Was There More Than One Exodus Out of Egypt?

The legends of ancient Greece are unanimous in claiming that the people who founded their nation came from Egypt. Furthermore, the time of the arrival of these groups in Greece is also the time of the bondage of the Israelites in Egypt. The ancient writers all agree that these founders of the Greek nation were, without doubt, Israelite refugees from the Egyptian bondage. The migrations out of Egypt led by Danaus and Cadmus, and the Exodus under Moses, are not the only ones recorded. Another important Grecian colony was founded by Cecrops who became the first "legendary" king of Attica.

by John D. Keyser

We are all Familiar with the story of Moses leading the children of Israel towards the Promised Land. But do you realize there was MORE THAN ONE exodus out of Egypt?

Ancient history reveals SEVERAL mass emigrations from the land of the pharaohs to various parts of the ancient world. Notice what Diodorus of Sicily (1st century B.C. Greek historian) records:

Now the Egyptians say that also AFTER these events [the plagues of Exodus] a GREAT NUMBER of colonies were SPREAD FROM EGYPT all over the inhabited world...They say also that those who set forth with DANAUS, likewise from Egypt, settled what is practically the OLDEST CITY OF GREECE, ARGOS, and that the nations of the COLCHI IN PONTUS and that of the JEWS, which lies between ARABIA and SYRIA, were founded as colonies by certain emigrants from their country [EGYPT]; and this is the reason why it is a long-established institution among these peoples to CIRCUMCISE THEIR MALE CHILDREN, the custom having been BROUGHT OVER FROM EGYPT. Even the ATHENIANS, they say, are COLONISTS FROM SAIS IN EGYPT (Diodorus of Sicily, by G. H. Oldfather. Vol. I, bks. I-II, 1-34. 1933, p. 91).

Author Muller, in his work Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum, also relates these events as recorded by the pen of Hecateus of Abdera (6th century B.C.):

Hecateus therefore, tells us that the EGYPTIANS, formerly being troubled by calamities [referring to the TEN PLAGUES AT THE TIME OF THE EXODUS], in order that the divine wrath might be averted, EXPELLED ALL THE ALIENS GATHERED TOGETHER IN EGYPT. Of these, SOME, under their leaders DANUS and CADMUS, MIGRATED INTO GREECE; others into OTHER REGIONS, THE GREATER PART INTO SYRIA [meaning Palestine]. THEIR LEADER IS SAID TO HAVE BEEN MOSES, a man renowned for wisdom and courage, founder and legislator of the state. Afterwards many Mosaic institutions followed (Vol. II, p. 385).

The "calamities" referred to here are obviously the PLAGUES which YEHOVAH God brought down on the Egyptians, and the "ALIENS" are clearly the Israelites, some of whom migrated into GREECE with DANUS AND CADMUS. Others, under the leadership of Moses, made their escape to Palestine.

During the time of Herodotus the Greek historian (484-425 B.C.), the story of the "EGYPTIAN ORIGIN" of the Greeks was so well recorded that he did not bother to go into details in his work. However, he did make the following comment: "If we ascend from DANAE, the daughter of Acrisius, we shall find that the ANCESTORS OF THE DORIAN PRINCES WERE OF EGYPTIAN ORIGIN. Such is the Grecian account of their descent" (Herodotus, book VI, 53-54).

The migrations out of Egypt led by Danaus and Cadmus, and the Exodus under Moses, are not the only ones recorded. Another important GRECIAN COLONY was founded by CECROPS who became the FIRST "LEGENDARY" KING OF ATTICA. Cecrops, as we shall see, was an Israelite! Author E. Raymond Capt notes:

According to "The Harmsworth Encyclopedia," CECROPS ("CALCOL" of I Chron. 2:26 and "CHACOL" of I Kings 4:31 -- and BROTHER OF DARDA) was the 'mythical' founder of ATHENS and its FIRST KING. He was thought to have been the LEADER OF A BAND OF HEBREW COLONISTS FROM EGYPT (Missing Links Discovered in Assyrian Tablets. Artisan Sales, Thousand Oaks, CA. 1985, p. 65).

The legends of ancient Greece are unanimous in claiming that the people who founded their nation CAME FROM EGYPT. Furthermore, the time of the arrival of these groups in Greece is also the TIME OF THE BONDAGE OF THE ISRAELITES IN EGYPT. The ancient writers all agree that these founders of the Greek nation were, without doubt, ISRAELITISH REFUGEES from the Egyptian bondage.

Yet another group fled Egypt under the leadership of DARDA -- brother to Calcol and son of Zarah. Notice what W. H. Bennett says of this exodus --

...let us now turn to that other part of ZARAH'S DESCENDANTS which FLED OUT OF EGYPT under the leadership of...DARDA. In the Authorized Version of the Bible this name is spelled DARA, but in the margin the alternate spelling is DARDA and the Jewish historian Josephus calls him DARDANUS. This is significant because the group which he led went NORTHWARD across the Mediterranean Sea to the north-west corner of what we now call ASIA MINOR. There, under the rule of DARDA (DARDANUS) they established a Kingdom, later called TROY, on the southern shore of that narrow body of water which bears his name to this day -- DARDANELLES (Symbols of Our Celto-Saxon Heritage. Canadian British Israel Assn., Windsor, Ontario. 1985, pp. 119-121).

Did these bands of Israelite refugees stay in Greece and Asia Minor, or did they migrate further to distant lands across the sea? Let's see what happened to DANAUS. According to Euripides and the Greek geographer and historian STRABO (63?B.C.-24?A.D.):

DANAUS having arrived in ARGOS made a law that those who had borne the name of PELASGIOTAE throughout GREECE should be called DANAI (Strabo V. ii. 4).

If you compare this with Judges 18:29 in the Bible you will find that this act of Danaus was one employed by the TRIBE of DAN throughout their history!

Writes E. Raymond Capt --

We further learn from STRABO and others that this ARGOS soon spread its name to the PELOPONNESUS and afterwards to all Greece, for he says, "Homer calls the WHOLE of Greece ARGOS, for he calls all ARGIVES, as he calls them DANAI and ACHAEI" (Missing Links Discovered in Assyrian Tablets, p. 62).

Author Latham, in his Ethnology of Europe, says, "that the eponymus [national origin] of the ARGIVE DANAI was no other than that of the ISRAELITE TRIBE OF DAN, only we are so used to confine ourselves to the soil of Palestine in our consideration of the Israelites, that we treat them as if they were 'adscripti glebae,' and ignore the share they may have taken in the ordinary history of the world...(p. 157).

Note WHERE the Danai went from Greece --

...the name DAN was an important one in ancient GREECE. The leader of one of the first groups to settle there was DANus and the northern part of Greece is still called MaceDONia. Further, ancient IRELAND was partly settled by a people called DANans who came from GREECE; and it is interesting, too, that SCOTLAND was anciently called CaleDONia. That there was a connection between CaleDONia and Greece is evidenced by the fact that the people of one of the three tribes of ancient Greece were called DORICS; that the Doric dialect was harsh and that the people in some parts of Scotland still speak a dialect referred to as 'BROAD DORIC.'....it is undeniably true that many of the ancient Greeks LEFT THAT COUNTRY TO SETTLE IN SCANDINAVIA AND THE BRITISH ISLES...(Symbols of Our Celto-Saxon Heritage, pp. 184-186).

CALCOL, or CECROPS as the Greeks called him, evidently left Egypt BEFORE the Exodus of the Bible. Herman L. Hoeh, author of the Compendium of World History, states that "ATHENIAN history commences with the founding of the city by Cecrops in 1556 [B.C.]" (Volume I, p. 390).

The Encyclopedia Britannica states that Cecrops was "traditionally the FIRST KING OF ATTICA (Pausanias ix. 33). He was said to have divided the inhabitants into 12 COMMUNITIES, to have instituted the LAWS OF MARRIAGE and PROPERTY and a NEW FORM OF WORSHIP. The introduction of BLOODLESS SACRIFICE, the BURIAL OF THE DEAD and the invention of WRITING were also attributed to him" (1943 edition. Vol. 5, p. 85).

Although Calcol died in Greece in the year 1506 B.C., he directed his son GATHELUS to plant the royal line of Judah (through Zarah) in distant lands to the west! Notice what E. Raymond Capt reveals:

The Danaan were not the first Hebrews into Ireland. CALCOL (I Chron. 2:6 -- Chalcol of I Kings 4:31) FOUNDER OF THE ANCIENT IRISH LINE OF KINGS [through his son Gathelus], planted a royal Dynasty in ULSTER (as well as other royal dynasties in Europe). He and his brother DARDA (DARDANUS) the founder of TROY had both migrated from Egypt BEFORE the Exodus. They are SONS OF ZARAH, one of the twin sons of Judah. The Hebrew name "Zarah" signifies "to scatter," and the subsequent history of Zarah and his descendants fully justifies the claim that he was named with prophetic intention, even as was Jacob, the supplanter (Missing Links Discovered in Assyrian Tablets. Artisan Sales, Thousand Oaks, CA. 1985, p. 64).

Gathelus' movements are noted by Capt --

Historical records tell of the WESTWARD MIGRATION of the descendants of CALCOL along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, establishing "IBERIAN" (HEBREW) trading settlements. One settlement now called "SARAGOSSA," in the EBRO valley in Spain, was originally known as "ZARAH-GASSA," meaning the "STRONGHOLD OF ZARAH." From Spain they continued westward as far as Ireland. The Iberians gave their name to Ireland, calling the island "Iberne" which was later abbreviated to "Erne," and subsequently Latinized to "Hibernia," a name that still adheres to Ireland (ibid., p. 65).

The story of Gathelus' travels is truly remarkable -- showing the hand of YEHOVAH God at work as He dispersed His people Israel from Egypt. The Chronicles of Scotland by Hector Boece (translated into Scottish by John Bellenden in 1531) tell how Gathelus left Greece and went to Egypt to enter the service of the pharaoh:

For, as the old chronicles reveal, there was a Greek, called GATHELUS, SON OF CECROPS [CALCOL] OF ATHENS, otherwise of Argus, King of the Argives, who...left his native country of Greece and CAME TO EGYPT with a strong company of goodly young men....At this time there reigned in Egypt Pharaoh, THE SCOURGE OF THE PEOPLE OF ISRAEL: whose SON, following in his father's iniquities, was DROWNED IN THE RED SEA, with all his army...The King Pharaoh received Gathelus openly because he [Gathelus] appeared to support the Pharaoh against the Ethiopians and the people of Midian....The Pharaoh, with the support of Gathelus, won a fierce battle against the Ethiopians, and brought them so close to defeat that Gathelus took their principal city called MEROE. Gathelus, after this great victory, returned to Egypt; and...was made general lieutenant over all of the Pharaoh's army. Soon after, because he was...of the ROYAL BLOOD LINE OF GREECE...King Pharaoh gave him his DAUGHTER, CALLED SCOTA, in marriage....

The Chronicles next relate the return of Moses --

A few years after this, the Pharaoh died, and his son Bochoris Pharaoh received the crown of Egypt, and he oppressed the people of Israel with a worse slavery than did his father. Therefore, no hope of liberty appeared to the people of Israel, until MOSES returned from Midian, where he was banished, to show the commands of God to this Bochoris Pharaoh, in order to deliver the Israelites out of bondage. Following this, Egypt was punished with strange plagues, because they held the prophecy of Moses in contempt....Gathelus...concerned by the present plague that was the terrible response of God, resolved TO LEAVE EGYPT FOR ANOTHER ABODE....A short time afterwards he provisioned a ship and SAILED OUT OF THE MOUTH OF THE RIVER NILE with his wife, friends and servants -- Greeks and Egyptians -- for fear of the plagues of God....After a dangerous voyage ON THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA, Gathelus...LANDED IN A PART OF SPAIN CALLED LUSITANIA, which was afterwards called PORTUGAL, that is, THE PORT OF GATHELE [GATHELUS]....

Gathelus' settlement of Spain is described next:

Soon afterwards he built a town UPON THE RIVER OF MUNDE, then called BRACHARA -- NOW BARSALE....[After a major battle with the Spaniards] they [the Spaniards] therefore asked Gathelus for a peace conference and quickly gave him...part of their land in the NORTH PART OF SPAIN, NOW CALLED GALYCIA, because they had a prophecy that said a strange people would sometime come to dwell there....with the close collaboration of the inhabitants, [he] built the TOWN OF BRYGANCE -- now called COMPESTELLA....Following this Gathelus NAMED ALL HIS SUBJECTS SCOTS, IN HONOR AND AFFECTION FOR HIS WIFE, WHO WAS CALLED SCOTA, with whom he had two sons -- HIBER AND HEMECUS....(Vol. I. William Blackwood & Sons, pp. 21-24).

Notice WHERE the Scots went from Spain --

Gathelus, seeing the number of his people increasing in Brigance, thought it more fitting to take his people to SOME OTHER PLACE where they may live in peace....Gathelus...assembled all the SHIPS he could find in a nearby port, in which he placed his sons HIBER and HEMECUS -- with sailors, warriors and all the other things necessary for the expedition. He commanded Hiber, as Admiral, to go to the ISLAND...with favorable winds, [they] arrived five days later....HIBER sacrificed to the honor of his God...then returned to Spain....Hemecus, who was left behind on the island by his brother, NAMED THE ISLAND HIBERNIA after Hiber -- that is to say, IRELAND. And since this island was inhabited by two peoples, the SCOTS and the old inhabitants....Hemecus governed both those peoples in great justice (pp. 24-27).

Eventually the SCOTS moved on once more and invaded the land TO THE NORTH OF ENGLAND! Notice!

The Scots historically are intruders -- THEY CAME FROM IRELAND AND BUILT THE KINGDOM OF DALRIADA on land which had once been Pictish, IN THE WEST OF SCOTLAND, IN ARGYLL and the ISLES. By the mid-sixth century they held a sizable kingdom lying north of the Britons of Strathclyde and stretching up beyond the Great Glen, and they named it AFTER THE DISTRICT IN ULSTER [Northern Ireland] FROM WHICH THEY TOOK THEIR ROYAL HOUSE....(A History of Scotland, by Rosalind Mitchison. Methuen & Co., Ltd. London, 1970, p. 6).

The oldest Irish chronicles reveal that Abbot Tighernac, a descendant of the SCOTIC KINGS OF ULSTER, led a colony of MILESIAN SCOTS from Antrim in Northern Ireland to the northernmost parts of England. After defeating the PICTS in a number of battles, they gained complete control of this area and also named it in honor of SCOTA -- SCOTLAND, "THE LAND OF THE SCOTS"!

The LAST MAJOR MOVEMENT of these descendants of ZARAH occurred in recent centuries when waves of emigration from SCOTLAND traveled across the Atlantic to NOVA SCOTIA in Canada! Once again, probably unconsciously, they named their new home in Canada after SCOTA -- the wife of Gathelus!

The kingdom DARDA founded in the DARDANELLES was eventually destroyed in a war with the Greeks.

Some of the survivors fled northward INTO EUROPE where their emblem, the RAMPANT RED LION, appears in the Arms of some of the nations, provinces and old families in the lands NEAR OR BORDERING THE NORTH SEA. Others fled westward across the Mediterranean to SPAIN and on to the BRITISH ISLES where, with some members of other Israel tribes, they were the first settlers in much of what is now called SCOTLAND. A larger group led by PRINCE BRUTUS, A DIRECT DESCENDANT OF DARDANUS AND ZARA, after living in Italy for a time, also moved on through Spain to BRITAIN, arriving here about the year 1100 B.C. Though Britain had a considerable population long before the arrival of these TROJANS, their coming and the setting up of this TRANSPLANTED TROJAN KINGDOM is the actual BEGINNING of the British nation (Symbols of Our Celto-Saxon Heritage, pp. 119-120).

Thus, all the groups (with the possible exception of CADMUS) that left Egypt during the time of the bondage, ended up in the British Isles! The ROYAL LINE OF JUDAH was firmly planted in the nations of Europe and across the Channel in IRELAND.

The present Queen of the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth of Nations -- Elizabeth II -- is directly descended from JUDAH through ZARAH and the ROYAL HOUSE OF THE SCOTS!

Hope of Israel Ministries -- Proclaiming the Good News of the Kingdom of YEHOVAH God!

Hope of Israel Ministries
P.O. Box 2186
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The Tribe of Dan are the Danes (Denmark) and the Irish


The Patriarch Dan was born from the handmaid of Rachel, Bilhah. Rachel was in envy of her sister Laban. She wanted so badly to bear a child for Jacob, that she gave him her handmaid to bear a son. That son was Dan. When he was born she said, "God hath judged me, and hath also heard my voice, and hath given me a son: therefore called she his name Dan." (Gen 30:6). This is the meaning of the word "Dan." (Strong's #1777 "judge").

In Jacob's prophecy for the "latter days" (Gen 49:1), Dan was prophesied to "judge his people, as one of the tribes of Israel" (v.16). Here is an interesting characteristic of Dan. The Pulpit Commentary says, "With a play upon his name, the firstborn son of Rachel"s handmaid, Bilhah, is described as one who should occupy an important place and exercise highly beneficial functions in the future commonwealth, enjoying independence and self-government as one of the tribes of Israel (Herder, and others), and performing the office of an administrator among the People not of his own tribe merely, but also of all Israel" (emphasis added). Dan was to be a judge in the other tribes of Israel, yet still be his own separate nation.

Jacob continues, "Dan shall be a serpent by the way, an adder in the path, that biteth the horse heels, so that his rider shall fall backward." (v.17).  The meaning of this prophecy is that he would leave a trail wherever he would go. The evidence of this is clear. Dan's migrations as revealed in the Bible, shows them naming everything after their father "Dan," see Joshua 19:47; Judges 18:12, 27-29.

Dan had but one son Hushim (Gen 46:26), "These are the sons of Dan after their families: of Shuham, the family of the Shuhamites. These are the families of Dan after their families.

"All the families of the Shuhamites, according to those that were numbered of them, were threescore and four thousand and four hundred." (Num 26:43). However, "though this family no doubt branched out into several smaller families, which are not named here, simply because this list contains only the leading families into which the tribes were divided." (K&D Commentary). We see evidence of this in the Bible, like "Aholiab, the son of Ahisamach," (Ex 31:6; 35:34; 38:23). "Shelomith, the daughter of Dibri, of the tribe of Dan:" (Lev 24:11). "Ahiezer the son of Ammishaddai" (Num 1:12; 2:25; 7:66; 10:25). "Ammiel the son of Gemalli." (Num 13:12). "Bukki the son of Jogli." (Num 34:22), and "Azareel the son of Jeroham" (1 Chron 27:22). These were the smaller families of Dan via Shuham/Hushim. So the sub-tribes of Dan are, Shuham, Ahisamach, Dibri, Ammishaddai, Gemalli, Jogli, Jeroham.

The Promised Land

When the 12 tribes of Israel actually took possession of the promised land, the tribe of Dan was allotted its tribal inheritance in the South Western area of that land.. Dan was situated west-Northwest of Judah; Dan's territory extended westward to the Mediterranean Sea, and included the busy port of Joppa, next to modern Tel-Aviv (Joshua 19:40-48).

Now the Danites migrated Northwards to Laish, and called the city Dan, after their father, see Judges 18. The northern city Laish, now called Dan, by the tribe of Dan, was about thirty miles inland from the ancient busy port of Tyre. Thus the ancient Danites must of had frequent contacts with the people of Tyre, which was in fact occupied by their brethren the tribe of Asher, see Joshua 19:29. So since their Israelite brothers occupied the land of Tyre, they had access to Tyre at anytime. In 2 Chronicles 2:14 we see Danites dwelling the city of Tyre. These people of Tyre were a people of sea trade and navigation, see Ezekiel 27. These people built Tyre and Sidon on the Lebanese coast.

In the 1200's B.C., before Dan went to Laish, in a song commemorating a great Israelite victory, the Judge Deborah lamented that during the battle, the "men of Gilead stayed beyond the Jordan [River], and [asked] why DAN REMAINED IN SHIPS?" (Judges 5:17). The Danites were so preoccupied with the Sea and sea trade that they chose to remain in their ships than help their brethren. So even before the time they went to Laish, the Danites were already engaged in sea-faring activities off of Joppa. Where were these Danites sailing to?

In Egypt, many of the Israelites, the Royal Line of Zarah-Judah, Calchol, and Darda left Egypt and sailed into Greece. (1 Chronicles 2:6). (Read our booklet The Throne of David for more details). The Danites knew that these Israelites were dwelling in Greece, and therefore there is ample evidence that the Danites headed towards Greece as well.  The historian C.W. Muller noted that, “Hecataeus [of Abdera, Greek historian, 4th century B.C.]... tells us that the Egyptians, formerly being troubled by calamities [the Ten Plagues at the time of the Exodus] in order that the divine wrath might be averted, expelled all the [Israelite] aliens gathered together in Egypt.

Of these, some, under their leaders Danuss and Cadmus, migrated into Greece; others into other regions, the greater part into Syria [Canaan]. Their leader is said to have been Moses, a man renowned for wisdom and courage, founder and legislator of the state” (Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum, vol. 2, p. 385).

A book entitled Hellenosemitica (1965) goes to great lengths to show that the Greek “Hellenes” and the Israelite “Semites” were closely related. This book mentions two branches of the Danites (“Danunians” and “Danaans”), and shows that these people once occupied the island of Cyprus. It also mentions the Cyprian “tradition of the Danaan migration from the eastern Mediterranean” (pp. 14, 79). That was the very same area which was assigned to the tribe of Dan when Joshua led the 12 tribes of Israel into the Promised Land!

Professor Allen H. Jones (Bronze Age Civilization—The Philistines and the Danites). He traces the Danaans, a name that the famed Greek poet Homer often used for all Greeks, back to the Israelite tribe of Dan (“Danaans and Danites—Were the Hebrews Greek?,” Biblical Archaeology Review, June 1976).

In Ezekiel 27, we see Dan with Javan (Greece) having trade with Tyre, "Dan also and Javan going to and fro occupied in thy fairs: bright iron, cassia, and calamus, were in thy market. (v19). It is common knowledge among biblical historians that “Javan was regarded as the representative of the Greek race” (Smith’s Bible Dictionary).

The Mighty Hercules

The legend of Hercules has been told from ancient times till our day today. Many have not made the connection between Hercules and Samson. Yet the similarities between the two are obvious. Samson was a Judge in Israel, and was of the tribe of Dan! The Danites when travelling to Greece and having still commerce and trade with Tyre, who were of the tribe of Asher, still communicating with the Danites of the Promised Land knew and heard about Samson, their Judge and all his exploits. Coming back to Greece, the stories of Samson were told.  Interestingly enough, the "Encyclopedia of the Classical World," states, " The tales of his heroic deeds lend to the supposition that Hercules was originally an historic figure."  Of course that is Samson.

Both Hercules and Samson were incredibly strong, both killed a lion with their bare hands. Both were virtually invincible. One important event in Hercules' life involved his escaping from the clutches of a symbolic woman, who is called "Pleasure." This corresponds directly to the troubles Samson got himself involved in with the harlots of Canaan.

In the book, "God's Heroes and Men of Ancient Greece " by W.H.D. Rouse writes about Hercules slaying of the lion: "Heracles threw down his bow and arrows and leapt upon the lion's back... while he put his hands round the lion's neck ...gripped the lion's throat with his two hands, and bending him backwards, throttled him. There lay the lion dead on the ground." (p. 59). In our Bible, Judges 13:6 says that Samson actually tore the lion in two, but the ancient historian Flavius Josephus in his "Antiquities of the Jews" also tells us that Samson first strangled the lion, which is exactly as Hercules is said to have done. I don't even know if there ever were any lions in Greece. The Biblical Archaeologist Magazine somewhat tersely comments, "lions, we may remark are not frequent in Greece." (59:1, p.17). In fact, the Greek myths explain this one away as the offspring of a monster! But whether there were lions in Greece is not important; Hercules needed to find one anyway. Why? Simply because the Biblical Samson inspired the Greek legend called Hercules, and provided the basis for his life!

Why is he called "Hercules"? The word Hercules in Greek is, "Heracles," which is virtually identical with the Hebrew plural word for traders, "Heraclim," and Heracles is said to have come from "Argos," himself! The Greek myths tell that the people of Argos are from the Danioi were descended from a patriarch "Danaos" who was the son of "Bela." In the Bible, the Hebrew patriarch Dan was the son of the concubine "Bilhah" (Genesis 30:3-6).

Testimony of Josephus, the Jewish Historian

Jewish Historian Josephus shows that the Lacedemonian (Spartans of Greece) were actually Israelites, and therefore closely related to the Jews. Josephus relates an incredible letter from Sparta to Judah: "Jonathan the high priest of the Jewish nation . . . to the ephori and senate and the people of the Lacedemonians, send greeting:

"When in former times an epistle was brought to Onias, who was then our high priest . . . we have discovered that both the Jews and the Lacedemonians are of ONE STOCK, and are derived from the KINDRED OF ABRAHAM...concerning the KINDRED THAT WAS BETWEEN US AND YOU, a copy of which is here subjoined, we both joyfully received the epistle . . . because we were well satisfied about it from the SACRED WRITINGS, yet did not we think fit, first to begin the claim of this RELATION TO YOU, the glory which is now given us by you. It is a long time since this relation of ours to you hath been renewed, and when we, upon holy and festival days offer sacrifices to God, we pray to Him for your preservation and victory . . . . You will, therefore, do well yourselves to write to us, and send us an account of what you stand in need of from us, since we are in all things disposed to act according to your desires...This letter is foursquare: and the seal is an eagle, with a dragon [snake or serpent] in its claws" (Antiquities of the Jews, bk 12 chapter 4 sec 10; XIII, 5, 8, emphasis added).

The Lacedemonians received the Jewish ambassadors carrying the letter kindly and made a decree of friendship and mutual assistance with the Jews, and then sent the letter to their Lacedemonian kinsmen.

Another Jewish High Priest, Jonathan—somewhat later than Onias—wrote the Spartans “concerning the kindred that was between US and YOU... because we were well satisfied about it from the sacred writings.... It is a long time since this relation of ours to you hath been renewed, and when we, upon holy and festival days, offer sacrifices to God, we pray to Him for your preservation and victory” (Josephus, bk. 13, chap. 5, sec. 1, p. 318).

In Ancient Mythology, Bryant relates that Stephanus Byzantium shows that Alexander Polyhistor and Claudius Jolaus also speak of a direct relationship or kinship between the Spartan Greeks and the people of Judaea (vol.5, p.51-52, 60).

The Spartans we have identified as the tribe of Simeon who were prophesied to be scattered all over Israel. Living under the realm of the Grecian Danites, their tribal standard would of been secondary to the main tribal standard of Greece which is Dan's tribal standard.

The Tribal Flag of Dan

The Seal Josephus mentions is revealing because the tribal emblem or ensign, see Numbers 2:2 of the people of Dan included the image of a "snake," see article "Flag," The Jewish Encyclopedia, p.405. This symbolism is derived from what Jacob had foretold: "Dan shall be a serpent by the way, an adder [viper] by the path..." (Gen 49:17). Thus the emblem traditionally associated with Dan is an "adder biting horses heels" (Thomas Fuller, Pisgah Sight of Palestine). However Aben Ezra, a learned Jewish scholar of the 1600's said that the emblem of Dan was an "eagle with a dragon in its claws''' (Dr. Mortz Lewin, Waren die Zehn Stamme Israels zu suchen?, p.48; Epshtein, Abraham, Eldad Ha Dani-2).

The Danites Leave Greece for Ireland

"The Danites ruled about two centuries until the arrival of the Milesians, which took place, 1000 years before the Christian era.' Thus the date of the arrival of the FIRST COLONY OF DANAANS WOULD BE 1200 B.C., or 85 years after Deborah and Barak's victory, when we are told Dan had ships...The early connection with Greece, Phoenician and Egypt is constantly alluded throughout the Chronicles [of Ireland] and records of the Irish Dannans" (Dan Pioneer of Israel, pp.30-31, emphasis added). This first batch of Danites that went to Ireland were called the "Tuatha de Danaan." The word tuath simply means “tribe”—“Tuath... Irish history... A‘TRIBE’ or ‘people’ in Ireland” (New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, vol. 10, pt. 1, p. 441).

The Milesians were a group of people who: "In old manuscripts of Ireland, the Milesians and the Danaans were of the same race. They came in batches from Greece and Phoenicia" (Dan, The Pioneer of Israel, J.C. Gawler, p.30). The was the second group of Danites to migrate from Greece to Ireland. It was this group of Danaans who migrated to Ireland via Spain and Greece with the Royal family of David, and set up the throne of David at Tara in the days of Jeremiah (read our booklet The Throne of David in Prophecy).

The Third Group of Danites

Now the remaining Danites migrated North 30 miles away from Tyre. These Danites that migrated North to Laish. There they named the city "Dan." (Judges 18:29).

Moses had prophesied, “Dan is a lion’s whelp; he shall leap from Bashan” (Deut. 33:22). Bashan was the location of the inland Danites! Therefore, a great many of them must have “leapt” from inland Palestine—as probably the majority would later, at the time of the Assyrian invasions of Israel.

In the invasions of Israel by the Assyrians, they took, "In the days of Pekah king of Israel came Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria, and took Ijon, and Abel-beth-maachah, and Janoah, and Kedesh, and Hazor, and Gilead, and Galilee, all the land of Naphtali, and carried them captive to Assyria." (2 Kings 15:29). This is the same list of cities found in 1 Kings 15:20: "So Ben-hadad hearkened unto king Asa, and sent the captains of the hosts which he had against the cities of Israel, and smote Ijon, and Dan, and Abel-beth-maachah, and all Cinneroth, with all the land of Naphtali." Notice that Dan is not mentioned during the time of the Assyrian invasion. Did they "leap" out of Palestine to avoid the invasion altogether? Historical evidence suggests that the inland Danites, "migrated northward into the Black Sea region..." (Collins, LTTF, p.412). One can understand the situation of the Danites. With many of their people gone to Greece and Ireland, the tribe must of been depleted. With the soon coming invasion of Assyrians, they must of thought that if we don't get out of the land, there will be none of us left, therefore avoided (leaped) out of the land escaping the invasion altogether.

In the Black Sea region, it's interesting, keeping with the tradition of naming places names after Dan their father. The rivers emptying into the Black Sea region used to be named Ister, Tyras, the Borysthenes and Tanais. After they arrived there, the names of the rivers were changed to Danube, the Dnestr, and the Don (Collier's Encyclopedia vol.17 p.434).

Dan -- A Serpent's Trail

Jacob prophesied that Dan would be a "Serpent by the way, an adder by the path," (Gen 9:16-17) meaning that he would leave a trail wherever he would go. When the Danites migrated to Ireland, they left a trail of names throughout Europe. In Hebrew there are no vowels, so the name Dan is written DN, or its Hebrew equivalent. Thus words like Dan, Din, Don, Dun, Den, or Dn, correspond to the name of Dan.

Professor Totten declares:  "There is no grander theme upon the scrolls of history than the story of this struggle of the Anglo-Saxons westward. The very streams of Europe mark their resting places, and in the root of nearly all their ancient names (Dan, or Don) recall the sacred stream Jordan river of rest-- from whose whose hands, so far away, as exiles, they set out. It was either the little colony of Dan, obeying its tribal proclivity for naming everything it captured (Jud.18:1-29) after their father, or else the mere survival of a word and custom; but, none the less, it serves to TRACE these wanderers LIKE A TRAIL. Hence the Dan-ube, the Dan-ieper, the Dan-iester, the Dan-au, the Daci and Davi, the Dan, the Don, the U-Don, the Eri-don, and the THOUSAND OTHER Dans and Dons of ancient and early geography, down to the Danes in Dan-emerke, or 'Dan's last resting place'" (quoted in Allen, Judah's Sceptre and Joseph's Birthright, p.263-64).

Denmark, the name of the modern country in Europe north of Germany, means, literally, "Dan's mark." It's people are called "Danes." In fact, because at one time Denmark ruled all the surrounding region, the whole region took its name from them the ScanDINavian peninsula! Clearly, here are remnants of the people of DAN, who migrated westward overland from the Caucasus to their present location in northern Europe! “According to late Danish tradition... Jutland [the mainland of Denmark] was acquired by DAN, the... ancestor of the DANES” from whom their name derives (“Denmark,” Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th ed., vol.8). The Danes claim the descend from "Dan the Great" meaning Dan of Israel (Saxo Grammaticus; "The First Nine Books of Saxo Grammaticus of the Danish History).

The third batch of Danites left a trail to their final homeland Denmark. As you can see the Serpent's head (Denmark) is the final destination of this tribe.

In Ireland, today, we find their customary evidence -- their place names -- in abundance. Such names as Dans-Lough, Dan-Sower, Dan-Monism, Dun-dalke, Dun-drum, Don-egal Bay, Don-egal City, Dun-glow and Lon-don-derry, as well as Din-gle, Dun-garven and Duns-more, which means "MORE DANS." It should be plain that the ancient Danites settled in Ireland, and most of them dwell in that land, today (It is certainly no coincidence that the Irish Gaelic word Dun or Dunn means “Judge,” just as Dan does in Hebrew!).


The Tribe of Dan

Present Day Identifications

<< And the sons of Dan; Hushim>> Genesis 46; 23.  "Hushim" was also known as "Shuham".
<< These are the sons of Dan after their families: of Shuham, the family of the Shuhami. These are the families of Dan after their families>> Numbers 26; 42.


Groups derived from Dan were historically somehow linked with the Gothic forces that descended mainly from Gad. Danites were also found together with the Nephtalites of Naphtali .


In Biblical Times the Tribe of Dan had been divided into  three (or more) different sections. One section had been in the northern Galilee (Joshua 19; 42) and neighbored Gad. Later part of this section moved with other Israelites to Scythia. The Damnae in Serica (east of Scythia), were also called "Dingling" and were linked to the "DANGALAI" whose name means "DAN-OF-GALILEE". They had been neighbors of the Goths (from Gad) of Gadrosia in Ancient Eastern Iran. The DAMNAE of Scythian Serica were named similarly to the DAMNONII of Scotland (who lived besides the northern River DON of Scotland) and the DAMNONES of DANNONIA which was the name given to Devon and Cornwall. DANNONIA in Britain was named after the Tribe of DAN. The Tribe of Dan was recalled in the Children of DON in Welsh legend and the Tribe of DANA ("Tuatha de Danaan:) who came to the British Isles (according to Irish tradition) from the Land of Israel via Greece and Scandinavia. The area Damnonia in southern Britain as well as being alternatively called Dannonia was also known as  "Defenia". The name "DEFENIA" is similar to that of DAPHNIA which was the former place of DAN in the Galilee in the Land of Northern Israel.  "Daphne" (i.e. "Defenia") is also a name associated by the Talmud with the Lost Ten Tribes.

In Scotland the Damnonii (of Dan) adjoined the Gadeni probably of Gad.  Somewhat to the south (in Northern England) according to Ptolemy was the city of Danum which area was later to be occupied by Danes from Denmark. In this case we see the possibility of a group of Celtic culture descended from Dan who gave their name to the city of Danum being followed by Scandinavians who were also descended from Dan and settling in the same area. We have come across similar phenomenon several times in this study.



The Danes and the Norwegians formed the Vikings who invaded England. The Danes settled in the northeast of England and the Norwegians in the northwest. They also conquered and settled in Ireland and in parts of Scotland.

Historians' reviews of the historical record have not been able to determine why the Vikings built settlements in England. It was no small feat to build new communities and homes without a Home Advisor to consult so far away from the homeland. It is difficult to imagine today since relocating your family is relatively easy with Home Advisor Reviews of builders and most homes have been examined by a Home Advisor for safety.


Danes from the Israelite Tribe of Dan invaded Denmark at about the same time as the Naphtali moved in large numbers into Norway. The Tribe of Dan was represented by a snake or by a lion. Other accepted symbols of Dan were a pair of scales, an eagle, and a dragon. Many members of Dan settled in Denmark, in Ireland, in Wales, England, and the U.S.A. where 40-50 million people have Irish ancestry. The symbol of a snake was once worshipped in Ireland; a lion represents Denmark and England, Wales has a dragon on its flag, and the U.S.A. has an eagle.


The Son of DAN, "Hushim" (Genesis 46;23) was also called Shuham (Numbers 26;42). Hesse in north Germany represented Hushim. Shuham may be found in the "Suehani" who, according to Jordanes, were in Sweden like the Danes themselves are considered to have been.


The Coat of Arms of Iceland includes: A dragon, which was one of the symbols of Dan. A vulture, which in Hebrew is given the same name as eagle, i.e. "Nesher", and a "nesher" was another one of the symbols of Dan.  A bull which is a symbol of Joseph; a Giant, which figure may represent DAN and Samson the national hero of DAN. Iceland historically has been associated with Norway and Denmark in which countries (especially Denmark) the Tribe of Dan made a significant contribution.


DAN: Don, Danaster, Danaper, Danube.
Dangalai (Iran),
Danava (a Scythian Tribe),
Dana (from Lebanon-Israel to Ireland).
Don (Wales,)
Damnones (Scythia, Scotland, south-west Britain, also known as "Dannonia"
Dani (Danes of Denmark).


Ireland has a harp on its Coat of Arms. The harp is traditionally associated with King David of Judah and Israel.


Samson and the Jutes

Judah is the major tribe amongst the Jews. The Jews on the whole were not exiled by the Assyrians but very many were, as evidenced by inscriptions of Sennacherib, Biblical hints, and Midrashic opinion. In addition enclaves of Jews from Judah existed amongst the northern Ten Tribes who were taken away and at other times bodies of exiled Judaeans may have merged with the Lost Tribes as autonomous groups.

In the Land of Israel the Tribe of Dan in the south bordered Ephraim, Benjamin, and Judah. The Danes had another section of their tribe in the northern Galilee surrounded by Asher, Naphtali, Gad, and the half-tribe of Menasseh. That portion of Menasseh adjoining Dan in the North on its eastern side was dominated by Gilead and within Gilead (who was the son of Machir son of Menasseh) was a band from JUDAH headed by YAIR ("Jair" in 1-Chronicles 2; 18-23). These Judaeans in Gilead of Machir are believed to have bordered Dan and to be those named "Judah upon Jordan toward the sunrising" in the Book of Joshua (19;34). Thus, Dan and Judah were neighbors in north and south Israel. In Jewish tradition Judah and Dan are often juxtapositioned. Samson the superman hero came from the Tribe of Dan but his mother was from Judah. Samson, in some respects, was considered a forerunner of the Messiah who will come from Judah but his mother, according to the Midrash (Gen. Rab. 49; 9) will be of the Tribe of Dan. A lion represented both Judah and Dan, though Dan has additional symbols such as the snake and dragon.

In Cilicia (southeast Turkey) there existed from ancient times an enclave of people named "Dananu" who were from Dan of Israel. The entity of the Dananu was known as "Smal" and as YADI and eventually was ruled directly from JUDAH in the south. Biblical evidence and the said toponomy suggest that Judaeans had adjoined their Danite brothers in YADI of Cilicia. YADI was later called Yutae both names being forms of Judah. After the Ten Tribes had been exiled, the Yaati (Utii) were to be found in Carmania (southwest Iran) bordering the Dangalae whose name implies "Dan-of-the Galilee". Similarly in Sogdiana east of the Caspian Sea the IATII (i.e. Yati of Judah) were recorded by Ptolemy neighboring the Augali (called "Aegli" by Herodotus) from whom descended the Angles. They were in Saka territory and the Saka (or SAXE as they were known) became the Saxons. Angles, Saxons, and Jutes were together in the invasion of England. A Danish tradition relates that the DANES came from DAN of Israel and the JUTES (of Jutland in Denmark) from Judah. In Northern European dialects and in Latin, variations on the names JUTE (of Denmark) and JUDAEAN (Jew from Judah) are interchangeable.

In Europe, a group called the "Saxons Euthiones" were recalled  (in about 600 c.e.) as lying between Saxons and Danes in the north. These are believed to have been a section of Jutes in the region of Frisia in Holland. This form of the name (i.e. "Euthiones" for Jutes) seems to have occurred in the version of "Euthymachos" who together with figures named "Toxamis" and "Kimerios" were depicted on an ancient vase discovered in Italy. The said illustration is that of Scythians who at an early age began their incursions into Europe. The name "Kimmerios" means Cimmerian, and TOXAMIS is a variation of Toxaris who was a Scythian hero in Classical Literature. Later, the region of Holland (where Pytheas reported the presence of Scyths from ca.300 b.c.e.) was to be known as Toxandria and a Tribe of Belgae was to be named TOXANDRI.

Today Dan is dominant in Denmark, important in  Ireland and Wales, and is also present amongst the population of the USA.


Dan - the serpent's trail

The question naturally arises, "How did the prince, the highest branch of the
cedar of Lebanon, get to the isles of the sea?" To get to the bottom of that which is
involved in the reply to this question we will need to understand some of the
characteristics, and acquaint ourselves with some of the prophecies, which pertain
to the tribe of Dan.
The prophecies which dying Jacob gave concerning what the posterity of each
of his sons was to become in the last days, is recorded in the forty-ninth chapter of
Genesis. In the seventeenth verse is a part of the prophecy concerning the tribe of
Dan, the first clause of which, according to the King James' translation, reads as
follows: "Dan shall be a serpent by the way." But a better translation is as follows:
"Dan shall be a serpent's trail." A few points in the history of the children of Dan will
show us how they became a serpent's trail.
In the division of the land by lot, a narrow strip of seacoast country, west of
Ephraim and Benjamin, fell to Dan. But this country soon became too small for the
tribe, as we are told in the following: "The coast of the children of Dan went out too
little for them; therefore the children of Dan went up to fight against Leshem, and
took it, and smote it with the edge of the sword, and possessed it, and dwelt therein,
and called Leshem, Dan, after the name of Dan, their father," (Joshua 19:47).
Concerning the Danites, we have also the following: "And there went from thence
of the family of the Danites, out of Zorab and out of Eshtaol, six hundred men
appointed with weapons of war. And they went up, and pitched in Kirjathjearim, in
Judah; wherefore they called that place Mahaneh-dan unto this day," (Judges 18:11-
Again we are told concerning this same company of six hundred that they came
to Laish, "A people that were at quiet and secure; and they smote them with the
edge of the sword, and burnt the city with fire.... And they built a city and dwelt
therein. And they called the name of the city DAN, after the name of Dan, their
father, who was born unto Israel; howbeit the name of the city was Laish at the first,"
(Judges 18:29).
A company of Danites went to Leshem, and it became Dan. A company of
Danites went to Kirjathjearim, and it became Mahaneh-Dan. They went on to Laish,
and it ceased to exist, but they left their trail, i.e., DAN, the name of their father, and
thus their trail can be traced, not only from Dan to Beer-Sheba, but to the islands of
the sea both by land and by water, for Dan had an inland country and a coast
country. The inland company of Danites went west with the Overland Column, and
the coast company went by water, for "Dan abode in his ships."
Thus we have the prophecy concerning the ships of Tarshish, i.e., the ends of the
world: "Be still (margin: silent) ye inhabitants of the isles; thou whom the merchants
of Zidon, that pass over the sea, have replenished," (Isa. 23:2). Also, in the sixth
verse, is the following: "Pass ye over to Tarshish: howl, ye inhabitants of the isle. Is
this your joyous city [Tyre] whose antiquity is of ancient days? Her own feet [means
of travel] shall carry her afar off to sojourn."
In these scriptures we are informed that the isles of the sea were replenished by
the ships whose seaports were Tyre and Zidon, which were ports of Palestine. Also
the people by whom the islands were replenished, or peopled, are commanded to
keep silent; just as this same prophet, in another place, commands Israel in the
island to keep silent until they should renew their strength.
When Shalmanesar descended upon Israel, he did not disturb those portions of
the tribes of Dan and Simeon, which were dwelling on the southwest coast of
Palestine, for the kingdom of Judah was then at peace with Assyria and lay between
them and Samaria. However, both Dan and Simeon had large colonies in the
interior, Dan in the north (Judges 18) and Simeon in the east, at Mount Sier, the
region formerly occupied by the Amelekites (I Chron. 4:42-43). These portions of
Dan and Simeon went with the rest of Samaria-Israel into Assyria, and with them
passed out through the Caucasian Pass. The territory into and through which the
ten tribes made their escape was just north of the Caucasus, which in ancient geography,
as may be seen by consulting ancient maps, was known as the territory of the
Sarmatians, while the pass, or gate, was sometimes called "The Sarmatian Gate."
Not a few have shown, and upon good grounds, that the name of Sarmatia was
derived from Samaria, the earlier home of these wandering people, whose general
name among themselves was Scoloti, but whom the Greeks called Scythians, or
Nomades. From that word Scoloti we have the more modern name Scoti, and the
still more modern Scots, which, of course, mean the same as the Greek, Scythia
and Nomades, i.e., wanderers.
But this is only one of the many names by which these wanderers, or Scots, may
be traced, for in their western march across the European continent, which was
necessarily slow, Ephraim did obey the prophetic injunction, "Set thee up
waymarks," (Jer. 31:21). And just here we must keep in mind the fact that in the
ancient Hebrew there are no written vowels, and that in the word Dan there are only
two letters used which are equivalent to the English D and N. Hence it makes no
difference if the word is Dan, Don, Dun, Din or Den, it is equal to the Hebrew D-n, in
which the speaker sounds the vowel according to characteristics of his own dialect.
On the west side of the Black Sea, there is, according to ancient geography, a
region which was called "Moesia," signifying the land of the Moses-ites, and the
people of which were called Moesi, or Mosesites. These people had such great
reverence for a person whom they called Zal-moxis, whom Herodotus, the father of
history, supposed to be their God, and concerning whom he concludes his account
as follows: “Zalmoxis must have lived many years before Pythagoras; whether
therefore he was a man ot a deity of the Getae, enough has been said of him." T. R.
Howlett says, "Zalmoxis, whom Herodotus supposed them to worship as a god, is
without doubt Moses; Zal signifying "chief," or "leader," while Moxis and Aloses are
but the Greek for the Hebrew Mosie, which is also rendered Moses in our tongue.
Moesia was bounded on the south by Mace-Don-ia and the Dar-DAN-ells, and
on the north by the river DAN-ube. In the territory of Sarmatia, which in some maps
is Scythia, in others Gomer, there are the rivers D-n-iper, D-n-ister, and the DON.
The fact that the Dnieper and the Dniester are written without a vowel between the D
and the N is quite as significant as the fact that the Don has one.
Professor Totten says: "There is no grander theme upon the scrolls of history
than the story of this struggle of the Anglo-Saxons westward. The very streams of
Europe mark their resting-places, and in the root of nearly all their ancient names
(Dan, or Don) recall the sacred stream, Jor-dan -- river of rest -- from whose banks,
so far away, as exiles, they set out. It was either the little colony of Dan, obeying its
tribal proclivity for naming everything it captured (Jud. 18:1-12-29) after their father,
or else the mere survival of a word and custom; but, none the less, it serves to trace
these wanderers like a trail. Hence the Dan-ube, the Dan-ieper, the Dan-iester, the
Dan-au, the Dan-inn. the Dan-aster, the Dan-dan, the Dan-ez, the Daci and Davi,
the Dan, the Don, the U-don the Eri-don, and the thousand other dans and dons of
ancient and early geography, down to the Danes in Dan-emerke, or "Dan's last
resting place." To this we would add, that, during all these years of blindness
concerning the birthright tribes, the people of Den-mark have been called DAN-es,
and that the people in contiguous countries, while having different local names, have
been called by the same generic name, i.e., Scan-DIN-navia. Also that Denmark,
the modern form of Danemerke, means "Dan's mark," that too, to the people of the
lost birthright. The very people who have hunted most for the way-marks which God
told them to set up.
All that Scandinavian country, and much more, once belonged to Denmark,
which is now reduced to a comparatively small region. Yet we believe that little
kingdom will stand until the end of this age. When dying Jacob called his sons
together about him that he might tell them what their posterity should become in the
last days, he began his prophecy concerning Dan as follows: "Dan shall judge his
people as one of the tribes of Israel." Then, immediately following, is the
expression, "Dan shall be a serpent by the way." (Isaac Leeser's translation.)
In this prophecy Jacob does not say, as many seem to think, that Dan in the last
days shall become the ruler of the other tribes of Israel; for the Eternal One has said,
"Judah is my law giver." But what Jacob does say is, that Dan as one of the tribes
of Israel shall render a verdict, or judge his people Israel. How? Because he shall,
like a serpent, leave his mark or trail, that Israel may find it in the last days, and that
they may say, "There is one of the lost tribes of Israel." When this verdict has been
rendered, then Dan will have judged his people Israel. It may be that the word Israel,
as used in the prophecy above, is used in its broadest sense, and includes both the
house of Israel and the house of Judah. We are inclined to this opinion, for reasons
which follow:
When Dan was born, Rachel said: "God hath judged me, and bath also heard
my voice, and bath given me a son; therefore she called his name Dan." The word in
Hebrew means "Judge," and Daniel means "The judge of God." Thus Dan "judge,"
and El "God," hence Daniel, the judge of God. Thus Jacob in his last day's prophecy
concerning the tribe of Dan plays on their tribal name, and says the judge shall
judge, or, in other words, that Dan shall Dan. What? Dan shall Dan! Yes; and he
certainly has Dan-ed, and Dan-ed, and Dan-ed, and kept on Dan-ing until he has
given abundant evidence to his people that he is one of the tribes of Israel, for they
now see the mark of his trail, i.e., DAN.
It is now more than two hundred and fifty years since a Danish peasant, who,
with his daughter, was following their plow in their native country. when the daughter's
plow turned up a bright and glittering something, which upon examination
proved to be a golden trumpet. It was taken to the authorities, and, beyond all doubt,
identified as one of the SEVEN Golden Trumpets used in the altar service of the
temple at Jerusalem. This trumpet, which is now in the National Museum at
Copenhagen, is ornamented with a lily and pomegranate the lily being the national
flower of Egypt, and the pomegranate that of Palestine -- thus showing the half
Egyptian and half Israelitish origin of the birthright nation of which the tribe of Dan
was a part.
Just before Moses died, he, like Jacob, gave prophecies concerning each tribe
in Israel, and of Dan he said: "Dan is a lion's whelp; he shall leap from Bashan."
Bashan was on Palestinean territory, hence Dan is to leap from that country, but it is
left for history to tell where that leap landed him. And it is a well-authenticated fact
that, after the coast colonies of Dan and Simeon knew that their king and their
brethren were defeated, then they embarked in their ships and fled to the islands of
the sea which are to the northwest of Europe. For the people who are known by all
historians to have been the first settlers of Ireland are called "Tuatha de Danaans,"
which literally means "The tribe of Dan." These Danaans of Ireland correspond to
the Danaoi of the Greeks, and Latin Danas, and the Hebrew Dan.
The Lord, by the mouth of the Psalmist, declares that "He breaketh [or driveth]
the ships of Tarshish with an east wind." As these Si-don-ians from the port of Sidon
are driven, like Ephraim, WEST by an east wind, they not only leave their trail
along the shores of the Mediterranean in Dens, Dins and Dons, but on the Peninsula
of Spain. Just before passing out through the strait into the great waters they left a
mark that remains unto this day, i.e., Me-din-a Sidon-ia.
That Dan's leap landed him in Ireland is evident, for in that island we find to this
day Dans-Lough, Dan-Sower, Dan-Monism, Dun-dalke, Dun-drum, Don-egal Bay
and Don-e-gal City, with Dun-glow and Lon-don-derry just north of them. But there
is also Din-gle, Dun-garven and Duns-more, which means "More Dan's." And,
really, there are so many more that we have no space for them, except to mention
Dangan Castle, where the Duke of Wellington was born, and to say that Dunn in the
Irish language means just what Dan means in the Hebrew, i.e., a judge.
It is remarkable that there is not only a river Don in Scotland, but also a river
Doon, and that there is also a river Don in England. Also that these countries are as
full of Dans, Dons and Duns as Ireland, for in them are not only such names as
Dundee, Dunkirk, Danbar, Dunraven, and many others, but the name of DAN, the
son of Jacob, son of Isaac, son of Abraham, lies buried in the name of their capital
cities, i.e., E-DAN-burgh and Lon-don. Surely Dan hath Dan-ed, or judged among
his people, and thus fulfilled the sure word of prophecy.
We are told that, in the days of Solomon, "Every three years came the ships of
Tarshish." Eight hundred and sixty years before Christ we are told that Jonah went
to Joppa, a seaport within the borders of Dan, and found a ship going to Tarshish,
and that he took passage in it to go to Tarshish from the presence of the Lord. Just
how long the ships of Palestinean seaports had been replenishing, or colonizing, the
isles, even before the Assyrian captivity of the ten tribes, is not known, but historians
place the time as early as 900 B. C. This gives abundant time for some prince of the
Zarah branch of Judah's family to have preceded Israel to the isles, and to have had
a large colony even before the Birthright went to Assyria, an event which did not
occur until 721 B. C. That one of those princes did precede Israel to the isles of the
sea is evident; first, because God says he did, and, second, because it is recorded
in the Milesian records of Ireland that the prince Herremon, to whom Tea Tephi was
married, was a prince of the "Tuatha de Daanans."
Mark this! If that prince was a prince of the tribe of Dan -- and authentic history
declares he was -- then he was a prince of the family of Judah, for there can be no
Prince of Dan other than a prince of the royal family of HIS RACE, and that family
has but one fountain head, i.e., Judah, the fourth son of Jacob and Leah, to whom
pertains the sceptre blessing.
But this rule seems to have worked both ways, for the family ensign of Judah is a
lion, and since one of his whelps (young lion) went to the northwest isles with Dan,
as a matter of course the ensign of his family, the royal family, went with him. Thus it
became associated with the "Tuatha de Daanans," the tribe of Dan, and in time
found its way into their national seal. See the accompanying cut.
The figure on this seal is described as "A Lion's Whelp with a Serpent's Tail."
The largest of these represent Denmark, and the other two Norway and Sweden,
which were at that time under the dominion of Denmark.


Arianrhod - Tribe of Dan

Arianrhod - Stećak/Illyrians - Arianrhod

Arianrhod (Welsh pronunciation: [arˈjanr̥ɔd]) is a figure in Welsh mythology who plays her most important role in the Fourth Branch of the Mabinogi. She is the daughter of Dôn and the sister of Gwydion and Gilfaethwy; the Welsh Triads give her father as Beli Mawr. In the Mabinogi her uncle Math ap Mathonwy is the King of Gwynedd, and during the course of the story she gives birth to two sons, Dylan ail Don and Lleu Llaw Gyffes, through magical means.

Dôn (Welsh pronunciation: [ˈdoːn]) is an ancestor figure in Welsh legend and literature. She is typically given as the mother of a group known as the "Children of Dôn", including Gwydion, Arianrhod, and Gilfaethwy, among many others. However, antiquarians of the early modern era generally considered Dôn a male figure.


Tuatha de Danaan - Tribe of Dan

Arianrhod - Tuatha de Danaan

Postoji teorija da Irci potječu od jednog od deset izgubljenih plemena Izraela, iz plemena Danova.

Zagovornici ove teorije u povijesnim esejima i drugdje ukazuju na paralele između irske i drevne hebrejske kulture. Na primjer, da su harfe, simbol Irske, koje također igraju ulogu i u židovskoj povijesti, kao glazbeni instrument kralja Davida.

Danova plemena - Tuatha de Danaan - putovala su brodovima preko Sredozemnog mora do obale zapadne Europe do Irske i Skandinavije. Danska, naziv moderne zemlje u Europi na sjeveru Njemačke, doslovno znači, ,"Dan je znak." Danovci su naselili cijelo okolno područje, cijela regija dobila je ime po njima - Skandinavski poluotok, to su Danova plemena koja su migrirala prema zapadu i sjeveru Europe.

Povjesničari objašnjavaju da su rani doseljenici Irske bili poznati kao "Tuatha de Danaan" - doslovno, "plemena Danova". Grci su ih zvali Danoi a Rimljani Danaj.

  • Tuatha de Danaan = Otac (tata) Dan

Tribe of Dan

Haplogoupa I2a1b - Macedonians, Tuatha de Danaan

Distribucija Haplogrupe I2a u Europi

Iz haplogrupe I2a proizlaze I2a1 i I2a2

Haplogrupa I2a1 (P37.2)

Haplogrupa I2a1 je daleko najveća grana I2 nalazi se na jugo-istoku, jugo-zapadu i sjevero-zapadu Europe.

Haplogrupa I2a1b (M423)

Haplogrupa I2a1b-L621

I2a1b-L621 i njegov L147.2 predstavlja preko 90% I2a1b (M423)
Maksimalne frekvencije među dinarskim narodima (Slovenci, Hrvati, Bošnjaci, Srbi, Crnogorci i Makedonci), kao i u Bugarskoj, Rumunjskoj, Moldaviji, zapadnoj Ukrajini i Bjelorusiji, a u manjoj mjeri u Albaniji, Grčkoj, Mađarskoj, Slovačkoj, Poljskoj i jugozapadnoj Rusiji.

Haplogrupa I2a1b-L161.1

Poznat po genetskom rodoslovlju kao "I2-M423 ", L161.1 s najvišim frekvencijama u zapadnoj Irskoj (5-10%), i škotskom gorju (1-5%), također može se naći (> 1%) u srednjoj i zapadnoj Europi, od Skandinavije do sjeverozapadne Španjolske. Također je pronađen u Albaniji, sjevernoj Grčkoj, Bugarskoj i Rumunjskoj.

Haplogrupa I2a1a1 (M26)

I2a1a (M26, L158, L159.1 / S169.1) nalazi se u Zapadnoj Europi, i dostiže maksimalnu frekvenciju među "Sardinians" (37.5%), i "Baski" (5%), dvije izolirane populacije. M26 na Britanskom otočju, Nizozemskoj, Francuskoj, Zapadnoj Njemačkoj, Švicarskoj, Sardiniji, Siciliji, zapadnoj obali Italije, Iberiji i mediteranskoj obali Magreba.

Distribucija Haplogrupe I2a1 u Europi

Haplogrupa I2a2 (P214)

I2a2 nalazi se u Zapadnoj Europi, u najvišim frekvencijama je u središnjoj i sjevernoj Njemačkoj (10-20%), Benelux (10-15%), kao i na sjeveru Švedske. Također je pronađen 3-10% kod stanovnika Danske, istočne Engleske i sjeverne Francuske, te je rjeđi u Norveškoj osim na jugu.

Iz Haplogrupe I2a2 proizlaze I2a2a i I2a2b

Haplogrupa I2a2a (M223)

I2a2a iznosi više od 90% I2a2.

I2a2a3 (Z161 +) najveći je od četiri grane I2a2a nalazi se pretežno u germanskim zemljama, s posebno visokom koncentracijom u Danskoj, Njemačkoj, Nizozemskoj, Engleskoj i na sjeverozapadu Sicilije. Niže gustoće je u ostatku Europe, od Portugala do Rusije.

I2a2a2 (L701 +) ima vrlo široku distribuciju. Nalazi se u srednjoj Europi u Njemačkoj, Poljskoj, Rumunjskoj i Ukrajini, u nižim frekvencijama u Grčkoj, Italiji, Francuskoj, Španjolskoj, Engleskoj, Irskoj, i Armeniji. Upadljivo je odsutan u Skandinaviji i Škotskoj.

I2a2a1 (M284 +) javlja se isključivo u Velikoj Britaniji.

I2a2a4 (L1229 +) tipičan je za Englesku, Normandiju (kao i u drugim dijelovima Francuske), središnje i sjeverne Njemačke. Također je pronađen kod engleskih prezimena u Irskoj. Veća gustoća je u Njemačkoj i Engleskoj nego u Danskoj i Francuskoj, te izostanak na Siciliji.

Haplogrupa I2a2b (L38 / S154)

I2a2b ima distribuciju uglavnom ograničenu na alpskoj Italiji, Švicarskoj, njemačkom Porajnju, Harz planinama, Nizozemskoj, istočnoj Francuskoj, i Britanskom otočju (s izuzetkom Cornwall, Wales, Cumbria i škotskim gorama).

Distribucija Haplogrupe I2a2 u Europi


Macedonians, Tuatha de Danaan - Tribe of Dan

Vergina Sun


Naram-Sin stela, 2260. pr.Kr. / Ur-Namu stela, 2090. pr.Kr.

Maritime colonization of Europe

Mecedonian Septireme

Macedonian shields

  • Haplogrupa I2a1b-L621 (Macedonians)
  • Haplogrupa I2a1b-L161.1 (Tuatha de Danaan)