtar."

Helel (Alal) the "son of the morning," in Isaiah 14:12, is also thought by some to be the morning star (Venus when visible before dawn). This identification is better known to many English speakers as Lucifer, the "light-bearer.

Upper Danube & Lower Danube

Dunav Danube - Known to the ancient Greeks as the Istros (Ἴστρος), in Latin, the Danube was variously known as Danubius, Danuvius or as Ister. The Dacian/Thracian name was Donaris for the upper Danube and Istros for the lower Danube.

  • Ister (lower Danube) & Danube (upper Danube) = E-den

Rijeka se grana u četiri kraka

Rijeka je izvirala iz Edena da bi natapala vrt; odatle se granala u četiri kraka.

Rijeka Danube (Pannonia) grana se u četiri kraka (Tisa, Sava)


Avala (Vinča) - Danube, Tisa, Sava...


Vinča culture - Rijeka Danube grana se u četiri kraka, Tisa, Sava, Morava & Timiš

Pîšōn - Tisia

Prvom je ime Pišon, a optječe svom zemljom havilskom, u kojoj ima zlata.
  • Pîšōn = Tisia

Havilah (Havale/Avala) - Valachie

Land of Havilah, where there is gold. (Ancient gold mining in Transylvania)

There is archaeological and metallurgical evidence of gold mining in the 'Golden Quadrilateral' of Transylvania since the late Stone Age. Alburnus Maior was founded by the Romans during the rule of Trajan as a mining town, with Illyrian colonists from South Dalmatia.


Transylvania - Valachia

  • Ha-Vilah = Valac-Hie (Valachie Danube); Walahi = Bilahi = BiLha, LaBan (Bijelo)

Frankish language *blank, Proto-Germanic *blankaz ‎(“bright, shining, blinding, white”‎), Proto-Indo-European *bʰleyǵ- ‎(“to shine”‎), Catalan, Occitan and French *blanc, Spanish *blanco, Italian *bianco, Galician-Portuguese *branco, Dalmatian *blank, etc.

Havale = Valachie; Walahi = BiLahi = BiLha, LaBan (Bijel, Sjajan, Svijetao); Sanskrit śveta "to be white or bright", Slavonic světŭ "light", English white (Korjen WT).


Avala  - Havale

Avala is a mountain in Serbia, overlooking Belgrade. It is situated in the south-eastern corner of the city and provides a great panoramic view of Belgrade.

  • Havilah = Valachie = Havale/Avala

Gold & Onyx

Zlato je te zemlje dobro, a ima ondje i bdelija i oniksa.

Gold & Onix, Danube River, Danubian Civilization

 
Late Neolithic, ca. 5000 BC

Onyx is a gemstone found in various regions of the world including Yemen, Uruguay, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Germany (Danube), India, Indonesia, Madagascar, Latin America, the UK, and various states in the US.


Tizsa, Vinča, Eastern Linear Pottery

 

Lepenski Vir, c. 6150 - 5500 BC

First Oracle Center - The mountains of the east (Istok)


Lepenski Vir - First Oracle Center

The latest radiocarbon and AMS data suggests that the chronology of Lepenski Vir is compressed between 9500/7200-6000 BC. There is some disagreement about the early start of the settlement and culture of Lepenskir Vir. But the latest data suggest 9500-7200 to be the start. The late Lepenskir Vir (6300-6000 BC) architectural development was the development of the Trapezoidal buildings and monumental sculpture. The Lepenskir Vir site consists of one large settlement with around ten satellite villages. Numerous piscine sculptures and peculiar architecture have been found at the site.

The Mesolithic statues of Lepenski Vir at the Iron Gate, Serbia date to the 7th millennium BCE and represent either humans or mixtures of humans and fish. Simple pottery began to develop in various places, even in the absence of farming.

6150-5950 p.n.e. transformacioni/rani neolit, 5950-5500 p.n.e. srednji neolit

 

Vinča / Lepenski Vir today

 
Vinča - Lepenski Vir

Uprkos sjajnim i ne samo po lokalnu baštinu dragocenim arheološkim otkrićima, stanje na terenu je više nego sumorno. Na putu ka arheološkom nalazištu Vinča nema nijedne table, ni jednog jedinog putokaza koji bi putniku namerniku ukazao gde se kriju ruine „centra sveta“ nekadašnjeg neolita.

Mesto, koje bi u bilo kojoj zapadnoevropskoj državi predstavljalo magnet za turiste i turističku atrakciju najvišeg ranga, samuje, napušteno. Tamo ne vozi nijedan autobus, nijedan rečni taksi, a u podnožju lokaliteta nalećemo na metalnu tablu sa upozorenjem da je nalazište zatvoreno zbog „klizišta“.

 

Danubian Civilization, c. 6200 - 4500 BC

Y-DNA G2a2, H2, I2a, T1a

Danubian culture was the first agrarian society in central and eastern Europe. It covers the Linear Pottery culture (Linearbandkeramik, LBK), stroked pottery and Rössen cultures.

The beginning of the Linear Pottery culture dates to around 5500 BC. It appears to have spread westwards along the valley of the river Danube and interacted with the cultures of Atlantic Europe when they reached the Paris Basin.

Danubian I peoples cleared forests and cultivated fertile loess soils from the Balkans to the Low Countries and the Paris Basin. They made LBK pottery and kept domesticated cows, pigs, dogs, sheep and goats. The diagnostic tool of the culture is the Shoe-last celt, a kind of long thin stone adze which was used to fell trees and sometimes as a weapon, evidenced by the skulls found at Talheim, Neckar in Germany and Schletz in Austria. Settlements consisted of longhouses. According to a theory by Eduard Sangmeister, these settlements were abandoned, possibly as fertile land was exhausted, and then reoccupied perhaps when the land had lain fallow for long enough. In contrast, Peter Modderman and Jens Lüning believe the settlements were constantly inhabited, with individual families using specific plots (Hofplätze). They also imported spondylus shells from the Mediterranean.

Danubian sites include those at Bylany in Bohemia and Köln-Lindenthal in Germany.


Map of the European Late Neolithic showing Danubian culture in Yellow


Neolithic cultures - Europe in ca. 5500 - 4500 BC

 

Linear Pottery culture, c. 5500 - 4500 BC

Lactose tolerance


Linear Pottery culture


Lactose tolerance

Archaeogenetics

Linear Pottery culture - A 2010 study of ancient DNA suggested the LBK population had affinities to modern-day populations from the Near East and Anatolia, such as an overall prevalence of G2. The study also found some unique features, such as the prevalence of the now-rare Y-haplogroup H2 and mitochondrial haplogroup frequencies.

Y-DNA; C1a2 (x2), F (x2), G2a2a (x3), G2a2a1 (x2), G2a2b (x3), I1, T1a (x2)

mtDNA; (aka LBK, c. 8,000 to 6,500 ybp ; Central Europe): H (x12), H1, H1j, H5 (x2), H26b, HV (x2), J (x7), J1c17, K (x10), K1a (x8), K1a2, K1a3a3, K2a5, N1a1a (x3), N1a1a1, N1a1a1a, N1a1a1a1, N1a1a1a2, N1a1a1a3 (x5), N1a1a3, T (x3), T1a, T2 (x3), T2b (x9), T2b23 (x2), T2b23a, T2c (x2), T2c1, T2c1b, T2e (x4), U2, U3, U5a1, U5a1a'g, U5b, U5b2c, V, W (x2), X2d1

Linear Pottery culture

The culture is also known under the names of Linear Band Ware, Linear Ware, Linear Ceramics or Incised Ware culture. It is commonly abbreviated as LBK, from the German Linearbandkeramik.

Represents the advance of Early Neolithic farmers from the Starčevo-Körös culture across central Europe, starting from what is now Hungary and spreading north to the Czech Republic and Poland, west across Germany to Belgium and northern France, and east to western Ukraine, northern Moldova and north-eastern Romania.

Their Neolithic agricultural economy was based primarily on the cultivation of crops from the Fertile Crescent, such as Emmer wheat, Einkorn wheat, peas and lentils, and to a lower extent barley, millet, rye, and broad beans. The LBK people settled on fluvial terraces and in the proximities of rivers, especially in regions rich in fertile loess. Stockbreeding was also practised, of cattle in particular, but also of goats and pigs. The LBK farmers supplemented their diets by hunting deer and wild boar in the open forests.

People lived in trapezoidal or rectangular wooden longhouses built with massive timber posts. They had thatched roofs and were chinked with wattle and daub mortar. The longhouses measured from 7 to 45 meters in length and 5 to 7 meters in width. Villages were composed of five to eight longhouses, about 20 metres apart. Some villages were fortified for some time with a palisade and outer ditch.

Flint and obsidian were the main materials used for points and cutting edges. LBK farmers harvested with sickles manufactured by inserting flint blades into the inside of curved pieces of wood. Trees were felled and carved using shoe-last celt, which consists of a ground stone chisel blade tied to a handle.

Like other early Neolithic cultures in Europe, the Linear Pottery featured burials of women and children under the floors of personal residences - a practice that continued until 4000 BCE. Cemeteries containing from 20 to 200 graves make their appearance from 5000 BCE and included both male and female skeletons, apparently arranged in groups based on kinship. Both cremation and inhumation were practiced. The inhumed were placed in a flexed position in pits lined with stones, plaster, or clay. Graves typically contained goods like flint implements or jewelry of Spondylus shells, but pottery was found almost exclusively in female graves.

 
Linear Pottery

 

Late Neolithic

This period occupies the first half of the 6th millennium BP and is rather quiet. The tendencies of the previous period consolidate, so we have a fully formed Neolithic Europe with five main cultural regions:

1.Danubian cultures: from northern France to Western Ukraine. Now split into several local cultures, the most relevant ones being: the Romanian branch (culture of Boian) that expands into Bulgaria, the culture of Rössen that is preeminent in the west, and the culture of Lengyel of Austria and western Hungary, which will have a major role in the upcoming periods.

2.Mediterranean cultures: from the Adriatic to eastern Spain, including Italy and large portions of France and Switzerland. These are also diversified into several groups.

3.The area of Dimini-Vinca: Thessalia, Macedonia and Serbia, but extending its influence also to parts of the mid-Danubian basin (Tisza, Slavonia) and southern Italy.

4.Eastern Europe: basically central and eastern Ukraine and parts of southern Russia and Belarus (culture of Dniepr-Don). Apparently these people were the ones who first domesticated horses (though some Paleolithic evidence could disprove it).

5.Atlantic Europe: a mosaic of local cultures, some of them still pre-Neolithic, from Portugal to southern Sweden. Since around 5800 BP the western regions of France incorporate also the Megalithic style of burial.

There were also a few independent areas, including Andalusia, southern Greece and the western coasts of the Black Sea (culture of Hamangia).

 

Neolithic and Chalcolithic Europe - Eupedia

Agriculture first developed in the Levant, then spread to Anatolia, Greece, the Balkans, Italy, Central and Eastern Europe. These Neolithic farmers were confirmed to have belonged primarily to Y-DNA haplogroups G2a, but also included minorities of C1a2, E1b1b, H2 (formerly F3), J1, J2 and T1a lineages, who could have been assimilated in Anatolia before entering Europe. As they advanced across Europe, Neolithic farmers also increasingly assimilated European lineages, notably I2a1 in Southeast Europe, I1 and I2a1 in Central Europe, I2a1 and I2a2a in Western Europe, and E-M78, I2a1 and I2a2a in Southwest Europe.

Hundreds of Neolithic samples from all over Europe (but especially Central Europe and Iberia) have been tested. The new lineages brought by these Near Eastern immigrants included mt-haplogroups HV, J1, J2, K1, K2, N*, N1, T1a, T2b, T2c, T2e, T2f, U3, W, X1, X2, and many subclades of H (including H2, H5, H7, H13 and H20). H4, H8 and H9 seem to have originated in the Near East as well, although no Neolithic sample has been identified in Europe yet.

However, due to the proximity of the Caucasus from the Indo-European homeland, many of these mt-haplogroups were almost certainly also transported by the Indo-Europeans themselves. This would notably be the case of H5, K1a, T2b, U3, W and X2.

 

Neolithic and chalcolithic in Europe, c. 5000 to 4500 BC

Suggested of neolithic and chalcolithic cultures with Y-DNA haplogroups

Ertebølle culture: I2a Narva culture: C1a, N1
Linear Pottery culture: G2, H2 Dnieper-Donets culture: R1a, R1b
Cardium pottery culture: E-V13, G2a, I2a     Khvalynsk culture: G2a, Q1a, R1b
Starčevo culture: F, G2a, H2, I2a, T1a Shulaveri-Shomu culture: G2a, J2
Megalithic Culture: G2a, I2, I2a Chalcolithic Near East: E-V13, I, I2c, J2, T1a
La Almagra pottery: E-M78, G2a, I2, I2a, R1b    Neolithic Greece: E-V13, G2a, I2a, T1a

 

Georgia - Georgians

Georgia / Astana (Kazahstan) - Tribe of Judah


G2a - Georgia / Astana (Kazahstan) - Tribe of Judah

Georgia (Georgians) - Tribe of Judah

Georgios, Georgius (starogrčki), Kevork, Gevorg (jermenski), Gorka (baskijski), Georgi (bugarski), Jordi (katalonski), Jory (kornish), Jiri (češki), Jorgen (danski), Joeri, Jurriaan, Jurgen, Joris (holandski), George (engleski), Georgo (esperanto), Georg (estonski), Gjerg (albanski), Yirjana, Jurki, Juri (finski), Georges (francuski), Joris (frizijski), Xurxo (galicijski), Giorgi (gruzijski), Jurgen, georg (njemački), Yorgos, Yiorgos, Georgios (grčki), Gyorgy (madžarski), Geevarghese (hindu), Seoirse (irski), Giorgio (italijanski), Juris, Georgs, Georgijs (latvijski) Jurgis (litvanski), Gorgi, Gjorgji (makedonski), Juran (srednjevijekovno nejmački), Yrian (srednjevijekovno skandinavski), Goran, Orjan, Jorgen (norveški), Jerzy (poljski), Jorge (portugalski), Gheorghe, George (rumunski), Yuri, Yuriy, Georgy, georgiy (ruski), Georg (skandinavski), Seoras, Deòrsa (škotski), Đorđe, Đurađ, Đurđe, Djordje, (srbski), Jurij (slovenski), Jorge (španski), Goran, Gorjan, Jorgen, Joran (švedski), Yuri, Yuriy (ukrajinski), Siorus, Siors, Sior (velški).

Georgia /ˈdʒɔːrdʒə/ ( listen) is the Western exonym for the nation in the Caucasus natively known as Sakartvelo (Georgian: საქართველო, [sakʰartʰvɛlɔ] ( listen)). The Russian exonym is Gruziya (Russian: Грузия).

The native name is derived from the core central Georgian region of Kartli i.e. Iberia of the Classical and Byzantine sources around which the early medieval cultural and political unity of the Georgians was formed.

Both the Western and the Russian exonyms are likely derived from the Persian designation of the Georgians, gurğān, evolving from Middle Persian wurğān and Old Persian varkân meaning "land of the wolves". This is also reflected in Old Armenian Virk' (Վիրք), it being a source of the Greco-Roman Iberia.

Today the full, official name of the country in English is "Georgia", as specified in the Georgian constitution which reads "Georgia shall be the name of the State of Georgia." Before the 1995 constitution came into force the country's name was the Republic of Georgia. The Georgian government works actively to remove Russian-derived exonym Gruziya from usage around the world.

Iberia - Eber

One theory on the etymology of the name Iberia, proposed by Giorgi Melikishvili, was that it was derived from the contemporary Armenian designation for Georgia, Virkʿ (Armenian: Վիրք, and Ivirkʿ [Իվիրք] and Iverkʿ [Իվերք]), which itself was connected to the word Sver (or Svir), the Kartvelian designation for Georgians. The letter "s" in this instance served as a prefix for the root word "Ver" (or "Vir"). Accordingly, in following Ivane Javakhishvili's theory, the ethnic designation of "Sber", a variant of Sver, was derived the word "Hber" ("Hver") (and thus Iberia) and the Armenian variants, Veria and Viria.

The Armenian name of Georgia is Վրաստան Vrastan, Վիրք Virk (i.e. Iberia). Ethnic Georgians are referred in Armenian as Վրացիներ (Vratsiner) literally meaning Iberians.

The Russian name was brought into several Slavic languages (Bulgarian, Belarusian, Polish, Czech, Serbo-Croatian, Slovak, Slovenian, Macedonian, Ukrainian) as well as other language historically in contact with the Russian Empire (such as Latvian, Lithuanian, Estonian, Hungarian, Yiddish, Kyrgyz, Turkmen, Uyghur, Chinese, Japanese, Korean). It also entered the contemporary Hebrew as גרוזיה ("Gruz-ia"). It coexisted with the names גאורגיה ("Gheorghia" with two hard g's) and גורג'יה (Gurjia), when "Gruzia" took over in the 1970s, probably due to a massive immigration of bilingual Georgian-Russian Jews to Israel at that time.

In August 2005 the Georgian ambassador to Israel Lasha Zhvania asked that the Hebrew speakers refer to his country as "Georgia" גאורגיה and abandon the name "Gruzia". A similar request was issued by Georgia, in December 2009, to Lithuania, asking to be called "Georgija" instead of "Gruzija"; the request was forwarded to the Commission of the Lithuanian Language. Instead, eventually "Sakartvelas" was adopted as an alternative name for Georgia alongside with the long-established "Gruzija" in May 2018.

In June 2011, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Georgia said South Korea had agreed to refer to the country as “조지아” (Jojia) instead of the Russian-influenced “그루지야” (Geurujiya) and the government of Georgia was continuing talks with other countries on the issue.

In April 2015, Japan changed the official Japanese name for Georgia from "Gurujia" (グルジア), which derives from the Russian term "Gruziya," to "Jōjia" (ジョージア), which derives from the English term "Georgia".

Georgian names

 
Tamara - King David

 

The Sacred Merovingian Dynasty in DNA - Haplogroup G2a

Amidst the chaos that followed the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, a new power arose -- the Merovingian Dynasty. They were the predecessors to the Carolingians (the family of Charlemagne) that formed the Holy Roman Empire, and indeed the Carolingian Dynasty descended from the Merovingians. Their blood remains in some families today.


Merovingian King Clothair I

The Merovingians were Franks and so are an important part of the history of what eventually became Germany and France (France takes its name from the Franks). They have even been the subject of fiction, such as the highly fanciful version of the Merovingians portrayed in The DaVinci Code. The real Merovingians, however, laid the groundwork for the structure of Medieval Europe and eventually the modern western world. At its greatest extent, the lands of the Merovingians covered much of Europe, from western Germany to the Spanish border, and from the north of France to the northern border of Italy. Charlemagne added Italy (formerly ruled by the Lombards), Bavaria, and other territories to the empire.

As science and technology have progressed, DNA evidence has helped to provide more insight into the Merovingians. Based on DNA found in a gravesite linked to the dynasty, their Y-DNA haplogroup (that's the direct male line) is G2A with a likely subclade (subdivision) of P140. That haplogroup is rare and of Latin origin, with a particular concentration in central Italy. It is sometimes known as the "Merovingian Haplogroup."


King Richard III (Plantagenet) of England
A part of the Merovingian DNA Haplogroup

When the body of King Richard III was discovered and tested, the haplogroup was the same -- G2a. Blood on a handkerchief believed to have been soaked in the blood of King Louis XVI at his execution was likewise the same haplogroup. However, other tests on living male-line descendants of the Bourbon family suggest that Louis was of a different haplotype, R1b-U106. 


King Louis XVI (Bourbon) of France
It is unclear if he is of the Merovingian Haplogroup of not.
However, as a king, he succeeded them in rule of France.

The legacy of the Merovingian Dynasty and its successor, the Holy Roman Empire, persists to this day around the globe. In the monarchies and even in the republics of the modern world, their blood runs through the veins of several noble families and distinguished lineages.

 

House of York

Haplogroup G2a

 
House of York - Lion of Judah
Judo, laviću mali! Plijenom si se, sine, udebljao; poput lava, poput lavice legao potrbuške! - Postanak

On 12 September 2012, archeologists from the University of Leicester announced that they had discovered what they believed were the remains of King Richard III of England (1452-1485) within the former Greyfriars Friary Church in the city of Leicester (see Exhumation of Richard III). The skeleton's DNA matched exactly the mitochondiral haplogroup (J1c2c) of modern matrilineal descendants of Anne of York, Richard's elder sister, confirming the identity of the medieval king. Further tests published in December 2014 revealed that his Y-chromosomal haplogroup was G2 (not tested for downstream mutations, but statistically very likely to be G2a3 as a northern European). This however did not match the Y-DNA of three modern relatives (who were all R1b-U152 xL2) descended from Edward III, Richard III's great-great-grand-father. Richard descends from the House of York, while the modern relatives descend from the House of Lancaster via John of Gaunt. Therefore it cannot be determined at present when the non-paternity event occured in the Plantagenet lineage, and whether most of the Plantagenets monarchs belonged to haplogroup G2 or R1b-U152.


Three Lions - Tribe of Judah

Judo, laviću mali! Plijenom si se, sine, udebljao; poput lava, poput lavice legao potrbuške! Tko bi ga dražiti smio? (10) Od Jude žezlo se kraljevsko, ni palica vladalačka od nogu njegovih udaljiti neće dok ne dođe onaj kome pripada - kome će se narodi pokoriti. (11) Svog magarca za lozu privezuje, mlado magarice svoje za čokot. U vinu on kupa svoju odjeću svoju halju u krvi od grožđa. (12) Oči su mu od vina mutne, zubi bjelji od mlijeka. - Postanak

  • Merovingian Dynasty, House of York = Tribe of Judah

Neolithic/Chalcolithic mutation - Danubian Civilization

Avala/Vinča - Cinnabar/Mercury, c. 5700 BC


Cinnabar

Cinnabar and cinnabarite, likely deriving from the Ancient Greek: κιννάβαρι (kinnabari), refer to the common bright scarlet to brick-red form of mercury(II) sulfide (HgS) that is the most common source ore for refining elemental mercury, and is the historic source for the brilliant red or scarlet pigment termed vermilion and associated red mercury pigments.

Cinnabar has been mined for thousands of years, even as far back as the Neolithic Age. Because of its mercury content, cinnabar can be toxic to human beings. It was dangerous to those who mined and processed cinnabar, it caused shaking, loss of sense, and death.

.

The Avala had deposits of ores, most notably lead and mercury's ore of cinnabarite but mining activities which can be traced to the pre-Antiquity times. Archeologist Miloje Vasić believed that the vast mines of cinnabarite (mercury-sulfide) on Avala were crucial for the development of the Vinča culture, on the banks of the Danube circa 5700 BC. Settlers of Vinča apparently melted cinnabarite and used it in metallurgy

 

Metallurgy, Pre-Arsenical bronze

Vinča culture, c. 5500 - 4500 BC


Hephaestus (Baden culture) - Haplogroup T1a

Arsenic is an element with a vaporization point of 615 °C, such that arsenical oxide will be lost from the melt before or during casting, and fumes from fire setting for mining and ore processing have long been known to attack the eyes, lungs and skin.

Chronic arsenic poisoning leads to peripheral neuropathy, which can cause weakness in the legs and feet. It has been speculated that this lay behind the legend of lame smiths, such as the Greek god Hephaestus.

Povijest metalurgije bakra smatra se slijedi ovaj slijed: 1) hladno radni nativnog bakra, 2) žarenje , 3) taljenje i 4) lijevanje izgubljene vosak. U jugoistočnoj Anadoliji, sve četiri od tih tehnika pojavljuju više ili manje istovremeno na početku neolitika c. 7500 godine prije Krista.

 

Lactose tolerance, c. 5500 BC

Linear Pottery culture - Haplogroup G2a & I2a

 

Fair skin, c. 5000 BC

Haplogroup G2a

G2a people may have been among the first humans to have acquired the alleles for fair skin. A hunter-gatherer from northern Spain tested by Olalde et al. 2014 still had dark skinned as recently as 7,000 years ago. In contrast, Early Neolithic farmers from the Balkans and Germany already possessed the alleles for fair skin found in modern Europeans.

 

Gluten-related disorders

Caucasians

Celiac disease (CD) and NCGS are closely linked with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II genes, HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8, located on chromosome 6p21. Nearly all CD patients are NLA-DQ2/HLA-DQ8 positive, with 95% HLA-DQ2 and the rest usually HLA-DQ8 (which is carried by 30% of Caucasians). - Gluten-related disorders

 

Giants - Giant of Castelnau

Haplogroup I2a1 - (Dinaric race / Basque  / Deylamites)

Three bone fragments of the alleged "Giant of Castelnau" compared to a regular size humerus (centre), after Georges Vacher de Lapouge.

The expression "Giant of Castelnau" refers to three bone fragments (a humerus, tibia, and femoral mid-shaft) discovered by Georges Vacher de Lapouge in 1890 in the sediment used to cover a Bronze Age burial tumulus, and then possibly dating back to the Neolithic. According to de Lapouge, the fossil bones may belong to one of the largest humans known to have existed. He estimated from the bone size that the human may have been about 3.50 metres (11.5 ft) tall. No modern peer-reviewed study has been published about the alleged giant bone fragments.

The bones were discovered by the anthropologist Georges Vacher de Lapouge at the Bronze Age cemetery of Castelnau-le-Lez, France in the winter of 1890. His findings were published in the journal La Nature, Vol. 18, 1890 Issue 888. The height of the individual was estimated at about 3.5 m (11 ft 5 in) according to de Lapouge, and the bones were dated to the Neolithic period, since they were found at the very bottom of the Bronze Age burial tumulus. The journal includes a photo engraving of what was identified as the humerus, tibia, and femoral mid-shaft of the giant compared to a normal size humerus in the center.

Writing in the journal La Nature, de Lapouge describes the bones in detail: "I think it unnecessary to note that these bones are undeniably human, despite their enormous size.... The first is the middle part of the shaft of a femur, 14 cm length, almost cylindrical in shape, and the circumference of the bone is 16 cm.... The second piece is the middle and upper part of the shaft of a tibia.... The circumference is 13 cm at the nutrient foramen.... the length of fragment is 26 cm.... The third, very singular, was regarded by good anatomists as the lower part of a humerus.... The volumes of the bones were more than double the normal pieces to which they correspond. Judging by the usual intervals of anatomical points, they also involve lengths almost double.... The subject would have been a likely size of 3m, 50."

The bones of the Castelnau giant were studied at the University of Montpellier and examined by M. Sabatier, professor of Zoology, at the University of Montpellier, and M. Delage, professor of paleontology at the University of Montpellier, in addition to other anatomists. In 1892 the bones were carefully studied by Dr. Paul Louis André Kiener, professor of pathological anatomy at Montpellier School of Medicine, for which he admitted they represented a "very tall race", but nevertheless found them abnormal in dimensions and apparently of "morbid growth."

It is of some interest that in 1894, press accounts mentioned a further discovery of bones of human giants unearthed at a prehistoric cemetery at Montpellier, France (5 km southwest of Castelnau), while workers were excavating a water works reservoir. Skulls "28, 31, and 32 inches in circumference" were reported alongside other bones of gigantic proportions which indicated they belonged to a race of men "between 10 and 15 feet in height." The bones were reportedly sent to the Paris Academy for further study.

 

Hh negative blood

Basque - Haplogroups G2a & I2a1


Map of Hh negative blood


Haplogroup G2a-L497

(İ2a1/Eu8) starosjedioci na Sardiniji i s manjim udjelima u Baskiji, Italiji, Francuskoj...

 

Blue eyes, c. 5000 BC

Basque

Some ancient peoples in Spain 7,000 years ago had blue eyes and dark skin.

Apologies to Frank Sinatra, but the real Ol' Blue Eyes has been found—a 7,000-year-old Spaniard whose fossil genes reveal that early Europeans sported blue eyes and dark skin.

Mapping the blue-eyed boy's genes is part of ongoing effort to uncover the DNA of ancient humans. The new study in the journal Nature, led by Inigo Olalde of Spain's Institut de Biología Evolutiva in Barcelona, reports the genetic map of a skeleton found in a Spanish cave.

 

Red hear, c. 5500 - 4500 BC

Haplogroup G2a


Map of red hear

 
Haplogroup G2a-L497

 

Slučaj Vinča - Novi / Stari slučaj

Milašinović je predstavio svoj roman kao istinit događaj koji je decenijama prećutkivan tako da su novije generacije bile uskraćene da saznaju o udesu koji je izazvao „curenje“ radioaktivne materije iz reaktora u Nuklearnom institutu Vinča i tom prilikom je šest mladih naučnika letalno ozračeno.

Ubrzo su svi oni oboleli od radijacione bolesti za koju, naizgled, nema leka. Preostaje jedino da se u bolnici pariskog Instituta „Kiri“ obave eksperimentalne, humane transplantacije košstane srži, prve u svetu.

Milašinović smatra da je paradoks ovog akcidenta da su svi ozračeni poštovali zavet ćutanja jer nisu hteli da bilo koga optuže za udes čiji je ishod mogao da bude fatalan.

Osnivač Vinče akademik Pavle Savić nije hteo da se reaktor obezbedi od mogućeg isticanja nuklearne materije da bi bolje mogli da se prate eksperimenti, tako da je šestoro među njima i jedn ažena postali žrtve odsustva adekvatne zaštite od radijacije.

Prema rečima autora on je pre sedam godina objavio roman „Rascep“ u kome je obradio istu temu o udesu u „Vinči“, odlazak ozračenih u Francusku u bolnicu nuklearnog isntitutta „Kiri“, gde je kao jedino moguće lečenje bila zamena koštane srži ozračenih.

To do tada niko nije izveo, osim na zamorcima, ali su se francuski lekari složili da potraže dobrovoljne davaoce i „in vivo“ izvrše transplantaciju na srpskim naučnicima.

Lekari Anri Žame i Žorž Mate sa svojim saradnicima su izveli presađivanje i petoro ozračenih je izlečeno, a samo jedan je preminuo.

Kada se Milašinović odlučio da napiše sasvim novu verziju vinčanskog incidenta cilj mu je bio, kako je objasnio, da pokusa odgovoriti na pitanja kao što su kako su se osećali dovaoci srži, a kako oni kojima je presađivana, jer su i jedni i drugi mogli da preminu.

Takođe, pitao se, da li i danas može da se nađu ljudi koji bi za nepoznate strance bili spremni da ugroze sopstveni život.

On je došao do zaključka da sigurno ima tako humanih ljudi, ali da su mnogo ređi jer savremeno društvo oseća sažaljenje, ali ne pod uslovom da sebe žrtvuju ili izložze opasnosti.

 

Vinča - Mutation


Vinča - Mutation


Vinča - Mutation


Prvi izvještaj o stvaranju

Stvaranje čovjeka (muško i žensko)

Göbekli Tepe - Twelve Tribes


Göbekli Tepe

I reče Bog: "Načinimo čovjeka na svoju sliku, sebi slična,
Na svoju sliku stvori Bog čovjeka, na sliku Božju on ga stvori, muško i žensko stvori ih.

There is no Garden of Eden created in the first chapter of Genesis. No tree of life or knowledge was planted, nor is there any prohibition against eating the fruit of the tree. On the contrary, the primal pair, the male and female, are told that every herb and every tree are given to them for food. The theology of the Elohim differs from that of Iahu-Elohim. This agrees with a non-Semitic version of the creation legend (Records, New Series, vol. vi.), in which there is no garden created, no mention of man being placed in the garden to tend it; no tree of life, nor tree of knowledge; and no temptation by the serpent, or story of the Fall.

 

Drugi izvještaj o stvaranju

The creation of Caucasian race (Adam & Eve)

Angels

The earliest Gnostic sects ascribe the work of creation to angels, some of them using the same passage in Genesis. So Irenaeus tells of the system of Simon Magus, of the system of Menander, of the system of Saturninus, in which the number of these angels is reckoned as seven, and of the system of Carpocrates. In the report of the system of Basilides, we are told that our world was made by the angels who occupy the lowest heaven; but special mention is made of their chief, who is said to have been the God of the Jews, to have led that people out of the land of Egypt, and to have given them their law. The prophecies are ascribed not to the chief but to the other world-making angels.

The Latin translation, confirmed by Hippolytus, makes Irenaeus state that according to Cerinthus (who shows Ebionite influence), creation was made by a power quite separate from the Supreme God and ignorant of Him. Theodoret, who here copies Irenaeus, turns this into the plural number “powers,” and so Epiphanius represents Cerinthus as agreeing with Carpocrates in the doctrine that the world was made by angels.

Refutation of All Heresies - Hipolit

Book VII challenges the teachings of such heretics as Basilides and his disciple Saturnilus, Marcion of Sinope, and Carpocrates of Alexandria, among others. These heresiarchs all held varying opinions on the God of the Old Testament, from Saturnilus, who Hippolytus states believed that "the God of the Jews is one of the angels", directly opposed by Christ, to Carpocrates who asserted that the Father was for the most part aloof from physical creation, which had been formed by his angels.

 

Adapa - Adam

The creation of Caucasian race


Adapa sa čuperkom na stećcima


Adapa sa čuperkom


Astronomical seal from the Harappan era, Indus Valley, 3000-2600 BC

Oannes

The first of these legendary fish-man sages is known as Oan/Oannes (Sumerian) or Uanna/U-An (Akkadian); on a few cuneiform inscriptions this first sage has "adapa" appended to his name.


Lepenski Vir sculptures

 
Oannes

Adam

Čovjek (Adam) = Adapa - Adapa was a Mesopotamian mythical figure who unknowingly refused the gift of immortality.

Adam (bijela rasa) nastala u Vinči/Avala.

Vinča/Avala Beograd se nalazi na ušću Save u Dunav. Singidun keltsko ime grada 279 pne, Singidunum romanizirano keltsko ime, Bjelgrad slavensko ime, prevod starog keltskog; prvi put se javlja 878. u pismu Pape Ivana VIII caru Borisu Bugarskom, Alba Graeca latinski prijevod...

Korjen BL = semitski LB (metateza suglasnika); Bijel = Laban.; Latin; Blancus, Alba  (Bijelo)

 

Zemlja - Zemele

Jahve, Bog, napravi čovjeka od praha zemaljskog i u nosnice mu udahne dah života. Tako postane čovjek živa duša.
Da ne bi sada pružio ruku, ubrao sa stabla života pa pojeo i živio navijeke!" (23) Zato ga Jahve, Bog, istjera iz vrta edenskoga da obrađuje zemlju iz koje je i uzet.

Zemlja iz koje je i uzet = Semela Thraco-Phrygian Zemele, "mother earth".

 
Zemele (Zemlja), "mother earth"


The creation of man

 

Eva

The creation of Caucasian race


Adam & Eve

Tada Jahve, Bog, pusti tvrd san na čovjeka te on zaspa, pa mu izvadi jedno rebro, a mjesto zatvori mesom.
Od rebra što ga je uzeo čovjeku napravi Jahve, Bog, ženu pa je dovede čovjeku.
Nato čovjek reče: "Gle, evo kosti od mojih kostiju, mesa od mesa mojega! Ženom neka se zove, od čovjeka kad je uzeta!"


Eva - Kloniranje

A ženi reče: "Trudnoći tvojoj muke ću umnožit, u mukama djecu ćeš rađati.


A ženi reče: "Trudnoći tvojoj muke ću umnožit, u mukama djecu ćeš rađati. - Eva


Rađanje u mukama na stečku

 
Sheela Na Gig

Lajja Gauri


Lajja Gauri

Her fertility aspect is emphasized by symbolic representation of the genitals, Yoni or the Womb, as blooming Lotus flower denoting blooming youth in some cases and in others through a simple yet detailed depiction of an exposed vulva. Added to the fact that she is sitting in a squatting position (malasana) with legs open, as in during childbirth, in some cases, the right foot is placed on a platform to facilitate full opening. She is invoked for abundant crops (vegetative fertility) and good progeny. A blossoming lotus replaces her head and neck, an icon often used in Tantra. The seven Chakras of human energy anatomy are often depicted as blossoming lotuses, and the Goddess is often depicted in her Sri Yantra as a Yoni, shown as a simplified triangle at the centre. Further, most fertility goddesses of the Ancient world are similarly shown headless, while giving prominent focus to the genitals. The arms of the goddess are bent upwards, each holding a lotus stem, held at the level of the head again depicted by the matured lotus flower.

   
Lajja Gauri

Owing to an absence of verifiable text in Vedic traditions on the iconography, she doesn’t seem to hold any exalted position in Hindu pantheon, despite her strong presence throughout India, especially in the tribal region of Bastar in Central India and downwards to the South, suggesting that the goddess had a cult of her own, later embraced into the mainstream religion through the myths of Sati and Parvati. The goddess is sometimes called Lajja Gauri, interpreted by some as the Innocent Creatrix, the Creator deity or at times simply "Headless Goddess".

 

Genetic disc


Genetic engineering


Lepenski Vir - Colombia - Sheela Na Gig

 
Genetic disc - Colombia


Race concepts

Sub-types

Alpine - Arabid - Armenoid - Atlantid - Borreby - Brunn - Caspian - Dinaric - East Baltic - Ethiopid - Hamitic - Dravidian - Irano-Afghan - Japhetic - Malay - Mediterranean - Neo-Mongoloid - Neo-Danubian - Nordic - Northcaucasian - Ladogan - Lappish - Pamirid - Proto-Mongoloid - Semitic - Turanid

The Races of Europe is a popular work of physical anthropology by Carleton S. Coon. It was first published in 1939 by Macmillan.

In 1933, the Harvard anthropologist Carleton S. Coon was invited to write a new edition of William Z. Ripley's 1899 The Races of Europe, which Coon dedicated to Ripley.
Coon's entirely rewritten version of the book was published in 1939. At the time, he explicitly avoided the discussion of either blood groups or race and intelligence, the latter of which he claimed to know "next to nothing about" at the time.
The conclusions from the book entail the following:

  1. The Caucasoid race is of dual origin consisting of Upper Paleolithic (mixture of Homo sapiens and Neanderthals) types and Mediterranean (purely Homo sapiens) types.
  2. The Upper Paleolithic peoples are the truly indigenous peoples of Europe.
  3. Mediterraneans invaded Europe in large numbers during the Neolithic and settled there.
  4. The racial situation in Europe today may be explained as a mixture of Upper Paleolithic survivors and Mediterraneans.
  5. When reduced Upper Paleolithic survivors and Mediterraneans mix a process of "dinaricization" occurs which produces a hybrid with non-intermediate features, epitomized by the Dinaric race.
  6. The Caucasoid race extends well beyond Europe into the Middle East, Central Asia, South Asia, North Africa and the Horn of Africa.
  7. "The Nordic race in the strict sense is merely a pigment phase of the Mediterranean", created by the combination of Corded and Danubian elements.

In The Races of Europe, Coon classified Caucasoids into racial sub-groups named after regions or archaeological sites, expanding the tripartite system Mediterranean-Alpine-Nordic of Ripley (1899) by types such as Brünn, Borreby, Ladogan, East Baltic, Neo-Danubian, Lappish, Atlanto-Mediterranean, Iranid, Hallstatt, Keltic, Tronder, Dinaric, Noric and Armenoid.

Up until now, no concrete explanation for the existence of Dinaric people has been given. There are to main hypothesis, both of which are untrue.

The first is that Dinarics are created when a Mediterranean strain is mixed with a short-headed European like the Alpine race. Yet Mediterraneans and Alpines (among other short headed Europeans) lived side by side for thousands of years, and it was only until the later years of the bronze age that Dinaric types began to appear in Europe. This cannot be a valid explanation.

The second theory is that some vague and unexplainable evolutionary process occurs when Mediterranean types are exposed to a mountainous climate. The problem with this is that not everyone who lives in a mountain environment is Dinaric, and plenty of Dinarics live in totally flat environments.

 

First Dinarics - North Bulgaria


Cephalic indexes of skull shapes. Long skull (left),
cephalic index 71.4; tall skull (center),
cephalic index 81; broad skull (right) - cephalic index 85.

Females Males Scientific term Meaning
< 75 < 75.9 dolichocephalic 'long-headed'
75 to 83 76 to 81 mesaticephalic 'medium-headed'
> 83 > 81.1 brachycephalic 'short-headed'


World cephalic index map

 

Neolithic/Chalcolithic mutation

Caucasian race & Dinaric/Armenoid race

Lactose tolerance, Gluten-related disorders, fair skin, Hh negative blood, red hear, ugliness, aquiline nose, dinarization...


Appearance of the Population of the Trypilla Culture.

A Trypillian woman and man Mediterranean anthropological type from the Vykhvatyntsi tomb. The burial place 35 and 19.
Reconstruction of M. M. Gerasimov on found craniums. (From the book "The Eneolithicum of the USSR").


Trypillians: An elderly man of Caucasoid type and a girl of Mediterranean anthropological type.

Burials in the settlement of Nezvisko III and from the Vykhvatyntsi tomb 5 respectively. Graphic reconstruction by M.M. Gerasimov on found on found craniums. (From the book "The Eneolithicum of the USSR").

 

Dinaricisation - Chalcolithic mutation


Aquiline (roman) nose

Neolithic/Chalcolithic mutation = Original sin


Caucasian-Mediterranean & Caucasian-Dinaric

Neolithic/Chalcolithic mutation = Original sin

Y-DNA G2a2 & I2a1

Neprijateljstvo ja zamećem između tebe i žene, između roda tvojeg (Y-DNA I2a1, Dinaric) i roda njezina (Y-DNA G2a2, Caucasian): on će ti glavu satirati, a ti ćeš mu vrebati petu."

 

Nahash - Enki

Nato će zmija ženi: "Ne, nećete umrijeti! Nego, zna Bog: onog dana kad budete s njega jeli, otvorit će vam se oči, i vi ćete biti kao bogovi koji razlučuju dobro i zlo."
  • Zmija - Nahash, onaj tko poznaje tajne (Enki)


Ninmah & Enki, fertility tree & DNA

The emblem of entwined serpents

In the biblical tale of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, the antagonist of the God who had caused them to acquire "knowing" was the Serpent, Nahash in Hebrew.

The term has two other meanings: "he who knows secrets" and “he who knows copper." These other meanings or word plays are found in the Sumerian epithet BUZUR for Enki, which meant "he who solves secrets" and "he of the metal mines." In the original Sumerian version, the "Serpent" was Enki.


Tko je zmija iz edemskog vrta?

His emblem was entwined serpents; it was the symbol of his "cult center" Eridu,

What did the emblem of entwined serpents the symbol for medicine and healing to this very day represent?
The discovery by modern science of the double-helix structure of DNA (see Fig.) offers the answer: the Entwined Serpents emulated the structure of the genetic code, the secret knowledge of which enabled Enki to create The Adam and Eve.

 
Caduceus - Asclepius

The emblem of Enki as a sign of healing was invoked by Moses when he made a nahash nehosheth a “copper serpent” to halt an epidemic afflicting the Israelites. Was the involvement of copper in the triple meanings of the term and in the making of the copper serpent by Moses due to some unknown role of copper in genetics and healing? Recent experiments, conducted at the universities of Minnesota and St. Louis, suggest that it is indeed so.

They showed that radionucleide copper-62 is a "positron-emitter," valuable in imaging blood flow, and that other copper compounds can carry Pharmaceuticals to living cells, including brain cells.

 

Svjedočanstvo istine


Gnostic Christ

"... U Zakonu je o ovome zapisano da je Bog zapovjedio Adamu, "Od
svakog [stabla] slobodno jedi ploda, [no] od stabla koje je usred Raja ne
jedi, jer, onoga dana kada od njega budeš jeo, umrijet ćeš." No, zmija
bijaše mudrija 46 od svih životinja rajskih, i uvjeri Evu, rekavši, "Onoga
dana kada kušaš plod stabla koje je usred Raja, oči tvoga uma će se
otvoriti." I Eva je poslušala, i ispružila svoju ruku; ubrala je plod sa drveta
i jela; dala je i svome mužu koji bijaše s njome. I oni smjesta spoznaše
da su goli, i uzeše smokvina lišća i staviše ga oko pasa.
No, Bog s večeri dođe, i pojavi se usred Raja. Kada ga je Adam ugledao,
on se skrio. I Bog reče, "Adame, gdje si?" Ovaj odgovori, i reče,
"Pod stablom sam smokve." I tog trenutka Bog [spozna] da je ovaj
jeo sa stabla za koje mu je zapovjedio, "Ne jedi s njega." I on mu reče,
"Tko je taj 47 koji te poučio?" I Adam odgovori, "Žena koju si mi dao."
I žena reče, "Zmija je ta koja me poučila." I on prokle zmiju i nazva ju
"đavlom". I reče, "Evo, Adam posta nalik nama, poznajući dobro i zlo."
I reče tad, "Izbacimo ga iz Raja, kako ne bi uzeo ploda s drveta života,
i jeo, i živio zauvijek."
No, kakav je ovaj Bog? Najprije je pakosno zabranio Adamu da jede
sa drveta znanja, a potom je rekao, "Adame, gdje si?" Taj Bog
ne posjeduje predznanje; (jer), ne bi li u tom slučaju znao od početka?
[I] kasnije je on rekao, "Izbacimo ga odavde, kako ne bi jeo sa drveta života,
i živio zauvijek." Uistinu, pokazao je daje pakostan i kivan. I 48 kakav
je to Bog? Velika je sljepoća onih koji čitaju, a nisu ga spoznali. On je
rekao, "Ja sam ljubomoran Bog; sručit ću grijehe otaca na djecu sve do
trećeg (i) četvrtog naraštaja." I rekao je, "Učinit ću da im srca otvrdnu, i
umovi oslijepe, kako ne bi mogli spoznati ni shvatiti ono što je rečeno."
Ovo je on rekao onima koji u njega vjeruju [i] koji mu služe!
[Na jednome] mjestu Mojsije piše, "[On] učini đavla zmijom <za>
[one] koje ima u svome stvaranju." Isto tako, u knjizi koja se zove
"Knjiga Izlaska" zapisano je (usp. 7, 8-12): "Protiv [vračara] se borio,
kada sve bijaše puno [zmija] zbog njihove [opakosti; i štap se],
koji bijaše u ruci Mojsijevoj, pretvori u zmiju, (i) ona proguta zmije vračarske."
Isto tako, zapisano je (Br 21,9), "On napravi zmiju od bronce (i)
postavi je na stup 49 [...] koja [...] jer [onoga koji će pogledati] u [ovu zmiju]
od bronce, nitko [neće uništiti], a onaj koji će [vjerovati u] ovu
brončanu zmiju [bit će spašen]."
Ovo je Krist; [oni koji] su u njega povjerovali, [primili su život]. Oni
koji nisu povjerovali [umrijet će]. ..."

The Ophites or Ophians (Greek Ὀφιανοί Ophianoi, from ὄφις ophis "snake") were members of a Christian Gnostic sect.

 

Tko je zmija i njegov rod?

Tribe of Dan

  • Nato Jahve, Bog, reče zmiji:.. Neprijateljstvo ja zamećem između tebe i žene, između roda tvojeg i roda njezina: on će ti glavu satirati, a ti ćeš mu vrebati petu."
  • Nek' Dan zmija bude na putu, guja pokraj staze što će konja za zglob ujesti, i njegov konjik nauznak će pasti.


Tribe of Dan

 

Tko su demoni u Rigvedi?

Upper Danube & Lower Danube (Ister)

Danu (Asura) - Ashur-Dan

Dānu, a Hindu primordial goddess, is mentioned in the Rigveda, mother of the Danavas. The word Danu described the primeval waters which this deity perhaps embodied. In the Rigveda (I.32.9), she is identified as the mother of Vritra, the demonic serpent slain by Indra. In later Hinduism, she becomes the daughter of Daksha and the consort of Kasyapa.

As a word for "rain" or "liquid", dānu is compared to Avestan dānu "river", and further to river names like Don, Danube, Dneiper, Dniestr, etc. There is also a Danu river in Nepal. The "liquid" word is mostly neutral, but appears as feminine in RV 1.54. - Danu

Vritra

In the early Vedic religion, Vritra (Sanskrit: वृत्र, vṛtra, lit. 'enveloper') is a serpent or dragon, the personification of drought and adversary of Indra. In Hinduism, Vritra is identified as an Asura. Vritra was also known in the Vedas as Ahi (Sanskrit: अहि ahi, lit. 'snake'). He appears as a dragon blocking the course of the rivers and is heroically slain by Indra. - Vritra

Danava

In Vedic mythology, the Danavas (Balinese Hinduism Dewi Danu) were a race descending from Daksha.

The Danavas were the sons of Danu, who in turn was a daughter of Daksha. Danu is connected with the waters of heavens and she is probably associated with the formless, primordial waters that existed prior to the creation. The name is connected with the PIE root *danu, "river" or "any flowing liquid" and is associated with the Danu (Asura). Under the leadership of Bali and others, the Danavas revolted against the Devatas (Devas). Despite initial successes, the Danava were defeated by the god Vamana who in dwarf form deceived their leader Bali. The Danavas were not universally considered to be evil, individual Danava could be classified as good or bad. - Danavas

 

Dracula from Transylvania

Valachie (Land of Havilah)


This portrait of Vlad III,

Dracula is an 1897 Gothic horror novel by Irish author Bram Stoker. It introduced Count Dracula, and established many conventions of subsequent vampire fantasy. The novel tells the story of Dracula's attempt to move from Transylvania to England so that he may find new blood and spread the undead curse, and of the battle between Dracula and a small group of men and a woman led by Professor Abraham Van Helsing.

Racial propaganda

Sedam Vlašića

Pleiades are called Vlašići or Sedam Vlašića (Sedam = seven), the name is identical to "Little Vlachs" ("Seven little Vlachs")

  • Vlachs = Dalmatae, Illyrian tribe


Silvan - vrhovno božanstvo Ilira

Silvan je smatran vrhovnim ilirskim božanstvom, a naročito je bio štovan kod plemena Dalmata koje je naseljavalo prostor zapadne Bosne. Na latinskom naziv Silvan znači šuma, pa odatle se i smatrao božanstvom šuma, pastira i stada. Lik Silvana je najčešće prikazivan sa nekim od njegovih atributa, kao što su svirala (siringa) i pastirski štap (pedum). U njegovoj pratnji su obično bili koza ili pas. Slaveljen je na proljeće, a naročito krajem aprila i početkom maja kada se obilježavalo žrtvovanje u njegovu čast koje se sastojalo od mesa, vina, žitarica, grožđa i mlijeka. Smatralo se da njegovo obožavanje pospješuje zdravlje stoke i dobar poljoprivredni urod. Obično je prikazan kao lice koje je pola čovjek a pola jarac. Iz kulta o bogu Silvanu nastala je i legenda o vukodlaku.

Vidasus je ilirski bog zaštitnik domaćih životinja, šuma i pašnjaka te izvora, a zajedno sa boginjom Tanom božanstvo plodnosti. Štovao se pod različitim imenima, negdje kao Vidasus, drugdje kao Magla (enus?), ili pak Cor.., Messor i slično.  Ovo ime Cor neobično podsjeća na keltskog boga Cernunnosa koji je imao identičan opis. Isto tako, pretpostavlja se da je sa ovim ilirskim božanstvom u vezi i poznato ime Grabovius (otkud potječe i naša ilirska riječ grab), koje se javlja na takozvanim iguvinskim pločama iz Umbrije u Italiji.

Smatra se da je Silvan, bio vrhovni ilirski bog u predrimsko doba, a tu funkciju je zadržao i nakon toga. Rimljani su ga prihvatili i izjednačili sa grčkim Panom zaštitnikom šuma, stada i prirode i pratiocem u lovu. Likovne predstave ilirskog Silvana prikazuju ga kao biće koje je pola jarac a pola čovjek.


Silvan is the god of forests and nature

Silvanus & Diana (Dalmatan) = Vidasus & Thana (illyrian/celtic)
Silvanus = Cernunnos, keltski bog druida, prirode, rogatih životinja i šamanizma, a simbol mu je ovnolika zmija.
Silvanus/Vidasus = Veles, slavic god of cattle and underworld.
Silvanus = Enki Symbols: Serpent, Goat, Fish, Goat-fish chimera
Silvanus
= Sivan, Shiva Paśupati (lord of cattle)
Dracon & Dracaena = Shiva-Shakti

 
Silvan = Sivan, Shiva Paśupati (lord of cattle) - Dracon & Dracaena (Shiva-Shakti)

 

Kumbh Mela


Ušće Save (Shiva) u Dunav

Kumbh Mela is a mass Hindu pilgrimage of faith in which Hindus gather to bathe in a sacred or holy river.

The main festival site is located on the banks of a river: the Ganges (Ganga) at Haridwar; the confluence (Sangam) of the Ganges and the Yamuna and the invisible Sarasvati at Allahabad; the Godavari at Nashik; and the Shipra at Ujjain. Bathing in these rivers is thought to cleanse a person of all their sins.

Kumbha Mela derives its name from both the original festival being held according to the astrological sign "Kumbha" (Aquarius), and from the associated Hindu legend in which the gods and demons fought over a pot, or “kumbh,” of nectar that would give them immortality.

A later day addition to the legend which says that after taking the pot one of the gods spilled drops of nectar near four places where Kumbha Mela is presently held.

The legend of samudra manthan tells of a battle between the Devas (benevolent deities) and Asuras (malevolent demigods) for amrita, the nectar drink of immortality. During samudra manthan, amrita was produced and placed in a Kumbha (pot). To prevent the asuras from seizing the amrita, a divine carrier flew away with the pot.

Ayodhya, Mathura, Haridwar, Kasi, Kanchi, Avantika and Dwaraka are the seven holy places.

Haridwar or Hardwar is regarded as one of the seven holiest places (Sapta Puri) to Hindus. According to the Samudra manthan, Haridwar along with Ujjain, Nashik and Prayagraj (Allahabad) is one of four sites where drops of Amrit, the elixir of immortality, accidentally spilled over from the pitcher while being carried by the celestial bird Garuda. This is manifested in the Kumbha Mela.

According to popular Hindu legend, it was here that Goddess Ganga when Lord Shiva released the mighty river from the locks of his hair. The River Ganga, after flowing for 253 kilometres (157 mi) from its source at Gaumukh at the edge of the Gangotri Glacier, enters the Gangetic Plain for the first time at Haridwar, which gave the city its ancient name, Gangadwára.

Kumbh Mela;

Mela hindu = sajam, fer, pošteno, pravičan..

Mela talijanski = jabuka (Epifiza/pinealna žlijezda izlučuje hormon melatonin "zlatnu tekućinu"). Zlatna jabuka bi trebala biti rajčica; na francuskom je zlatna jabuka pomme d or (pomodor), ili raj-čica rajska jabuka ili paradajz tj. paradise što znači raj.

  • Dol & Hum = Ganga & Kalash

 

Dinarids get a bad wrap for being the evil people in Disney movies!

But are Dinarids really that bad?


Disney racial propaganda

 

Snow White

The fairy tale features such elements as the magic mirror, the poisoned apple, the glass coffin, and the characters of the evil queen and the Seven Dwarfs.

At the beginning of the story, a queen sits sewing at an open window during a winter snowfall when she pricks her finger with her needle, causing three drops of red blood to drip onto the freshly fallen white snow on the black windowsill. Then, she says to herself, "How I wish that I had a daughter that had skin as white as snow, lips as red as blood, and hair as black as ebony."

Snjeguljica i sedam patuljaka

Jednom davno, živjela je lijepa princeza čiji su obrazi bilo crveni kao ruža, a koža bijela kao snijeg. Radi toga zvali su je Snjeguljica. Snjeguljicu su svi voljeli, osim maćehe koja je bila opaka vještica.

Svakog dana kraljica bi se ogledala u svom čarobnom ogledalcu i upitala ga:

- Kaži mi, kaži ogledalce moje, najljepša na svijetu danas tko je? A ogledalce bi uvjek odgovaralo:

- Ti kraljice.

No jednoga dana, ogledalce joj odgovori sasvim drukčije:

- Bijela kao snijeg, svijetla lica, crne kose, crvenih usnica, najljepša je sada Sneguljica.

Uvrijeđena kraljica pozove kraljevskog lovca i naredi mu da odvede Snjeguljicu u šumu i ubije je. No lovac je bio dobar čovjek, pa odvede Snjeguljicu u šumu i tu je ostavi ne učinivši joj ništa nažao.

Snjeguljica je dugo lutala šumom, i tako lutajući stiže do jedne čudne kućice. Zakucala je na vrata i ušla. Ali u kućici nije bilo nikoga. Tek navečer vratili su se s posla sedmorica braće, sedam patuljaka koji su živjeli u toj kućici, a preko dana radili u rudniku srebra i zlata. Kada su ugledali usnulu djevojčicu na jednom od svojih krevetića, patuljci se jako začudiše. Snjeguljica im je kasnije ispričala o svojoj zloj sudbini i o tome kako se više ne smije vratiti u dvorac.

– Ostani sa nama – rekoše joj patuljci.

– Kuhat ćeš nam i spremati kuću, a mi ćemo te voljeti kao braća.


Basal Eurasians & Caucasian Eve

Snjeguljica se mnogo obradova, zahvali se patuljcima i ostade kod njih. Tako su živjeli zajedno, sretni i zadovoljni, a i zla kraljica je u svom dvorcu bila također sretna, jer je mislila da je Snjeguljica mrtva i da je ona opet najljepša žena na svijetu.

Jednoga dana ponovo zapita ogledalo:

– Kaži mi, kaži ogledalce moje, najljepša na svijetu danas žena tko je? Ogledalo joj tada odgovori:

– Bijela kao snijeg, svijetla lica, crne kose, crvenih usnica, najljepša je ipak Snjeguljica. Istoga časa kraljica vidje u ogledalu sliku kolibice i u njoj sretnu Snjeguljicu i sedam patuljaka.

Kraljica je bila bijesna:

– Ovaj mi put Snjeguljica neće umaći! Ja ću je ubiti svojom rukom. Sutradan, kraljica nabere lijepe, crvene jabuke i ubrizga u njih otrov. Zatim, prerušena u dobroćudnu staricu, pođe u šumu. Kad je kraljica stigla do kolibice, zateče Snjeguljicu kako pjevuši.


Dinarids

– Dobar dan, ljepotice – reče zla maćeha.

– Imam divnih jabuka i jednu ću podjeliti s tobom, ako mi dozvoliš da se odmorim pred tvojim vratima.

– Svakako, bakice – reče Snjeguljica i uze od starice jednu polovinu jabuke. Ali čim je zagrizla otrovnu jabuku, Snjeguljica pade na pod, baš kao mrtva.


Eva & Dinarids

– A sada, tko je najljepši na svijetu? – smijući se zlobno reče kraljica i nestade u gustoj šumi. Navečer, kad su se patuljci vratili s posla, nađoše Snjeguljicu kako leži na podu mirna, blijeda i hladna. Zvali su je i zvali, ali se nesretna djevojka nije odazivala.

– Umrla je – tužno zaključiše patuljci.

I kako takvu ljepotu nisu mogli da zakopaju u hladnu zemlju, patuljci je staviše u stakleni kovčeg i odnesoše u polje, među cvijeće, nadajući se da će jednoga dana njihova Sneguljica oživjeti.

Zima je došla i prošla, i kada je ponovo granulo proljeće, ono je sa sobom donijelo divnog princa iz susjednog kraljevstva. Ugledavši Snjeguljicu, princ se zadivi njenoj ljepoti i upita patuljke tko je usnula djevojka.

– To je princeza Snjeguljica – rekoše mu patuljci – ali ona je mrtva.

– Ona nije mrtva, već samo spava dubokim snom – reče princ, pažljivo otvori kovčeg i uze Snjeguljicu u naručje.

U tom trenutku parče otrovne jabuke ispadne iz njenih usta. Snjeguljica se probudila.

– Preljepa Snjeguljice – reče princ – postani kraljicom moga kraljevstva. Hoćeš li?

– Hoću – odgovori mu Snjeguljica.


Caucasian race, Adam & Eve

Snjeguljica i princ uzjahaše bijelog konja i odjahaše u dvorac gdje su se uskoro vjenčali. Na vjenčanju su bili naravno pozvani i njihovi prijatelji patuljci. Zla maćeha je nestala i o njoj više nikada nitko nije ništa čuo. A princ i Snjeguljica još su dugo, dugo godina živjeli sretni i zaljubljeni.

 

Štrumpfovi, Štrumfeta i Gargamel

 
Basal Eurasians, Eve (Caucasian) & Dinarids

Štrumpfovi imaju plavu kožu  i bijele kapice. Glavni među njima je Veliki Štrumpf i za razliku od ostalih, obučen je u crveno i nosi bijelu bradu.

Kapice koje Štrumfovi nose na glavi zapravo su Frigijske kape koje davno nosili narodi antičke Azije, a proširila se do Grčke i Rimskog Carstva. Smatra se simbolom slobode jer su je često nosili oslobođeni robovi.

Štrumpfovi imaju preko 100 godina. U selu Štrumpfova ne postoji novac: svako radi onoliko koliko može i ono što najbolje zna; svako uzima onoliko koliko mu je potrebno. Svi su složni, vole da se igraju i svima pomažu. Zato se Štrumpfovi plaše ljudi, jer znaju da je njima najvažnije da imaju što više novca, da kradu jedni od drugih, da se svađaju...

Štrumpfovi imaju i svoj jezik. Neke riječi i glagoli zamenjene su sa reči „Štrumpf“. Tako moramo malo da Štrumpfnemo, uberemo štrumfgode, odštrumpfujemo kući…

Najveći neprijatelj Štrumpfova je Gargamel. U formuli kako da napravi zlato pisalo je da treba dodati jednog Štrumpfa. Jedino je objašnjenjo da je Štrumpf vrsta Kobolda. Koboldi su demonski patuljci iz njemačke mitologije.

Mada Štrumpfovi znaju da hodaju i trče, često se kreću štrumpfujući na obje noge. Ugravnom se hrane bobicama koje pronalaze u šumi, a jako vole i slatkiše - posebno torte.

Štrumfeta je originalno imala crnu kosu dok je Papa Štrumf nije pretvorio u plavušu.


Papa Štrumf obučen u crveno + magija = plavuša

Štrumpfeta je u početku bila jedina ženska pripadnica malih plavih patuljaka koju je stvorio zli čarobnjak Gargamel da bi pomutio razum Štrumpfovima i za srce joj je stavio najtvrđi kamen, a kosu joj obojio u crno. No Štrumpfovi su joj se kada su otkrili ko je ipak smilovali i uz pomoć magije Velikog Štrumpfa uspijeli joj dati meko srce i osjećaje. Kosa joj je potom postala plave boje.

 

Kobold

The kobold is a sprite stemming from Germanic mythology Legends tell of three major types of kobolds. Most commonly, the creatures are house spirits of ambivalent nature; while they sometimes perform domestic chores, they play malicious tricks if insulted or neglected. Another type of kobold haunts underground places, such as mines. A third kind of kobold lives aboard ships and helps sailors.


Kajin i Abel

Kajin G2a2 skoči na brata Abela H2 te ga ubi. (9) Potom Jahve zapita Kajina: "Gdje ti je brat Abel?" "Ne znam", odgovori. "Zar sam ja čuvar brata svoga?" (10) Jahve nastavi: "Što si učinio? Slušaj! Krv brata tvoga iz zemlje k meni viče.


Farming - naked plowman seal, Cain was to learn farming, while his brother Abel tended sheep

 

Romani people


Haplogroup H

 
Distribution of the Romani people in Europe - Romani people

The earliest sample of H2 is found in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B culture of the Levant 10,000 years ago. From ancient samples. it is clear that H2 also has a strong association with the spread of agriculture from Anatolia into the European continent, and is commonly found with haplogroup G2a. H2 was found in Neolithic Anatolia, as well as in multiple later Neolithic cultures of Europe, such as the Vinča culture in Hungary, and the Megalith culture of Western Europe.

Judo! Tvoja braća slavit će te; svagda ti je šaka na šiji dušmana, sinci oca tvoga tebi će se klanjat. - Postanak

Brahmin - Haplogroup G2a2

G2a-L140 and its subclades are also found in the Caucasus, Central Asia and throughout India, especially among the upper castes, who represent the descendants of the Bronze Age Indo-European invaders.

Dalit - Haplogroup H1

Dalit, meaning "broken/scattered" in Sanskrit and Hindi. Dalits were excluded from the four-fold varna system of Hinduism and were seen as forming a fifth varna, also known by the name of Panchama. - Dalit

 

Human sacrifice & Ritual cannibalism

6,000 Year Old Death Pit Points to One Hell of a Brawl

Scattered hand bones, severed arms, cracked skulls: if one thing is clear from this Neolithic burial pit, it’s that some some serious shit went down 6,000 years ago.

Circular burial pits like the one shown above were common during the Neolithic period in Central and Western Europe some 6,500 to 5,500 years ago. But rarely do graves from this time hint at so much brutality. This one, a 6.5 foot (2 metre) deep circular pit excavated in Bergheim, France, includes several complete human skeletons (coloured differently in the upper right) strewn atop a pile of left arms and hand fragments that appear to have been hacked off their former owners by axes.

The archaeologists behind the discovery suspect that the two men, one woman and four children buried at the top of the pit were killed during some sort of violent raid. The origin of the severed limbs below remains unknown.

"For a long time, Neolithic societies were considered relatively egalitarian and peaceful," archaeologist and lead study author Fanny Chenal of INRAP told Gizmodo in an email. "But since several years a lot of research has shown that it was not the case."

That research now includes an epic pile of carnage, which promises to stoke a longstanding debate over the use of circular burial pits. Some researchers suspect these pits are the remnants of storage silos that people stuffed full of bodies deemed unfit for proper burials. Others say the pits were dug for wealthy individuals, whose servants and slaves would have been murdered and tossed in the grave along with.

Now, it seems the pits could have played a third role in Neolithic society: vaults for trophy limbs chopped off people who were killed or mutilated during raids.

"Bergheim is the first discovery which allows to clearly link human deposits in circular pits and violence, probably armed conflicts," Chenal said. "It’s a very important result, but it raises more questions than it answers."

Sites specifically mentioned in the text marked within the approximate distribution of the LBK in Europe. Massacre sites: A, Schöneck-Kilianstädten; B, Talheim; C, Asparn/Schletz. Other sites: D, Herxheim; E, Vaihingen/Enz; F, Schwetzingen; G, Wiederstedt. Sites A, B, and D–G are located in Germany; site C is in Austria.

A Terrifying Discovery

In 2006, a group of road workers stumbled upon something absolutely shocking. Digging around the outskirts of Frankfurt, Germany, the group of men unearthed a mass grave filled with a large collection of human bones. A chilling sight, it was impossible to know how old the bones were or where they came from, but there were signs they traced back to thousands of years ago.

The Neolithic Age

Archaeologists call the Neolithic Age, the time of “linear pottery culture.” This was due to the fact that the people during that time lived in small villages and crafted ceramic objects, while sustaining themselves via primitive farming.

7,000 Years Ago

The people during this time lived over 7,000 years ago and introduced farming to Europe. Not much is known about the people of this time because there were no written records. Most archaeologists have to utilize speculation and minimal evidence in order to craft a realistic depiction of that period of time.

Digging Up the Dead

The workers were extremely disturbed by the unmarked grave, and immediately contacted the local authorities. The bones were removed and packaged up to be sent to the University of Mainz for further study. The team there would be led by Christian Meyer, a bio-archeologist with an interest in the Neolithic period.

Heinous Death

Although the bones were heavily decayed, the team was able to date the remains back over 7,000 years. It was determined the bones had most likely been thrown into a ditch in a hurry and then covered with a heavy layer of soil. Why would anyone do something so heinous?

26 Lost Souls

Once the bones were counted and sorted, the team identified remains from 26 different skeletons that were a mixture of both adults and children. However, knowing the farmers of the Neolithic period, Meyer determined this had not been a normal burial. Why? Well, during that time, the people buried their dead in individual graves with pottery and other valuables. This mass grave told a completely different story.

Meeting a Violent End

As the team continued to study the bones, it was determined that the deaths of these 26 souls had been violent. Some of the skulls revealed fractures from blunt force trauma and there were animal bone arrowheads embedded in some of the remains as well. It was possible that an entire village had been maliciously murdered. The question was…why and by whom?

A Grim Revelation

Meyer continued his investigation, which only revealed horrifying evidence that the people could have also been brutally tortured. The shin bones of many of the skeletons had been smashed, though it was impossible to know if the abuse happened before or after death. According to Meyer, if the victims had been tortured it shed a whole new light on this period of time, since these levels of barbarity had never been referenced during this era.

Torture Theory Rebuked

However, University of Illinois anthropologist, Lawrence Keeley takes issue with the torture theory. He explained in an interview that most torture practices focused on parts of the body with the most pain receptors such as the feet, hands or head. Breaking someone’s tibia wouldn’t be a popular torture method.

Warding Off Enemy Spirits

Meyer believed that it was possible the bodies were brutalized in an attempt to prevent enemy spirits from following the tribe home. It could have also been an act of revenge by crippling the enemy’s spirit in the afterlife via body mutilation after death.

Where Are the Women?

As the remains were catalogued, Meyer noticed that there were no young women among the bones. It was determined that the men of the village had most likely been killed and the younger women who were seen as child bearing were taken captive.

Wiping Out the Settlements

Archaeologist, Lawrence Keeley had this to say about the women’s fate. “The only reasonable interpretation of these cases, as here, is that a whole typically-sized linear pottery culture hamlet or small village was wiped out by killing the majority of its inhabitants and kidnapping the young women.”

Conflict Over Land

More evidence also revealed that it must have been an organized raid which was intended to wipe out the small village. Due to the location of where the bones were found, it was believed that the massacre took place at a dividing line between two different tribes. According to Meyers this would have made a conflict more likely.

Moving West

7,000 years ago, the Neolithic farmers had moved west from the Middle East and had begun to clear the land for cultivation. This led to new settlements being developed. According to historians, the land would have seen competition for resources, which could have led to the potential for warfare.

The German Talheim Incident

Evidence that supports warfare during this time was first discovered in 1983. A site known as the Talheim death pit was discovered in Germany and have over 34 sets of human remains. Sixteen sets of these remains were determined to be children.

Mass Trauma

Many of these skeletons had old wounds that had healed incorrectly over time. There were also multiple instances of trauma to the bones, which confirmed conflict was common during this time. Many of the skulls found at the death pit had fractures which would have been from some sort of blunt force.

More Evidence in Austria

Austria is the home to another mass grave that was discovered 20 miles north of Vienna. Over 67 bodies were found in the burial pit, but it is possible there are over 300 since the site hasn’t been fully excavated. However, the 67 sets of remains that were examined pointed to an extremely violent death.

Constant Fear

Recent evidence continues to back the theory that the people during this time lived in a constant state of fear. Therefore, the communities developed tools to protect themselves and defend their land.

Not a Peaceful Time

All of this compelling evidence leads Meyers to believe that the communities during this time weren’t as peaceful as they were led to believe. As more gravesites are discovered, it is clear the communities that were warring during this time wanted to demonstrate their sheer power, and would wipe out entire villages in order to claim new land.

History Changes

It’s a grim reality for historians who believed that these Neolithic communities lived and farmed together in peace. Keeley believes that this proves that those who believed war was rare during this time were wrong. In fact, the reality is violence was frequent, ritualized and happened way more than we expected in prehistory.

 

Ofnet Caves, c. 6500 BC

Human sacrifice


Ofnet Caves

In Ofnet cave in Bavaria two pits contained the skulls and vertebrae of thirty-eight individuals, all stained with red ochre, dating to around 6.5 k.a. cal BC (Orschiedt 1998). The Ofnet finding most probably represents a massacre, which wiped out a whole community and was followed by the ceremonial burial of skulls. Most of the victims of deadly attacks were children; two-thirds of the adults were females, which led to the suggestion, that a temporary absence of males may have been the precipitating cause of the attack. Half the individuals were wounded before death by blunt mace-like weapons, with males and females and children all injured, but males having the most wounds.

 

Mass burial at Schletz-Asparn, c. 5500 BC

Human sacrifice

The mass grave near Schletz, part of Asparn an der Zaya, was located about 33 kilometres (roughly 20 miles) to the north of Vienna, Austria, and dates back about 7,500 years. Schletz, just like the Talheim death pit, is one of the earliest known sites in the archaeological record that shows proof of genocide in Early Neolithic Europe, among various LBK tribes. The site was not entirely excavated, but it is estimated that the entire ditch could contain up to 300 individuals. The remains of 67 people have been uncovered, all showing multiple points of trauma. Scientists have concluded that these people were also victims of genocide. Since the weapons used were characteristic of LBK peoples, the attackers are believed to be members of other LBK tribes. In similar proportions to those found at Talheim, fewer young women were found than men at Schletz. Because of this scarcity of young women among the dead, it is possible that other women of the defeated group were kidnapped by the attackers. The site was enclosed, or fortified, which serves as evidence of violent conflict among tribes and means that these fortifications were built as a form of defense against aggressors. The people who lived there had built two ditches to counter the menace of other LBK communities.

 

Talheim Death Pit, c. 5000 BC

Human sacrifice


Talheim Smrt Pit

The Talheim grave contained a total of 34 skeletons, consisting of 16 children, nine adult males, seven adult women, and two more adults of indeterminate sex. Several skeletons of this group exhibited signs of repeated and healed-over trauma, suggesting that violence was a habitual or routine aspect of the culture. Not all of the wounds, however, were healed at the time of death. All of the skeletons at Talheim showed signs of significant trauma that were likely the cause of death. Broken down into three categories, 18 skulls were marked with wounds indicating the sharp edge of adzes of the Linearbandkeramik or Linear Pottery culture (LBK); 14 skulls were similarly marked with wounds produced from the blunt edge of adzes, and 2–3 had wounds produced by arrows. The skeletons did not exhibit evidence of defensive wounds, indicating that the population was fleeing when it was killed.

 

Goseck circle, c. 4900 BC

Human sacrifice

Excavators also found the remains of what may have been ritual fires, animal and human bones, and a headless skeleton near the southeastern gate, that could be interpreted as traces of human sacrifice or specific burial ritual.

 

Ertebølle culture, c. 5300 - 4000 BC

Ritual cannibalism

Ertebølle culture - During the formative stages contact with nearby Linear Pottery culture settlements in Limburg has been detected.

More significant is evidence of cannibalism at Dyrholmen, Jutland, and Møllegabet on Ærø. There human bones were broken open to obtain the marrow.

 

Mass burial at Herxheim, c. 5300 - 4950 BC

Ritual cannibalism


Ritual cannibalism in Herxheim


A cranial injury on the frontal bone of a roughly 8-year-old child.

Another Early Neolithic mass grave was found at Herxheim, near Landau in the Rhineland-Palatinate. The site, unlike the mass burials at Talheim and Schletz, serves as proof of ritual cannibalism rather than of the first signs of violence in Europe.

Herxheim contained 173 skulls and skull-plates, and the scattered remains of at least 450 individuals. Two complete skeletons were found inside the inner ditch. The crania from these bodies were discovered at regular intervals in the two defensive ditches surrounding the site. After the victims were decapitated, their heads were either thrown into the ditch or placed on top of posts that later collapsed inside the ditch. The heads showed signs of trauma from axes and one other weapon. Moreover, the organized placing of the skulls suggests a recurrent ritual act, instead of a single instance. Herxheim also contained various high-quality pottery artifacts and animal bones associated with the human remains. Unlike the mass burial at Talheim, scientists have concluded that instead of being a fortification, Herxheim was an enclosed center for ritual.


Herxheim (archaeological site)


Adam/Cain istjeran iz vrta edenskog c. 4500 BC

Adam/Cain PIE


Cain, Land of Nod, c. 4500 BC

Indo-European (Maykop) branches of G2a2

G2a-L140 and its subclades are also found in the Caucasus, Central Asia and throughout India, especially among the upper castes, who represent the descendants of the Bronze Age Indo-European invaders. The combined presence of G2a-L140 across Europe and India is a very strong argument in favour of an Indo-European dispersal.

G2a-L140 came from Anatolia to eastern and Central Europe during the Neolithic (a fact proven by ancient DNA test). Once in Southeast Europe men belonging to the U1 branch founded the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture (with men of other haplogroups, notably I2a1b-L621) around modern Moldova. The Cucuteni-Trypillian people traded actively with the neighbouring with the Steppe cultures, and from 3500 BCE, at the onset of the Yamna period in the Pontic-Caspian Steppe, the Cucuteni-Trypillian people started expanding east into the steppe of what is now western Ukraine, leaving their towns (the largest in the world at the time), and adopting an increasingly nomadic lifestyle like their Yamna neighbours. By the time the Proto-Indo-Europeans started their massive expansion, G2a-U1 men belonging to the L13 and L1264 subclades would have joined R1b and R1a tribes in the invasion of Europe, then of Central and South Asia.


Migration of Neolithic population during the second half of V millennium BC

Kura-Araxes branches of G2a2

Around the same time as the Indo-European ethnogenesis was taking shape in the Pontic Steppe during the Maykop (3700-3000 BCE) and Yamna (3500-2300 BCE) cultures, another Early Bronze Age society was developping on the other side of the Caucasus: the Kura-Araxes culture (3400-2000 BCE). Although the Kura-Araxes people were less militaristic and more sedentary, they also underwent a major expansion, first west to Anatolia, south to the Fertile Crescent and east toward the Iranian plateau, possibly all the way to Pakistan, where they would have influenced the Indus Valley Civilisation. It is likely that the descendants of the Kura-Araxes culture eventually colonised Greek islands, including Crete, where they would have founded the Minoan Civilisation (2600-1100 BCE), Europe's oldest civilisation.


c. 3500-3000 BC

I Jahve, Bog, zasadi vrt na istoku u Edenu,.. Zato ga Jahve, Bog, istjera iz vrta edenskoga da obrađuje zemlju iz koje je i uzet. (24) Istjera, dakle, čovjeka (G2a2) i nastani ga istočno od vrta edenskog,

Kajin (G2a2, I2a, T1a) ode ispred lica Jahvina u zemlju Nod (Don River - Khvalynsk culture), istočno od Edena, i ondje se nastani. ... Ada rodi Jabala, koji je postao praocem onih što pod šatorima žive sa stokom (Sredny Stog). (21) Bratu mu bijaše ime Jubal. On je praotac svih koji sviraju na liru i sviralu (Hurrians). (22) Sila rodi Tubal-Kajina, praoca onih koji kuju bakar i željezo (Pontus-Maykop).

Sinovi su Jafetovi: Gomer, Magog, Madaj, Javan, Tubal, Mešak, Tiras. (Tubal = Pontus; Tubal-Kajin = Pontus + Maykop)
  • Jabal - šatorima žive sa stokom (Sredny Stog)
  • Jubal - Among the Hurrian texts from Ugarit are the oldest known instances of written music, dating from c. 1400 BCE. Among these fragments are found the names of four Hurrian composers, Tapšiẖuni, Puẖiya(na), Urẖiya, and Ammiya. (Hurrians Hurrian song)
  • Tubal - Tibareni, proto-gruzijsko pleme nastanjeno duž crnomorske obale Anatolije (antički Pontus).

    Tubal-cain


    Estela antropomorfa de Minuciano III, Pontremoli, Italia


    Tubal-cain

Jabal, Jubal, Tubal (G2a2, I2a1, T1a), Korjen BL (Bijelo)

  • Kajinovo potomstvo = Šetovo potomstvo
    • Lamek (Kajin) = Lamek (Šet)
    • Metušael = Metušalah
    • Mehujael = Mahalalel
    • Irad = JeredEridu
    • Henok (Kajin) = Henok (Šet) = Anakim or Anunnaki

 

Adam - Cain - Seth

The evidence strongly suggests that the person whom the Bible called Adam was the one whom the Sumerians called Adapa, an Earthling "perfected" by Enki and deemed to have been genetically related to him. "Wide understanding Enki perfected for him, to disclose the designs of the Earth; to him he gave Knowing; but immortality he did not give him." "Portions of the "Tale of Adapa" have been found; the complete text might have well been the "Book of the Generations of Adam" to which the Old Testament refers. "....


Babylonian, Assyrian Tale Of The Line Of Cain

The Book of Genesis relates that the first son of Adam and Eve, Cain, "was a tiller of the earth," and his brother Abel "was a herder of sheep." "Cain had a son whom he named Enoch, and built a city called likewise, the name meaning "Foundation." The Old Testament, having no particular interest in the line of Cain, skips quickly to the fourth generation after Enoch, when Lamech was born. "....The pseudepigraphical Book of Jubilees, believed to have been composed in the second century B.C. from earlier material, adds the information that Cain espoused his own sister Awan and she bore him Enoch "at the close of the fourth Jubilee. And in the first year of the first week of the fifth Jubilee, houses were built on the earth, and Cain built a city and called its name Foundation, after the name of his son. The babylonian tablet in the British Museum (No 74329), catalogued as "containing an otherwise unknown myth." Yet it may in fact be a Babylonian/Assyrian version from circa 2000 B.C. of a missing Sumerian record of the Line of Cain! "As copied by A.R. Millard and translated by W.G. Lambert (Kadmos, vol. VI), it speaks of the beginnings of a group of people who were ploughmen, which correspons to the biblical "tiller of the land." They are called Amakandu - "People Who In Sorrow Roam"; it parallels the condemnation of Cain: "Banned be thou from the soil which hath received thy brother's blood . . . a restless nomad shalt thou be upon the earth." And, most remarkably, the Mesopotamian chief of these exiled people was called Ka'in! He built in Dunnu a city with twin towers Ka'in dedicated to himself the lordship over the city. "....After the death (or murder) of Ka'in, "he was laid to rest in the city of Dunnu, which he loved." As in the biblical tale, the Mesopotamian text records the history of four following generations: brothers married their sisters and murdered their parents, taking over the rulership in Dunnu as well as setting in new places, the last of which was named Shupat ("Judgement"). "....We also find among traditional Assyrian eponyms of royal names the combination Ashur-bel-Ka'ini ("Ashur, lord of the Ka'inites"); and the Assyrian scribes paralleled this with the Sumerian ASHUR-EN.DUNI ("Ashur is lord of Duni"), implying that the Ka'ini ("The people of Kain") and the Duni ("The people of Dun") were one and the same; and thus reaffirming the biblical Cain and Land of Nun or Dun.


Land of Nod (Don) - Caspian culture

"Having dealt briefly with the line of Cain, the Old Testament turned its full attention to a new line descended of Adam: "And Adam knew his wife again, and she bore a son, and called his name Seth, for [she said] the Lord hath granted me another offspring instead of Abel, whom Cain had slain." "....The name of Seth's son and the next pre-Diluvial patriarch in which the Bible was interested was Enosh; it has come to mean in Hebrew "Human, Mortal," and it is clear that the Old Testament considered him the progenitor of the human lineage at the core of the ancient chronicles. It states in respect to him, that "It was then that the name of Yahweh began to be called," that worship and priesthood began. "There are a number of Sumerian texts that shed more light on this intriguing aspect. The available portions of the Adapa text state that he was "perfected" and treated as a son by Enki in Enki's city Eridu. It is likely then, as William Hallo (Antediluvian Cities) had suggested that the great-grandson of Enosh was named Yared to mean "He of Eridu." Here, then, is the answer: While the Bible loses interest in the banished descendants of Adam, it focuses its attention on the patriarchs from Adam's line who had stayed in southern Mesopotamia - and were the first to be called to priesthood. "In the fourth generation after Enosh the firstborn son was named Enoch; scholars believe that here the name's meaning stemmed from a variant of the Hebrew root, connoting "to train, to educate." Of him the Old Testament briefly states that he "had walked with the Deity" and did not die on Earth, "for the Deity had taken him." The sole verse in Genesis 5:24 is substantially enlarged upon in the extra-biblical Books of Enoch. They detail his first visit with the Angels of God to be instructed in various sciences and ethics. Then, after returning to Earth to pass the knowledge and the requisities of priesthood to his sons, he was taken aloft once more, to permanently join the Nefilim in their celestial abode.There is another indication of priests who were able to approach the gods: "The Sumerian King Lists record the priestly reign of Enmeduranki in Sippar.... Enmeduranki [was] a prince in Sippar, Beloved of Anu, Enlil and Ea. Shamash in the Bright Temple appointed him. Shamash and Adad [took him] to the assembly [of the gods]... They showed him how to observe oil on water, a secret of Anu, Enlil and Ea. They gave him the Divine Tablet, the kibdu secret of Heaven and Earth...

 

Grendel - Cain

First battle: Grendel

Beowulf begins with the story of Hrothgar, who constructed the great hall Heorot for himself and his warriors. In it he, his wife Wealhtheow, and his warriors spend their time singing and celebrating. Grendel, a troll-like monster said to be descended from the biblical Cain, is pained by the sounds of a joy he cannot share, attacks the hall, and kills and devours many of Hrothgar's warriors while they sleep. Hrothgar and his people, helpless against Grendel, abandon Heorot.

Beowulf, a young warrior from Geatland, hears of Hrothgar's troubles and with his king's permission leaves his homeland to assist Hrothgar.

Beowulf and his men spend the night in Heorot. Beowulf refuses to use any weapon because he holds himself to be the equal of Grendel. When Grendel enters the hall, Beowulf, who has been feigning sleep, leaps up to clench Grendel's hand. Grendel and Beowulf battle each other violently. Beowulf's retainers draw their swords and rush to his aid, but their blades cannot pierce Grendel's skin. Finally, Beowulf tears Grendel's arm from his body at the shoulder and Grendel runs to his home in the marshes where he dies.

Second battle: Grendel's Mother

The next night, after celebrating Grendel's defeat, Hrothgar and his men sleep in Heorot. Grendel's mother, angry that her son has been killed, sets out to get revenge. She violently kills Æschere, who is Hrothgar's most loyal fighter.

Hrothgar, Beowulf and their men track Grendel's mother to her lair under a lake. Unferth, a warrior who had doubted him and wishes to make amends, presents Beowulf with his sword Hrunting. After stipulating a number of conditions to Hrothgar in case of his death (including the taking in of his kinsmen and the inheritance by Unferth of Beowulf's estate), Beowulf jumps into the lake, at the bottom of which he finds a cavern containing Grendel's body and the remains of men that the two have killed. Grendel's mother and Beowulf engage in fierce combat.

At first, Grendel's mother appears to prevail. Beowulf, finding that Hrunting cannot harm his foe, puts it aside in fury. Beowulf is again saved from his opponent's attack by his armour. Beowulf takes another sword from Grendel's mother and slices her head off with it. Travelling further into Grendel's mother's lair, Beowulf discovers Grendel and severs his head. The blade of Beowulf's sword touches Grendel's toxic blood, and instantly dissolves so that only the hilt remains. Beowulf swims back up to the rim of the pond where his men wait in growing despair. Carrying the hilt of the sword and Grendel's head, he presents them to Hrothgar upon his return to Heorot. Hrothgar gives Beowulf many gifts, including the sword Nægling, his family's heirloom. The events prompt a long reflection by the king, sometimes referred to as "Hrothgar's sermon", in which he urges Beowulf to be wary of pride and to reward his thegns.

Beowulf returns home and eventually becomes king of his own people. One day, fifty years after Beowulf's battle with Grendel's mother, a slave steals a golden cup from the lair of a dragon at Earnanæs. When the dragon sees that the cup has been stolen, it leaves its cave in a rage, burning everything in sight. Beowulf and his warriors come to fight the dragon, but Beowulf tells his men that he will fight the dragon alone and that they should wait on the barrow. Beowulf descends to do battle with the dragon, but finds himself outmatched. His men, upon seeing this and fearing for their lives, retreat into the woods. One of his men, Wiglaf, however, in great distress at Beowulf's plight, comes to his aid. The two slay the dragon, but Beowulf is mortally wounded. After Beowulf's death, he is ritually burned on a great pyre in Geatland while his people wail and mourn him, fearing that without him, the Geates are defenseless against attacks from surrounding tribes. Afterwards, a barrow, visible from the sea, is built in his memory.


Grendel's Mother

In the classic poem Beowulf, the monstrous Grendel and his mother are said to be descended from Cain.

The expression "Cain-coloured beard" (Cain was traditionally considered to have red hair) is used in Shakespeare's The Merry Wives of Windsor (1602).

 

Žrtvovanja crvenokosih ljudi u Europi

Brončano i željezno doba

Znanstvenici već više od vijeka pokušavaju otkriti zašto su žitelji brončanog i željeznog doba žrtvovali ljude (uglavnom crvene ili bakrene kose) ubijajući ih na najgore moguće načine, bacajući ih kasnije u močvare pune treseta. Za sada je isti uzorak žrtvovanja na sjevernom dijelu Europe otkriven na preko 200 različitih lokaliteta koji se nalaze od Danske i sjeverne Njemačke preko Nizozemske i srednje Britanije do Irske. Samom činjenicom da su nevjerojatno dobro očuvane mumije pronađene na toliko širokom području pokazuje da je opskurni fenomen ljudskog žrtvovanja bio relativno ukorijenjen na područjima Europe.

Odlika ovih mumija, osim dobre očuvanosti, je mjesto na kojem su pronađene. Sve one su otkrivene u tresetištima i močvarama što je omogućilo njihovu konzervaciju nakon što ih je prekrio mulj bez kisika koji je usput imao i protugljivična svojstva. Povrh toga, vode močvara su bile izrazito kisele, otkrila je Heather Gill-Robinson.

Profesorica Heather Gill-Robinson sa Sveučilišta Sjeverne Dakote je pokrenula ponovno istraživanje mumija iz željeznog doba. Otkriće polaganog mučenja na ostatku tijela dječaka iz Windebya je omogućeno pretragama s trodimenzionalnom magnetskom rezonancom, kojom su ustanovljene mnoge psihičke i fizičke odlike ljudi koji su završili život na tako brutalan način. Znanstvenike je posebno interesirao omjer muškaraca i žena i njihovo stanje prije ritualnog mučenja i smrti, interesantno je kako su sve crvenokose mumije bile u relativno dobrom stanju, a posebno se pazilo na njihovo uređenje, uključujući i stvaranje kompliciranih stiliziranih frizura. Nepoznato je jesu li se žrtve same uređivale ili im je u tome pomagala zajednica u kojoj su bili zatočeni, a još se manje može nagađati jesu li prije toga bili dugo zatočeni i kakav im je bio društveni status.

Mumije iz močvara koje je pregledala Heather Gill-Robinson su pronađene u periodu između 1871. i 1960. godine. Ona i njen tim su na ispitivanje mumija potrošili četiri godine. No osim otkrivanja pikanterije o mumiji iz Windebya, Heather Gill-Robinson nije uspjela odgovoriti na mnoga pitanja vezana uz same rituale žrtvovanja.

Doktor Alfred Dieck je katalogizirao 1850 mumija iz močvara od 1965. pronađenih tijela u močvarama od kojih su neki bili tek kosturi. On je primijetio kako se moralo raditi o ritualima zbog mnogih poveznicama i karakteristikama pronađenih mumija od svezanih ruku i omči na vratovima do rupa od udaraca u lubanjama, ubodima po tijelu i sličnim povredama.

U nekim slučajevima, ovi ljudi su bili dekapitirani tako da im tijela ili glave nisu nikada našli. No osim načina na koji su skončali svoje živote, te iste ljude povezuju slične ili gotovo iste fizičke odlike kao što je crvena kosa ili kosa bakrene boje.

Pored zajedničkih fizičkih odlika i činjenice kako su svi bili pomno uređeni, ne preostaje nam nego da se zapitamo zašto je žrtvama kosa bila uređena u komplicirane frizure dok je odjeća i obuća često bile kvalitete koja se mogla smatrati luksuzom za to doba?

Iako postoje brojne pretpostavke, većina znanstvenika smatra da su žrtvovani ljudi bili pripadnici visoke klase. Dokaz za takvo stanovište se pronašao i u trbusima žrtvovanih ljudi, naime, oni su bili jako dobro hranjeni, nihova prehrana se sastojala od ribe, močvarnih ptica, mesa divljači, različitih variva, pa čak i neke vrste kaše od korjenastog bilja pomiješane s velikim komadima različitih vrsta dimljenog mesa.

Najnovija mumija je iz 16. vijeka i pronađena je u Irskoj. Nosi naziv djevojka iz Meenybraddena i ne zna se je li ovo već djelo ubijanja i kažnjavanja vještica, no način na koji je ova jadna žena skončala ima iste oznake mučenja kao i većina mumija iz močvara.

S druge strane Atlantika, naročito u kulturama srednje Amerike nalaze se zapisi o žrtvovanju crvenokosih pa čak i plavokosih ljudi. Zbog nekog razloga crvenokosi ljudi su se smatrali opasnošću za narod, naročito za vrijeme klimatskih promjena.

Možda bi razlog za žtvovanje riđokosih ljudi mogao objasniti neandertalskim nasljeđem, jer je poznato kako su nenadertalci bili uglavnom riđe ili bakarne boje kose, dok je tek manji dio neandertalske populacije imao zagasito tamno smeđu boju kose, poput primjeraka nenadertalki pronađenih na području Hrvatske.


Istočni grijeh

Neolithic/Chalcolithic mutation = Original sin

Istočni grijeh (latinski peccatum originale originatum) je grijeh u kojem se, rađaju ljudi koji potječu od Adama i participiraju u njegovu grijehu. Taj grijeh, Adamov, zove se istočni ili iskonski grijeh, jer iz njega istječu svi ostali grijesi. u teologiji se još naziva i "peccatum originale originans". Krist donosi oslobođenje od tog grijeha (istočnog) za sve ljude koji potječu od Adama.

  • Neolithic/Chalcolithic mutation = Original sin

Početkom 19. stoljeća Higgins je primijetio:

Moguće je da je najopasnija doktrina u povijesti ona Istočnog grijeha... Uzrokom je svih ljudskih žrtava u drevnim vremenima i pretvorila je Židove u naciju Kanibala, kao što je to lord Kingsborough ... dokazao.

John the Baptist

An account of John the Baptist is found in all extant manuscripts of the Antiquities of the Jews (book 18, chapter 5, 2) by Flavius Josephus (37–100):

Now some of the Jews thought that the destruction of Herod's [Antipas’s] army came from God, and that very justly, as a punishment of what he did against John, that was called the Baptist: for Herod slew him, who was a good man, and commanded the Jews to exercise virtue, both as to righteousness towards one another, and piety towards God, and so to come to baptism; for that the washing [with water] would be acceptable to him, if they made use of it, not in order to the putting away [or the remission] of some sins [only], but for the purification of the body; supposing still that the soul was thoroughly purified beforehand by righteousness. Now when [many] others came in crowds about him, for they were very greatly moved [or pleased] by hearing his words, Herod, who feared lest the great influence John had over the people might put it into his power and inclination to raise a rebellion, (for they seemed ready to do any thing he should advise,) thought it best, by putting him to death, to prevent any mischief he might cause, and not bring himself into difficulties, by sparing a man who might make him repent of it when it would be too late. Accordingly he was sent a prisoner, out of Herod's suspicious temper, to Macherus, the castle I before mentioned, and was there put to death. Now the Jews had an opinion that the destruction of this army was sent as a punishment upon Herod, and a mark of God's displeasure to him.

According to this passage, the execution of John was blamed for the defeat Herod suffered. Some have claimed that this passage indicates that John died near the time of the destruction of Herod's army in 36 AD. However, in a different passage, Josephus states that the end of Herod's marriage with Aretas' daughter (after which John was killed) was only the beginning of hostilities between Herod and Aretas, which later escalated into the battle.

Divergences between the passage's presentation and the biblical accounts of John include baptism for those whose souls have already been "purified beforehand by righteousness" is for purification of the body, not general repentance of sin (Mark 1:4).

Ivan Krstitelj Nazarećanin

No anđeo mu reče: "Ne boj se, Zaharija! Uslišana ti je molitva: žena će ti Elizabeta roditi sina. Nadjenut ćeš mu ime Ivan. Bit će ti radost i veselje i rođenje će njegovo mnoge obradovati. Bit će doista velik pred Gospodinom. Ni vina ni drugoga opojnog pića neće piti. - Luka

Nazirejski zavjet

Jahve reče Mojsiju: "Govori Izraelcima i reci im: 'Ako tko, bilo čovjek ili žena, položi nazirejski zavjet te se posveti Jahvi, neka se suzdržava od vina i svakoga opojnog pića. - Brojevi

Kletva nazarejima

Kletva koja je uvedena kao sastavni dio dnevnih molitava te su je svi sudionici bogoslužja u sinagogi morali naglas izgovarati: "Neka otpadnik bude bez ikakve nade i neka kraljevstvo ponosa bude iskorijenjeno u naše doba. Neka nazareji i minimi nestanu u trenutku, neka svi budu izbrisani iz knjige života da se ne mogu ubrojiti medu pravednike. Blagoslovljen budi, o Bože, koji obaraš ponosite."

 

Was Jesus A Ginger?

Normally we're used to seeing Judas portrayed in paintings with red hair, however in many cases Jesus likewise is depicted as a redhead. In fact, research into the Rabbula Gospels (the earliest dated Christian manuscript) has revealed that some of the images in the document have been repainted, and that the hair of Jesus Christ had been changed from curly red to straight black.

The Letter of Lentulus, an epistle supposedly sent by Publius Lentulus to the Roman Senate, but thought by scholars to be a forgery, also describes a red-haired Jesus. Stating that his hair was the "colour of the ripe hazel-nut". Some Islamic accounts describe Jesus with a reddish complexion as well. One stating that he was "a reddish man with many freckles on his face as if he had just come from a bath". I'll share some of the paintings I've come across which depict a red-haired Jesus below.

The painting above is by the Italian artist Agnolo di Cosimo (1503 - 1572), more commonly known as Il Bronzino. It's titled Pieta and shows Jesus with striking red hair and a gingerish complexion. Mary Magdalene is likewise depicted with bright red hair.

The picture below is titled Ecce Homo and is by the Flemish artist Abraham Janssens (1567 - 1632). In it Jesus is portrayed with both reddish hair and beard.

Next up is a painting titled the Altarpiece of the Lamentation and is by the painter Joos van Cleve (1485 - 1540/1541). Once again Jesus is portrayed with reddish hair and beard. The women accompanying him are likewise red haired.

The following picture shows the Madonna with the child Jesus and is said to be by Leonardo da Vinci (1452 - 1519), although there is some contention over this. Both mother and child are shown with royal red hair. It's titled Madonna Litta.

Michelangelo also painted Christ with reddish hair. The following image is from The Last Judgement and can be found on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel.

This next one depicts the "Kiss of Judas" and is from the Siena Cathedral crypt. Both Jesus and Judas are shown with red hair, as are the people depicted in the background.

The following painting is by the artist Gentile da Fabriano (1370 - 1427) and shows Jesus, the Virgin Mary and John the Evangelist. All three with hair of a strawberry-blond colouring.

This next one is a very cool image and one I've only recently came across. It depicts Jesus with stark white skin, draped in red, and against a jet black background. A glimmer of shiny red hair (at least I think it's hair) can be seen above the forehead. The overall image is quite striking. It's titled Ecce Homo and is by the artist Jose de Ribera (1591 - 1652).

 

This next image is said to have been painted by a follower of Jose de Ribera and shows a young Christ in discussion with scholars at the Temple. Once again Christ is given reddish hair. It's titled Jesus and the doctors of Faith.

 

And last up quite a well known red-haired depiction of Christ; Christ in the House of His Parents by the Pre-Raphaelite artist John Everett Millais (1829 - 1896). Charles Dickens famously described the boy in the painting as a "wry-necked, blubbering, redheaded boy, in a bed-gown."

 

Of course, we should finally state that Jesus is a symbolic representation of the highest spirit that can be attained by man, and as such transcends all superficial notions of race, colour and ethnicity :p ..in this modern age he should also be genderless too - an androgynous rainbow-coloured uber-Christ of sorts.

Vampires and Judas

There are legends that link vampires with both red hair and Judas. It's said that Judas became the first vampire when he committed suicide following his betrayal of Christ. The thirty pieces of silver he received for this betrayal then becoming a weapon that could be used against him, burning his skin with its touch. Much like the way a crucifix burns vampires in B-movies, and hence the use of silver bullets in vampire and werewolf lore.

Of course, we know from previous discussions that red hair was heavily associated with Judas in the medieval period. The link with vampires then comes full circle when we add to the mix the fact that in Eastern Europe red hair was associated with vampires.

The following comes from Montague Summers' book The Vampire, His Kith and Kin (1928);

Red was the colour of the hair of Judas Iscariot, and of Cain ...I have not met with the following tradition save orally, but it is believed in Serbia, Bulgaria, and Rumania, that there are certain red-polled vampires who are called "Children of Judas," and that these, the foulest of the foul, kill their victim with one bite or kiss which drains the blood as it were at a single draught. The poisoned flesh of the victim is wounded with the Devil's stigmata, three hideous scars shaped thus, XXX, signifying the thirty pieces of silver, the price of blood.

Gruesome.

On the topic of Judas and Eastern Europe another avenue of intrigue worthy of investigation is the mystery surrounding the so-called Red Jews. The Red Jews were a Jewish tribe or nation that appear in German sources during the medieval era. The reason for the name "Red" is contested, but some believe they were called as such because they had red hair.

In fact, some people equate them with the Khazars, a Turkic nation that supposedly adopted Judaism in the 8th century. The Khazars were described by Arab scholars as being red-haired and blue-eyed. The following comes from the Wikipedia page about the Khazars;

In terms of caste or class, some evidence suggests that there was a distinction, whether racial or social is unclear, between "White Khazars" (ak-Khazars) and "Black Khazars" (qara-Khazars). The 10th-century Muslim geographer al-Istakhri claimed that the White Khazars were strikingly handsome with reddish hair, white skin, and blue eyes, while the Black Khazars were swarthy, verging on deep black, as if they were "some kind of Indian" ...Khazars are generally described by early Arab sources as having a white complexion, blue eyes, and reddish hair.

Red hair was also associated with the Jews that lived in Poland. I found this passage in an article titled Red Hair: A Mutation, A Royal Trait, and Sometimes a Curse by Aminah Sheikh;

From my research, I found out that Poland was heavily populated with the Ashkenazic Jews, who are also known for their red hair. In a 1990 article titled "Polish Jewish History," the author stated that "During the eighteenth century, at least, about half of the urban population of Poland was Jewish" (Hundert). Therefore, it seems safe to say that they were Ashkenazic Jews and not Sephardic Jews because they were from Poland. In an article titled, "On the Racial Characteristics of Modern Jews," researchers found that there were "...thrice as many red-haired individuals as either Poles, Russians, or Austrians, and half as many again as Germans."

I also found this passage on the Wikipedia page for Red Hair;

Red hair is also fairly common amongst the Ashkenazi Jewish populations, possibly because of the influx of European DNA over a period of centuries. In European culture, prior to the 20th century, red hair was often seen as a stereotypically Jewish trait: during the Spanish Inquisition, all those with red hair were identified as Jewish. In Italy, red hair was associated with Italian Jews, and Judas was traditionally depicted as red-haired in Italian and Spanish art.

The idea that all redheads were identified as Jewish during the Spanish Inquisition is especially interesting.

Incidentally, the image seen at the top of this page looks strikingly Judas-like to me - red hair, hanging (albeit from the foot), holding what look like money bags. However, although it looks like Judas, it is in fact an image of the hanged man and supposedly comes from the oldest-known Tarot pack - thought to have been made for the French king Charles VI in 1392.

When I did a brief bit of research about Tarot Cards I came across the following bit of interesting information. Like playing cards, tarot cards contain four suits - Wands, Cups, Swords and Pentacles. And like playing cards each suit has character cards as well as number cards - in this case King, Queen, Page and Knight.

Anyway, I was surprised to learn that each suit represented a different racial type. The Wands were ruddy, red-haired and hazel/blue eyed. The Cups fair, blond and blue-eyed. The Swords fair, dark-haired and dark-eyed. And the Pentacles were swarthy, dark-haired and dark-eyed. Hence all that "you will meet a tall dark stranger" stuff.

On a similar theme another bit of red hair folklore I came across was this little passage that I found in a work titled Gypsy Sorcery and Fortune Telling, by Charles Godfrey Leland (1891);

For easy childbirth red hair is sewed in a small bag and carried on the belly next the skin during pregnancy. Red hair indicates good luck, and is called bala kameskro, or sun-hairs, which indicates its Indian origin.

On the topic of childbirth I also found this brief mention of red hair in a book about Thomas Cromwell. It cropped up in a passage about idols that were being removed from churches by Protestant reformers.

The image of St Anne of Buxton and also the image of St Modwen of Burton, with her red hair and her staff which women labouring of child in those parts were very desirous to have with them to lean upon and walk with and had great confidence in the staff.

St Modwen (also Modwenna) was an English nun and saint. Modwenna sounds a little bit like Madonna to my ears, so maybe we're seeing another variant on the red-haired Madonna/Magdalene theme here.

Finally, with all this talk of Judas being a redhead I thought I'd end on the idea that Jesus was a redhead. I came across this passage in an article on Wikipedia about British Israelism;

Apocryphal historical texts are also often cited which describe Jesus as golden or red haired, these include the Description of Jesus by Publius Lentulus which describes the hair of Jesus as chestnut (reddish-brown) and his eyes bright blue[.]

The Description of Jesus by Publius Lentulus is generally believed to be a forgery, but then again what religious text isn't a forgery

Witchcraft and Heresy

Red hair was apparently a sign of witchcraft in Christian Europe and it's said that it was often seen as a marker of guilt in the eyes of witch finders. To what extent this is true we'll probably never truly know, but it does appear from the evidence that red hair was certainly seen as untrustworthy and something that aroused suspicion. What follows are examples of this prejudice.

The Distrust of Redheads

There are many examples of redheads being stereotyped as untrustworthy in medieval times. The "Proverbs of Alfred" warn not to choose a red-haired person as a friend and the "Secretum Secretorum" warns against using redheads as advisors. Another manuscript, from the 14th century, notes that redheads are rarely faithful in friendship and a work published in 1659 denounced the "vulgar error" of "censuring red-haired men."

These ideas of untrustworthiness run parallel with the idea that Judas, Christ's betrayer, had red hair. In fact Judas was frequently portrayed with red hair or a red beard in the artwork of the Middle Ages. The author Ruth Mellinkoff, in her excellent book, "Outcasts," commented upon this prejudice, believing it to be a product of red hair's minority status in society.

"Red hair, a red beard, and ruddy skin - separately or combined - have been considered suspect, impure, and dangerous because they did not meet the standards of the normal...[w]hat is essential to keep in mind is that they are minority features in all racial and ethnic groups, even among the Irish, who are widely thought to have more redheads."

She also relates an early example of Christian condemnation of red hair, quoting from a letter from St. Jerome which gave advice on raising daughters.

"Do not dye her hair red and thereby presage for her the fires of hell."

For some reason, the medieval mind also attributed magical properties to the bodily fluids of redheads. For example, it was believed that the fat from a red-haired man could be used to make poison. Likewise, Theophilus Presbyter stated that the blood of a red-haired man was needed to turn copper into gold. The urine from red-haired boys was also used to make the paint for stained glass windows.

Of all the European countries it would seem that the French had the lowest opinion of red hair. As late as the 19th century the phrase "poil de Judas" (hair of Judas) was still being used to describe the trait and as early as 1500 witches in France would often blaspheme the name of the Virgin Mary, referring to her as "la Rousse" - the redhead. There was even a twelfth century French scholar who belittled one of his rivals by constantly ridiculing his red hair.

However, one figure from French history who bucked this trend was Cyrano de Bergerac. He positively lionised red hair. He wrote:

"A brave head covered with red hair is nothing else but the sun in the midst of his rays, yet many speak ill of it, because few have the honour to be so. Do we not see that all things in nature are more or less red? Among the elements, he that contains the most essence and the least substance is the fire, because of his colour. Gold hath received of his dye, the honour to reign over metals and of all planets the sun is most considered only because he is most red. The best-balanced constitution is that which is between phlegmatic and melancholy. The flaxen and black are beside it - that is to say the fickle and obstinate, between both is the medium, where wisdom in favour of red-haired men hath lodged virtue, so their flesh is much more delicate, their blood more pure, their spirits more clarified, and consequently their intellects more accomplished, because of the mixture of the four qualities."

 

Mary Magdalene


Mary Magdalene

Old Europe Index Maykop culture