Bronze Age in Europe

Indo-European expansion - Y-DNA G2a & R1a, R1b, J

 
Haplogroup R1a - Haplogroup R1b

The Bronze Age saw the development of long-distance trading networks, particularly along the Atlantic Coast and in the Danube valley. There was migration from Norway to Orkney and Shetland in this period (and to a lesser extent to mainland Scotland and Ireland). There was also migration from Germany to eastern England. Martin Richards estimated that there was about 4% mtDNA immigration to Europe in the Bronze Age.

Another theory about the origin of the Indo-European language centres around a hypothetical Proto-Indo-European people, who traced in the Kurgan hypothesis, to north of the Black and Caspian Seas at about 4500 BC. They domesticated the horse and possibly invented the wheel, and are considered to have spread their culture and genes across Europe. The Y haplogroup R1a is a proposed marker of these "Kurgan" genes, as is the Y Haplogroup R1b, although these haplogroups as a whole may be much older than the language family.

The rate of their physical expansion would have declined at the western edge of the steppe, but carriers of the R1a haplogroup are present in substantial numbers as far west as Germany. The Kurgan culture and language went farther, carried by the R1b haplogroup, and eventually replacing most cultures and languages all the way to the Atlantic. During the Iron Age, Celts are recorded as having moved from Gaul into Italy, Eastern Europe and Anatolia. The relationship between the Celts of Gaul and Spain is unclear as any migration occurred before records exist.

In the far north, carriers of the Y-haplogroup N arrived to Europe from Siberia, eventually expanding as far as Finland, though the specific timing of their arrival is uncertain. The most common North European subclade N1c1 is estimated to be around 8,000 years old. There is evidence of human settlement in Finland dating back to 8500 BCE, linked with Kunda culture and its putative ancestor Swiderian culture, but the latter is thought to have European origin. The geographical spread of haplogroup N in Europe is well aligned with the Pit–Comb Ware culture, whose emergence is commonly dated c. 4200 BCE, and with the distribution of Uralic languages. Mitochondrial DNA studies of Sami people, Haplogroup U5 are consistent with multiple migrations to Scandinavia from Volga-Ural region, starting 6,000 to 7,000 years before present.

The relationship between roles of European and Asian colonists in the prehistory of Finland is a point of some contention, and some scholars insist that Finns are "predominantly Eastern European and made up of people who trekked north from the Ukrainian refuge during the Ice Age". Farther east, the issue is less contentious. Haplogroup N carriers account for a significant part of all non-Slavic ethnic groups in northern Russia, including 37% of Karelians, 35% of Komi people (65% according to another study), 67% of Mari people, as many as 98% of Nenets people, 94% of Nganasans, and 86% to 94% of Yakuts.

 

The Bronze Age and the Indo-European migrations - Eupedia

The origin of the Indo-European peoples is a subject that has caused much ink to flow among archaeologists and historians. Their Urheimat (original homeland) has been speculated to lie in Anatolia, around the Caucasus, in Iran, in India, in Central Asia, in Russia, or even in Scandinavia. Thanks to Paleogenetics we now know that these people expanded during the Late Copper and Early Bronze Age from the Pontic Steppe to the North of the Black Sea and the Caucasus. There seems to have been two distinct, though closely related, groups of tribes speaking the Proto-Indo-European language, from which descend almost all the European languages today (apart from Basque, Hungarian, Estonian, Finnish and Sami) as well as Armenian, Kurdish, Persian and most North Indian languages. Tribes belonging mainly to the paternal haplogroup R1a reportedly occupied the North of the steppe (forest-steppe and tundra), while in the South (open steppe) were nomadic cow herders belonging mainly to haplogroup R1b.

Their migration both westward to Europe and eastward to Central and South Asia makes it easy to infer which mtDNA haplogroups they carried (=> see also Identifying the original Indo-European mtDNA from isolated settlements). The best matches for R1a are C4a, H1b, H1c, H2a1, H6, H11, K1b1b, K1c, K2b, T1a1a1, T2a1b1, T2b2, T2b4, U2e, U4, U5a1a, W, and several I subclades.

The R1b branch would have originated in eastern Anatolia and/or northern Mesopotamia/Syria during the Early Neolithic period, where they probably domesticated cattle and became primarily cattle herders. Then would have migrated to the western part of the Iranian plateau, crossed the Caucasus to the Pontic Steppe in search for pasture for their cattle, where they mixed to some extent with I2a2 and R1a tribes that inhabited those lands. The maternal lineages of these Near Eastern R1b people would have included haplogroups H5a, H6, H8, H15, I1a1, J1b1a, K1a3, K2a6, U5, and some V subclades (like V15).

MtDNA haplogroups H4 has not been found in Europe before the Late Chalcolithic (Corded Ware culture) and the Early Bronze Age (Unetice culture) and might have been brought by the Indo-Europeans. Likewise, H6 is absent from all Mesolithic or Neolithic samples, and its strong presence in the North Caucasus and Central Asia supports an Indo-European connection.

 

Y-DNA based studies

A 2010 study of modern genetic diversity suggested that the lineage R1b1b2 (R-M269), like E1b1b or J lineages, spread together with farming from the Near East. Prior archaeological and metrological studies had arrived at similar conclusions in support of the migrationist model. By this model, 80% of European Y chromosomes descend from incoming farmers, and most mtDNA from hunter-gatherers.

However, in 2011, a study has argued there to be serious flaws in the above proposed model, denouncing the perceived overgeneralization inherit in the studies of Baleresque 2010. Furthermore, Busby et al. 2012 point out "For this haplogroup to be so ubiquitous, the population carrying R1b-S127 would have displaced most of the populations present in western Europe after the Neolithic agricultural transition". Clearly common sense dictates that this did not happen. Also they go on to show that within the European specific R1b-M269 sub-lineage, defined by SNP S127, there exists distinct sub-haplogroups and at this level there exists several "geographically localized pockets, with individual R1b-M269 sub- haplogroups dominating". Their conclusions were that it is likely that R1b-S127 was already present in native European populations and grew into several geographically distinct sub-lineages across Europe before Neolithic expansion occurred.

In 2015, a thorough study by Haak et al.about ancient DNA, concluded, however, that both R1a and R1b very likely spread into Europe from the Pontic-Caspian steppe after 3,000 BCE. There was a paucity of haplogroup R1b (or any other variant of R1) in European population samples predating the Bronze Age, with only one of the 70 individuals from Mesolithic and Neolithic Europe belonging to haplogroup R1. Among the analyzed male samples taken from Yamna culture sites, however, all possessed haplogroup R1b. Analysis of modern Europeans' autosomal DNA also gives support to a large population displacement from the steppe into Europe.

 

Baden / Globular Amphora culture

Y-DNA G2a, I2a2 & R1a, R1b, J


Baden culture, c. 3600 - 2800 BC - Globular Amphora culture, c. 3400 - 2800 BC

 

Genetika europe 3000 BC

Internacionalni tim znanstvenika je usporedio prastaru genetičku kartu Europe s današnjom situacijom. Uz pomoć istraživanja DNK na skeletima prapovijesnih Europljana koji su nastanjivali naš kontinent prije 7500 do 4000 godina, otkriveno je kako po majčinoj liniji 45% Europljana nosi neolitsku genetiku i to genetiku koja je prije misteriozne promjene u genofondu prastarih mezolitičkih lovaca sakupljača, bila zastupljena sa samo 19%.

Voditelj tima znanstvenika dr. Alan Cooper je za online tiskovinu Daily Mail, rekao sljedeće:

"Nešto se jako važno dogodilo u to vrijeme, a mi sada pokušavamo shvatiti o čemu je bila riječ."

Najstariji skeleti čija je genetika bila u potpunosti drugačija od današnjih europskih haplotipa, iskopani su u centralnoj Njemačkoj. Zahvaljujući takvim nalazima diljem našeg kontinenta, genetičari su uspjeli napraviti preciznu kronološku mapu u kojoj se vidi koliko se situacija na terenu promijenila diljem Europe i to gotovo u trenu.

DNK je otkrila da su današnji Europljani po ženskoj liniji (mitohondrijska DNK) naslijedili takozvanu H haplogrupu s kretanjem prvih poljoprivrednika sa Srednjeg Istoka prema Njemačkoj od prije 7500 godina. No negdje prije pet milenija, ti genetički markeri su gotovo u potpunosti nestali, točnije zamijenjeni su drugačijom genetikom u nekoliko stotina godina.

 

Corded Ware culture, c. 2900 BC - 2350 BC

Y-DNA R1b & R1a, R1a1


Corded Ware culture

 

Archaeogenetics

Haak et al. (2008) extracted the mitochondrial DNA of 7 skeletal materials from a grave in Eulau (2,600 BCE). The remains belonged to mitochondrial haplogroups H, U5b, K1a2 and K1b (2 samples), I and X2. The Y-chromosomal DNA of two of the men was successfully extracted and found to belong to haplogroup R1a1.

Genetska studija provedena od strane Haak et al. (2015) utvrdili su da je veliki udio podrijetlo stanovništva kabelom Ware kulture došao iz Yamnaya kulture, prateći porijeklo je kabelom keramičke kulture u migracijama na Yamnaya iz stepa 4500 godina. Oko 75% DNK kasnoneolitičke kabelom Ware kostura pronađenih u Njemačkoj bio podudaraju s DNK od pojedinaca iz Yamnaya kulture. U istom istraživanju je procijenjena na 40-54% prinos od predaka Yamnaya u DNA moderne srednje i sjevernim Europljana i doprinos za 20-32% u suvremenim Southern Europljana, osim Sardinians (7.1% ili manje), te manjoj mjeri Sicilijanci (11,6% ili manje). Haak et al. Također, imajte na umu da su njihovi rezultati „sugeriraju” da haplogrupe R1b i R1a „proširila u Europu s Istoka poslije 3.000 godina prije Krista.”

Preceded by; Dnieper-Donets culture > Yamna culture

Followed by Trzciniec culture, c. 1900 - 1200 BC > Lusatian culture, c. 1300 - 500 BC

Lusatian culture

Hoards in swampy areas are considered by some archaeologists (Hãnsel) as 'gifts for the Gods'. Human bones in 5 m deep sacrificial pits in Lossow (Brandenburg) might point to human sacrifice and possible ritual cannibalism.

 

Beaker culture, c 2800 - 1800 BC

Y-DNA I2a, G2a2 & R1b

 

  • Melchior et al. (2010) managed to retrieve two mtDNA sequences from the Damsbo site (2200 BCE) in Denmark, which belonged to haplogroups U4 and U5a2a.
  • Lee et al. (2012) retrieved the DNA of eight skeletons (6 in individual graves and 2 in double graves) in a cemetery located at Kromsdorf, Thuringia, Germany. The samples were dated between 2600 and 2500 BCE. Six mtDNA sequences were obtained and attributed to haplogroups U2e, U5a1, T1a, K1, I1 and W5a. The Y-DNA of two skeletons was also tested and assigned to haplogroup R1b (including one positive for M269, but negative for the Germanic S21/U106).

 

Woodhenge - Child sacrifice

Construction of the timber monument was probably earlier, the ditch has been dated to between 2470 and 2000 BC, which would be about the same time as, or slightly later than, construction of the stone circle at Stonehenge. Radiocarbon dating of artefacts shows that the site was still in use around 1800 BC.

The site consists of six concentric oval rings of postholes, the outermost being about 43 by 40 metres (141 by 131 ft) wide. They are surrounded first by a single flat-bottomed ditch, 2.4 metres (7.9 ft) deep and up to 12 metres (39 ft) wide, and finally by an outer bank, about 10 metres (33 ft) wide and 1 metre (3.3 ft) high. With an overall diameter measuring 110 metres (360 ft) (including bank and ditch,) the site had a single entrance to the north-east.

At the centre of the rings was a crouched inhumation of a child which Cunnington interpreted as a dedicatory sacrifice, its skull having been split. After excavation, the remains were taken to London, where they were destroyed during The Blitz, making further examination impossible. Cunnington also found a crouched inhumation of a teenager within a grave dug in the Eastern section of the ditch, opposite the entrance.

List of bog bodies

 

Tumulus culture, c 1600 - 1200 BC

Y-DNA G2a2 & R1b


Tumulus culture

Tumulus culture is distinguished by the practice of burying the dead beneath burial mounds (tumuli or kurgans).

The Tumulus culture was eminently a warrior society which expanded with new chiefdoms eastward into the Carpathian Basin (up to the river Tisza), and northward into Polish and central European Únětice territories, with dispersed settlements centred in fortified structures.

The Kyffhäuser caves in Thuringia contain headless skeletons and split human and animal bones that have been interpreted as sacrifices. Other deposits include grain, knotted vegetable fibres and hair and bronze objects (axes, pendants and pins). The Ith-caves (Lower Saxony) have yielded comparative material.

In the Knovíz-culture, human bones with cut-marks and traces of burning have been found in settlement pits. They have been interpreted as evidence for cannibalism.

 

Human sacrifice

Celts

According to Roman sources, Celtic Druids engaged extensively in human sacrifice. According to Julius Caesar, the slaves and dependents of Gauls of rank would be burnt along with the body of their master as part of his funerary rites. He also describes how they built wicker figures that were filled with living humans and then burned. According to Cassius Dio, Boudica's forces impaled Roman captives during her rebellion against the Roman occupation, to the accompaniment of revelry and sacrifices in the sacred groves of Andate. Different gods reportedly required different kinds of sacrifices. Victims meant for Esus were hanged Tollund Man, those meant for Taranis immolated and those for Teutates drowned. Some, like the Lindow Man, may have gone to their deaths willingly.

Archaeological evidence from the British Isles seems to indicate that human sacrifice may have been practised, over times long pre-dating any contact with Rome. Human remains have been found at the foundations of structures from the Neolithic time to the Roman era, with injuries and in positions that argue for their being foundation sacrifices.

On the other hand, ritualised decapitation was a major religious and cultural practice which has found copious support in the archaeological record, including the numerous skulls discovered in Londinium's River Walbrook and the 12 headless corpses at the French late Iron Age sanctuary of Gournay-sur-Aronde. - Wicker man

Slavic peoples

In the 10th century, Persian explorer Ahmad ibn Rustah described funerary rites for the Rus' (Scandinavian Norsemen traders in northeastern Europe) including the sacrifice of a young female slave. Leo the Deacon describes prisoner sacrifice by the Rus' led by Sviatoslav during the Russo-Byzantine War "in accordance with their ancestral custom."

According to the 12th-century Russian Primary Chronicle, prisoners of war were sacrificed to the supreme Slavic deity Perun. Sacrifices to pagan gods, along with paganism itself, were banned after the Baptism of Rus' by Prince Vladimir I in the 980s.

Archeological findings indicate that the practice may have been widespread, at least among slaves, judging from mass graves containing the cremated fragments of a number of different people.

Germanic peoples

Human sacrifice was not a particularly common occurrence among the Germanic peoples, being resorted to in exceptional situations arising from crises of an environmental (crop failure, drought, famine) or social (war) nature, often thought to derive at least in part from the failure of the king to establish and/or maintain prosperity and peace (árs ok friðar) in the lands entrusted to him.

Human sacrifice

 

Indo-European expansion


Indo-European expansion


Unetice culture, c. 3300 - 1200 BC

Y-DNA G2a2, I2c, I2a2, I2b-L161


Nebra sky disk

 

 

 


Unetice culture

 

Nebra sky disk - Seven little Vlachs

The disk as preserved was developed in four stages (Meller 2004):

  1. Initially the disk had thirty-two small round gold circles, a large circular plate, and a large crescent-shaped plate attached. The circular plate is interpreted as either the Sun or the full Moon, the crescent shape as the crescent Moon (or either the Sun or the Moon undergoing eclipse), and the dots as stars, with the cluster of seven dots likely representing the Pleiades.
  2. At some later date, two arcs (constructed from gold of a different origin, as shown by its chemical impurities) were added at opposite edges of the disk. To make space for these arcs, one small circle was moved from the left side toward the center of the disk and two of the circles on the right were covered over, so that thirty remain visible. The two arcs span an angle of 82°, correctly indicating the angle between the positions of sunset at summer and winter solstice at the latitude of the Mittelberg (51°N). Given that the arcs relate to solar phenomena, it is likely the circular plate represents the Sun not the Moon.
  3. The final addition was another arc at the bottom, the "sun boat", again made of gold from a different origin.
  4. By the time the disk was buried it also had thirty-nine holes punched out around its perimeter, each approximately 3 mm in diameter.
1) On the left the full moon, on the right the waxing moon, and between and above, the Pleiades 2) Arcs were added on the horizon for the zones of the rising and setting sun; individual stars were shifted and/or covered 3) Addition of the "sun boat" 4) Diagram of the disk in its current condition (a star and a part of the sun-or full moon-have been restored)

U sazviježđu bika su plejade (vlašići), zvane sedam sestara. Sunce na proljetni ekvinocij ulazi u sazviježđe bika, plejade navješćuju proljeće. Zašto je sin božji preko zime bio zmija i u proljeće bik. Upravo zato jer u makrokosmosu na proljetni ekvinocij na sjevernoj hemisferi sunce tj. sin božji je ulazilo u sazviježđe bika, to je značilo buđenje života i vegetacije.

Kršćani slave baš 29.11. Advent ili Došašće, znači dolazak sina božjeg kao zmije. U Grčkoj su se tada slavile seoske Dionizijske svečanosti, Dioniz kao bik se slavio u proljeće kao gradske Dionizijske svečanosti. Ovo je ušlo u kršćanstvo, 12.12. se slavi sv. Dionizija, a 8. i 19.4. Dionizije mučenik i Dionizije korintski.

Isto tako je Demetra, boginja zemlje, plodnosti tj. ženski aspekt koji se slavi u proljeće sa sinom božjim u kršćanstvu pretvorena u sv. Demetrija i slavi se 9.4.

 

Volcae - Walh - Seven little Vlachs

Gauls

Pokorny suggested that Illyrian elements were to be found in much of the continental Europe and also in the British Isles.

The English words "Wales" and "Welsh" derive from the same Germanic root (singular Walh, plural Walha), which was itself derived from the name of the Gaulish people known to the Romans as Volcae.

The Volcae were highly influential in Moravia, and together with the Boii and the Cotini and other Danubian tribes, they controlled a highly active network of trade routes connected to the Mediterranean and the German lands. The prowess of these tribes and their proximity led to their name being borrowed into Germanic as *Walhaz, a generic term for "Celt" and eventually "Roman" as the two cultures merged in time. This word has been applied widely to any former Roman provincials, including the Welsh, Italians, and French. Compare: English Welsh, Flemish Dutch waalsch "Walloons", German welsch "French", Switzerland German Churwelsch "Churer Romance" (an old name for Romansh, which used to be spoken in Chur), Old Norse Valir "Roman; French". The word was also borrowed by the Slavs, who used it to refer to the Vlachs. Polish applied it not only to Vlachs (Wołosi) but also Italians (Włosi); the same pair of ethnonyms also exist in Czech: Valaši (= Vlachs or Wallachians) & Vlaši (= an archaic denomination for Italians). Moreover, Hungarian name of Italy (Olaszország) and the archaical ethnonym Oláhok (meaning Wallach, i.e., Romanian) are derived from the same root.

Valachie; Walahi = BiLahi = BiLha, LaBan (Bijel, Sjajan, Svijetao) Korjen BL/LB; Sanskrit śveta "to be white or bright", Slavonic světŭ "light", English white (Korjen WT).

Frankish language *blank, Proto-Germanic *blankaz ‎(“bright, shining, blinding, white”‎), Proto-Indo-European *bʰleyǵ- ‎(“to shine”‎), Catalan, Occitan and French *blanc, Spanish *blanco, Italian *bianco, Galician-Portuguese *branco, Dalmatian *blank, etc.

 

Vučedol culture, c. 3000 - 2200 BC

Y-DNA G2a2, I2, T1a


Vučedol culture

The early stages of the culture occupied locations not far from mountain ranges, where copper deposits were located, because of their main invention: making tools from arsenical copper in series reusing double, two-part moulds.

 

Vučedolska golubica


Vučedolska golubica

Vučedolci su postali i izvrsni ljevači i kovači bakra. Vučedolski ljevači i kovači izrađivali su uglavnom bakreno oruđe i oružje tehnikom lijevanja u dvodijelne glinene kalupe. Posebno su poznate njihove plosnate sjekire. Na povišenom dijelu naselja u Vučedolu pronađena je „kuća ljevača bakra”, vrsta hrama posvećenoga bogu kovača. U njoj su nađeni ostatci peći za lijevanje, a pokraj nje pronađen je i najpoznatiji predmet vučedolske kulture – Vučedolska golubica.

 „… Taj bez premca najpoznatiji predmet i za laika simbol vučedolske kulture zapravo je šuplja figura ptice nasađena na tri noge. Na glavi ima otvor, što ukazuje na njezinu funkciju kultne posude. Njezin zatvoreni volumen možda djeluje pomalo strogo, ali izuzetno fino izvijena leđa i prijelaz u rep pokazuju svu vještinu i nadahnuće davnoga vučedolskog umjetnika. Tijelo golubice ukrašeno je tipičnom vučedolskom ornamentikom izvedenom rovašenjem, a na vratu se triput ponavlja spomenuti motiv labrisa…”
(Dimitrijević, Stojan; Težak-Gregl, Tihomila; Majnarić-Pandžić, Nives. 1998. Prapovijest, Naprijed. Zagreb.)

 „… Nova istraživanja Vučedola 1984. godine pokrenuo je Gradski muzej Vukovara s Arheološkim zavodom Filozofskog fakulteta u Zagrebu i Arheološkim muzejom u Zagrebu. Stručni voditelj tog projekta dr. Aleksandar Durman i arheologinja Marina Miličević-Bradač iznijeli su nedavno mišljenje da posuda zapravo prikazuje jarebicu. U nastojanju da zaštiti gnijezdo, jarebica pred progoniteljima, lovcima, hramlje kako bi ih zavarala da je ranjena. Hroma ptica prerasta u simbol hromog boga poput starogrčkoga Hefesta, boga vatre i kovačkog umijeća, te postaje znak kovinarstva. Činjenica da Vučedolska golubica, tj. jarebica, ima tri nožice i tako podsjeća na tronožac koji se smještao na otvoreni plamen pruža dodatnu potkrepu takvom zaključku.”
(Hrvoje Gračanin. 2008. "Vučedolska kultura". Meridijani. Br. 125.)

Na nalazištu Gradac kod Vučedola u četiri odvojene rupe pronašli smo tijela muške i ženske osobe, ostatke jelena, poznate Vučedolske golubice i ostatke petero djece stare do četiri godine. Pretpostavljamo da je razlog žrtvovanja bilo paljenje nove peći – kaže kustosica muzeja Mirna Crnković.

Vučedolci su postali i izvrsni ljevači i kovači bakra. Vučedolski ljevači i kovači izrađivali su uglavnom bakreno oruđe i oružje tehnikom lijevanja u dvodijelne glinene kalupe. Posebno su poznate njihove plosnate sjekire.

 

Hvarsko-lisičićka kultura

Y-DNA I2

Način života

Po dosadašnjim arheološkim ostacima i nalazima, prvenstveno u Lisičićima, čovjek toga doba, došao je sa šireg prostora Mediterana, a nastavio živjeti pod kontinentalnim uticajem. Bavio se uzgojem pojedinih vrsta žita, voća i povrća, imao je svoj fond domaćih životinja. Po velikom broju životinjskih kostiju, lov je ipak ostao najvažnije zanimanje i osnovni izvor hrane. Komunicirao je sa susjedima (arheološki nalazi potvrđuju dodire između pojedinih neolitskih grupa), ali taj jezik je ostao nepoznat. Bilo je to vrijeme zatvorene rodovske organizacije, sa mirnim životom u zatvorenim seoskim naseljima bez ratnih sukoba, gotovo pacifistički mirnim načinom života. O tome potvrdu daju iskopine jer nigdje nije utvrđeno iznenadno napuštanje ili spaljivanje naselja od nekog osvajača (da je bilo takvih sukoba u slojevima zemlje bi se sigurno našlo tragova tih pojava, kao npr. ugljena, pepela i sl.). Svaka je grupa živjela mirnim životom baveći se sticanjem dobara za svakodnevni život kontaktirajući i razmjenjujući robe i iskustva, i takav miran razvoj je trajao sve do kraja III mil.p.n.e.. - Hvarsko-lisičićka kultura

 

Helladic, Cycladic, Minoan culture

Y-DNA E-V13, G2a, I2, I2a, T1a

Aegean ships


Aegean ships

Followed by Uruk III & Dilmun

 

Cycladic culture, c. 3200 - 2000 BC


Cycladic culture

 

   

   

   

   


Cycladic figures

 


Cycladic art - History of the Cyclades - Cyclades

Followed by Keros-Syros culture, Grotta-Pelos culture, Phylakopi I culture, Kydonia

 

Early bronze age in Europe, c. 2800 to 2500 BC - Eupedia

 

Haplogrupa I2a - Dinaric

 
Dinaric/Armenoid race - Haplogroup I2a1

According to Y-Full, this subclade formed already 5500 years ago, but existed in very marginal numbers throughout the next 3300 years (ca. 130 generations) - starting a more serious demographical expansion only around 2200 years ago (TMRCA according to Y-Full). I suppose, that between 5500 ybp and 2200 ybp. Around year 200 BC they started to mixing with neighbouring R1a groups and forming the Proto-Slavic community.

  • I-CTS10228 (5091 YBP) -> donekle kraj Cucuteni-Trypillian kulture, širenje "Indoeuropljana" (R1a, R1b) u Europi
    • Jemdet Nasr period (Uruk III) - Anu Ziggurat - White Temple, c. 3100 BC
      • I-S17250 (2348 YBP) Dalmatae, c. 330 BC
        • TMRCA (zadnji predak grane tj. eskpanzija) je 1818 YBP (132 CE) prema izračunu od zadnje zabilježenih mutacijskih grana I-Y4882 (2017 YBP), I-Y5596 (1978 YBP), I-Z16983 (1735 YBP; 215 CE, pretpostavljam kako toj grani pripada većina balkanskog I2a-Dinaric), koje trenutno imaju premalo datiranih uzoraka za ikakvo konkretno tumačenje
          • TMRCA I-Z16983 je 1550 YBP (400 CE), što jasno ukazuje na aktivnost uzrokovanu ratovima Huna i Ostrogota, a baš nikakvu aktivnost Avara i migraciju Slavena od 6. do 8. stoljeća.


Jemdet Nasr period (Uruk III), 3100 - 2900 BC

Physical anthropologists have not usually distinguished in their craniological studies between Armenoid skulls and other types of brachycephals. The peculiarities of the Armenoid skulls do not readily find metric expression nor are they clearly described by indices. A very high skull rising to an apex at the crown, short and broad and with extremely long and curving nasal bones associated with a long face--these are the salient cranial features. For the early historic period in the Near East, skeletal materials are as yet extremely scanty. It is not until we begin to get sculptural or pictorial representations of Asiatics on ancient monuments that we are enabled to recognize the presence of the type with certainty. According to Sir Arthur Keith, the Sumerian crania of the fourth millennium B.C. are not at all Armenoid but represent a big, dolichocephalic type of skull which must be assigned to what one may broadly call the Mediterranean subrace. It is, nevertheless, apparent from a study of sculptured remains and other representations of Sumerians of the fourth and third millennium B.C. that the characteristic Armenoid nose and head form were already well represented in that people. The so-called "standard" of Ur, a panel of mosaic in shell and lapis lazuli, with figures arranged in rows and dating from about 3500 B.C., shows many human figures representing the Sumerian army. Nearly all of teh 50 individuals represented on this plaque show the characteristic Armenoid profile which beaky nose merging into forehead slope. Most of the soldiers wear pointed, almost conical helmets. About one half of the men are unhelmeted prisoners. At least five of these have pointed, flat-backed heads. A statuette of a Sumerian ruler of the early part of the third millennium excellently delineates this most prominent of nasal appendages and shows also the typical continuity of the slope of the nasal bridge with that of the forehead. From these and other Sumerian monuments, it is clear that the Armenoid type was represented among this ancient people long before their civilization was overcome by Babylonians. An even more grotesquely Armenoid type(female) is represented in a stone statuette from the temple of Khafaje, Jemdet Nasar period(before 3000 B.C.)

Lyrist & singer

 
Cycladic figures - Standard of Ur

Similarly, an Indo-Sumerian statue from Mohenjo-daro in the valley of the Indus, India, represents a bearded man with an Armenoid nose and a pointed head. This statue must go back to the second or third millennium B.C. Babylonian, Assyrian, and Hittite monuments clearly show the prevalence of these bearded Armenoids in Anatolia and Mesopotamia throughout historical antiquity. It seems altogether probable that the center of development of this subrace was in Asia Minor. From there it spread southward to Arabia and eastward at least as far as India. Writing is generally supposed to have originated from the conventionalization of pictographs having a magical or religious significance. It would, then, be the invention of holy men and priests. I should think it highly probable, however, that the necessity of keeping accounts drove inventive Armenoids to a reduction of holy to commercial writ at some very early period. It was of more importance to individuals to reckon profit and loss in business than to record victories and defeats in war. Again, prayers may well be rendered vocally, but prmissory notes ought to be put in black and white.

 
Dracon & Dracaena (divine couple)

Because of the lack of clear distinction in craniological studies between Armenoid and Alpine crania, considerable uncertainty prevails as to the prehistoric distribution of the Armenoid race in Europe. Apparently no great extension into Europe of this physical type in its purity occurred in prehistoric times, so far as can be judged from archeological remains. It seems clear, nevertheless, that the oriental phase of the first Early Iron Age, generally called the Hallstatt period in central Europe and dating from about 700 to 500 B.C., witnessed a considerable diffusion of Armenoids from Asia Minor into the Balkan Peninsula, Greece, Italy, and probably other areas adjacent to Asia Minor. The Etruscans almost certainly came from Asia Minor and settled in Italy about the eighth century B.C. And there is reason for believing that they were in some degree Armenoid. - Hooton

The Dinaric-Mediterranean type F1 is the lighter more Mediterranean version found in Lower Egypt or Anatolia; F2 is the broader bigger-faced more Dinaroid version, rarely with less curved occiput; and F3 is the low-headed East Balkan version with some Iranian face features. Type F4, with its more Iranian face and short vault and with little occipital bulge diverges toward the Armenoid of Bunak and others. Note that type F never has the "flat" occiput of Dinaric and Armenoid types; this occiput is probably artificial(head-binding) in any case.

Dinaric-Mediterraneans (Type F: Chalcidian, Corinthian, and E. Thessalian in Plate XL, j, k, and l) are the least Alpine of two intermediate, hybrid, Alpinoid forms. Their short (high mesocrane) and relatively high byrsoid heads have pinched and flatly sloping foreheads and non-projecting occiputs. They have big and drooping, hound-like, faces with an elongated hexagonal outline, stemming from striking (though variable) flare of the cheek region. Face height is emphasized in their long and thin noses pulled down almost parallel with their foreheads, in high palates, and in long deep jaws. Dinaric-Mediterraneans are medium tall, long-necked, and presumably mainly brunet. They resemble both dinaricised Mediterraneans from Lower Egypt in the third and second millennia BC and dinaricised Alpines including inhabitants of the Roman Troad, modern Greeks from Anatolia and European Turkey, Serbs and Croats, and Slovenes. Type F is homogeneous but shows divergences toward linearity on the one hand and toward true brachycrane Dinaric makeup on the other. - Lawrence Angel

Presumably, the development to Dinarids and to Armenids occurred in parallel. Still, some investigators want to localize a common center of origin in the Balkans, others in Armenia, or even in the Caucasus. The Carpathids are probably a parallel case to these Bell-Beaker people. They originated from Armenid metal-seekers in mixture with the Pre-East-Alpine older population in metal-rich northern Hungary. In this case, it must be remembered that the relatively large, somewhat curved nose is inherited as a dominant trait.

We also find some other old, eastern, round-skulled and high-skulled, dark strains, which are higher in the frequency of blood type gene q, in some of the coastal regions of West Europe. These strains are our Litorid race. They are approximately equivalent to Deniker's Litoral race. The coastal regions where these strains are found include: the Swedish western coast, northwestern Jutland, the Dutch province of Zeeland, Kent in England, northeastern Scotland (where the frequency of blood type gene q reaches almost 10%), the Isle of Man, southwestern Ireland (Valentia), western Wales, Cornwall, and western France (Brittany, Gironde).

There is an especially strong concentration of Litorids in the old mining regions of southwestern Spain. ("Tharsis" on the Rio Tinto is only the ancient name of a modern mine). The Litorids are found deep into the interior of Spain and further east on the south coast around Cadiz and Malaga.

In the Mediterranean Sea region, however, we so strongly approach on the island of Malta and around Naples, Italy the present area of dispersal of the Armenid race that the question is no more of the same interest. Naturally, many descendants of later migrants from the Near East also dwell in the above-named areas.

Peake and Fleure, who dealt with these problems in their ten-volume series The Corridors of Time, explained these racial occurrences in terms of seekers of noble metals and also amber coming from the Near East. In part, these migrations took place in the very early Bronze Age. However, at that time the coastal region of the eastern Mediterranean Sea was inhabited almost only by low-skulled and long-skulled Arabids.

Round-skulled and high-skulled Armenids had just reached the innermost northeastern corner of the Mediterranean Sea in greater number from the northeastern part of the Near East in the early Bronze Age. This may possibly give an indication that the Armenids brought the art of copper-mining with them to Cyprus from their old home. All this is extremely problematical. Still many of the existing occurrences of Litorid strains in outlying regions of western Europe are not at all explainable through eventual migrations in historical times.

We have previously discussed the similar ancestors of the Carpathids in eastern Central Europe, as well as the Bell-Beaker people of prehistory. These two groups with their almost exclusively inland distribution still were not identical with the Litorids whose forefathers almost always settled near seacoasts. It appears probable that all three groups were only different parts of a great early-metallic culture-stream from the northern Near East.

The Etruscans migrated to Tuscany in Italy from adjacent regions in the Near East on the threshhold of history. The Etruscans came to Europe with similar goals. They also were characterized by an anthropological structure similar to the Litorids. The descendants of the Etruscans still survive in great number, especially in the metal-rich southern part of Tuscany. In this part of Italy we find relatively high values of blood type gene q. - Bertil Lundman

From France to Macedonia, and from Istanbul to Samarkand, are found populations in which the majority of persons present a characteristic morphology of the head and face; with a brachycephalic skull, often flattish in the occipital region, the foramen magnum and auricular passages set disproportionately far to the rear, the forehead often sloping, the face frequently elongated, and the nose salient and frequently convex. People who possess these characteristics have been lumped together in one or more races; the Dinaric in Europe, the Armenoid in Asia, and the Noric to include the blond varieties. It is biologically unsound, however, to postulate any historic unity for individuals of these so-called races, since they are products not of an historical association but of a biological principle. - Coon

The second theory is that some vague and unexplainable evolutionary process occurs when Mediterranean types are exposed to a mountainous climate. The problem with this is that not everyone who lives in a mountain environment is Dinaric, and plenty of Dinarics live in totally flat environments.

 

Dinaric Armenoid

Dinaric is a full Europoid mutation of Armenoid and a sign of ancient West Asian ancestry in Europe

First "Dinarics", from North Bulgaria (Eneolitik)

Dinarics" Asia Minor/Caucas.

Bronze age Mesopotamia

From Lower Egypt or Anatolia.

Dinaric arrived with Mediterranid race nevertheless. Dates also coalescence nicely, 12th/11th century BC.

 

Aquiline nose - Jews & Dinaric race

The European phenotypes with Dinarid nose are the follow:

- Dinarid (Balkans, Central Europe)
- Norid (light Dinarid, Central Europe)
- Carpathid (Central Europe)
- Keltic Nordid (Western Europe, esp. British Isles)
- Baskid (Western Europe)


Jemdet Nasr period

Uruk III, c. 3100 - 2900 BC

Jemdet Nasr ("Small mound of Nasr") experienced breakthrough in the development of art, urban culture, writing, trade and irrigation technology, which increased its importance. During this period numerous small Mesopotamian settlements developed into major cities, and the earliest cylinder seals came into use in southern Mesopotamia.

The main features of the Jemdet Nasr are copper objects and pottery (large jars, bowls, spouted vessels and cups), usually painted black and red geometric patterns. Another pottery forms found at the site include painted pots depicting both geometric motifs and depictions of animals, including birds, fish, goats, scorpions, snakes and trees.

The pottery and cylinder seals clearly mark the difference between Jemdet Nasr period (circa 3100-2900 BC) Jemdet Nasr and the proceeding Uruk period.

The cuneiform tablets, second in age only to those discovered at Uruk, mostly deal with agricultural administration, and some are covered with seal impressions, of which one – the so-called “City Seal“ impression, contains symbols for many neighboring cities including Ur, Nippur, Zabalam, Larsa and Kesh, and accompanying inscriptions which suggest these cities were some kind of a league, possibly engaged in sending offerings to Uruk.

The Jemdet Nasr period represents the final stage before the Sumerian Early Dynastic Period began in southern Mesopotamia.

No evidence for far-reaching trade-contacts, exotic goods or precious stones were found, but Jemdet Nasr must have had intensive regional contacts with several cities in southern Mesopotamia, including Larsa, Nippur, Ur, Uruk and Tell Uqair. Power was concentrated in the hands of kings-priests and religion played an important role in social life of the city. During the Jemdet Nasr period increased the number of cities, temples and buildings.
Sophisticated irrigation techniques were used for growing plants, which was very important due to inadequate rainfall.

The production of bronze, an alloy of copper and other metals, mainly tin, allowed the production of new weapons, and fortifications around the villages and city walls were built for for better protection.

Jemdet Nasr period

Followed by Dilmun & Hurrians (Aryan)

 

Uruk


Uruk

Uruk was one of the most important cities (at one time, the most important) in ancient Mesopotamia. According to the Sumerian King List, it was founded by King Enmerkar sometime around 4500 BCE.  Located in the southern region of Sumer (modern day Warka, Iraq), Uruk was known in the Aramaic language as Erech which, it is believed, gave rise to the modern name for the country of Iraq (though another likely derivation is Al-Iraq, the Arabic name for the region of Babylonia). The city of Uruk is most famous for its great king Gilgamesh and the epic tale of his quest for immortality but also for a number of `firsts’ in the development of civilization which occurred there. It is considered the first true city in the world, the origin of writing, the first example of architectural work in stone and the building of great stone structures, the origin of the ziggurat, and the first city to develop the cylinder seal which the ancient Mesopotamians used to designate personal property or as a signature on documents. Considering the importance the cylinder seal had for the people of the time, and that it stood for one’s personal identity and reputation, Uruk could also be credited as the city which first recognized the importance of the individual in the collective community. The city was continuously inhabited from its founding until c. 300 CE when, owing to both natural and man-made influences, people began to desert the area. It lay abandoned and buried until excavated in 1853 CE by William Loftus for the British Museum.

The Uruk Period

The Ubaid Period (c. 5000-4100 BCE) when the so-called Ubaid people first inhabited the region of Sumer is followed by the Uruk Period (4100-2900 BCE) during which time cities began to develop across Mesopotamia and Uruk became the most influential. The Uruk Period is divided into 8 phases from the oldest, through its prominence, and into its decline based upon the levels of the ruins excavated and the history which the artifacts found there reveal. The city was most influential between 4100-c.3000 BCE when Uruk was the largest urban center and the hub of trade and administration. In precisely what manner Uruk ruled the region, why and how it became the first city in the world, and in what manner it exercised its authority is not fully known. The historian Gwendolyn Leick writes, “The Uruk phenomenon is still much debated, as to what extent Uruk exercised political control over the large area covered by the Uruk artifacts, whether this relied on the use of force, and which institutions were in charge. Too little of the site has been excavated to provide any firm answers to these questions. However, it is clear that, at this time, the urbanization process was set in motion, concentrated at Uruk itself” (183-184). Since the city of Ur had a more advantageous placement for trade, further south toward the Persian Gulf, it would seem to make sense that city, rather than Uruk, would have wielded more influence but this is not the case.

The city was most influential between 4100-c.3000 BCE when Uruk was the largest urban center and the hub of trade and administration.

Artifacts from Uruk appear at virtually every excavated site throughout Mesopotamia. The historian Julian Reade notes, “Perhaps the most striking example of the wide spread of some features of the Uruk culture consists in the distribution of what must be one of the crudest forms ever made, the so-called beveled-rim bowl. This kind of bowl, mould-made and mass-produced, is found in large numbers throughout Mesopotamia and beyond” (30). This bowl was the means by which workers seem to have been paid: by a certain amount of grain ladled into a standard-sized bowl. The remains of these bowls, throughout all of Mesopotamia, suggest that they “were frequently discarded immediately after use, like the aluminum foil containing a modern take-away meal” (Reade, 30). So popular was the beveled-rim bowl that manufacturing centres sprang up throughout Mesopotamia extending as far away from Uruk as the city of Mari in the far north. Because of this, it is unclear if the bowl originated at Uruk or elsewhere (though Uruk is generally held as the bowl’s origin). If at Uruk, then the beveled-rim bowl must be counted among the many of the city’s accomplishments as it is the first known example of a mass-produced product.

The City Districts & Gods

The city was divided into two sections, the Eanna District and the older Anu District, named for, and dedicated to, the goddess Inanna and her grand-father-god Anu, respectively. The famous Mask of Warka (also known as `The Lady of Uruk’) a sculpted marble female face found at Uruk, is considered a likeness of Inanna and was most likely part of a larger work from one of the temples in her district. The Eanna District was walled off from the rest of the city but it is unclear if this was for ceremonial purposes or if, in building the newer Eanna District, the builders required a wall for some reason. The historian Samuel Noah Kramer suggests that Anu, the male god, presided over the early city until the rise in popularity of his daughter Inanna and, at this time, she was given a private dwelling, complete with a wall, in the Eanna District. Since temples were considered the literal dwelling place of deities on earth, and since Inanna is regularly depicted as a goddess who very much preferred things her own way, perhaps the walled district was simply to provide her with some privacy. Kramer also notes that, even though Inanna continued to be a popular deity throughout Mesopotamia (eventually merging into Ishtar) goddesses declined in power and prestige at the same time, and at the same rate, as women’s rights deteriorated. This being the case, perhaps the Eanna district was walled off to restrict access to a male priestly class. As with much concerning Uruk’s history, however, this theory remains largely speculation.


Facade of Inanna's Temple at Uruk

Inanna played a pivotal role in the mythological history of Uruk as it was she who stole the sacred meh from her father-god Enki at the sacred city of Eridu and brought them to Uruk. The meh were, in the words of Kramer (who first translated the cuneiform) “divine decrees which are the basis of the culture pattern of Sumerian civilization.” As Eridu was considered, by the Sumerians, the first city created by the gods and a place holy to them, the removal of the meh to Uruk signified a transference of power and prestige from one city to the other. In the tale of Inanna and The God of Wisdom, Enki god goes to great lengths, once he finds the meh are stolen, to have them brought back to Eridu – but in vain. Inanna has tricked her father and now Uruk, not Eridu, would be the seat of power. Eridu was associated with rural life and the primordial sea from which life sprang; Uruk was the embodiment of the new way of life – the city. The story would have provided an ancient Mesopotamian with the reason why Eridu declined in importance and Uruk rose to the heights it did: it was the work of the gods.

Uruk's Importance & Long Decline

During the Early Dynastic Period (2900-2334 BCE), which followed the Uruk Period, Uruk was still the seat of power in the region, though in a much diminished state, and the major dynasties of the time ruled from the city. The great wall of Uruk, which was said to have been built by King Gilgamesh himself, still rose around the city when King Eannutum forged his First Dynasty of Lagash in 2500 BCE and established the first empire in the region. The later king of that empire, Lugal-Zage (also known as Lugalzagesi), so admired the city that he chose Uruk as his capital and seat of power. When Sumer was brought under the rule of the Akkadian Empire in 2334 BCE, Sargon of Akkad continued to pay special reverence to Uruk and the sacred districts of Inanna and Anu continued in use and, in fact, were renovated and improved upon.


Pottery Dish from Uruk Period

Even though the city lost the position of pre-eminence it had enjoyed during the Uruk Period, it continued to play an important position down through the Ur III Period (2047-1750 BCE). The Third Dynasty of Ur governed in such a way as to give birth to a Sumerian Renaissance and Uruk benefited from this as much as the rest of the region. With the fall of the city of Ur in 1750 BCE and the invasion of Sumer by Elamites, along with the incursions of the Amorites, Uruk went into decline along with the rest of Sumer.


Uruk

Uruk

Uruk

Uruk

 

Anu District - Uruk III


Anu Ziggurat

 

Anu Ziggurat - White Temple

The Anu Ziggurat began with a massive mound topped by a cella during the Uruk period c 4000 BC and was expanded through 14 phases of construction, labeled L to A3 (L is sometimes called X). Interestingly, the earliest phase, used typology similar to PPNA cultures in Anatolia; a single chamber cella with a terazzo floor beneath which, bucrania were found. In phase E, corresponding to Uruk III period c 3000 BC, the White Temple was built.

 

Who Is Anu?


Anu

The Sumerian god of the sky and head deity and ruler of the highest realm, Anu was the child of Ansar and Kisar, the very first set of gods and descendants of primordial beings. Anu was known as the father of the 50 great gods, and ruler of the stars and the spirits. Anu, Enlil and Enki were the trinity that ruled over the heavens, the earth and the seas. Anu is sometimes referred to as “An”. “An” translates from the Sumerian language as “high one” and the name Anu eventually became synonymous with “god”.

Origin

Sumer was the southern region of ancient Mesopotamia, considered the cradle of civilization. Today, the area forms part of the countries of Iraq and Kuwait. Sumer means “land of the civilized kings” in Akkadian, the language of northern Mesopotamia. When the gods initially gave humans the gifts required for cultivating a society, the first city of Eridu was created in the region of Sumer. It was here that order and civilization originated.

Records of Anu date back to at least 3,000 B.C., making him one of the oldest of the gods. Originally known as “An”, he was later called Anu by the Akkadians who were the rulers of Mesopotamia after their conquest of Sumer. In the stories of Mesopotamian mythology, the earth was separated from heaven at the beginning of time.

Family of Anu

The parents of Anu are Ansar and Kisar, the first gods who were created by the primordial beings Apsu and Tiamat.

Anu is also known as the Great Bull, as he had several female companions. The first was Ki, goddess of the earth. Anu and Ki were identified as brother and sister in some ancient literature. With Ki, Anu had 50 princely offspring, also known as the “great gods” and the Annuna. Later on, with Nammu the goddess of the sea, Anu fathered Enki (patron god of the first city of Eridu) and Ningikuga (goddess of marshes). By Uras, earth goddess, Anu fathered Ninsuna, the legendary mother of Gilgamesh.

Epic of Gilgamesh

The Epic of Gilgamesh is the 3,200-year-old account of the protagonist’s exploits and is the most famous tales associated with Anu. As one of the oldest surviving works of literature in the world, its discovery is considered one of the most sensational finds in the history of archaeology.

Gilgamesh, one-third human and two-thirds god, son of Ninsuna and grandson of Anu, was the king of Urak. He was handsome, strong and wise. Despite the fact that he was godlike, he wasn’t kind to his subjects. He had walls around the city and magnificent temples built with forced labor. He raped any woman in the kingdom that he desired. His subjects were tired of suffering, and called out to the gods for assistance. They sent a man named Enkidu to keep him in check. Enkidu was a magnificent man, and the two became great friends. Eventually, Enkidu died of an illness brought upon by the wrath by the gods. Gilgamesh was heartbroken, and began his travels to the edges of the world to learn the secrets of the gods.

In the earliest part of the epic, Enkidu lives with animals in the wild. One day, a hunter comes across him as he is sharing drinking water from a ground well with the animals. The hunter runs home to his father to tell him about the man who lives with animals in the wild. They decide to bring a prostitute to him, thinking that sex might calm him down, and that being with a woman could cure him of his unconventional habits. After the interlude, which lasted for seven whole days, the animals rejected him. Distraught and alone, Gilgamesh goes back to the prostitute for comfort. She tells him that humans have a good life and he would likely enjoy being in the city of Uruk.

Once Enkidu hears about the excesses of Gilgamesh, he sets out to the city to confront the king. Upon his arrival, he finds Gilgamesh about to enter the chamber of a bride to rape her. He blocks the entry, and the two wrestle it out. Gilgamesh wins and the two become fast friends.

The men begin an adventure together and travel to the forest to steal cedar trees that are guarded by a demon. They kill the monster and build a raft with the wood from the trees. They use their raft to travel home to Uruk. Upon their arrival, they meet the love goddess Ishtar, the daughter of Anu. She expresses her lust and desire for Gilgamesh but he rejects her advances with disdain. The furious goddess appeals to her father, requesting he send the Bull of Heaven as retribution. Along with the bull comes a famine that lasts for seven years. Eventually the two friends hunt the bull down and murder him. Subsequently, a council of the gods is convened. It is decided that at least one of the men should be penalized for their behavior. Enkidu gets a fatal illness and endures terrible suffering before he finally dies, leaving Gilgamesh heartbroken over the loss of his friend.


Enkidu assists Gilgamesh in defeating and killing Humbaba, the guardian monster of the Cedar Forest.

He heads into the wild to seek out Utnapishtim, so he can find out how to avoid the fate of his friend and prevent his own death. Utnapishtim is the Mesopotamian version of Noah. After the big flood, the gods gave him eternal life, and Gilgamesh wants to know the secret.

Following much adventure, he finally finds Utnapishtim, who tells him the myth of the great flood. The council of gods had devised a plan for the destruction of mortal beings. Utnapishtim was given a warning about the plan by the god of wisdom, so he built a huge boat to carry the seeds of all living creatures. When the flood ended, the gods felt remorse and regret. They vowed that they would not try to destroy people ever again. Utnapishtim was rewarded with immortality. Men and women would still die, but the human species would always go on.

Insistent on living forever himself, Gilgamesh is tested to see if he is worthy of eternal life. It is suggested he start with staying awake for one week. He quickly fails, and is ordered by Utnapishtim to put his royal robes on and head back to Uruk. Upon his departure, Utnapishtim’s wife tells him about an amazing plant that can restore youth. He finds the plant and plans to take it with him, but a snake snatches it one night while he is sleeping. As it slithers away, the snake molts its old skin and becomes young again.

Gilgamesh has nothing to present to the elders of Uruk upon his return, but is at last reconciled with the idea that he will not have an eternal existence. He will not live forever, but mankind will go on. As he approaches the great city he built, he realizes his great achievement. Although he will not live forever, he will be remembered. His fine city will be his legacy.

Historic Influence

The Sumerian religion encompassed the mythology and beliefs of the ancient civilization, including the life of Anu. Since they were the first to have written language, their myths were recorded on tablets, upon which Anu features heavily, and which influenced later religions and cultures. As the father of the gods, Anu holds a key role in the mythology and its effect on literature and beliefs that followed.

The similarities between the flood in Genesis and the Sumerian flood myth are a clear example of the possibility of the influence of the Sumerian religion and the tales of Anu and Gilgamesh on the Hebrew Bible, or Christian Old Testament. It’s an easy extension to realize the possibility that Anu and the other deities yielding power over the world and its people have evolved into the similar beliefs in current world religions.

The Epic of Gilgamesh is classic literature which has been translated into numerous languages and studied worldwide. Even though it is one of the oldest recorded stories in existence, and our modern world is very different than the world of ancient Mesopotamia, the epic myth remains timeless. It encapsulates the essence of the human experience.

 

Anu - D-Anu - Dan

Anu as the god of Uruk, Enlil as the god of Nippur, Nanna Sin as the god of Ur and Enki as the god of Eridu.

(DINGIR) ili D za bogove ili druga božanstva (stara verzija: ; kasnija zajednička verzija: )

D Anu - D An - D An = Dan

Written forms: Sumerian: an; Akkadian: da-nu, da-num, an-nu,

Veoma ugledni srpski Židov Enriko Josif rekao je onu poznatu krilaticu ''da su Srbi (Vlachs) Nebeski narod'', i također je izjavio da su Srbi iz Danovog plemena potekli...


Tribe of Dan

 
Romania - Tribe of Dan

Moderni umjetnici koriste "vagu pravde" da predstavljaju plemena Danova zbog Postanku 49:16 "Dan će narod svoj suditi." Međutim, tradicionalni umjetnici koriste zmiju u predstavljanju Dana, na temelju Postanka 49:17.

Dade mu dakle svoju sluškinju Bilhu za ženu, i Jakov priđe k njoj. (5) Bilha zače te Jakovu rodi sina. (6) Tada Rahela reče: "Jahve mi je dosudio pravo. Uslišao je moj glas i dao mi sina." Stoga mu nadjenu ime Dan. - Postanak

 
Tribe of Dan


8-pointed star depicted by ancient Hebrews; pictograph symbol used for God


Kolodar - Kalendar

Reč “kalendar” vuče koren iz našeg jezika, jer je ova složenica nastala od dve naše reči “kolo” i “dar”. Nije potrebno pojašnjavati značenje ove složenice. U našem narodu postoji ogromno kalendarsko znanje, sačuvano u mitologiji, epskoj poeziji, običajima i svakodnevnom životu.

  • Kolo-dar = Kalendar
  • Mjeri-dan = Meridijan

 

An/Anu (god)

Mesopotamian sky-god, one of the supreme deities; known as An in Sumerian and Anu in Akkadian.

A stele of the Assyrian king Šamši-Adad V (c.815 BCE), making obeisance to the symbols of five deities, including (top) the horned crown of Anu (BM 118892, photo (c) The British Museum).

Functions

An/Anu belongs to the oldest generation of Mesopotamian gods and was originally the supreme deity of the Babylonian pantheon. Consequently, his major roles are as an authority figure, decision-maker and progenitor. In heaven he allots functions to other gods, and can increase their status at will; in the Sumerian poem Inana and Ebih, Inana claims that "An has made me terrifying throughout heaven" (l.66). On earth he confers kingship, and his decisions are regarded as unalterable.

Later An/Anu came to share or cede these functions, as Enlil and subsequently Marduk rose to prominence, but retained his essential character and high status throughout Mesopotamian history. Indeed, when other gods are elevated to a position of leadership, they are said to receive the anûtu, the "Anu-power". For example, in Enūma eliš the gods express Marduk's authority over them by declaring: "Your word is Anu!" (Tablet IV, lines 4-6).

An/Anu is sometimes credited with the creation of the universe itself, either alone or with Enlil and Ea. Of the three levels of heaven, he inhabited the highest, said to be made of the reddish luludānitu stone.

Divine Genealogy and Syncretisms

The earliest texts make no reference to An's origins. Later he is regarded as the son of Anšar and Kišar, as in the first millennium creation epic Enūma eliš (Tablet I, 11-14). In Sumerian texts of the third millennium the goddess Uraš is his consort; later this position was taken by Ki, the personification of earth, and in Akkadian texts by Antu, whose name is probably derived from his own.

An/Anu frequently receives the epithet "father of the gods," and many deities are described as his children in one context or another. Inscriptions from third-millennium Lagaš name An as the father of Gatumdug, Baba and Ningirsu. In later literary texts, Adad, Enki/Ea, Enlil, Girra, Nanna/Sin, Nergal and Šara also appear as his sons, while goddesses referred to as his daughters include Inana/Ištar, Nanaya, Nidaba, Ninisinna, Ninkarrak, Ninmug, Ninnibru, Ninsumun, Nungal and Nusku. An/Anu is also the head of the Annunaki, and created the demons Lamaštu, Asag and the Sebettu. In the epic Erra and Išum, Anu gives the Sebettu to Erra as weapons with which to massacre humans when their noise becomes irritating to him (Tablet I, 38ff).

When Enlil rose to equal or surpass An in authority, the functions of the two deities came to some extent to overlap. An was also sometimes equated with Amurru, and, in Seleucid Uruk, with Enmešara and Dumuzi.

Cult Places

Temples and shrines to An/Anu existed in various cities throughout Mesopotamian history. From the third millennium onwards he was worshipped, with some interruptions, together with Inana/Ištar at the é-an-na temple in Uruk [~/images/Uruk.jpg], and in the Achaemenid and Seleucid periods at the new Reš temple with Antu.

Another important centre for his cult was Der [~/images/Der.jpg], which, like Uruk, held the title "city of Anu". In Lagaš [~/images/Lagash.jpg] a temple to An was established by Gudea (ca. 2144-2124 BCE), while Ur-Namma (ca. 2112-2095 BCE) built a garden and shrine for him at Ur [~/images/Ur.jpg]. An also had a "seat" in the main temple of Babylon [~/images/Babylon.jpg], Esagil, and received offerings at Nippur [~/images/Nippur.jpg], Sippar [~/images/Sippar.jpg] and Kish [~/images/Kish.jpg]. At Assur [~/images/Assur.jpg] a double temple for Anu and Adad, é-me-lám-an-na, was built during the Middle Assyrian period (ca. 1350-1050 BCE) and restored by subsequent rulers including Tiglath-Pileser I.

Time Periods Attested

The earliest appearances of An as a specific deity are difficult to identify precisely, due to the multiple readings possible for the sign AN. However, by the mid-third millennium he is definitely attested in the Fara god-list, and in the name of the 27th-century king of Ur, Mesanepada ("Young man, chosen by An"), who also dedicated a bead "to the god An, his lord". In the following centuries cultic activity for An/Anu is attested at Uruk and Nippur, and he begins to occur in royal titles: Lugalzagesi (ca. 2375-50 BCE) and Sargon I (ca. 2334-2279 BCE) both call themselves his priests.

From the second millennium onwards An/Anu is mentioned regularly in literary texts, inscriptions and personal names, although rarely as the central figure – he seems to have always been regarded as rather remote from human affairs. From the Old Babylonian period (ca. 2000-1595 BCE) a Sumerian prayer to An asks him to protect the kingship of Rim-Sin, king of Ur and several royal hymns to An survive an unfortunately fragmentary adab to An for Šu-Suen; an adab to An for Lipit-Ištar; an adab to An for Ur-Ninurta).

At around the same time, Anu features for the first time in Assyrian royal inscriptions; Šamši-Adad I (ca. 1813-1781 BCE) boasts that Anu and Enlil called him to greatness. The god Aššur always retained his pre-eminent position in the Assyrian pantheon, but later kings also sometimes invoked Anu as a source of support or legitimacy.

Sumerian and Akkadian mythological texts portray An/Anu as king and father of the gods. The Old Babylonian composition Gilgameš, Enkidu and the Netherworld refers to the primeval division of the universe in which An received the heavens (lines 11-12), and we see him ruling from here in the flood poem Atrahasis. Inana/Ištar, set upon killing Gilgameš, forcefully persuades her father to hand over the bull of heaven in the Old Babylonian poem Gilgameš and the Bull of Heaven , as well as in the first-millennium Epic of Gilgameš (Tablet VI, lines 92ff). In Enūma eliš Anu turns back in fear from Tiamat (Tablet II, lines 105-6), paving the way for Marduk's triumph and elevation above him which characterises Babylonian literature and religious practice in the late second and early first millennium. However, during the fifth century BCE Anu's cult enjoyed a revival at Uruk, and ritual texts describing the involvement of his statue in the local akitu festival survive from the Seleucid period.

Iconography

There are no certain anthropomorphic representations of An/Anu. His symbol is a horned crown, sometimes shown resting on a throne (see below). His animal is the bull.

Name and Spellings

Sumerian an means "heaven, sky", and An can therefore be seen as the personified heavens. The cuneiform sign AN also has the value DINGIR, 'god' (Akkadian ilu(m)), and is used as the determinative for deities, yet in Sumerian An's name is never written with the divine determinative. In Akkadian he is Anu, written logographically as dAN, or spelled syllabically, e.g. da-nu(m). The logogram d60 is also a learned writing for Anu.

 

Orion

Orion is a prominent constellation located on the celestial equator and visible throughout the world. It is one of the most conspicuous and recognizable constellations in the night sky. It was named after Orion, a hunter in Greek mythology. Its brightest stars are the supergiants: blue-white Rigel (Beta Orionis) and red Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis).

The Babylonian star catalogues of the Late Bronze Age name Orion MULSIPA.ZI.AN.NA, "The Heavenly Shepherd" or "True Shepherd of Anu" – Anu being the chief god of the heavenly realms. The Babylonian constellation is sacred to Papshukal and Ninshubur, both minor gods fulfilling the role of 'messenger to the gods'. Papshukal is closely associated with the figure of a walking bird on Babylonian boundary stones, and on the star map the figure of the Rooster is located below and behind the figure of the True Shepherd-both constellations represent the herald of the gods, in his bird and human forms respectively.

In ancient Egypt, the stars of Orion were regarded as a god, called Sah. Because Orion rises before Sirius, the star whose heliacal rising was the basis for the Solar Egyptian calendar, Sah was closely linked with Sopdet, the goddess who personified Sirius. The god Sopdu is said to be the son of Sah and Sopdet. Sah is syncretized with Osiris, while Sopdet is syncretized with Osiris' mythological wife, Isis. In the Pyramid Texts, from the 24th and 23rd centuries BC, Sah is one of many gods whose form the dead pharaoh is said to take in the afterlife.

The Armenians identified their legendary patriarch and founder Hayk with Orion. Hayk is also the name of the Orion constellation in the Armenian translation of the Bible.

The Bible mentions Orion three times, naming it "Kesil" (כסיל, literally – fool). Though, this name perhaps is etymologically connected with "Kislev", the name for the ninth month of the Hebrew calendar (i.e. November–December), which, in turn, may derive from the Hebrew root K-S-L as in the words "kesel, kisla" (כֵּסֶל, כִּסְלָה, hope, positiveness), i.e. hope for winter rains.: Job 9:9 ("He is the maker of the Bear and Orion"), Job 38:31 ("Can you loosen Orion's belt?"), and Amos 5:8 ("He who made the Pleiades and Orion").

In ancient Aram, the constellation was known as Nephîlā′, the Nephilim are said to be Orion's descendants.

In India, Nataraja ‘the cosmic dancer’ (an avatar of Shiva) is seen in the constellation called Orion.

In The Greek Myths (1955), Robert Graves views Oenopion as his perennial Year-King, at the stage where the king pretends to die at the end of his term and appoints a substitute, in this case Orion, who actually dies in his place. His blindness is iconotropy from a picture of Odysseus blinding the Cyclops, mixed with a purely Hellenic solar legend: the Sun-hero is captured and blinded by his enemies at dusk, but escapes and regains his sight at dawn, when all beasts flee him. Graves sees the rest of the myth as a syncretism of diverse stories. These include Gilgamesh and the Scorpion-Men, Set becoming a scorpion to kill Horus and the story of Aqhat and Yatpan from Ras Shamra, as well as a conjectural story of how the priestesses of Artemis Opis killed a visitor to their island of Ortygia. He compares Orion's birth from the bull's hide to a West African rainmaking charm and claims that the son of Poseidon should be a rainmaker.

Vlašići (Kiʹmah) - Orion - Danica

Možeš li lancem vezati Vlašiće i razdriješiti spone Orionu, (32) u pravo vrijeme izvesti Danicu, vodit' Medvjeda s njegovim mladima? - Knjiga o Jobu

Vlašići, Pleiades otvoreni zvjezdani skup u zviježđu Biku. Zvijezde su nazvane prema sedam sestara iz grčke mitologije: Alkioni (Alcyone), Elektri (Electra), Keleni (Celaeno), Maji (Maia), Meropi (Merope), Steropi (Sterope) i Tajgeti (Taygeta) te njihovim roditeljima Atlantu (Atlas) i Plejoni (Pleione).


Sedam kalota u desnom kutu fotografije predstavljaju Plejade (Vlašiće)

 

Uru-Anna - Orion - Aryan - Iran


Anu

Anu’s wife was Antu, and their children were the Annunaki. Annunaki were seven judges of nether world, children of the god Anu, who also sat before the throne of Ereshkigal (the wife of Nergal), she was the daughter of Demeter, Greek Persephone, Roman Proserpine, Gnostic Kore in other mythology. The Annunaki are regarded by some as the Sumerian ‘fates,’ where they waited at the gates of nether world, to judge the newly-arrived souls. The "Fates" were associated with Ursa Major, or the Pleiades (seven sisters) who were similar to the seven Hathors. Ananke the satellite of Jupiter that is 14th in distance from the planet [Greek Ananke, mother of Adrasteia (alias Nemesis a goddess of destiny, Egyptian Shait), distributor of rewards and punishments, by Jupiter, from ananke, necessity]. Adrasteia and Ida were Nymphs and daughters of the Cretan king, who cared for Zeus in a cave when he was a baby.

One of Anu’s daughters was Gulu the ancient name for the Earth Mother goddess, who was a consort of Ninurta (derived from Ningursu, was the son of Enlil who in Sumer and Akkad was the god of the constellation known as Orion). The name "Orion" is believed to have originated in the Euphrates area of ancient Akkad, and is derived from the Akkadian "Uru-Anna" (light of heaven). There is that connection to Anu again. Over time, the language corrupted to "Aryan," which is what the ancient Persians called themselves, and which became the modern idiom, "Iran."

Ninurta in Sumer and Akkad was a god of law, scribes, farming, and hunting and the god of the constellation Orion. Orion was the son of Poseidon. The motif of sibling rivalries was of Sumerian Enki verses Enlil, equal to Greek Poseidon verses Zeus, or Roman Neptune verses Jove.

Danu a Irish mother goddess of a brood of gods the Tuatha De Danann (Brian, Iuchar, and Iucharbar) also known as Anu or Ana - plenty. She is connected with Aine of Knockaine, a moon goddess of crops and cattle.


Anu - An


Vachs flag


Symbol of the Sky

 

Sumerian flood myth

The tale of Ziusudra is known from a single fragmentary tablet written in Sumerian, datable by its script to the 17th century BC (Old Babylonian Empire), and published in 1914 by Arno Poebel. The first part deals with the creation of man and the animals and the founding of the first cities Eridu, Bad-tibira, Larak, Sippar, and Shuruppak. After a missing section in the tablet, we learn that the gods have decided to send a flood to destroy mankind. The god Enki (lord of the underworld sea of fresh water and Sumerian equivalent of Babylonian god Ea) warns Ziusudra, the ruler of Shuruppak, to build a large boat; the passage describing the directions for the boat is also lost. When the tablet resumes, it is describing the flood. A terrible storm raged for seven days, "the huge boat had been tossed about on the great waters," then Utu (Sun) appears and Ziusudra opens a window, prostrates himself, and sacrifices an ox and a sheep. After another break, the text resumes, the flood is apparently over, and Ziusudra is prostrating himself before An (Sky) and Enlil (Lordbreath), who give him "breath eternal" and take him to dwell in Dilmun. The remainder of the poem is lost.

The Epic of Ziusudra adds an element at lines 258–261 not found in other versions, that after the river flood "king Ziusudra ... they caused to dwell in the land of the country of Dilmun, the place where the sun rises". In this version of the story, Ziusudra's boat floats down the Euphrates river into the Persian Gulf (rather than up onto a mountain, or up-stream to Kish). The Sumerian word KUR in line 140 of the Gilgamesh flood myth was interpreted to mean "mountain".

King Ziusudra of Shuruppak

The line following Ziusudra in WB-62 reads: Then the flood swept over. The next line reads: After the flood swept over, kingship descended from heaven; the kingship was in Kish. The city of Kish flourished in the Early Dynastic period soon after an archaeologically attested river flood in Shuruppak (modern Tell Fara, Iraq) and various other Sumerian cities. This flood has been radiocarbon dated to ca. 2900 BC. Polychrome pottery from the Jemdet Nasr period (ca. 30th century BC) was discovered immediately below the Shuruppak flood stratum, and the Jemdet Nasr period immediately preceded the Early Dynastic I period.

The significance of Ziusudra's name appearing on the WB-62 king list is that it links the flood mentioned in the three surviving Babylonian deluge epics of Ziusudra (Eridu Genesis), Utnapishtim (Epic of Gilgamesh), and Atrahasis (Epic of Atra-Hasis) to river flood sediments in Shuruppak, Uruk, Kish et al. that have been radiocarbon dated to ca. 2900 BC. This has led some scholars to conclude that the flood hero was king of Shuruppak at the end of the Jemdet Nasr period (ca. 3100–2900) which ended with the river flood of 2900 BC.

Ziusudra being a king from Shuruppak is supported by the Gilgamesh XI tablet making reference to Utnapishtim (Akkadian translation of the Sumerian name Ziusudra) with the epithet "man of Shuruppak" at line 23.


Dilmun civilization, c. 2900 BC

Ancient traders - Y-DNA T1a, R-V88 & I2a


Dilmun

Bahrain was the central site of the ancient Dilmun civilization. Dilmun appears first in Sumerian cuneiform clay tablets dated to the end of fourth millennium BC, found in the temple of goddess Inanna, in the city of Uruk. The adjective Dilmun is used to describe a type of axe and one specific official; in addition there are lists of rations of wool issued to people connected with Dilmun.

 

Dulaim, Iraq - Convex nose


Dulaimi

 

Dilmun, home of the gods

In the early epic Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta, the main events, which center on Enmerkar's construction of the ziggurats in Uruk and Eridu, are described as taking place at a time "before Dilmun had yet been settled".

Dilmun, sometimes described as "the place where the sun rises" and "the Land of the Living", is the scene of some versions of the Sumerian creation myth, and the place where the deified Sumerian hero of the flood, Utnapishtim (Ziusudra), was taken by the gods to live forever. Thorkild Jacobsen's translation of the Eridu Genesis calls it "Mount Dilmun" which he locates as a "faraway, half-mythical place".

Dilmun is also described in the epic story of Enki and Ninhursag as the site at which the Creation occurred. The later Babylonian Enuma Elish, speaks of the creation site as the place where the mixture of salt water, personified as Tiamat met and mingled with the fresh water of Abzu.

The promise of Enki to Ninhursag, the Earth Mother:

For Dilmun, the land of my lady's heart, I will create long waterways, rivers and canals, whereby water will flow to quench the thirst of all beings and bring abundance to all that lives.

Ninlil, the Sumerian goddess of air and south wind had her home in Dilmun.

However, it is also speculated that Gilgamesh had to pass through Mount Mashu to reach Dilmun in the Epic of Gilgamesh, which is usually identified with the whole of the parallel Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon ranges, with the narrow gap between these mountains constituting the tunnel.

 

D'lmno - Delminium

After Romans finally defeated Dalmataes, Tomislavgrad was almost abandoned. There was also, for some period, a military crew of Romans stationed there to keep Illyrians under control. Romans started to rebuild Delminium in 18 and 19 AD in time of emperor Tiberius. During that time, center of city was built, a Roman forum. This forum was built on possession of present-day Nikola Tavelić basilica. In 1896 Fra Anđeo Nunić discovered various sculptures of Roman deities, fragments of sarcophagi, and fragments of columns of medieval Christian church. From all those discoveries, most prominent are two votive monuments and altars dedicated to goddess Diana, one altar dedicated to native Illyrian god Armatus and one votive plate dedicated to goddess Libera. Later, relief of goddess Diana was also found and one relief of Diana and Silvanus together. Also, new altars, fragments of sarcophagi, clay pottery, parts of columns, and various other findings from Roman and early medieval age were found. This led to conclusion that on place of present-day Catholic graveyard "Karaula" (which was previously an Ottoman military border post and guardhouse) was Roman and Illyrian sanctuary and graveyard.

 

Barbar Temple

The three temples were built atop one another with the second built approximately 500 years later and the third added between 2100 BC and 2000 BC.

It is thought that the temples were constructed to worship the god Enki, the god of wisdom and freshwater, and his wife Nankhur Sak (Ninhursag). The temple contains two altars and a natural water spring that is thought to have held spiritual significance for the worshipers. During the excavation of the site many tools, weapons, pottery and small pieces of gold were found which are now on display in the Bahrain National Museum. The most famous find was a bronze bull's head.

Temple II is most liveable still with retaining walls and terraces stiffs, first stage the oval terrace was built in local stone, but after an enlargement it was built in limestone which must have been carried by boat from nearby Jidda island where stone was hewn out by hand and carefully dressed into remarkably neat masonry blocks. The skill with which this task was carried out may be clearly seen in the temple walls and especially around the sacred well. A double circular altar and an offering table stood in the center of the shrine. To the south were three cult stones shaped like the anchors of the merchant ships. Although the central one bore a protruding animal head, like the altars depicted on the seals. A temple treasure lay in the stone frame pit in the north-east comer.The central terrace was crowned by a shrine built of cut stone with stone paving. Smaller buildings clustered around it covering the rest of the terrace. There were no buildings on the outer oval terrace but altars and cult symbols were visible. A plinth with recessed stone cylinder lay to the south and a plinth with three pillars was situated near the north-west wall. A double row of plinths for cult objects lined both sides of the stairs from the upper terrace. On each of these plinths were two square holes lined with bitumen and sheet copper nailed to wood.Here may have stood copper mounted poles with the emblems of gods, so often seen on the stamp seals, or, perhaps, wooden statues. From the central terrace a ceremonial stairway led to the subterranean shrine where water cult ceremonies took place. Halfway down the stair was a portal, and from there the stair was roofed. The rich natural spring which filled the pool probably accounts for the siting of the temple at Barbar. Water poured from a perforated stone jar beside a semicircular stone font at the threshold of a dry chamber near the basin. From the comers of the shrine deep stone built channels led the water to the surrounding fields and gardens.

This remarkable underground shrine is interpreted as a symbolic abzu the abode of Enki, the god of wisdom and of all freshwater. The abzu was believed to be the abyss or freshwater ocean upon which the whole world rests. Such temple abzus are mentioned in cuneiform texts in Mesopotamia. East of the temple lay an oval sacrificial court, connected with a central temple platform by a paved ramp and a staircase. The floor of the court was covered with ashes and the bones of cattle and sheep, presumably sacrificed animals.

The Ain Umm Sujoor is an archaeological site located in the village of Diraz, Bahrain. Believed to have been built during the 3rd millennium BC, the site consists of an oval hollow, approximately 60x30 meters, with two wells, several rooms and ovens. It has been largely neglected in recent times.

The name of the well, Ain Umm Sujoor, translates from Arabic to 'Mother of the spring of overflowing waters'.

The water wells date back to 3rd millennium BCE to the Dilmun period; rooms and ovens, located on the southern side of the wells, are believed to be later additions. The well on the north is called holy well, or water temple, which is named after discovering that a part of the structure was used to show peoples’ gratitude to their Gods for water. The wells and the pool is believed to be a later addition.

The Japanese team originated from Rikkyo University and discovered Wells 2 and 3 in addition to Well 1, and were the first to suggest the wells were holy places.

 

Ninhursag = Parvati


Ninhursag & Enki

Parvati is the Hindu goddess of fertility, love and devotion; as well as of divine strength and power. Known by many other names, she is the gentle and nurturing aspect of the Hindu goddess Shakti and one of the central deities of the Goddess-oriented Shakta sect. She is the Mother goddess in Hinduism, and has many attributes and aspects. Each of her aspects is expressed with a different name, giving her over 100 names in regional Hindu stories of India. Along with Lakshmi (goddess of wealth and prosperity) and Saraswati (goddess of knowledge and learning), she forms the trinity of Hindu goddesses (Tridevi).

Parvati is the wife of the Hindu god Shiva - the protector, the destroyer (of evil) and regenerator of the universe and all life. She is the daughter of the mountain king Himavan and queen Mena. Parvati is the mother of Hindu deities Ganesha and Kartikeya. The Puranas also referenced her to be the sister of the preserver god Vishnu.

With Shiva, Parvati is a central deity in the Shaiva sect. In Hindu belief, she is the recreative energy and power of Shiva, and she is the cause of a bond that connects all beings and a means of their spiritual release. In Hindu temples dedicated to her and Shiva, she is symbolically represented as the argha. She is found extensively in ancient Indian literature, and her statues and iconography grace Hindu temples all over South Asia and Southeast Asia.

Parvata is one of the Sanskrit words for "mountain"; "Parvati" derives her name from being the daughter of king Himavan (also called Himavat, Parvat) and mother Mena. King Parvat is considered lord of the mountains and the personification of the Himalayas; Parvati implies "she of the mountain".

Parvati and Shiva are often symbolized by a yoni and a linga respectively. In ancient literature, yoni means womb and place of gestation, the yoni-linga metaphor represents "origin, source or regenerative power".

 
Ninhursag - Neptune

Cucuteni-Trypillian culture Index Elam