Argives tribe

After the conclusion of the Trojan war and the death of Nestor after his return home, the Dorian expedition and return of the Heracleidae, which took place two generations later, drove the descendants of Nestor from Messenia. This has already formed a part of my account of Tisamenus. - PAUSANIAS, Description of Greece

  • Dolazak Dorana dogodio se dvije generacije poslije Trojanskog rata.

The Tjekker or Tjeker were one of the Sea Peoples and are known mainly from the story of Wenamun ... they are thought to be the people who developed the port of Dor during the 12th century BCE from a small Bronze Age town to a large city. ...

In Greek mythology, King Teucer (also Teucrus) was said to have been the son of the river Scamander and of the nymph Idaea. Before the arrival of Dardanus, the land that would come to be called Dardania (and later still the Troad) was known as Teucria and the inhabitants as Teucrians, after Teucer. Batea, King Teucer's daughter, was given in marriage to Dardanus, and after Teucer's death the land came to be known as Dardania. Yet in later times, the people of Troy often referred to themselves as "Teucrians".

King Darius was full of wonder both at what they who had watched the woman told him, and at what he had himself seen. So he commanded that she should be brought before him. And the woman came; and with her appeared her brothers, who had been watching everything a little way off. Then Darius asked them of what nation the woman was; and the young men replied that they were Paeonians, and she was their sister. Darius rejoined by asking, "Who the Paeonians were, and in what part of the world they lived? and, further, what business had brought the young men to Sardis?" Then the brothers told him they had come to put themselves under his power, and Paeonia was a country upon the river Strymon, and the Strymon was at no great distance from the Hellespont. The Paeonians, they said, were colonists of the Teucrians from Troy. When they had thus answered his questions, Darius asked if all the women of their country worked so hard? Then the brothers eagerly answered, Yes; for this was the very object with which the whole thing had been done. Herodotus - History

Paeonians origin from Teucer,
Tjeker are founders of town Dor, could they be Dorians in origin?

In ancient Greece, Dorians are Macedonians (settled just south of Paeonians) and Spartans...


Tale of Wenamun

Tale of Wenamun

As the story begins, the principal character, Wenamun, a priest of Amun at Karnak, is sent by the High Priest of Amun Herihor to the Phoenician city of Byblos to acquire lumber (probably cedar wood) to build a new ship to transport the cult image of Amun. After visiting Smendes (Nesbanebded in Egyptian) at Tanis, Wenamun stopped at the port of Dor ruled by the Tjeker prince Beder, where he was robbed. Upon reaching Byblos, he was shocked by the hostile reception he received there. When he finally gained an audience with Zakar-Baal, the local king, the latter refused to give the requested goods for free, as had been the traditional custom, instead demanding payment. Wenamun had to send to Smendes for payment, a humiliating move that demonstrates the waning of Egyptian power over the Eastern Mediterranean; a causative factor of a new nature can be seen in this ebbing of Egyptian power  the rise of Assyria and its intrusion into Phoenicia around the year 1100 BCE.


Dorani - Heracleidae, c. 1110 BC

Tradition describes how, some sixty years after the Trojan War, a Dorian migration from the Levant took place and eventually led to the rise of classical Sparta.

We suggest; Tel Dor > Dorani

(Confederacy Sher-Den), Sher=Sard (Sparta), Sard (Lydia) = Tribe of Asher

(Confederacy Sher-Den), Den=Don (MaceDONians) = Tribe of Dan


Onomasticon of Amenope

Sea Peoples

Date Narrative Source(s) Peoples named
c. 1100 BC List (no narrative) Onomasticon of Amenope Denyen, Lukka, Peleset, Sherden, Tjekker

Onomasticon of Amenope lists several different groups of 'Sea Peoples' and Libyans, including the Danuna, Kehek, LiBu, Lukka, Meshwesh, Nubians and Sherden.

The Onomasticon of Amenope gives a slight credence to the idea that the Ramesside kings settled the Sea Peoples in Canaan. Dated to about 1100 BCE, at the end of the 21st. After six place names, four of which were in Philistia, the scribe lists the Sherden (Line 268), the Tjeker (Line 269) and the Peleset (Line 270), who might be presumed to occupy those cities. The Story of Wenamun on a papyrus of the same cache also places the Tjeker in Dor at that time. The fact that the Biblical maritime Tribe of Dan was initially located between the Philistines and the Tjekker, has prompted some to suggest that they may originally have been Denyen. Sherden seem to have been settled around Megiddo and in the Jordan Valley, and Weshwesh (Biblical Asher) may have been settled further north. - Sea Peoples

In Trojan armies are:

Lycia = Lukka,
Teucer (Troy) = Tjekker,
Pelasgians = Peleset


Tel Dor

Dor was an ancient royal city of the Canaanites, (Joshua 12:23) whose ruler was an ally of Jabin king of Hazor against Joshua, (Joshua 11:1,2). In the 12th century, the town appears to have been taken by the Tjekker, and was ruled by them at least as late as the early 11th century BCE. It appears to have been within the territory of the tribe of Asher, though allotted to Manasseh, (Joshua 17:11; Judges 1:27). It was one of Solomon's commissariat districts (Judges 1:27; 1 Kings 4:11). It has been placed in the ninth mile from Caesarea, on the way to Ptolemais.

Tel Dor

The Tjeker are perhaps one of the few Sea Peoples for whom a ruler's name is recorded - in the 11th-century papyrus account of Wenamun, an Egyptian priest, the ruler of Dor is given as "Beder".

According to Edward Lipinski, the Sicals (Tjekker) of Dor were seamen or mercenaries, and b3-dỉ-r (Beder) was the title of the local governor, a deputy of the king of Tyre.

No mention of the Tjeker is made after the story of Wenamun.

Dor was located on the Western boundary of Manasseh and the Northern Boundary of Dan. The name of the ruler of the Tjekker. Beder in that it is unique in Egyptian records. A Bezer was a son of Liph, one of the heads of the Tribe of Asher. Asherites might have controlled the commerce of that city perhaps together with the families of Dan.

The tribe of Asher did not drive out the inhabitants of Acco (Judges 1.31) it had been allotted to them and it is perfectly possible to read the name Tjekker as people from the location of Acco.

The suffix esh is merely the Hebrew aish. So we have man or men of "W". But there is no "W" in the Egyptian hieroglyphics of this word, it has been written Weshesh for convenience. It would better have been written Ueshesh or Uashesh. "And the sons of Asher , Imnah and Ishvah and Ishvi" (Genesis 46:17)


Danus & Cadmus - Argives tribe

Arcadia = Cadmus

Ancient Arcadia in the center of Peloponnese

Hecataeus of Abdera, a fourth-century B.C. Greek historian, states that "Now the Egyptians say that also after these events [the plagues of Exodus] a great number of colonies were spread from egypt all over the inhabited world. They say also that those who set forth with Danaus, likewise from Egypt, settled what is practically the oldest city of Greece, Argos, and that the nations of the Colchi in Pontus and that of the Jews (remnant of Judah), which lies between Arabia and Syria, were founded as colonies by certain emigrants from their country [Egypt]. He says this is the reason why it is a long-established institution among these peoples to circumcise their male children, the custom having been brought over FROM Egypt. Even the Athenians, they say, are colonists from Sais in Egypt." (Quoted from Diodorus of Sicily. G. H. Oldfather, 1933. Vol. I, bks. I-II, 1-34, p. 91).

  • Danus & Cadmus = Macedonians & Spartans, (Arcadia = Cadmus)


Pjesma Debore i Baraka

Zašto na obali mora Ašer sjedi, zašto je Dan na stranim lađama (odlazak Dorana)

Toga dana Debora i Barak, sin Abinoamov, zapjevaše ovu pjesmu: Ratoborno rasuše kose borci izraelski i dragovoljno krenu narod: blagoslivljajte Jahvu! Čujte, o kraljevi! Poslušajte, knezovi! Jahvi ja pjesmu pjevam, Jahvu, Boga Izraelova, ja slavim. Sa Seira kad si silazio, Jahve, pobjednički kad si kročio iz polja edomskih, sva se zemlja tresla, lila se nebesa, oblaci curkom daždjeli. Brda se tresla pred tobom, o Jahve, Jahve, Bože Izraelov! U dane Šamgara, sina Anatova, u dane Jaele opustješe putovi; i oni koji su putovali, obilažahu naokolo. Pusta bijahu sela izraelska dok ne ustadoh ja, Debora, dok ne ustadoh kao majka Izraelu. Tuđe bogove sebi izabraše, i zato im rat stade pred vrata. Za pet gradova ne bi nijednog štita! Nijednog kralja za četrdeset tisuća u Izraelu! Srce moje kuca za vođe izraelske, za narod što dragovoljno u boj kreće! Blagoslivljajte Jahvu! Vi koji na bijelim jašete magaricama, na sagovima sjedeći, i vi koji hodite putovima, pjevajte, uz povike razdraganih pastira kod pojila. Neka se slave dobročinstva Jahvina i vladavina njegova Izraelom! I narod Jahvin siđe na vrata. Probudi se, Deboro, ustani! Ustani, pjesmu zapjevaj! Hrabro! Ustani, Barače, vodi u roblje porobljivače svoje, sine Abinoamov! Tad siđe na vrata Izrael, narod Jahvin pohrli junački. Iz Efrajima potekoše u dolinu, za njima stiže među čete tvoje Benjamin. Iz Makira stupaju glavari, iz Zebuluna oni što nose štap zapovjednički. Knezovi Jisakarovi s Deborom bjehu, a Naftali pođe s Barakom, pohrli da ga stigne u dolini. Kod Rubenovih potoka dugo se savjetuju. Zašto si ostao u torovima da slušaš sred stada svirku frule? Kod Rubenovih potoka dugo se savjetuju. Gilead osta s onu stranu Jordana. A zašto je Dan na stranim lađama? Zašto na obali mora Ašer sjedi, mirno prebiva u svojim zaljevima? Zebulun je narod što prkosi smrti s Naftalijem, na visoravnima. Došli su kraljevi, boj zametnuli, boj bili kraljevi kanaanski, u Tanaku, na vodi megidskoj, al' ni mrve srebra ne dobiše. Sa nebeskih staza vojevahu, vojevahu zvijezde prot' Siseri. Sve otplavi potok Kišon, potok Kišon pradavni. Gazi čvrsto, moja dušo! Topot silan odjekuje: jure borci na konjima! "Proklinjite Meroz," Anđeo će Jahvin, "proklinjite žitelje njegove što Jahvi nisu u pomoć pritekli, u pomoć Jahvi s junacima." Blagoslovljena među ženama bila Jaela, žena Hebera Kenijca, među ženama šatora nek' je slavljena! On vode zaiska, mlijeka mu ona dade, u zdjelu dragocjenu nali mu povlake. Rukom lijevom za klinom segnu, a desnom za čekićem kovačkim. Udari Siseru, glavu mu razmrska, probode mu, razbi sljepoočicu. Do nogu pade joj, sruši se, leže, do nogu pade joj, sruši se; i gdje pade, mrtav osta. Kroz prozor motri Siserina mati, kroz prozor motri, na rešetku jada: "Dugo mu se kola ne vraćaju: što im je zapreg tako spor?" Najmudrija zbori joj dvorkinja, sebi samoj ona odgovara: "Plijen su našli pa ga dijele: po djevojku na ratnika, po djevojku i po dvije, halju-dvije za Siseru, vezen rubac za moj vrat!" Tako neka ginu, Jahve, svi neprijatelji tvoji! A oni koji te ljube nek budu kao sunce kada se diže u svojemu sjaju! I zemlja bijaše mirna četrdeset godina.

  • Argive (Dorians) > Sparta & Macedonia = Ašer Dan

Sparta - Argives tribe

Heraldry Points the Way

If you study the Iliad closely, you will discover that the shields of the protagonists at the siege of Troy were painted with HERALDIC SYMBOLS that represented the clans present at the conflict. The leaders of the Greek armies carried shields decorated with both EAGLES and LIONS, while the Trojan defenders also had LIONS on their shields. The Iliad also describes a huge EAGLE as appearing over the contending armies at the siege of Troy. What do these symbols mean?

Josephus, in his Antiquities of the Jews, records that the Lacedaemonian king Areios sent an embassy to the Jewish High Priest acknowledging that the JEWS and the LACEDAEMONIANS were RACIALLY AKIN, both having descended from Abraham. A later High Priest, sending envoys to visit the SPARTANS recalled the incident.

It is of the greatest interest to read that the SEAL on the letter from Sparta showed an EAGLE holding fast a SERPENT. BOTH these emblems are ISRAELITISH -- OF THE TRIBE OF DAN! The Spartans had preserved it for their official transactions. This episode is confirmed in the apocryphal Book of I Macabees.


Odgovor židovskog velikog svećenika na pismo spartanskih Grka:

... "Jonathan visoki svećenik židovskog naroda na ephori i Senat i narod u Lacedaemonians, poslati čestitku:

"Kada je u prijašnjim vremenima poslanica je donijeli do Onias, koji je tada bio naš veliki svećenik... U vezi roda koji je bio između nas i vas, primjerak koji je ovdje prisajedine, oboje smo radosno primili poslanicu... Jer mi bili su i zadovoljni zbog toga od svetim spisima, ali nije mi se ne misli stati, najprije početi zahtjev tog odnosa prema vama, slava koju nam sada daje vama. To je dugo vremena otkako ovoj vezi našeg vama bijaše obnovio, a kada smo, nakon svete i festivalskih dana ponuditi žrtve Bogu, molimo Ga za vaše očuvanje i pobjede.... Vi ćete, dakle, dobro da vas pišite nam, i pošaljite nam račun ono što stoji u potrebi od nas, jer smo u svemu sklon ponašati prema vašim željama " (starine Židova, XIII, 5, 8).

U drevnoj mitologiji, Bryant se odnosi na Stephanus Byzantium ukazuje da Alexander Polyhistor i Claudius Jolaus također govore o izravnoj vezi između spartanskih Grka i Izraelaca (vol. 5, str. 51-52, 60).

Prva knjiga o Makabejcima

Spartanski kralj Arije pozdravlja velikog svećenika Oniju. Našlo se u spisu o Spartancima i Židovima da su braća i da su od Abrahamova roda. Sad, kad to znamo, bit će nam drago ako nam pišete o vašem blagostanju. Mi vam pišemo ovako: vaša stada i vaša dobra naša su, a naša su vaša. Zato smo odredili da vam se u tom smislu donese poruka.

Spartanci - amblem zmija


Lakonske izjave

Spartanci su bili škrti na riječima, pa je i u današnjem jeziku ostao izraz lakonski za jezgrovitu izjavu.

Evo četiri slavna primjera spartanskih izjava:

Prema legendi, kada je kralj Filip II Makedonski namjeravao napasti Spartu, te im je poslao poruku: Ako uđem u Lakoniju, spalit ću Spartu. Spartanci su kao odgovor poslali samo jednu riječ: Ako.

Kad je u Peloponeskom ratu spartanski vojskovođa Mindar izgubio veliku pomorsku bitku protiv Atenjana, vojska je u grad poslala ovu poruku: Brodovi izgubljeni, Mindar mrtav, vojska gladuje, ne znamo što ćemo.

Kad su spartanci išli u rat, žene koje su im držale do časti bi im rekle: S njim ili na njemu pokazujući na štit.

U trenutku kad u Termopilima Spartanci iščekuju dolazak Perzijanaca, stiže im Trahinjanski glasnik i priopćava da neprijatelja ima toliko da će njihove odapete strijele sakriti sunce. Brz odgovor dao je spartanski vojnik Dijanek - Barem ćemo se boriti u hladu.


Sabines - Spartans

Sabinski vojnici, freska iz Nole

In Dionysius's work, a group of Lacedaemonians fled Sparta since they regarded the laws of Lycurgus as too severe. In Italy, they founded the Spartan colony of Foronia (near the Pomentine plains) and some from that colony settled among the Sabines. According to the account, the Sabine habits of belligerence (aggressive or warlike behavior) and frugality (prudence in avoiding waste) were known to have derived from the Spartans. Plutarch also states in the Life of Numa Pompilius, "Sabines, who declare themselves to be a colony of the Lacedaemonians..."


Claudii - Sabine

The first of the Claudii was a Sabine, by the name of Attius Clausus, who came to Rome with his retainers in 504 BC, the sixth year of the Republic. At this time, the fledgling Republic was engaged in regular warfare with the Sabines, and Clausus is said to have been the leader of a faction seeking to end the conflict. When his efforts failed, he defected to the Romans, bringing with him no fewer than five hundred men able to bear arms, according to Dionysius.

Clausus, who exchanged his Sabine name for the Latin Appius Claudius, was enrolled among the patricians, and given a seat in the Senate, quickly becoming one of its most influential members. His descendants were granted a burial site at the foot of the Capitoline Hill, and his followers allotted land on the far side of the Anio, where they formed the core of what became the "Old Claudian" tribe.

Legend of the Sabine women

Legend says that the Romans abducted Sabine women to populate the newly built Rome. The resultant war ended only by the women throwing themselves and their children between the armies of their fathers and their husbands. The Rape of the Sabine Women became a common motif in art; the women ending the war is a less frequent but still reappearing motif.

According to Livy, after the conflict, the Sabine and Roman states merged, and the Sabine king Titus Tatius jointly ruled Rome with Romulus until Tatius' death five years later. Three new centuries of Equites were introduced at Rome, including one named Tatienses, after the Sabine king.

A variation of the story is recounted in the pseudepigraphal Sefer haYashar (see Jasher 17:1-15).

Tradition suggests that the population of the early Roman kingdom was the result of a union of Sabines and others. Some of the gentes of the Roman republic were proud of their Sabine heritage, such as the Claudia gens, assuming Sabinus as a cognomen or agnomen. Some specifically Sabine deities and cults were known at Rome: Semo Sancus and Quirinus, and at least one area of the town, the Quirinale, where the temples to those latter deities were located, had once been a Sabine centre.


Suebi - Germania


The earliest attestation is the Proto-Norse name Swabaharjaz ("Suebian warrior") on the Rö runestone and in the place name Svogerslev. Sváfa, whose name means "Suebian", was a Valkyrie who appears in the eddic poem Helgakviða Hjörvarðssonar. The kingdom Sváfaland also appears in this poem and in the Þiðrekssaga.

The etymological sources list the following ethnic names as being from the same root: Suiones, Samnites, Sabellians, and Sabines. Notably, the Semnones, known to classical authors as one of the largest Suebian groups, also seem to have a name with this same meaning, but recorded with a different pronunciation by the Romans.

  • Suebi = Sabine = Spartans


Suebian knot

According to Germania by Tacitus, the Suebian warriors combed their hair back or sideways and tied it into a knot, allegedly with the purpose of appearing taller and more awe-inspiring on the battlefield. Tacitus also reports that the fashion had spread to neighboring Germanic tribes among the younger warriors, while among the Suebians, the knot was sported even by old men as a status symbol, which "distinguishes the freeman from the slave", with the most artful knots worn by the most wealthy nobles.

Osterby Head, a bog body with a Suebian knot

Strabo describes the Suebi and people from their part of the world as highly mobile and nomadic, unlike more settled and agricultural tribes such as the Chatti and Cherusci:

...they do not till the soil or even store up food, but live in small huts that are merely temporary structures; and they live for the most part off their flocks, as the Nomads do, so that, in imitation of the Nomads, they load their household belongings on their wagons and with their beasts turn whithersoever they think best.

Caesar noted that rather than grain crops, they spent time on husbandry and hunting. They wore animal skins, bathed in rivers, consumed milk and meat products, and prohibited wine, allowing trade only to dispose of their booty and otherwise they had no goods to export. They had no private ownership of land and were not permitted to stay resident in one place for more than one year. They were divided into 100 cantons, each of which had to provide and support 1000 armed men for the constant pursuit of war.

Julius Caesar describes the Germani and their customs in his Commentarii de Bello Gallico:

[The Germani] have neither Druids to preside over sacred offices, nor do they pay great regard to sacrifices. They rank in the number of the gods those alone whom they behold, and by whose instrumentality they are obviously benefited, namely, the sun, fire, and the moon; they have not heard of the other deities even by report. Their whole life is occupied in hunting and in the pursuits of the military art; from childhood they devote themselves to fatigue and hardships. Those who have remained chaste for the longest time, receive the greatest commendation among their people; they think that by this the growth is promoted, by this the physical powers are increased and the sinews are strengthened. And to have had knowledge of a woman before the twentieth year they reckon among the most disgraceful acts; of which matter there is no concealment, because they bathe promiscuously in the rivers and [only] use skins or small cloaks of deer's hides, a large portion of the body being in consequence naked.

They do not pay much attention to agriculture, and a large portion of their food consists in milk, cheese, and flesh; nor has any one a fixed quantity of land or his own individual limits; but the magistrates and the leading men each year apportion to the tribes and families, who have united together, as much land as, and in the place in which, they think proper, and the year after compel them to remove elsewhere. For this enactment they advance many reasons-lest seduced by long-continued custom, they may exchange their ardor in the waging of war for agriculture; lest they may be anxious to acquire extensive estates, and the more powerful drive the weaker from their possessions; lest they construct their houses with too great a desire to avoid cold and heat; lest the desire of wealth spring up, from which cause divisions and discords arise; and that they may keep the common people in a contented state of mind, when each sees his own means placed on an equality with [those of] the most powerful.



The Suebi are associated with the early Germanic tribal group Irminones, also mentioned by classical authors. Beginning in the 1st century BC, various Suebian tribes moved south-westwards from the Baltic Sea and the Elbe and came into conflict with Ancient Rome.

Tacitus called the Baltic sea the Suebian sea.

They are first mentioned by Julius Caesar in connection with the invasion of Gaul by the Suebian chieftain Ariovistus during the Gallic Wars. During the reign of Augustus, the Suebi expanded southwards at the expense of Gallic tribes, establishing a Germanic presence in the immediate areas north of the Danube. During this time, Maroboduus of the Marcomanni established the first confederation of Germanic tribes in Bohemia.

Caesar notes that the Gauls had earlier dominated and sent colonies into the lands of the Germans, but that the Gauls had since degenerated under the influence of Roman civilization, and now considered themselves inferior in military prowess.

In the time of Caesar, southern Germany was Celtic, but coming under pressure from Germanic groups led by the Suebi.Caesar describes the Suebi as pressing the German tribes of the Rhine, such as the Tencteri, Usipetes and Ubii, from the east, forcing them from their homes. While emphasizing their warlike nature he writes as if they had a settled homeland somewhere between the Cherusci and the Ubii, and separated from the Cherusci by a deep forest called the Silva Bacenis. He also describes the Marcomanni as a tribe distinct from the Suebi, and also active within the same alliance.

Julius Caesar (100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) describes the Suebi in his firsthand account, De Bello Gallico as the "largest and the most warlike nation of all the Germans".

Strabo wrote that the Suebi "excel all the others in power and numbers." He describes Suebic peoples (Greek ethnē) as having come to dominate Germany between the Rhine and Elbe, with the exception of the Rhine valley, on the frontier with the Roman empire, and the "coastal" regions north of the Rhine.

In Book VII (1.3) Strabo mentions as Suevic peoples the Marcomanni, who under King Marobodus had moved into the same Hercynian forest as the Coldui (possibly the Quadi), taking over an area called "Boihaemum". This king "took the rulership and acquired, in addition to the peoples aforementioned, the Lugii (a large tribe), the Zumi, the Butones, the Mugilones, the Sibini, and also the Semnones, a large tribe of the Suevi themselves". Some of these tribes were "inside the forest" and some "outside of it". Tacitus confirms the name "Boiemum", saying it was a survival marking the old traditional population of the place, the Celtic Boii, though the population had changed.


The Quadi lived in what is now Moravia, western Slovakia and Lower Austria where they had displaced Celtic cultures and were first noticed by Romans in 8–6 BC, briefly documented by Tacitus in his Germania. They came to be part of the Marcomannic confederation that fought the future emperor Tiberius in 6 AD.

There may be an earlier reference to the Quadi in the Geography of Strabo (7.1.3). In a parenthetical expression, often removed from the main text, he mentions a branch of the Suevi called the Koldouoi, transliterated to Latin Coldui (Strabo wrote in Greek). Part of their range is Bohemia, the domain of Maroboduus. The amendment of Coldui to Coadui (Quadi) is generally considered correct.

Tacitus (Germania) mentions the Quadi in the same breath as the Marcomanni, alike in warlike spirit, alike governed by "kings" of their own noble stock, "descended from the noble line of Maroboduus and Tudrus". (Marobduus ruled the Marcomanni and their alliance generally, so the "Tudric" line were apparently kings among the Quadi.) The royal powers of both tribes were also alike, according to Tacitus, in being supported by Roman silver. Their neighbours for the next 350 years or more were the Marcomanni to the west, Buri to the north, Sarmatian Iazgyians and Asding Vandals arriving to the east somewhat later, and the Roman Empire to the south, across the Danube.

Tacitus (Germania) writes: Behind them [the Quadi and Marcomanii] the Marsigni, Gotini, Osi, and Buri, close in the rear of the Marcomanni and Quadi. Of these, the Marsigni and Buri, in their language and manner of life, resemble the Suevi. The Gotini and Osi are proved by their respective Gallic and Pannonian tongues. Tribute is imposed on them as aliens, partly by the Sarmatæ, partly by the Quadi. The Gotini, to complete their degradation, actually work iron mines. All these nations occupy but little of the plain country, dwelling in forests and on mountain-tops.

Quadi = Claudius


In 259/60, one or more groups of Suebi appear to have been the main element in the formation of a new tribal alliance known as the Alemanni who came to occupy the Roman frontier region known as the Agri Decumates, east of the Rhine and south of the Main. The Alamanni were sometimes simply referred to as Suebi by contemporaries, and the region came to be known as Swabia - a name which survives to this day. People in this region of Germany are still called Schwaben, a name derived from the Suebi.

These Suebi for the most part stayed on the right bank of the Rhine until 31 December 406, when much of the tribe joined the Vandals and Alans in breaching the Roman frontier by crossing the Rhine, perhaps at Mainz, thus launching an invasion of northern Gaul. It is thought that this group probably contained a significant amount of Quadi.


Other Suebi apparently remained in or near to the original homeland areas near the Elbe and the modern Czech Republic, occasionally still being referred to by this term.

Further south, a group of Suebi settled in parts of Pannonia, after the Huns were defeated in 454 in the Battle of Nedao. Later, the Suebian king Hunimund fought against the Ostrogoths in the battle of Bolia in 469. The Suebian coalition lost the battle, and parts of the Suebi therefore migrated to southern Germany. Probably the Marcomanni made up one significant part of these Suebi, who probably lived in at least two distinct areas. Later, the Lombards, a Suebic group long known on the Elbe, came to dominate the Pannonian region before successfully invading Italy.

Lombards migration (Suebi)

Another group of Suebi, the so-called "northern Suebi" were mentioned in 569 under the Frankish king Sigebert I in areas of today's Saxony-Anhalt which were known as Schwabengau or Svebengau at least until the 12th century.

Suebi - Slavi

German linguist Jacob Grimm believed that Suebi meant "Slav". Jordanes and Procopius called the Suebi "Suavi". The end of the Bavarian Geographer's list of Slavic tribes contains a note, "Suevi are not born, they are sown (seminati)". The language spoken by Tacitus' Suevi is unknown. In his description of the emigration (c. 512) of the Heruli to Scandinavia, Procopius places the Slavs in Central Europe.

Adam of Bremen is hardly a good source for a striking etymological proposal that the word Suebian is the same as Slavian.

As Slovak i can confirm that word Suav/Suev is the same as Slav. I can not say that anciet Slavs (Suevi) are the same nation (or sub-nation) as present day Slavs (Suavi). But it is clear, that it is the same name. Surely more clear than English=Angles. Present day Russians arent considered to be old russian vikings, but they still use their name. Present day English arent clean Angles, but it is the same name. Same for Macedonians, Bulgarians, ... .

Its the same for Suobeni=Suoveni=Sloveni, Slovak=Suouak, Slavian=Shwabian. In some Slovak dialects L is said as (english) W. In combination with other vowels it creates uo, ua, ue, ui. B is often replaced by V like varit=barit (cook/boil/... in slavic). In today Slovak dialects have only L=W. But by looking on some words (like barit=varit) you can see, that in the past V and B were also swapped. Also S and (english) SH can be swapped. Summary: L=W, V=B, S=SH.

Jordanes wrote that Venethi, Sclavenes and Antes were ethnonyms referring to the same group. His claim was accepted more than a millennium later by Wawrzyniec Surowiecki, Pavel Jozef Šafárik and other historians, who searched the Slavic Urheimat in the lands where the Venethi (a people named in Tacitus's Germania) lived during the last decades of the first century AD. Pliny the Elder wrote that the territory extending from the Vistula to Aeningia (probably Feningia, or Finland), was inhabited by the Sarmati, Wends, Scirii and Hirri.

Suebi > Schwa-ben > Scla-venes (W=L, B=V)


S-ciào vostro - Sclavus - Sclavenes

The word "ciao"  is an informal salutation in the Italian language. Originally from the Venetian language, it has entered the vocabulary of English and of many other languages around the world. Its dual meaning of "hello" and "goodbye".

"In the case of the sequence Slav > sclavus > scia(v)o > ciao, however, there is no problem, because the etymology is absolutely reliable" - Quaderni di semantica

The word derives from the Venetian phrase s-ciào vostro or s-ciào su literally meaning "I am your slave". This greeting is analogous to the medieval Latin Servus which is still used colloquially in parts of Central/Eastern Europe or the antiquated English valediction "Your Obedient Servant." The expression was not a literal statement of fact, but rather a perfunctory promise of good will among friends (along the lines of "at your service" in English). The Venetian word for "slave", s-ciào or s-ciàvo, derives from Medieval Latin sclavus, deriving from the ethnic "Slavic", since most of the slaves came from the Balkans.

"This is also the case for ciao and sciao, for the etymology of these words is the late Latin word sclavus, ultimately of Slavic origin, originally meaning "Slavic", and then "slave". As is known, most western European words that designate "slave" derive from the word sclavus: not only English slave, but also German Sklave, Dutch slaaf, Danish slave, Swedish slaaf, Welsh slaf, Breton sklav, French esclave, Spanish esclavo, Portuguese escravo, Albanian Skllaf, Modern Greek skla- vos, ..." - Folia Linguistica Historica: Acta Societatis Linguisticae Europaeae

This greeting was eventually shortened to ciào, lost all its servile connotations and came to be used as an informal salutation by speakers of all classes. In modern Italian language, the word (s-ciào in Venetian, s'ciao or ciao in Lombard, ciao in Italian) is used (in addition to the meaning of salutation) as an exclamation of resignation (also in a positive sense), as in Oh, va be', ciao! ("Oh, well, never mind!").


Suebi - R-V88

Haplogroup R1b1a2 (R-V88)

Most of the R1b found in Greece today is of the Balkanic Z2103 variety. There is also a minority of Proto-Celtic S116/P312 and of Italic/Alpine Celtic S28/U152. Z2103 could have descended from Albania or Macedonia during the Dorian invasion, thought to have happened in the 12th century BCE. Their language appear to have been close enough to Mycenaean Greek to be mutually intelligible and easy for locals to adopt. The Mycenaeans might have brought some R1b (probably also Z2103) to Greece.

Greek and Anatolian S116 and some S28 lineages could be attributed to the La Tène Celtic invasions of the 3rd century BCE. The Romans also certainly brought S28 lineages, and probably also the Venetians later on, notably on the islands.

Makedonci - Argives tribe

Grčki povjesničar Herodot otkriva da su neki od starih Grka zapravo došli iz Egipta, te da je predak Dorskih prinčeva u južnoj Grčkoj je određeni "Danae, kći Acrisus" (Herodot , VI, 1, iii). Pojam "Dorian" očito dolazi od imena grada Manašeova u sjevernom Izraelu, pod nazivom "Dor," blizu obale Sredozemlja. Dorani su očito Danovci, od Danova plemena, možda pomiješana sa nekim od potomaka Manašeovih.

Danova plemena su se naselila i u ovu regiju, i okolna područja, ostavljajući svoje ime u Mace-DON-la, i Dar-DAN-elles, a na sjeveru uz rijeku DAN-Ube, a na području Sarmata nalaze se rijeke DN-iper, DN-Ister, a DON

Mace-Don-ia and the Dar-DAN-ells, and on the north by the river DAN-ube. In the territory of Sarmatia, which in some maps is Scythia, in others Gomer, there are the rivers D-n-iper, D-n-ister, and the DON.

The fact that the Dnieper and the Dniester are written without a vowel between the D and the N is quite as significant as the fact that the Don has one.

In the ancient Hebrew there are no written vowels, and that in the word Dan there are only two letters used which are equivalent to the English D and N. Hence it makes no difference if the word is Dan, Don, Dun, Din or Den, it is equal to the Hebrew D-n, in which the speaker sounds the vowel according to characteristics of his own dialect.


Tribe of Dan (Danaans)

Three thousand-year-old archaeological discoveries that came to light recently at Tel Dan in northern Israel, indicate that the Danites were possibly Aegean (Greek) soldiers hired by Canaan's Egyptian rulers to keep peace. In other words, Samson and other ancient Israelites mentioned in the Book of Judges in the Hebrew Bible could have been Greek in blood and origin.

The Tribe of Dan May Not Be an Israelite Tribe After All

The Tribe of Dan might be one of the twelve original "Israelite tribes" and symbolize the lands of Israel to many people around the world, but according to the new archaeological finds the Danites probably weren’t Israelites in blood. Instead, it appears like the Danites originated with mercenaries hired from ancient Greece (Aegean in specific) and Syria by the Egyptian rulers of Canaan to keep order. In accordance with the Bible, after the Israelites invaded and controlled Canaan, they split the land between the Israelite tribes, excluding the tribe of Dan. Disappointed with such injustice, the Danites decided to go northward, and conquer the city of Laish. After their victory they rebuilt the city and renamed it after their ancestor. What makes things more interesting is that recent excavations have unearthed a large neighborhood from the 12-11th century BC that clearly shows enthralling Greek (Aegean) influences.

The Recent Finds Relight Longstanding Academic Debates

The recent discoveries have revived long-established debates among historians over the origin of the Danites and now set a series of questions that need to be answered convincingly: Were the Danites a tribe of Israel that was ignored by the rest local tribes after all or not? Could they be descendants of the Denyen, a group of people that the Egyptians described as Sea Peoples? Or maybe they were related to the Danaoi, one of the Greek tribes? The discoveries at Tel Dan indicate that they could be.
The city of Dan was constructed on a mound near the southern part of Mount Hermon, the highest mountain in the Golan Heights. By 2000 BC, the city had become immense surrounded by huge ramparts, called Laish. By the Late Bronze Age, Laish had established sprawling trade connections with the countries and coastal cities throughout the eastern Mediterranean, including Sidon and Tyre to the north, Egypt to the south most parts of then-Greece to the west.

Tel located about half a kilometer north of Kibbutz Dan, the jurisdiction of the Tel Dan nature reserve in the Hula Valley

The Greek Presence and Influence is Undeniable According to the Archaeological Findings

The discovery of a tomb built with rough stones in a style akin to that found in Enkomi, in today's Cyprus, suggests that the ties between Laish and the Greek areas of the Aegean go back to 14 th century BC. Additionally, inside the tomb archaeologists discovered over a hundred ceramic vessels, which according to chemical analysis were made in the Greek city-state of Argos, the center of Mycenaean culture during the Bronze Age.

Metal objects, pipes, crucibles and slag found at Tel Dan Nelson Glueck School of Biblical Archaeology

The excavations at Tel Dan launched in 1966 and finished in 1999 under the leadership of Avraham Biran, a decorated Israeli archaeologist and head of the Institute of Archaeology at Hebrew Union College in Jerusalem. Dr. David Ilan of the Hebrew Union College, the man who restarted the excavation in the area, after examining closely old and new findings, he suggested that the old theory about Danites not beginning as a tribe of Israel, but originating from Greece – first proposed by Michael Astour and Yigal Yadin back in the 1960s), might be right. The excavators at Dan also found vessels decorated with Aegean-style birds, chalices, offering bowls, a model silo, and curious brain-shaped stones that may have been used in ritual, as well as various other objects and artefacts that indicate that the peoples living in Dan were probably a mixed group who brought their habits and traditions from their places of origin.

Was famous Danite, Samson, really a Greek? ‘Samson’ by Solomon J Solomon, 1860 – 1927

Dr. David Ilan told haaretz, “The most famous Danite in the Bible is Samson, a quite essential archetype of a Greek hero: He is very strong, his power resides in his long hair, he tells riddles and he hangs out with Philistine women,” while he adds about the mixed cultural background of the findings in the area and the political system of rule the Egyptians practiced in the area, so the foreigners would avoid allegiance with the locals, “This would explain the layers of mixed cultural material at Tel Dan, with elements from Syria, Egypt, Cyprus, and the Aegean. We also have dozens of Egyptian cooking pots! These people served the Egyptians and the Egyptian army but they also included merchants doing business.”


Tribe of Dan


Argive genealogy in Greek mythology

Lacedaemon, Sparta, Perseus & Heracles

Inachus Melia
Zeus Io Phoroneus
Epaphus Memphis
Libya Poseidon
Belus Achiroë Agenor Telephassa
Danaus Pieria Aegyptus Cadmus Cilix Europa Phoenix
Mantineus Hypermnestra Lynceus Harmonia Zeus
Sparta Lacedaemon Ocalea Abas Agave Sarpedon Rhadamanthus
Eurydice Acrisius Ino Minos
Zeus Danaë Semele Zeus
Perseus Dionysus
Colour key:


Lacedaemon & Sparta

Lacedaemon was a king of Laconiaand son of the Pleaid Taygete and Zeus in Classical Greek mythology. He was a father of King Amyclas of Sparta and Queen Eurydice of Argos, with Princess Sparta, the daughter of King Eurotas. Taygete has an association with Artemis in earlier mythology.

Eurotas bequeathed the kingdom to Lacedaemon, the son of Zeus and Taygete, after whom Mount Taygetus was named, according to Pausanias. This Lacedaemon married his daughter Sparta and renamed the state after his wife.



Tribe of Dan

Perseus (/ˈpɜːrsiəs, -sjuːs/; Greek: Περσεύς), the legendary founder of Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty of Danaans, was, alongside Cadmus and Bellerophon, the greatest Greek hero and slayer of monsters before the days of Heracles. He beheaded the Gorgon Medusa for Polydectes and saved Andromeda from the sea monster Cetus. He was the son of the mortal Danaë and the god Zeus, and the half-brother and great grandfather of Heracles.


The Perseides, "those born of Perseus" and Andromeda, are the members of the House of Perseus, descended, according to Valerius Flaccus through Perse and Perses.

After the Greek Dark Ages, tradition recalled that Perseus and his descendants the Perseides had ruled Tiryns in Mycenaean times, while the allied branch descended from Perseus' great-uncle Proetus ruled in Argos.

Perseus and Andromeda had seven sons: Perses, Alcaeus, Heleus, Mestor, Sthenelus, Electryon, and Cynurus, and two daughters, Gorgophone, and Autochthe. Perses was left in Aethiopia and became an ancestor of the Persians. The other descendants ruled Mycenae from Electryon down to Eurystheus, after whom Atreus got the kingdom. The most renowned of the Perseides was Greece's greatest hero, Heracles son of Zeus and Alcmene, daughter of Electryon.

Illyria Andromeda

Andromeda kći etiopskoga kralja Kefeja i Kasiopeje. Zbog njezina hvalisanja da je ljepša od Nereide morali su je roditelji žrtvovati morskom čudovištu, ali ju je Perzej spasio i njome se oženio. Kraljica u Argu, majka slavnih Perzejevih potomaka, nakon njezine smrti, Atena ju je pretvorila u zviježđe.



Tribe of Dan - Macedonians

Heracles (/ˈhɛrəkliːz/ HERR-ə-kleez; Ancient Greek: Ἡρακλῆς, Hēraklēs, from Hēra, "Hera"), born Alcaeus (Ἀλκαῖος, Alkaios) or Alcides (Ἀλκείδης, Alkeidēs), was a divine hero in Greek mythology, the son of Zeus and Alcmene, foster son of Amphitryon and great-grandson and half-brother (as they are both sired by the god Zeus) of Perseus. He was the greatest of the Greek heroes, a paragon of masculinity, the ancestor of royal clans who claimed to be Heracleidae (Ἡρακλεῖδαι), and a champion of the Olympian order against chthonic monsters. In Rome and the modern West, he is known as Hercules, with whom the later Roman emperors, in particular Commodus and Maximian, often identified themselves. The Romans adopted the Greek version of his life and works essentially unchanged, but added anecdotal detail of their own, some of it linking the hero with the geography of the Central Mediterranean. Details of his cult were adapted to Rome as well.

The Hellenistic novelist, Heliodorus of Emesa, in his Aethiopica, refers to the dancing of sailors in honor of the Tyrian Heracles: "Now they leap spiritedly into the air, now they bend their knees to the ground and revolve on them like persons possessed".

The historian Herodotus recorded (2.44):

In the wish to get the best information that I could on these matters, I made a voyage to Tyre in Phoenicia, hearing there was a temple of Heracles at that place, very highly venerated. I visited the temple, and found it richly adorned with a number of offerings, among which were two pillars, one of pure gold, the other of smaragdos, shining with great brilliance at night. In a conversation which I held with the priests, I inquired how long their temple had been built, and found by their answer that they, too, differed from the Hellenes. They said that the temple was built at the same time that the city was founded, and that the foundation of the city took place 2,300 years ago. In Tyre I remarked another temple where the same god was worshipped as the Thasian Heracles. So I went on to Thasos, where I found a temple of Heracles which had been built by the Phoenicians who colonised that island when they sailed in search of Europa. Even this was five generations earlier than the time when Heracles, son of Amphitryon, was born in Hellas. These researches show plainly that there is an ancient god Heracles; and my own opinion is that those Hellenes act most wisely who build and maintain two temples of Heracles, in the one of which the Heracles worshipped is known by the name of Olympian, and has sacrifice offered to him as an immortal, while in the other the honours paid are such as are due to a hero.

Josephus records (Antiquities 8.5.3), following Menander the historian, concerning King Hiram I of Tyre (c. 965–935 BCE):
He also went and cut down materials of timber out of the mountain called Lebanon, for the roof of temples; and when he had pulled down the ancient temples, he both built the temple of Heracles and that of `Ashtart; and he was the first to celebrate the awakening (egersis) of Heracles in the month Peritius.

The Macedonian month of Peritius corresponds to our February, indicating this annual awakening was in no way a solstitial celebration. It would have coincided with the normal ending of the winter rains. The annual observation of the revival of Melqart's "awakening" may identify Melqart as a life-death-rebirth deity.

Obv. Head of young Herakles right in lion skin headdress.
Rev. ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, club and bow in bowcase around, grape cluster and Θ above.


Moćni Hercules

Moćni Hercules - Tribe of Dan

Biblijski Arheolog Magazine komentira, "lavovi, nisu bili česti u Grčkoj." (59: 1, str.17). U Grčkoj nikada nije bilo lavova.

Riječ Hercules na grčkom je "Heraklo", gotovo identično sa hebrejskom riječi za trgovce, "Heraclim", a Heraklo je došao iz "Argos". Grčki mitovi govore da su ljudi iz Argos Danioi, i potomci su "Danaos" i "Bele". U Bibliji, praotac Dan bio je sin "Bilhe" (Postanak 30: 3-6).

Samson i Herkules su bili iz plemena Dan!


The Mighty Hercules

The legend of Hercules has been told from ancient times till our day today. Many have not made the connection between Hercules and Samson. Yet the similarities between the two are obvious. Samson was a Judge in Israel, and was of the tribe of Dan! The Danites when travelling to Greece and having still commerce and trade with Tyre, who were of the tribe of Asher, still communicating with the Danites of the Promised Land knew and heard about Samson, their Judge and all his exploits. Coming back to Greece, the stories of Samson were told.  Interestingly enough, the "Encyclopedia of the Classical World," states, " The tales of his heroic deeds lend to the supposition that Hercules was originally an historic figure."  Of course that is Samson. 

Both Hercules and Samson were incredibly strong, both killed a lion with their bare hands. Both were virtually invincible. One important event in Hercules' life involved his escaping from the clutches of a symbolic woman, who is called "Pleasure." This corresponds directly to the troubles Samson got himself involved in with the harlots of Canaan.

In the book, "God's Heroes and Men of Ancient Greece " by W.H.D. Rouse writes about Hercules slaying of the lion: "Heracles threw down his bow and arrows and leapt upon the lion's back... while he put his hands round the lion's neck ...gripped the lion's throat with his two hands, and bending him backwards, throttled him. There lay the lion dead on the ground." (p. 59). In our Bible, Judges 13:6 says that Samson actually tore the lion in two, but the ancient historian Flavius Josephus in his "Antiquities of the Jews" also tells us that Samson first strangled the lion, which is exactly as Hercules is said to have done. I don't even know if there ever were any lions in Greece. The Biblical Archaeologist Magazine somewhat tersely comments, "lions, we may remark are not frequent in Greece." (59:1, p.17). In fact, the Greek myths explain this one away as the offspring of a monster! But whether there were lions in Greece is not important; Hercules needed to find one anyway. Why? Simply because the Biblical Samson inspired the Greek legend called Hercules, and provided the basis for his life!

Why is he called "Hercules"?   The word Hercules in Greek is, "Heracles," which is virtually identical with the Hebrew plural word for   traders, "Heraclim," and Heracles is said to have come from "Argos," himself! The Greek myths tell that the people of Argos are from the Danioi were descended from a patriarch "Danaos" who was the son of "Bela." In the Bible, the Hebrew patriarch Dan was the son of the concubine "Bilhah" (Genesis 30:3-6)


Let's compare Samson and Hercules (Heracles)

Born of a God and a Mortal

Let's get the most controversial out of the way first. You might think that the most obvious difference between them is that while Hercules is the illegitimate child of Zeus, Samson is born of human parents, as described in this week's haftarah.

But if you look closely at Judges 13, there are little hints that all is not as it seems.

We are told that Manoach, of the tribe of Dan, has a wife, sadly unnamed, who is barren, a common enough Biblical trope, but then in verse 3 we find:

The angel of the Lord appeared to her and said, “You are barren and childless, but you are going to become pregnant and give birth to a son..."

The oddity here is not in the content of the prophecy but to whom it was given. Unlike in the case of Abraham for example, the angel of the Lord appears to Manoach's wife in person, when she is alone in the field and her husband is nowhere to be seen, and tells her that she will become pregnant.

When Manoach asks God for the man to come again, he does so in verse 9, again when his wife is alone:

God heeded Manoah's plea, and the angel of Lord came to the woman again. She was sitting in the field and her husband Manoah was not with her.

It's extremely unusual for married women to be out in the field without their husbands, and even more unusual for them to receive this kind of prophecy.

In fact, the case is even stronger than that, as when the Bible says the Angel of the Lord, it often actually means God Himself, having taken some kind of mortal form to walk on earth. We can see this in Genesis 18, when the Lord appeared to Abraham and then three 'angels' come to meet him, or at the end of our haftarah when Manoach worries that they will surely die because "they have seen God" (v22).

So God Himself 'came' to a married woman alone in the field, twice, and then she miraculously got pregnant and had a super-powered son...


You can always recognise Hercules when you see him in classic art because he always bears two items - the second is number 3 below, but the first is a lion skin, that Hercules is always depicted wearing over his head. This is the skin of the Nemean Lion, a giant monster that Hercules slew as the first of his labours, and wore afterwards as the skin was virtually impenetrable.

Samson too is closely connected with a lion, in an encounter that happens on his way to get his first Philistine wife:

"5] Samson went down to Timnah together with his father and mother. As they approached the vineyards of Timnah, suddenly a young lion came roaring toward him. 6] The Spirit of the LORD came powerfully upon him so that he tore the lion apart with his bare hands as he might have torn a young goat. But he told neither his father nor his mother what he had done."

The lion makes a return appearance in the form of a rather awkward riddles, but its appearance here is as a deadly foe to attack Samson just as he is setting out on his heroic journey, just as the Nemean Lion is the first of Hercules' labours.

Blunt Instruments

To defeat the Nemean Lion, Hercules must turn to a club, as his hide was impenetrable to blades. This became the second sign of Hercules, and he is always shown carrying his club into battle, while other Greek warriors used swords or spears.

 Samson too is connected to blunt objects (as well as being something of a blunt object himself). In Judges 15:15 he takes up the jawbone of an ass and kills 1000 Philistines with it. In fact, Samson never uses a bladed weapon.

Women Troubles

Samson's eventual capture by the Philistines is caused by his second wife, Delilah (whose name sounds rather like Lailah, meaning night, an interesting contrast to Samson, whose name connects to the Hebrew word Shemesh, meaning the sun).

In Judges 16 Delilah eventually persuades Samson to tell her the the secret of his strength, that it lies in his uncut hair. She promptly shaves him completely, and Samson is easily captured by the Philistines who torture and imprison him.

Hercules too is brought low by his wife, though in his case it was mostly inadvertent. In a somewhat convoluted story, Hercules' second wife Deianira, has a coat laced with a hydra's poison that she believes will make Hercules love her more. When she eventually suspects him of adultery, she gives him the coat to wear, only to find that it burns her husband's flesh off his body and kills him (though Zeus brings his immortal part to the heavens, elevating him to godhood).


Perhaps most interestingly, Hercules and Samson are both connected to doorways.

Hercules is famed for passing through two passages in his labours, first out of the Mediterranean, creating the 'Pillars of Hercules', that we know as the Straits of Gibraltar. And then in his 12th and final labour, Hercules crosses the threshold of Hades to capture the three-headed dog Cerberus, who guarded the realm of the dead.

These gateways, at opposite ends of the world, west and east, connect also to the rising sun, that ancients believed passed through tunnels beneath the earth every night.

Samson too is connected to doorways.

In Judges 16 there is a very strange story when Samson is surprised at night in Gaza, in the west of the land of Israel, and escapes by lifting the doors off their hinges and carrying them all the way to Hebron in the East.

And then Samson ends his own life standing between two pillars, as he is taunted by the Philistines and brings down the whole stadium, killing everyone inside.

* * *

So what do these connections have to teach us? Why are there so many connections between the Greek Hercules and the Biblical Samson?

The Archeologist Dr David Ilan of Hebrew University, who spent 20 years excavating Dan in the north of Israel where Samson is meant to be from, told me his own theory at Limmud UK a couple of years ago.

If you look at the material archeology in Dan, it is extremely Greek in origin, much more so than the rest of Israel. It seems to Dr Ilan, that the tribe of Dan were originally a 'Greek' tribe (the Greeks called themselves Danaan, remember), that moved to the area in ancient times and became absorbed into the people of Israel over time.

The story of Samson then is a Dan story, one that they may have brought with them as their own cultural hero, that the editor of Judges drew on in his compilation, including the Danite hero in the national saga of the Bible. This story too is holy, is the message, the tribe of Dan are part of our people, and this story deserves its place in our canon.

More than that, Hercules and Samson are archetypal sun heroes, connected with the rising and setting sun, as their powers too wax and wane. They both have a lot in common with Gilgamesh, who has to run through the tunnels of the sun before it set, in order to learn the secret of eternal life.

But while Hercules attains actual immortality, elevated forever to the pantheon of Greek gods, Samson earns a very different kind of immortality.

Samson's immortality lies in his legend, in his actions to fight the enemies of Israel.

But ultimately, I think the Bible (and certainly the rabbis) are unsure if we should be emulating Samson. His life is full of conflict and he never receives any peace or reward in his lifetime. While Hercules was widely adored and worshiped across the world, Samson is a bit of an embarrassment in the Biblical text, a giant of a man that we can learn from, but who we should not strive to copy.


Mak - Macedonians

Demeter - Poppy goddess

Mak meaning long, tall, slender..

The name Macedonia (Greek: Μακεδονία, Makedonía) comes from the ethnonym Μακεδόνες (Makedónes), which itself is derived from the ancient Greek adjective μακεδνός (makednós), meaning "tall", possibly descriptive of the people. It has the same root as the adjective μακρός (makros), meaning "long" or "tall" in Ancient Greek. The name is believed to have originally meant either "highlanders", "the tall ones", or "high grown men". The word Μακεδνόν (Makednon) is first attested in Herodotus as the name which the Greek ethnos was called (which was later called Dorian) when it settled around Pindus mountain range. Makednon is related to the Ancient Greek adjective μακεδνός (makednós), meaning "tall, slim", attested in Homer and Hesychius of Alexandria in its feminine form "μακεδνή" (makednē), meaning "long, tall". It cognates with the words μακρός (makros, "long, large") and μήκος (mēkos, "length"), both deriving from the Indo-European root *mak-, meaning "long' or "slender".

Demeter - Mater - Matka

Both Minoan and Greek images attest to an association between the gods and poppies as seen below.

Left: Gold signet ring, Knossos. 1500 BC. Demeter, seated beneath the Double Axe and the World Tree, hands three poppy heads to Persephone. Right: Sacramental vase in the National Archeological Museum of Taranto. 450 BC, depicts Demeter's son, Dionysos, wearing a crown of opium poppies.

An association between poppies and the oracles can be seen in the exquisite example of Minoan art below. What has been termed the 'Sleeping Goddess' or the 'Poppy Goddess' is one of several figurines discovered inside a room without windows. Her posture is that of worship or prayer, as are the other figurines. The symbolism of the poppies is clear considering its reputation, and the cuts on the sides are additional indications that the poppies are functional (either medicinally or for inducing a trance-state).

The prophetic abilities of the Delphic oracles were renowned for over a thousand years.

This Minoan figurine of the female in worship stance wearing a diadem of opium poppy heads, each painted with a slit for extraction of the sap.




Antički Makedonci

Aleksandar Veliki

O slavenstvu antičkih Makedonaca

Mavro Orbini, „Regno de gli slavi...“ i Kvit Kurcije Ruf „Historiae Alexandri Magni“

"Miho Solinjanin, koji življaše oko ljeta Gospodnjega 1010. i ostavi zapise o Ilirima, na kraju svoga djela spominje ilirsko vojevanje u službi Aleksandra Velikog i kaže da im on zbog toga oda velike počasti. Agriju, grad smješten u Daciji, izgrađiše (kako tvrdi Bonfini u 1. knjizi I. Dekade ) isti ti Agrijanci, nastanjeni (prema Stjepanu Bizantincu) između planina Hemos i Rodopa u blizini Makedonije. I ova posljednja zemlja bijaše isto tako oduvijek nastanjena Slavenima i Tirovim potomcima, premda prema nekim mišljenjima Makedonce valja uvrstiti među Grke. Protiv takvih tvrdnji navodim ono što Kvint Kurcije piše o Aleksandru Velikom, koji više nego jasno razlikuje jezik Makedonaca od govora Grka, što bjelodano pokazuje kako makedonski govor ne bijaše u potpunosti razumljiv Čitavoj Aleksandrovoj vojsci, dobrim dijelom sastavljenoj od Grka. Naime, kad Aleksandar reče Filotu, sinu Parmenionovu, da ima određenu stvar izložiti pred mnoštvom, preporuči mu se riječima: Filote, Makedonci te moraju razumjeti, stoga te molim da im se obratiš na svom materinjem jeziku. Filot ne htje tako učiniti, jer da ga ne bi svi razumjeli. Aleksandar ustvrdi da Filotu bijaše mrzak njegov vlastiti materinji jezik. Pa kad bi Makedonci, dakle, bili Grci, zašto bi Filot bio odbio govoriti grčki u nazočnosti Grka, poglavito uzme li se u obzir da, zahvaljujući grčkom govorništvu, ne bi bio mogao naći prikladnijeg jezika, samo da su Makedonci bili Grci? Naime (kako kaže Plinije u sedmoj knjizi, poglavlju pedeset i sedmom), prešutno odobravanje ljudi bijaše prvo koje doprinije da se posluži jonskom besjedom. Materinji jezik Makedonaca, dakle, utoliko što bijaše različit od zajedničkog jezika, za koji pretpostavljamo da bijaše u uporabi u čitavoj vojsci Aleksandra Velikog, bjelodan je znak da se Makedonci ne ubrajaju među Grke, jer običaj je (kako već rekosmo) uzimati drevno jedinstvo jezika kao pouzdan dokaz jedinstva nacije. Stoga s obzirom da u odličnoj Nembrotovoj podjeli jezika niti jedan autor ne tvrdi suprotno i da nema spomena Makedonaca i njihova jezika, a budući da smo pak na temelju razlike između jezika Grka i Makedonaca podastrli više nego dovoljno dokaza kako Makedonci nisu Grci, nužno nam je, pozivajući se na svjedočenje Filipa iz Bergama, priznati kako Makedonci oduvijek bijahu slavenskoga jezika, kao što su to i sada."

Aleksandar Veliki


Latinski original:

Tum dicere iussus Philotas, sive conscientia sceleris sive periculi magnitudine amens et attonitus, non attollere oculus, non hiscere audebat. [33] Lacrimis deinde manantibus, linquente animo in eum, a quo tenebatur, incubuit abstersisque amiculo eius oculis paulatim recipiens spiritum ac vocem dicturus videbatur. [34] Iamque rex intuens eum: ‘Macedones,’ inquit, ‘de te iudicaturi sunt: [35] quaero, an patrio sermone sis apud eos usurus.’ Tum Philotas: ‘Praeter Macedonas,’ inquit, ‘plerique adsunt, quos facilius, quae dicam, pereepturos arbitror, si eadem lingua fuero usus, qua tu egisti, non ob aliud, credo, quam ut oratio tua intellegi posset a pluribus.’ Tum rex: [36] ‘Ecquid videtis adeo etiam sermonis patrii Philotan taedere? Solus quippe fastidit eum discere. Sed dicat sane, utcumque ei cordi est, dum memineritis aeque illum a nostro more quam sermone abhorrere.’
Atque ita contione excessit. Tum Philotas: ‘Verba,’ inquit, ‘innocenti reperire facile est, [p. 187] modum verborum misero tenere difficile.

Prijevod na engleski:

Then Philotas, when ordered to speak, either through consciousness of guilt or beside himself and thunderstruck by the greatness of his peril, did not venture to lift his eyes [33] or to open his mouth. Then, with a flood of tears, he swooned and fell into the arms of the man who was holding him; and when his eyes had been dried with the cloak which he was wearing, he gradually recovered his breath and his voice and seemed about to [34] speak. And now the king, looking intently at him, said: “The Macedonians are about to pass judgement upon you; I wish to know whether you will use their native tongue in addressing them.” [35] Thereupon Philotas replied: “Besides the Macedonians there are many present who, I think, will more easily understand what I shall say if I use the same language which you have employed, for no other reason, I suppose, than in order that your speech might be [36] understood by the greater number.” Then said the king: “Do you not see how Philotas loathes even the language of his fatherland? For he alone disdains to learn it. But let him by all means speak in whatever way he desires, provided that you remember that he holds our customs in as much abhorrence as our language.” And with these words he left the assembly.
Then Philotas said: “It is easy for an innocent man to find words, it is difficult for a wretched man to [2] keep his words within bounds.

Macedonian abroûwes - obrve

Macedonian ἀβροῦτες abroûtes or ἀβροῦϝες abroûwes 'eyebrows' (Attic ὀφρῦς ophrûs, Serbian obrve, Lithuanian bruvis, Persian ابرو abru, Koine Greek ophrudia, Modern Greek φρύδια frydia).

Titus Livius - Macedones Thracesque et Illyrii

...Macedones Thracesque et Illyrii erant, ferocissimae omnes gentes, hic Syri et Asiatici Graeci sunt, uilissima genera hominum et seruituti nata...


Racial Type of the Ancient Hellenes

Early anthropologists commonly believed that the Hellenes belonged principally to the Mediterranean race. This was the view shared by Sergi and Ripley. In a more recent study of the problem of Race, John R. Baker in says that later studies “do not appear to have disproved” these views. Buxton in shares this general view, although he observes that brachycephals were a part of the Greek population from the beginning and that the Greeks were a mix of Alpine and Mediterranean people from a “comparatively early date.” The American anthropologist Coon in agrees when he asserts that the Greeks are an Alpine/Mediterranean mix, with a weak Nordic component, being “remarkably similar” to their ancient ancestors.

The most complete study of Greek skeletal material from Neolithic to modern times was carried out by American anthropologist J. Lawrence Angel who found that in the early age racial variability in Greece was 7% above average, indicating that the Greeks had multiple origins within the Europid racial family. Angel noted that from the earliest times to the present “racial continuity in Greece is striking.” Buxton who had earlier studied Greek skeletal material and measured modern Greeks, especially in Cyprus and Sicily, finds that the modern Greeks “possess physical characteristics not differing essentially from those of the former [ancient Greeks].”

The most extensive study of modern Greeks has been carried by the Greek anthropologist Aris N. Poulianos. Poulianos’ study included the collection and study of more than seventy anthropometric measurements from a large sample of thousands of Greeks from different parts of the country. His main conclusions are that both Greeks and their neighboring populations are basically a mixture of Aegeans (a Mediterranean type local to the area) and Epirotics (Dinarics and are descended from the ancient inhabitants of the lands in which they live. The presence of individuals which approximate the Nordic subrace is minimal, and does not exceed 4-6% even in the most depigmented groups of Greece. More frequent are individuals which approximate the Alpine race of Central Europe. These reach up to 20-30% of some groups and are often blended with more southern racial types. Poulianos’ conclusions of Greek continuity are not simply the wishful thinking of a modern Greek. In a critical review of his book, J. Lawrence Angel states that “Poulianos is correct in pointing out ... that there is complete continuity genetically from ancient to modern times.”

The American anthropologist Roland Dixon studied the funeral masks of Spartans and found them to be Alpine. Italian anthropologist Raffaello Battaglia found the death masks of the Shaft Grave Mycenaeans to represent Dinaric physiognomies. J. Lawrence Angel expressed similar opinions in that he believed that northern intruders in Greece were always of “Dinaroid-Alpine central trend” added to the earlier Mediterranean/Alpine blend. Racial elements were not separate but combined to produce Greek civilization. Finally, a more recent statistical comparison of ancient and modern Greek skulls resulted in the discovery of “a remarkable similarity in craniofacial morphology between some modern and ancient Greeks.”

Examples of Ancient Greek types: “Mediterranean”: Pericles, 5th c. BC statesman, narrow-faced and fine-featured; “Alpine”: Plato, 4th c. BC philosopher, broad-faced and broad-headed; “Dinaric”: Aristippos, 4th c. BC philosopher, short and high-headed, salient nose.

Mediterranean - Alpine - Dinaric

Baker discusses the origin of blondism and says “It is often supposed that blondness is an indication of Nordid ancestry. Taken by itself, it is nothing of the kind.” Hence, it can be safely assumed that the existence of blond individuals in the Classical world does not require an explanation of Northern ancestry, as German anthropologist Hans Guenther and the Nordicist school presumed. This view was shared by Buxton in where he states “In regard to the Achaeans we have shown that there appears to be no good ground for suspecting the presence of Nordics.” F.G. Debets expresses a similar opinion when he states that “In the Bronze Age, we generally find the same types as in the modern population, with different distribution. We cannot speak of miscegenation with the Nordic race.” With regard to the modern Greeks Buxton says “the evidence of blue eyes is certainly insufficient to establish their [Nordics’] presence as a significant element in the population.”

Greek from Tinos, circa 1911; Greek sculpture of “Diadoumenos,” circa 430BC

Carleton Coon also cautions against ascribing blonde elements in Mediterranean populations to “some invasion of Goths or Scyths, or the miscegenation of Crusaders,” noting that “one of the characteristics of the Mediterranean race is a minority tendency to blondism.” Coon warns that “we cannot be sure that all prehistoric skeletal material which seems Nordic in an osteological sense was associated with blond soft parts”. The same view is echoed by Angel who states with respect to the Nordic-Iranian morphological type that “There is no reason to suppose that the Nordic-Iranian type in Greece was as blond as are Nordics in northern latitudes.” Moreover The Alpine race (prevalent in much of continental Europe) has an even greater occurrence of blondism and frequently gray eyes. W. W. Howells of Harvard University also notes that “Not all ‘Nordics’ are blond, and not all blonds are ‘Nordic,’ by any means.” American anthropologist Earnest Hooton cautions that the existence of occasional blonds in Greek literature “does not justify inflation into pseudo-histories of conquering ‘Nordic’ tribes invading the Greek peninsula.” American anthropologist W. M. Krogman put it simply: “Nordics today have not cornered the market on blondism!”

Old Cretan Man; Poseidon of Artemision

Coon, based on a sample of 113 Greeks measured in Boston linked the presence of the weak blond component (<5%) present in Greeks with Nordic origin, mainly due to its linkage with an absence of eyebrow concurrency. No such correlation emerges in Poulianos’ sample from different regions, which exceeds 3,000 individuals. Note also, that the blondest Greek group (Macedonia) has a cephalic index of 83.08, higher than the Greek average. Like in Italy, blondism in Greece is slightly correlated with broader heads. The opposite would be expected if it was Nordic in origin.

In conclusion, it is most likely that the minority blonde element in Greece is not necessarily associated with historical migrations. It is also true that the introduction of northern strains to the Greek population in various times from pre-history to recent times may have introduced more blond elements.

Literary Evidence

It is sometimes mentioned that ancient literature provides evidence for the significant existence of Nordics in ancient Hellas. It does nothing of the kind. There are numerous references to brunets in ancient mythology and literature, e.g., the Muses, Poseidon, Alcmena, Theseus, Zeus, Dionysos and Odysseus are described as possessing either dark hair or dark eyes. Hercules, the Greeks’ favorite hero is described as dark (melanan), hook-nosed (grupon) by Dicaearchus (Clement of Alexandria, “Protreptic to the Greeks” 2.30.7). Hercules was also proverbially melampugos (having a black behind) as indicative of his bravery, as opposed to pugargos (having a white behind), a coward. The Greek poetess Sappho (an aristocrat from the isle of Lesbos in the 7th c. BC) reveals that both she and her mother were dark (Fr. 98a, line 11). Philoktetes and Aias were also both brunet-skinned and black-haired (Malalas, Chronogr. 104, 3-8). The Spartan kings were Heraclids, claiming descent from Hercules. Similarly, Agamemnon and Menelaus, the Atreid leaders of the Achaeans in the Trojan War were descendants of Pelops, whose name means "dark-faced". Some have argued that Menelaus is described by Homer as xanthos to reflect the racial type of the Greek aristocracy; if this was true, how odd that the founder of his dynasty (whose name is preserved in that of the Peloponnese, lit. Pelops' Island) would be described as “dark”.

Girl from Ipati, Greece, circa 1930; Head of a female Lapith from the scene of the Battle of the Centaurs on the temple of Zeus at Olympia

We must also not neglect to mention the detailed analysis of classicist Denys Page who, in agreement with the ancient testimony of Callimachus (Fr. 299.1) demonstrates that the epithet elikôpes, collectively used for the Homeric Achaeans, probably meant “dark-eyed,” rather than “with rolling eyes” as it was erroneously thought. Eleanor Irwin, who wrote the definitive work on color terms in Greek poetry agrees with this opinion, and so does Noel Robertson who summarizes current opinion as follows: “it is clear that the meaning ‘black’ is well-founded, whereas ‘rolling’ or ‘twisting’ rests on a misunderstanding of various compounds.” Finally, some personages (e.g., Theseus and Dionysos) are portrayed in Greek literature sometimes as blond (Euripides) and sometimes as brunet (Hesiod), indicating that there was not a uniform belief about their pigmentation. The second most popular Greek hero, Theseus, founder of Athens was dark-eyed (Bacchylides 17.16-19).

Demeter (3rd c. BC)

A certain measure of naivete can excuse claims of the alleged blondeness of the ancient Greeks. Sometimes, the common-sense explanation of literary descriptions is conveniently discounted, and a generalization from sporadic references to blondes in ancient literature is performed without much thought. In an oft-used example, Orestes’ hair is described as fair, in Euripides’ Electra (line 515) as a dramatic device aiding Electra’s recognition of her brother from a lock of his hair on her father Agamemnon’s tomb. Clearly, if Orestes was depicted as brunet, the common Greek color, it would be impossible for Electra to identify him. Indeed, according to the poet, the person who left the fair lock on the tomb “certainly was no Argive” (line 517) suggesting that the inhabitants of Argos mostly had dark hair. Similarly, Demeter, the goddess of the corn is described as light-haired (xanthe) and so is Apollo, the god of light and the sun. Poseidon, the sea god is dark-haired (kuanochaites), as is Hades, god of the underworld, while Eos, the Dawn goddess is rosy-fingered (rhododaktylos).

Zeus (Olympia, 470BC)

There are only four mortals in the Iliad who are described as xanthoi. From this scanty evidence, the generalization “the Achaeans were blonde” is arrived by the Nordicists. Does the absence of descriptions of brunets signify that there were no brunets in the southernmost extremity of Europe in Mycenaean times? Clearly, such a thesis overlooks the common use of color terms as distinctive attributes of their possessors. It is more reasonable to think that Menelaos and Achilleus are described as xanthoi, while hundreds of other heroes are not as indicative that these two possessed a trait which was otherwise uncommon, i.e., light pigmentation of hair. The same can be said for light eyes as well, and e.g., Athena’s light eyes caused the scorn of Hera and Aphrodite in a text by Hyginus who presumably did not have such eyes (Hyginus, Fabulae, Marsyas).

We must also dispel the notion that xanthos always refers to yellow hair, or that purros refers to purely red hair. For the former, we note that Aristophanes used xanthizein to describe roasting meat, which of course does not turn yellow. Additionally, Strabo uses xanthotrichein and leukotrichein (making hair xanthon and making hair “white”) indicating that xanthon was a darker shade than extremely fair hair. George Cedrenus uses it to describe the eyes of the Virgin (xanthommaton); eyes are rarely yellow, unless jaundiced, which seems unlikely in this case. In modern Greek it may be used to describe any color short of black. In ancient Greek, according to Barbara Fowler was any color short of black or dark brown, while Wace believes that it may have been at most auburn. Color terms are notoriously relative; xanthos may only be taken to mean the fair end of the Greek hair continuum, not blond. This impression is enhanced by the descriptions of northern European hair as polios (gray, usually of old people) or leukon (white) to be found in Greek literature (Diodorus Siculus, Adamantius Judaeus).

As for purros it is noteworthy that the common Greek words for fiery red eruthros is not employed for hair, while purros is given by Aelius Herodianus (Partitiones 115, 10) for the color of eyes. Human eyes are never red, or so-called strawberry blond, but they are often of a brown tint mixed with red. It is certain that at least in some cases, reddish brown is intended, while in others, as e.g., in describing German hair, reddish blond may be appropriate, given the known pigmentation of Germans. It must also be remembered that no ethnic taxon of man is recorded as being primarily red-headed. Therefore, purros means having a red tinge, it does not mean redhead.

It would be worthwhile to quote here in full, the opinion of British anthropologist John Beddoe. Beddoe studied thousands of Britons and continental Europeans, and comparing his designations with that of other observers, came to realize the relativity of color terms:

Thus almost all French anthropologists say that the majority of persons in the north of France are blond; whereas almost all Englishmen would say they were dark, each set of observers setting up as a standard what they are accustomed to see around them when at home. What is darkish brown to most Englishmen would be chestnut in the nomenclature of most Parisians, and perhaps even blond in that of Auvergne or Provence; an ancient Roman might probably have called it sufflavus or even flavus.

Artistic Evidence

Greek art furnishes important information about the racial type of the ancient Hellenes. Coon in observed that the beauty ideal of a straight nose and a lithe body was borrowed from Minoan Crete which was undisputably peopled by Mediterraneans [5,11]. The characteristic nose-forehead continuity of idealistic depictions of gods and heroes is more typical of Mediterraneans than Nordics, although it was rare for ancient Greeks as it is for modern ones. Angel observes though, that his Dinaric-Mediterranean (Type F) morphological type approaches this ideal, in contrast to the Nordic-Iranian (Type D) in which the nasal bone projects at a sharp angle with the frontal bone. Indeed, Bertil Lundman, who claimed to have studied more than 20,000 individuals anthropologically, remarked that “the morphology of the Northlander must be assumed to be sufficiently known; it is necessary to stress only that a high nose bridge with a so-called Greek profile always points to foreign admixture.” Thus, the Greek profile is seen as evidence of the “Northern” character of the Ancient Greeks, yet a real expert on northern physical anthropology acknowledges that it is foreign to the Northern morphological type.

A Greek man from Paestum

Statues sometimes show traces of pigmentation; this includes different pigment types and is not uniform, representing the different hair colors among Greeks. Manzelli in a study of polychromatic Archaic Greek statuary records an incidence of only 2% of yellow hair. Manzelli also records that eye colors were black, “red,” and brown in the majority of surviving examples, with only a single example having green eyes. Mary Stieber who studied the appearance of archaic statues of young women called korai also concludes that despite the presence of light hair in some examples, “it remains a fact that yellow hair is a rarity; for this reason alone it is tempting to infer that the percentage of its occurrence in female statues on the Acropolis is largely a reflection of its occurrence in real life.” Buxton in records an interesting fact observed by Sergi, Ripley, and Deniker and the Greek anthropologist Klon Stephanos. A quote from Ripley (p.410) “these ideal heads [of the statues] are distinctly brachycephalic.” Importantly, various populations in modern Hellas who are suspected by some (for historical and linguistic reasons) to represent a relatively pure Hellenic type, the Sphakiots and Maniates are also brachycephalic. Ancient Greeks were, however, on average mesocephalic.

The German art historian, Winckelmann discusses extensively the Greek beauty ideal. The low forehead, luxurious curly hair, straight nose in continuity to the nose, large eyes and ovoid faces described by the author are typical of Southern Europe, contrasting with the small eyes, high forehead, angular features and straight hair typical of more northern climes. Winckelmann observes the similarity of modern Greeks, particularly from the islands to the classical forms, relating in particular that the Greek women of Chios are the “most beautiful of the human race.”

Female Figure

Winckelmann's impressions are supported by a modern study by Farkas et al., according to which 20% of modern Greek males have a forehead (tragion to nasion) that is lower than the normal range of white Americans, who are mostly of northwestern European descent; The lowness of the forehead was also typical of ancient Greeks. The same study discovered that 50% of Greek males and 16.7% of Greek females have an eye fissure length greater than the normal range of white Americans.

Greek pottery cannot be used directly for determining pigmentation, because most of it is bi-chromatic. It is interesting though, that in the more realistic red-figure vases, the hair is almost always painted black, creating a great contrast with the body which is white (numerous examples in). In white background lekythoi, realistic colors are used. Extreme blondness, typical of Nordic individuals is almost completely absent while many examples have hair that is black or a dark brown. Reddish brown is also present. Martin F. Kilmer, in [7: p.131, n.4] in discussing an Etruscan vase showing a blond woman says that this is “not a common Greek feature.” Thus, while examples of blonde hair in Greek art are not unknown (e.g., the Blonde Ephebe of the Acropolis, whose hair is deep yellow), they are not common.

Zeus or Poseidon Bust

Theater masks also sometimes provide information about human pigmentation; this may be especially important since in theater different character types are given stereotypical features. For example, a 4th c. BC mask of a hetaira or courtesan had colour that “seems to have been black for the brows and eyelashes and red for the hair,” while “Good Athenian girls had black hair.” As will be shown below, this agrees with the ancient literary evidence which disparages hair lightening as unfit for wise women.

Other Statements

The Greek authors themselves never made a direct statement concerning their own racial type. It was however recognized that the Greeks were darker than the northern people whose paleness and blondness is contrasted in numerous authors with the swarthiness of the Egyptians and Ethiopians. The Hellenes believed that they represented the Golden Mean in terms of appearance. It is safe to assume that they were generally darker than Northern Europeans and lighter than Egyptians. Even the Thracians to their north are usually depicted in Greek pottery with “the same dark hair and the same facial features as the Greeks”, although in some cases they are depicted as fair as well. This agrees with Poulianos’ pronouncement that the Thracians like the modern Bulgarians belonged mainly to the Aegean anthropological type, also gives the telling example of a neck amphora on exhibit at the Getty Museum in which the Homeric scene of the Achaean raid on the Trojan camp by Odysseus and Diomedes is portrayed. The Greek heroes have dark hair, while the Thracian allies of the Trojans have light hair.

In a very interesting part of his Histories (4.108-109), Herodotus describes a Scythian tribe, the Budini as “ruddy,” or “red-haired” purron and “blue/gray-eyed” glaukoi. In their land, exists a city, Gelon, inhabited by the Geloni. While the Budini are nomads, the Geloni are farmers, speak a language that is half-Greek and half-Scythian and worship Greek gods. According to Herodotus, they are Greek colonists who left their sea ports to live inland among the Budini. Interestingly, Herodotus states that the Geloni are like the fair Budini in “neither form nor coloring” [ouden ten ideen homoioi oude to chroma].

We must also mention the early testimony of Xenophanes of Colophon (6th c. BC, Fr. 13-14) who shows that people fashion the gods after their own image, and, after ironically saying “if oxen had gods they would be like oxen,” again uses the stock example of the purroi and glaukoi Thracians, contrasted with the pug-nosed (simoi) and dark (melanes) Ethiopians to show that people fashion their gods after their own image. How odd this must have seemed to his Greek audience if it included a considerable number of Thracian-like individuals!

Polykleitos Doryphoros

It would be interesting to quote here in full a passage from the Greek medical writer Galen (Galen, “Mixtures”) which contrasts the hair color of different ancient people. Note that “red” in this passage is Greek purros, a word with ambiguous meaning.

So much for the formation of the hair; we should now pass on to the features of all the incidental features of the mixtures, as regards the differences of hair according to age, place, and nature of the body. The hair of Egyptians, Arabs, Indians, and of general all peoples who inhabit hot, dry places, has poor growth and is black, dry, curly and brittle. That of the inhabitants of cold, wet places, conversely - Illyrians, Germans, Dalmatians, Sauromatians, and the Scythian types of people in general- has reasonably good growth and is thin, straight, and red. Those who live in some well-balanced land which is between these in quality have hair with extremely good growth, which is strong, fairly black, moderately thick, and neither completely curly nor completely straight. The differences due to age are analogous to these: with regard to the qualities of strength, thickness, size, and colour, infants’ hair is similar to the Germans’, hair in the prime of life to the Ethiopians’, and that of ephebes and children to the hair of people of well-balanced lands.

Aphrodite of Milos

It is clear from the preceding passage, that Greeks, who inhabited the “well-balanced lands” possessed mostly hair that was lighter in infancy and “fairly black” in adult life. It is interesting to note that according to Coon, 80% of modern Greeks have dark brown hair. The contrast between fair northerners, dark southerners and intermediate Greeks is echoed in too many places in Greek literature to note, an additional example is in Claudius Ptolemaeus Math., Apotelesmatica. Bk 4 ch. 10. Besides color, Galen also mentions that the canon of the Greek sculptor Polyclitus, which governed the proportions of the human body (Galenus Med., De sanitate tuenda libri vi. Kühn volume 6 page 127 line 1) is found mostly in Greek lands:

In our country, as in others of good climate, one may see many bodies similar [to the canon], but in Scythians, Egyptians and Arabs, not even in a dream can one expect to find such a body.

We have already mentioned the testimony of Winckelmann who found classical physiques in modern times in Greek-colonized Southern Italy. We will add that of another German, J.G. Kohl who “found the most beautiful faces and physiques, reminiscent of works by Praxiteles” in 19th c. Greece.

James Dee summarized the ancient Greek view of their differences with foreigners with regard to pigmentation as follows:

We have now seen several reasons why the Greeks and Romans do not describe themselves as a leukon genos or as albi homines—or as anything else because they had no regular word in their color vocabulary for themselves—and we can see that the concept of a distinct “white race” was not present in the ancient world. Two other, quite familiar cross-cultural oppositions help explain that fact. The classical Greeks divided humans into two classes, Hellenes, their word for themselves, and barbaroi, which originally meant “non-Greek-speaking foreigners,” and they felt with some justification, superior to all of them. They were, if anything, “Hellenic Supremacists,” and they would have laughed at the idea of “Eurocentrism” if it meant linking themselves in any serious way with those barbarian transalpine tribes.

Adamantius Judaeus

An oft-quoted passage from the 4th c. AD Jewish writer Adamantius Judaeus is used to “prove” that the original Greeks were tall, pale, blond and light-eyed. Let us not question, for the sake of argument, the knowledge of Adamantius as to the physical type of early Greek speakers already twenty five centuries in his past. Reproducing the passage in the original Greek reveals that the Greeks were moderately tall men (autarkôs megaloi andres), broader, i.e., not linear-bodied (euruteroi), with moderately firm flesh (sarkos krasin echontes metrian eupagesteran), lighter-skinned (leukoteroi tên chroan), with a medium-sized head (kephalên mesên to megethos), a strong neck(trachêlon eurôston), slightly-curly brown hair (trichôma hupoxanthon hapalôteron oulon praôs), a square face, i.e., with a broad jaw and not long (prosôpon tetragônon), narrow lips (cheilê lepta), straight nose (rhina orthên), liquid, “glad,” quick eyes full of light (ophthalmous hugrous charopous gorgous phôs polu echontas en heautois).

An Athenian woman

Let us examine this passage critically. Now, it is certain, that if the early “Hellenes” came from northern Greece, being the “descendants of Hellen and his sons” of Thessaly and Pindos, that they would be lighter in terms of pigmentation than the southern Greeks with whom they blended. Even today, in Greece, the inhabitants of the Pindos mountain range, and of northern Greece in general, tend to be lighter-skinned. Adamantius also tells us that they are moderately, not very tall, as he despises both very tall and very low stature. The same principle, common in the Greek physiognomists applies to their medium sized heads, and their brown hair, not very xanthê, whitish (agan xanthê kai hupoleukos, hopoia Skuthôn kai Keltôn) as that of Scythians and Celts which for him implies stupidity, awkwardness and savageness (amathian kai skaiotêta kai agriotêta). Of the color of the eyes of these Greeks he does not say, most notably he does not say that they were glaukoi, i.e., gray-blue, although he does say that this color is found among northern people along with white hair (leukoi tas komas) and slack flesh (sarki lagarâi), and tall stature (eumêkeis).

Adamantius thus distinguishes Greeks from northern (and southern) people in almost every anthropological attribute. They are darker-haired, their eyes are not said to be blue-gray, their flesh is firm (thin skin which wrinkles finely is typical of northern Europe), they are tall, but not very tall, and they are also broader, with medium-sized heads, slightly curly not straight hair, etc. It is thus certain, that the Greek race described by Adamantius is not that of northerners (Scythians, Celts) who as we know are themselves only partly of Nordic race.

Diadoumenos (youth tying a fillet around his head), c. 69–96 C.E., Roman copy of a Greek bronze statue by Polykleitos

To finally establish this fact, we turn to anthropology and try to find correlations between Adamantius’ description and Greeks. According to Coon, Greeks are quite tall for Europeans, as tall as northern Frenchmen, but not as tall as Scandinavians. They are relatively broad and stocky with well-developed musculature, much like their prehistoric ancestors. 90% of them have some sort of brown hair from dark to light inclining to blond. In the Near East, black hair is predominant, while in northern Europe the flaxen shades are more important. 50% have pinkish white skin and the remainder have olive white and light brown skin; few have the ruddy skin despised by Adamantius. The great breadth of the jaw is noted both by Coon as a “a Greek specialty” for the modern Greeks and by Angel for ancient ones. Angel considered it as “the most striking feature of the Greek face”. A modern study by Farkas et al. confirms this observation, noting that 53.3% of Greek males and 26.7% of Greek females have a jaw that is wider than the normal range of North American whites. The head size of Greeks is medium, not as large as e.g., Norwegians or Irishmen, but not as small as Near-Eastern people and Africans. Their hair is wavier than northern people, but not as curly as Near-Eastern ones. The nose is straight in the majority but we concede that the beauty of their eyes cannot be quantified or proven. In all other respects, the Greeks are a close match for Adamantius’ Greeks.

Class Differences in Physique?

It is sometimes maintained that the Greek citizens were of a different physical type than their slaves. This is inaccurate. Greek slaves were either of Greek origin or from neighboring lands. Some slaves from more distant lands probably existed as well, both relatively fairer (Scythians) and darker (Syrians). But on the whole, in Classical Athens at the height of its power, citizens were indistinguishable physically from metics and slaves, according to the Old Oligarch’s “Constitution of the Athenians” (written between 446-424BC) :

If the law permitted a free man to strike a slave or freedman, he would often find that he had mistaken an Athenian for a slave and struck him, for, so far as clothing and general appearance are concerned, the common people [ho demos] look just the same as the slaves and metics.

Other Literary Evidence

Some have even argued that thousands of Middle-Easterners were granted Athenian citizenship during the Peloponesian War (post-411BC) because of the shortage of manpower caused by that conflict. Such a suggestion is little more than an invention of its authors, for the only exhaustive study, by the Hungarian scholar Gyorgy Nemeth on the foreign-born residents (“metics”) up to 400BC in Athens which studied all such people whose identity is known from literature, tombstones and a variety of other sources reveals that most of them were from the Delian League (hence Greeks), or from Greek city-states close to Athens (Megara, Corinth), while the most distant point of origin was Syracuse in Sicily.

A Greek man from Tarentum

A similar argument suggests that the “original” Greeks were fair, but they mixed with the darker inhabitants of Greece. The first people known to be Greek were the Mycenaeans. British archaeologist Oliver Dickinson noted that in Mycenaean art, virtually all people are drawn with dark hair and eyes like ancient and modern Greeks:

Frescoes normally show eyes and hair as dark (one girl in the Xeste 3 fresco has reddish hair), skin conventionally as red-brown on males and white on females, as in Egypt. All are comparable with the colouring used on later Greek statues and paintings, and suggest that the early populations were similar in complexion and colouring to the ancient, and indeed the modern, Greeks, whom they might equally have resembled in variety of physical type.

Moreover, the burials at the Royal Graves of Mycenae, c. 1600BC show a variety of stature and head form representing multiple subracial types. Thus, it is safe to assume that from earliest times, the Greek aristocracy didn’t belong to a particular physical type. The main difference between aristocrats and commoners was the slightly larger size of the former, which he explains as due to better diet and social selection for positions of leadership in warfare. That the Mycenaean aristocrats were racially similar to the common Greeks was also confirmed by a more recent multi-dimensional analysis of several East Mediterranean skeletal samples by Musgrave and Evans. They found that “these Bronze Age Greeks from Attica and the Argolid [Mycenaean aristocrats] belonged to a single, homogeneous population.”

A Greek woman from Paestum

The burials at Lerna from the 3rd millennium onwards may represent a fusion of Greek and non-Greek speakers. Likewise, single tombs or clan tombs contain multiple racial types, discrediting the notion of a racially distinct aristocratic caste. Angel who sought to study the biological component of Greek achievement, by observing this heterogeneity rightfully, dismissed the claim of German Nordicist Hans F K Guenther as “absurd”, warning against “such bogeys as ‘Nordic Superiority’” underlying them. German anthropologist Ilse Schwidetzky also warns that “associating cultural decline with denordization is an extremely rash and petty conclusion.” Angel observes that criminals, who must have been drawn from the lower social strata and regular Athenians do not differ in physique. The American historian Chester G. Starr summarized the “evidence” of the Nordicist theory thus:

Nowhere in historic times is there any valid evidence that the upper classes of one area differed in culture from those of another because of racial background, nor within any one people did the upper and lower classes have basically different cultural inheritances. Modern assertions that the masters preserved a Nordic outlook and so were more capable of culture are pure nonsense, bred of modern racial prejudice, not of the ancient evidence.

More Literary Evidence

Aristotle in his Physics defines graying as the process by which hair turns from dark to grey, furnishing some evidence that the Hellenes had usually a dark hair color. Similarly, in Sophocles’ Antigone (1092-3), the chorus of Theban elders mentions that their hair has become white while it was formerly black, suggesting that, like in Argos, the people of Thebes had dark hair in youth. The author of Aristotelis Physiognomica claims that both excessive paleness and excessive swarthiness are indicative of cowardice. Aristotle in the Eudemian Ethics mentions that “some men are blue eyed (glaukoi) and others black eyed (melanommatoi) because a particular part of them is of a particular quality” without assigning any moral superiority on either of the types. In the same passage, he continues that the blue-eyed man (glaukos) does not see clearly, an error which illustrates that he did not believe in a superiority of blue-eyed individuals. Indeed, the Greeks in general were somewhat repulsed by blue eyes, because of their rarity and association with disease (cataract and glaucoma), as, a complete study of all the uses of the adjective (glaukos) shows:

Instinctive fear of blindness must be very strong among all sighted human beings, so their immediate reaction to such an eye will manifest itself in a repulsive frisson. Men will wish to ward off a similar fate from themselves. Healthy eyes of that colour therefore have something unnatural about them, and their relative infrequence in Greece proper (and, indeed, in Crete), will have aroused a similar instinctive hostility. Fear of the unknown and of the unusual would contribute to the notion that possessors of such eyes must be malign; hence the long association of blue and the Evil Eye which has lasted in Greece and the surrounding area until modern times. Not surprisingly, these feelings of hostility would be strengthened by knowledge that foreigners from the cold North - those dangerous, incursive, un-Greek people - had blue eyes.

The author of Aristotle’s On Colours mentions that infants are born with light-colored hair but their hair turns to black as they grow up. Hence, unlike Nordics who retain (to some degree) the paedomorphic trait of blondness, Hellenes appear to possess mostly dark hair in adult life.

Minoan and modern Greek Woman

Unlike statuary and pottery, most Ancient Greek painting has not survived. Fortunately, Greek originals were copied by the Romans, and several frescoes with themes from life and mythology have survived in Pompeii and Herculaneum. These were buried under tons of volcanic ashes and have been brought back, almost intact, by modern archaeology. In all scenes, men and women are given the familiar features known from the plastic arts, and are painted with vivid colors. Eyes are uniformly brown, and hair ranges from a lightish brown to black. The frescoes of Pompeii are particularly valuable because they show a virtual roster of ancient Greek heroes, indicating how these were imagined by the Greek mind.

At Last...

There are a number of references in the Greek authors in the practice of women dyeing their hair blond (e.g., in Euripides) or using artificial means (white lead) to lighten their complexion. This is taken by some as a pursuit of a “Nordic ideal.” When we read in Athenaeus’ Deipnosophists that:

Another woman has eyebrows too light: they paint them with lamp-black. Still another, as it happens, is too dark: she plasters herself over with white lead. One has a complexion too white: she rubs on rouge.

Are we to infer that lamp-black eyebrows are valued because of a “Nordic ideal?” Women have always lightened their hair because light hair is associated with youth among Caucasoid people, whose hair darkens in adult life. Indeed, the evidence suggests that Greeks were naturally dark-haired, otherwise they would not require hair lightening products. When Menander says (4th c.BC) speaks to an Athenian audience, saying that “the wise woman will not lighten her hair” is there any doubt that the practice was not seen favorably in that society? Similarly, Euripides (5th c. BC, Fr. 322) disparages hair lightening: “Eros is idle, and was born from idlers. It loves mirrors and dyeing hair [xanthismata], but avoids efforts.” And what of the use of the curling iron, as Nordics have relatively straighter hair than the people of Southern Europe and the Middle East? In this vein, one must remember that Aphrodite is described as xanthe in some authors, but is commonly depicted as brunette in Greek art, while Phryne, the famed courtesan whose beauty was renowned in antiquity, earned her nickname (phryne=toad) from her dark complexion: the same Phryne chosen by Praxiteles as a model for a statue of the goddess.

Another argument proposed by Nordicists is that because the Greeks used the word iris, usually used for the rainbow, to describe the iris of the eye, it follows that they could not be a dark-eyed people. This argument fails for three reasons. First, light eyes are not uncommon in Greece at all. They are not the norm, but they are not unusual. Most Greeks have dark eyes, but a considerable number has mixed eye shades, while pure light eyes occur in varying frequency between 2 to 10%. Second, the word iris was only introduced into the Greek language in the late 2nd c. AD (Julius Pollux Gramm., Onomasticon Bk 2 sect. 70 line 3). It is thus not a product of the early Greeks who supposedly saw light eyes all around them and named their irises after the rainbow. Third, the much earlier name for the iris of the eye was “the black” (to melan) according to Aristotle’s 4th c. BC testimony (Historia Animalium, 419b, 21).

Plato, in the Republic mentions that statues’ eyes should be painted black so that they will have the appearance of eyes, and not some exotic color. He continues that by painting eyes in proportion (i.e., black) and all other parts of the body in proportion, then the result is “beautiful.” Hence, it will appear that Plato did not find any fault with dark eyes, he believed them to be beautiful and proposed that statues be painted naturally, i.e., with black eyes.

Ion of Chios (5th c. BC) brings some examples of how poetic use of color terms (e.g. purple mouths, rosy fingers, etc.) differs from what is proper to the arts (in Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae 13, 81). Significantly, he disusses Pindar's description of Apollo (Olympic 6) where the epithet chrusokoman (golden-haired) is applied, saying that “if the painter had made the god's hair golden and not black, the painting would be worse” Thus, it appears, that the image of the god of light as golden-haired was recognized as poetic, while a normal hair color (black) was used for depicting the god.

Similarly, the goddess Athena was described as having glaukoi (blue-grey) eyes. Pausanias, the travel writer who visited all Greece and describes its artworks and monuments in detail found a statue of Athena in a temple of Hephaestus near the Ceramicus which surprised him with its glaukoi eyes. He says of this statue (Graeciae descriptio, 1, 14) “I saw the statue of Athena having blue-gray eyes, according to the Libyan myth, according to them Athena is the daughter of Poseidon and the lake Tritonis.” Thus, Pausanias ascribes the light eye color of an unusual statue of Athena with light eyes to a foreign (Libyan) myth.

In the Republic, Plato presents direct evidence that blondness might be admired for its beauty, but “dark” [melanas] men are of manly aspect:

One, because his nose is tip tilted, you will praise as piquant, the beak of another you pronounce right royal, the intermediate type you say strikes the harmonious mean,the swarthy are of manly aspect, the white are children of the gods divinely fair, and as for honey hued, do you suppose the very word is anything but the euphemistic invention of some lover who can feel no distaste for sallowness when it accompanies the blooming time of youth?

From this passage it is clear that Plato (who was an Athenian aristocrat and belonged one of the more conservative Athenian families) once again iterates the doctrine of the Mean: The most beautiful ones are the possessors of straight noses (neither concave nor convex) and the possessors of honey-colored skin, neither too pale nor swarthy. Incidentally, the type he seems to prefer is indeed the Greek type par excellence.

Greek Painting

In Conclusion:

We summarize our conclusions:

- Physical anthropology indicates a racial continuity in Greece, with main Dinaric-Alpine-Mediterranean racial elements. Racial type of aristocrats, commoners and criminals is the same.
- Greek literature furnishes evidence of brunet and fair individuals, as today, without ascribing any superiority to either type.
- Greek art shows a predominance of brunet types, with a small minority of fair ones, rarely as fair as northern Europeans and with the same physique as their brunet counterparts.
- Greek descriptions of themselves and others indicate that they were intermediate in pigmentation to northern and southern barbarians, as they are today.

Polyphemus & Galatea

Gauls - Celts - Illyrians

Cyclops Polyphemus and his wife Galatea with siblings Illyrius ,Celtus and Galas progenitors of ,the Celts, the Illyrians, and the Galatians.


Galli were priests of the Phrygian goddess Cybele


Gauls (Latin: Galli), the ancient people perceived by the Greeks and Romans as culturally or linguistically Celtic. The Galli were the priests of Cybele, whom the Romans found notable for their self-castration as an act of religious devotion.

Cybele (Phrygian: Matar Kubileya/Kubeleya; Lydian Kuvava), bile/bele = bilo/belo/bijelo; Cy-Bele = Bele-Cy = Vele-Cy (Vlachs/Volcae/Welsh)

  • Gauls (Volcae), Celts (Welsh) - Y-DNA I2a1b & I2a2
  • Illyrians (Vlachs) - Y-DNA I2a1b


Haplogrupa I2a

Y-DNA I2a1b & I2a2

Haplogrupa I2a1b

I2a1b-L621 i njegov L147.2 predstavlja preko 90% I2a1b (M423)
Maksimalne frekvencije među dinarskim narodima (Slovenci, Hrvati, Bošnjaci, Srbi, Crnogorci i Makedonci), kao i u Bugarskoj, Rumunjskoj, Moldaviji, zapadnoj Ukrajini i Bjelorusiji, a u manjoj mjeri u Albaniji, Grčkoj, Mađarskoj, Slovačkoj, Poljskoj i jugozapadnoj Rusiji.

I2a1b-L161.1 poznat po genetskom rodoslovlju kao "I2-M423 " s najvišim frekvencijama u zapadnoj Irskoj (5-10%), i škotskom gorju (1-5%), također može se naći (> 1%) u srednjoj i zapadnoj Europi, od Skandinavije do sjeverozapadne Španjolske. Također je pronađen u Albaniji, sjevernoj Grčkoj, Bugarskoj i Rumunjskoj.

Haplogrupa I2a2

I2a2a3 (Z161 +) najveći je od četiri grane I2a2a nalazi se pretežno u germanskim zemljama, s posebno visokom koncentracijom u Danskoj, Njemačkoj, Nizozemskoj, Engleskoj i na sjeverozapadu Sicilije. Niže gustoće je u ostatku Europe, od Portugala do Rusije.

I2a2a2 (L701 +) ima vrlo široku distribuciju. Nalazi se u srednjoj Europi u Njemačkoj, Poljskoj, Rumunjskoj i Ukrajini, u nižim frekvencijama u Grčkoj, Italiji, Francuskoj, Španjolskoj, Engleskoj, Irskoj, i Armeniji. Upadljivo je odsutan u Skandinaviji i Škotskoj.

I2a2a1 (M284 +) javlja se isključivo u Velikoj Britaniji.

I2a2a4 (L1229 +) tipičan je za Englesku, Normandiju (kao i u drugim dijelovima Francuske), središnje i sjeverne Njemačke. Također je pronađen kod engleskih prezimena u Irskoj. Veća gustoća je u Njemačkoj i Engleskoj nego u Danskoj i Francuskoj, te izostanak na Siciliji.

I2a2b ima distribuciju uglavnom ograničenu na alpskoj Italiji, Švicarskoj, njemačkom Porajnju, Harz planinama, Nizozemskoj, istočnoj Francuskoj, i Britanskom otočju (s izuzetkom Cornwall, Wales, Cumbria i škotskim gorama).


Colchis, Iberia, Albania & Armenia

Colchis, Iberia and Albania

Great Britain

The earliest known reference to the inhabitants of Britain seems to come from 4th century BC records of the voyage of Pytheas, a Greek geographer who made a voyage of exploration around the British Isles between 330 and 320 BC. Although none of his own writings remain, writers during the time of the Roman Empire made much reference to them. Pytheas called the islands collectively αἱ Βρεττανίαι (hai Brettaniai), which has been translated as the Brittanic Isles; he also used the term Pretannike. The peoples of these islands were called the Πρεττανοί (Prettanoi), Priteni, Pritani or Pretani. The group included Ireland, which was referred to as Ierne (Insula sacra "sacred island" as the Greeks interpreted it) "inhabited by the race of Hiberni" (gens hibernorum), and Britain as insula Albionum, "island of the Albions".

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, which was originally compiled by the orders of King Alfred the Great in approximately 890, and subsequently maintained and added to by generations of anonymous scribes until the middle of the 12th century, starts with this sentence: "The island Britain is 800 miles long, and 200 miles broad, and there are in the island five nations: English, Welsh (or British, including the Cornish), Scottish, Pictish, and Latin. The first inhabitants were the Britons, who came from Armenia, and first peopled Britain southward."

  • Iberia > race of Hiberni
  • Albania > Island of the Albions
  • Colchis > Celts
  • Armenia > Illyria (Armeno-Dinaric race)



Caucasus - Colchian culture

Colchian culture

Prehistory and earliest references

The eastern Black Sea region in antiquity was home to the well-developed Bronze Age culture known as the Colchian culture, related to the neighboring Koban culture, that emerged toward the Middle Bronze Age. In at least some parts of Colchis, the process of urbanization seems to have been well advanced by the end of the second millennium BC, centuries before Greek settlement. The Colchian Late Bronze Age (fifteenth to eighth century BC) saw the development of significant skill in the smelting and casting of metals. Sophisticated farming implements were made, and fertile, well-watered lowlands and a mild climate promoted the growth of progressive agricultural techniques.

Colchis was inhabited by a number of related, but distinct, tribes whose settlements lay along the shore of the Black Sea. Chief among those were the Machelones, Heniochi, Zydretae, Lazi, Chalybes, Tabal/Tibareni/Tubal, Mossynoeci, Macrones, Moschi, Marres, Apsilae, Abasci, Sanigae, Coraxi, Coli, Melanchlaeni, Geloni and Soani (Suani). These Colchian tribes differed so completely in language and appearance from the surrounding Indo-European nations that the ancients provided various wild theories to account for the phenomenon.

Colchian art

Colchian gold diadem

Herodotus regarded the Colchians as an Ancient Egyptian race. Herodotus states that the Colchians, with the Ancient Egyptians and the Ethiopians, were the first to practice circumcision, a custom which he claims (without historical proof) that the Colchians inherited from remnants of the army of Pharaoh Sesostris. Herodotus writes, "For it is plain to see that the Colchians are Egyptians; and what I say, I myself noted before I heard it from others. When it occurred to me, I inquired of both peoples; and the Colchians remembered the Egyptians better than the Egyptians remembered the Colchians;  the Egyptians said that they considered the Colchians part of Sesostris' army. I myself guessed it, partly because they are dark-skinned and woolly-haired; though that indeed counts for nothing, since other peoples are, too; but my better proof was that the Colchians and Egyptians and Ethiopians are the only nations that have from the first practised circumcision."

Apollonius of Rhodes states that the Egyptians of Colchis preserved as heirlooms a number of wooden tablets, which show, with considerable accuracy, seas and highways.

According to Pliny the Elder:The Colchians were governed by their own kings in the earliest ages, that Sesostris king of Egypt was overcome in Scythia, and put to fight, by the king of Colchis, which if true, that the Colchians not only had kings in those times, but were a very powerful people.


Early historian Livy (59 BC–AD 17) mentioned it, as did Pliny the Elder (23–79), who mentioned it as Olcinium, its old name Colchinium, "founded by [settlers from] Colchis" (Olchinium quod antea Colchinium dictum est a Colchis conditum). Ptolemy (90–168) mentions the city as Greek Oulkinion (Ουλκίνιον).


Koban culture c. 1100 - 400 BC

Y-DNA G2a2, J2 & R1b

Bronze axe with iron inlay decoration from Klin-Yar, c. 700 BC

Legend of Kouzan-Am Lake

Legend has explicit parallels with Biblical Sodom and Gomorrah, and the Islamic Lot. The story tells us that there once there was a very rich settlement at the place where now there is a lake. Despite their wealth, the people of this city were very greedy. Once God Dela sent his representatives in the guise of beggars, to test people. They asked all residents to give them food, but residents of the city in response to abused and driven away, and only one poor family in the village shared with them their food.

Legend has it that a poor family left a burnt bread for themselves and gave a piece of white bread for their guests. Leaving the house, the guests told the family that after some time has passed, behind the front door water will be collected in puddles, and when this happens they should gather the bare necessities, leave their home, and go to the mountains. Since poor families do not disobey and so did everything as they told to do by the guests.

They told the rich of the impending disaster, and asked to follow them, but their greed would not allow them to leave their treasures. That the evening the family watched a terrible catastrophe, they saw the water cover their house along with those who remained. In memory of terrible events Vainakhs named the lake, lake of sorrow and cruelty, Kezanoi lake.







Urnfield culture, c. 1300 - 750 BC

Urnfield culture

Typical burial of cremation urn.

In the Knovíz-culture, human bones with cut-marks and traces of burning have been found in settlement pits. They have been interpreted as evidence for cannibalism. As these bones form a large part of the burials known this may have been a quite regular treatment including the ritual manipulation and dismemberment of human corpses. Moon-shaped clay fire dogs are thought to have a religious significance, as well as crescent shaped razors.

The numerous hoards of the Urnfield culture and the existence of fortified settlements (hill forts) were taken as evidence for widespread warfare and upheaval by some scholars. Written sources describe several collapses and upheavals in the Eastern Mediterranean, Anatolia and the Levant around the time of the Urnfield origins:

  • End of the Mycenean culture with a conventional date of c. 1200 BC
  • Destruction of Troy 1200 BC
  • Battles of Ramses III against the Sea Peoples, 1195–1190 BC
  • End of the Hittite empire 1180 BC
  • Settlement of the Philistines in Canaan c. 1170 BC

More recently Robert Drews, after having reviewed and dismissed the migration hypothesis, has suggested that the observed cultural associations may be in fact partly explained as the result of a new kind of warfare based upon the slashing Naue II sword, and with bands of infantry replacing chariots in warfare. Drews suggests that the political instability that this brought to centralised states based upon maryannu chariotry caused the breakdown of these polities.

Preceded by; Unetice culture & Mycenaean Greece
Followed by: Hallstatt culture


Lichtenstein Cave, c. 1000 BC

Y-DNA I2b2, R1a & R1b


Lichtenstein Cave


Felix Schilz (2006), of the University of Göttingen, extracted the DNA of 34 skeletons from the Lichtenstein Cave (1,000 BCE) in the Harz mountains of central Germany. Using short tamdem repeats (STR) variances, 11 male individuals were assigned to Y-DNA haplogroup I2b2, two to haplogroup R1a and the last one to R1b. On the maternal side, 16 samples belonged to mitochondrial haplogroups H, 5 to haplogroup J (including one J1b1), 5 to haplogroup T2, 8 to haplogroup U (including five U5b and one possible U2).


Hallstatt culture, c. 800 - 500 BC

Hallstatt culture

Followed by: La Tène culture

La Tène culture - Cernunnos / Celts

Gundestrup Cauldron


Polyphemus & Galatea

The Loves of Acis and Galatea by Alexandre Charles Guillemot (1827)

Polyphemus is the one-eyed giant son of Poseidon and Thoosa in Greek mythology, one of the Cyclopes described in Homer's Odyssey.
His name means "abounding in songs and legends". Polyphemus first appears as a savage man-eating giant in the ninth book of the Odyssey. Some later Classical writers link his name with the nymph Galatea and present him in a different light.

Galatea (Γαλάτεια; "she who is milk-white")


Polyphemus - Gigantes

Arnold Bocklin's painting of Polyphemus standing on rocks onshore and swinging one of them back as the men row desperately over a surging wave.

Neki ugledni stručnjaci za Homerovu Ilijadu i Odiseju smatraju da na Mediteranu ne postoji mjesto koje bi bolje odgovaralo opisu Homerova Kozjeg otoka i Otoka Kiklopa od otočića Šćedra i južne obale Hvara koja je u neposrednoj blizini. Šćedro u potpunosti odgovara opisu Kozjeg otoka: ima sigurne uvale, u povijesti je veoma rijetko bilo nastanjeno, a jedini stalni stanovnici su sve donedavno bile koze. Južna obala Hvara, preko puta Šćedra, špiljama je najbogatije područje na Mediteranu, a to je upravo ono što, prema Homerovu opisu, Odisej vidi s Kozjeg otoka. Upravo Grapčeva špilja na Hvaru veličinom i oblikom najbolje odgovara opisu špilje Kiklopa Polifema kojeg je Odisej oslijepio.


Oko je tijelu svjetiljka - Third Eye


"Oko je tijelu svjetiljka. Ako ti je dakle oko bistro, sve će tijelo tvoje biti svijetlo. (23) Ako ti je pak oko nevaljalo, sve će tijelo tvoje biti tamno. Ako je dakle svjetlost koja je u tebi - tamna, kolika će istom tama biti?" - Matej

"Nitko ne užiže svjetiljku da je stavi u zakutak ili pod posudu, nego na svijećnjak da oni koji ulaze vide svjetlost. (34) Oko je svjetiljka tvomu tijelu. Kad ti je oko bistro, sve ti je tijelo svijetlo. A kad je ono nevaljalo, i tijelo ti je tamno. (35) Pazi dakle da svjetlost koja je u tebi ne bude tamna. (36) Ako ti dakle sve tijelo bude svijetlo, bez djelića tame, bit će posve svijetlo, kao kad te svjetiljka svojim sjajem rasvjetljuje." - Luka

Eye of Horus - Third Eye


Ajna je šesta glavna čakra prema tradiciji joge i hinduizma. Zove se još čeona čakra ili i treće oko. U prijevodu, ajna znači znanje, spoznaja.
Ajna čakra prikazana je sa 2 latice kojima pripadaju slogovi ham i ksham. U središtu je mantra KSHAM ili OM . Ajna je tamnoplave, indigo boje.

Ajna čakra se nalazi na sredini čela iznad korijena nosa, između obrva. Dvije latice ajna čakre predstavljaju dva energetska kanala Ida i Pingala koji ju spajaju sa središnjim energetski kanalom Sušumna prije izdizanja krunske čakre Sahasrara. Na lijevoj latici se nalazi slog ham, a na desnoj latici je slog ksham, bija mantre za božanstva Šiva i Šakti.

Ajna se podrazumijeva kao čakra uma. Kada se nešto vidi u snu ili "okom uma", viđeno je zapravo Ajnom.

U Ajna čakri se nalazi božanstvo Ardhanarishvara kao hermafrodit Šive i Šakti, simbolizirajući dualnost subjekta i objekta, Šiva je tu kozmička svijest, a Šakti životna snaga. Još jedno božanstvo koje se nalazi u Ajni je Šakti Hakini, androgini bog koji predstavlja i muško i žensko. Dvije latice predstavljaju dualnost, a krug je praizvor bitka.

Yin Yang - Shiva Shakti

Duhovni razvoj, kundalini, na razini čeone čakre omogućuje intuitivnu spoznaju, viđenje stvarnosti nadvladane dualnosti, samospoznaju, sjedinjuju se intelekt i intucija, muško i žensko, nema dualnosti samo "prava" slika, svijest mira.

Ajna - Third Eye - Vesica piscis



Jesus Nazaren - Prosvjetljen

Another example is the word “Nazorean”- which is usually interpreted by Biblical readers as “watcher”. However, in Sanskrit, the “Nazor” was the name of the third eye said to be opened at illumination. A “Nazorean” is then one whose third eye would be open, which may, in fact allude to the "eye of Deity" featured in the MM degree. Obviously this also alludes to Jesus the Nazoren - which is usually incorrectly interpreted as "Jesus of Nazareth" from the Greek. This third eye related to the pineal gland, situated right above and between the two eyes, which is in charge of regulating the glands of the autonomic nervous system. It also looks like a small pine cone which is where it gets its name from. This is obviously also the area where it could be argued that one is prepared to be made a MM by the third ruffian. Some have suggested that the Greeks would put a pine cone on top of a rod to lead their initiates into the mysteries for this reason as well, and in some depictions of the Greek god Hermes, his rod with snakes on it culminates with a pine cone on top and two wings. - Timothy W. Hogan

Jesus - Vesica piscis

Ivan Krstitelj Nazarećanin

No anđeo mu reče: "Ne boj se, Zaharija! Uslišana ti je molitva: žena će ti Elizabeta roditi sina. Nadjenut ćeš mu ime Ivan. Bit će ti radost i veselje i rođenje će njegovo mnoge obradovati. Bit će doista velik pred Gospodinom. Ni vina ni drugoga opojnog pića neće piti. - Luka

Nazirejski zavjet

Jahve reče Mojsiju: "Govori Izraelcima i reci im: 'Ako tko, bilo čovjek ili žena, položi nazirejski zavjet te se posveti Jahvi, neka se suzdržava od vina i svakoga opojnog pića. - Brojevi

Kletva nazarejima

Kletva koja je uvedena kao sastavni dio dnevnih molitava te su je svi sudionici bogoslužja u sinagogi morali naglas izgovarati: "Neka otpadnik bude bez ikakve nade i neka kraljevstvo ponosa bude iskorijenjeno u naše doba. Neka nazareni i minimi nestanu u trenutku, neka svi budu izbrisani iz knjige života da se ne mogu ubrojiti medu pravednike. Blagoslovljen budi, o Bože, koji obaraš ponosite."


Četrdeset dana gladovanja - Prosvjetljen

Kundalini yoga

Zatim Mojsije uzađe na brdo, a onda oblak prekri brdo. (16) Slava se Jahvina nastani na Sinajskom brdu i oblak ga obavijaše šest dana. Sedmoga dana zovne Jahve Mojsija isred oblaka. (17) Slava Jahvina na vrhuncu brda bijaše očima Izraelaca kao vatra koja sažiže. Mojsije zađe u oblak i uspne se na brdo. (18) Četrdeset dana i četrdeset noći boravio je Mojsije na brdu.

Mojsije zađe u oblak i uspne se na brdo. Četrdeset dana i četrdeset noći boravio je Mojsije na brdu. .. Mojsije ostade ondje s Jahvom četrdeset dana i četrdeset noći. Niti je kruha jeo niti je vode pio. Tada je na ploče ispisao riječi Saveza - Deset zapovijedi. Napokon Mojsije siđe sa Sinajskog brda. Silazeći s brda, nosio je u rukama ploče Svjedočanstva. Nije ni znao da iz njegova lica, zbog razgovora s Jahvom, izbija svjetlost. - Izlazak

Lord Shiva - Surya Mudra

Duh tada odvede Isusa u pustinju da ga đavao iskuša. I propostivši četrdeset dana i četrdeset noći, napokon ogladnje. .. Otada je Isus počeo propovijedati: "Obratite se jer približilo se kraljevstvo nebesko!" - Matej

Isus se, pun Duha Svetoga, vratio s Jordana i Duh ga četrdeset dana vodio pustinjom, gdje ga je iskušavao đavao. Tih dana nije ništa jeo, te kad oni istekoše, ogladnje. .. A Isus se u snazi Duha vrati u Galileju te glas o njemu puče po svoj okolici. I slavljen od sviju, naučavaše po njihovim sinagogama. I dođe u Nazaret, gdje bijaše othranjen. I uđe po svom običaju na dan subotni u sinagogu te ustane čitati. Pruže mu Knjigu proroka Izaije. On razvije knjigu i nađe mjesto gdje stoji napisano: Duh Gospodnji na meni je jer me pomaza! - Luka

Isus i sveci se često prikazuju sa surya mudrom i suncem oko glave, Surya je sunčani bog

Ea was originally patron god of the city of Eridu, but later the influence of his cult spread throughout Mesopotamia and to the Canaanites, Hittites and Hurrians. He was associated with the southern band of constellations called stars of Ea, but also with the constellation AŠ-IKUthe Field (Square of Pegasus). Beginning around the second millennium BCE, he was sometimes referred to in writing by the numeric ideogram for "40", occasionally referred to as his "sacred number". The planet Mercury, associated with Babylonian Nabu (the son of Marduk) was, in Sumerian times, identified with Enki.




Bindu (Sanskrit: बिंदु) is a Sanskrit word meaning "point" or "dot". A bindi is a small, ornamental, devotional dot applied to the forehead in Hinduism.

In metaphysics, Bindu is considered the point at which creation begins and may become unity. It is also described as "the sacred symbol of the cosmos in its unmanifested state". Bindu is the point around which the mandala is created, representing the universe.

Bindu is often merged with [seed] (or sperm) and ova. In the Yoga Chudamani Upanishad Bindu is a duality, with a white Bindu representing shukla (pure) and a red Bindu representing maharaj (mastery). The white Bindu resides in the bindu visarga and is related to Shiva and the Moon, while the red Bindu resides in the muladhara chakra and is related to Shakti and the Sun. In yoga, the union of these two parts results in the ascension of kundalini to the sahasrara.

What does Bindu mean?

Bindu is a Sanskrit term meaning “point” or “dot.” In Indian philosophy and religion, bindu has several related connotations, but is usually considered the point from which creation begins and where it is ultimately unified. The feminine case of the word is bindi, which denotes a small ornamental, devotional dot affixed to the forehead in Hinduism. Sometimes this bindi dot is considered to represent bindu, the point of Consciousness from which the universe originates.

In Tantra, bindu symbolizes Lord Shiva, who is the source of creation. Bindu can also denote the silent point that is the source of all sacred sound. Most yantras and mandalas – both ritual designs, often circular or geometric – have the bindu at their center.

Yogapedia explains Bindu

Bindu is sometimes referred to as a type of consciousness or the transition point into pure consciousness. Bindu is the internal point of convergence of the yogic practices of meditation, mantra, contemplation and prayer. At the individual level, experiencing bindu and then transcending it leads to enlightenment, or unity with the higher Self. At the universal level, all existence originates from bindu and will return to bindu when physical life ends.

Although not one of the seven main chakras, the bindu chakra is important in Tantra yoga for its healing properties. This chakra lies at the back of the head about five inches from the top of the skull. When this chakra is not activated, it is similar to a dot, but when charged, the bindu chakra energy of vitality and health begins to flow. In the Tantric tradition, bindu chakra is thought to hold a special nectar (amrit) that helps the practitioner reach enlightment. Both shoulder stand pose and headstand pose are yoga postures that open the bindu chakra.


Japodes, Iapodes (Posenoi) - Bindus

Argead dynasty

Neptune - Yuya - Japodes

Njihov glavni bog bio je Vodenbog Bindus, ruševine čijeg hrama s više žrtvenika su nađene kod Bihaća i on približno odgovara rimskom Neptunu. Drugo je njihovo božanstvo bio Vidassus tj. bog liječništva, te božica izvora Thana koja je slična rimskoj Dijani i njezin reljef u kamenu je nađen nad izvorom kod Jastrebarskog. Japodski etnički totem je bio lik konja, a također su štovali i svete zmije kao duhove svojih predaka.

  • Bindus (Posenoi) = Posedone


Strabon je na temelju nejasnih legenda smatrao Japode mješancima Kelta i Ilira, ali o tom keltskom udjelu nema arheološke potvrde u njihovoj kulturi, osim nešto keltskog oružja najviše uz Kupu, koje je među njih vjerojatnije stiglo trgovinom sa susjednim sjevernim Tauriscima. Ovi Kelti se doseljuju u susjedstvo Japoda tek kasnije u 4. st., kada je japodska kultura već razvijena pa imaju metalurgiju i rudarstvo pola tisućljeća prije dolaska Kelta.

U rano doba su se slobodni Japodi često zakapali u pećinama, a kasnije s drvenim lijesovima u zidane obiteljske grobnice na padinama ispod gradine, ili su se dijelom spaljivali i spremali u pogrebne urne najviše na istoku uz Unu pod utjecajem ostalih Ilira. Na ozemlju Japoda uglavnom nisu poznate obredne gomile u obliku kamenih kurgana kakve su česte kod južnijih Dalmata. Također u grobovima razmjerno miroljubivih Japoda, kao ni u južnijim grobovima Liburna gotovo nikada nije priloženo oružje, nasuprot ratobornim Dalmatima i drugim jugoistočnim Ilirima gdje je oružje redovito i obilno u muškim grobovima.

Ličla kapa

lička kapa je izvedba kape od Japoda. Tijekom brončanog doba Japodi su koristili brončanu ploču kao podlogu kape koja je bila obložena tekstilom ili kožom i pričvršćena brončanim rubom. Od svih kratkih okruglih kapa, lička kapa najbliža je kapama na ilirskim brončanim ulomcima.

Ličla kapa

"Vidite! Jahve je po imenu pozvao Besalela, sina Urijeva, od koljena Hurova a iz plemena Judina. (31) Njega je napunio duhom Božjim, dao mu umješnost, sposobnost i razumijevanje u svim poslovima: (32) da zamišlja nacrte i da radove izvodi od zlata, srebra i tuča; (33) da reže dragulje za umetanje; da urezuje u drvetu i da umješno radi svaki posao. (34) Njemu i Oholiabu, sinu Ahisamakovu, od plemena Danova, udijeli i sposobnost da poučavaju druge. (35) Obdari ih umještvom u svakom poslu rezbarskom, krojačkom, veziljskom i tkalačkom; oni tkaju tkanine od ljubičastog, crvenog i tamnocrvenog prediva i prepredenog lana, sposobni su u svakom poslu i vješti u nacrtima.

Besalel, Urijev sin, iz koljena Hurova od plemena Judina napravio je sve što je Jahve Mojsiju naredio. (23) S njim je bio Oholiab, sin Ahisamakov, iz plemena Danova, rezbar, krojač i vezilac za ljubičasto, crveno i tamnocrveno predivo i prepredeni lan.

Ličla kapa

Ličla kapa

Ramesses V Index Illyrians