Back to Africa

Predynastic Egypt

Predynastic Egypt

Around 5,000 years ago, the wet phase of the Sahara came to an end. The Saharan populations retreated to the south towards the Sahel, and east in the direction of the Nile Valley. It was these populations, in addition to Neolithic farmers from the Near East, that played a major role in the formation of the Egyptian state as they brought their food crops, sheep, goats and cattle to the Nile Valley.

Prehistoric Egypt (also known as "Predynastic Egypt") dates to the end of the fourth millennium BCE. From around 4800 to 4300 BCE, the Merimde culture (Merimde Beni-Salame) flourished in Lower Egypt. This culture, among others, has links to the Levant. The pottery of the Buto Maadi culture, best known from the site at Maadi near Cairo, also shows connections with the southern Levant. In Upper Egypt, the predynastic Badari culture was followed by the Naqada culture (Amratian).

Located in the extreme north-east corner of Africa, Ancient Egyptian society was at a crossroads between the African and Near Eastern regions. Early proponents of the dynastic race theory based this on the increased novelty and seemingly rapid change in Predynastic pottery and noted trade contacts between ancient Egypt and the Middle East. This is no longer the dominant view in Egyptology; however, the evidence on which it was based still suggests influence from these regions. Fekri Hassan and Edwin et al. point to mutual influence from both inner Africa as well as the Levant. This evidence suggests that Ancient Egypt was populated by Afro-Asiatic-speaking peoples from Northeast Africa and the Near East.


Afroasiatic languages

(Hamito-Semitic languages)

Afroasiatic languages

Date of Afroasiatic

The earliest written evidence of an Afroasiatic language is an Ancient Egyptian inscription dated c. 3400 BC (5,400 years ago). Symbols on Gerzean pottery resembling Egyptian hieroglyphs date back to c. 4000 BC, suggesting a still earlier possible date. This gives us a minimum date for the age of Afroasiatic.

Some lineages derived from Haplogroup F-M89 appear to have back-migrated into Africa from Southwest Asia, during prehistory. Subclades of F-M89 associated with this hypothetical "Back to Africa" migration include J, T & R1b.


Neolithic Nubia

Nabta Playa

By the 5th millennium BC, the people who inhabited what is now called Nubia participated in the Neolithic revolution. Saharan rock reliefs depict scenes that have been thought to be suggestive of a cattle cult, typical of those seen throughout parts of Eastern Africa and the Nile Valley even to this day. Megaliths discovered at Nabta Playa are early examples of what seems to be one of the world's first astronomical devices. This complexity as observed at Nabta Playa, and as expressed by different levels of authority within the society there, likely formed the basis for the structure of both the Neolithic society at Nabta and the Old Kingdom of Egypt. - Nabta Playa


Upper & Lower Nubia


Nubia was also called - Upper & Lower Nubia, Kush, Land of Kush, Te-Nehesy, Nubadae, Napata, or the Kingdom of Meroe.

The region referred to as Lower Egypt is the northernmost portion. Upper Nubia extends south into Sudan and can be subdivided into several separate areas such as Batn El Hajar or "Belly of Rocks", the sands of the Abri-Delgo Reach, or the flat plains of the Dongola Reach. Nubia, the hottest and most arid region of the world, has caused many civilizations to be totally dependent on the Nile for existence.

Historically Nubia has been a nucleus of diverse cultures. It has been the only occupied strip of land connecting the Mediterranean world with "tropical" Africa. Thus, this put the people in close and constant contact with its neighbors for long periods of history and Nubia was an important trade route between sub-Saharan Africa and the rest of the world. Its rich material culture and tradition of languages are seen in archaeological records.

The most prosperous period of Nubian civilization was that of the kingdom of Kush, which endured from about 800 BC to about 320 AD. During this time, the Nubians of Kush would at one point, assume rule over all of Nubia as well as Upper and Lower Egypt.

The regions of Nubia, Sudan and Egypt are considered by some to be the cradle of civilization. Today the term Nubian has become inclusive of Africans, African Arabs, African Americans and people of color in general.

Nubia is divided into three regions: Lower Nubia, Upper Nubia, and Southern Nubia. Lower Nubia was in modern southern Egypt, which lies between the first and second cataract. Upper Nubia and Southern Nubia were in modern-day northern Sudan, between the second cataract and sixth cataracts of the Nile river. Lower Nubia and Upper Nubia are so called because the Nile flows north, so Upper Nubia was further upstream and of higher elevation, even though it lies geographically south of Lower Nubia.

History of Nubia

Early settlements sprouted in both Upper and Lower Nubia: The Restricted flood plains of Lower Nubia. Egyptians referred to Nubia as "Ta-Seti." The Nubians were known to be expert archers and thus their land earned the appellation, "Ta-Seti", or land of the bow. Modern scholars typically refer to the people from this area as the A-group culture. Fertile farmland just south of the third cataract is known as the Pre-Kerma culture in Upper Nubia, as they are the ancestors civilization originated in 5000 BC in Upper Nubia..

The Neolithic people in the Nile valley likely came from Sudan, as well as the Sahara, and there was shared culture with the two areas and with that of Egypt during this time period.

By the 5th millennium BC, the people who inhabited what is now called Nubia participated in the Neolithic revolution. Saharan rock reliefs depict scenes that have been thought to be suggestive of a cattle cult, typical of those seen throughout parts of Eastern Africa and the Nile Valley even to this day.

Megaliths discovered at Nabta Playa are early examples of what seems to be one of the world's first astronomical devices, predating Stonehenge by almost 2000 years. This complexity as observed at Nabta Playa, and as expressed by different levels of authority within the society there, likely formed the basis for the structure of both the Neolithic society at Nabta and the Old Kingdom of Egypt.

Around 3800 BC, the second "Nubian" culture, termed the A-Group, arose. It was a contemporary of, and ethnically and culturally very similar to, the polities in predynastic Naqada of Upper Egypt.

Around 3300 BC, there is evidence of a unified kingdom, as shown by the finds at Qustul, that maintained substantial interactions (both cultural and genetic) with the culture of Naqadan Upper Egypt. The Nubian culture may have even contributed to the unification of the Nile valley. Also, the Nubians very likely contributed some pharaonic iconography, such as the white crown and serekh, to the Northern Egyptian kings.

Around the turn of the protodynastic period, Naqada, in its bid to conquer and unify the whole Nile valley, seems to have conquered Ta-Seti (the kingdom where Qustul was located) and harmonized it with the Egyptian state. Thus, Nubia became the first nome of Upper Egypt. At the time of the first dynasty, the A-Group area seems to have been entirely depopulated most likely due to immigration to areas west and south.

This culture began to decline in the early 28th century BC. The succeeding culture is known as B-Group. Previously, the B-Group people were thought to have invaded from elsewhere. Today most historians believe that B-Group was merely A-Group but far poorer. The causes of this are uncertain, but it was perhaps caused by Egyptian invasions and pillaging that began at this time. Nubia is believed to have served as a trade corridor between Egypt and tropical Africa long before 3100 BC. Egyptian craftsmen of the period used ivory and ebony wood from tropical Africa which came through Nubia.

In 2300 BC, Nubia was first mentioned in Old Kingdom Egyptian accounts of trade missions. From Aswan, right above the First Cataract, southern limit of Egyptian control at the time, Egyptians imported gold, incense, ebony, ivory, and exotic animals from tropical Africa through Nubia. As trade between Egypt and Nubia increased so did wealth and stability.

By the Egyptian 6th dynasty, Nubia was divided into a series of small kingdoms. There is debate over whether these C-Group peoples, who flourished from c. 2240 BC to c. 2150 BC, were another internal evolution or invaders. There are definite similarities between the pottery of A-Group and C-Group, so it may be a return of the ousted Group-As, or an internal revival of lost arts. At this time, the Sahara Desert was becoming too arid to support human beings, and it is possible that there was a sudden influx of Saharan nomads. C-Group pottery is characterized by all-over incised geometric lines with white infill and impressed imitations of basketry.

During the Egyptian Middle Kingdom (c. 2040-1640 BC), Egypt began expanding into Nubia to gain more control over the trade routes in Northern Nubia and direct access to trade with Southern Nubia. They erected a chain of forts down the Nile below the Second Cataract. These garrisons seemed to have peaceful relations with the local Nubian people but little interaction during the period. A contemporaneous but distinct culture from the C-Group was the Pan Grave culture, so called because of their shallow graves. The Pan Graves are associated with the East bank of the Nile, but the Pan Graves and C-Group definitely interacted. Their pottery is characterized by incised lines of a more limited character than those of the C-Group, generally having interspersed undecorated spaces within the geometric schemes.



Hamites Y-DNA E, G, J, T & R


Hamites - Haplogroup R1b1a2 (R-V88)

R1b1a2-V88, može se naći širom Europe u izuzetno malom postotku, s tim da je nešto značajnije zastupljena u južnoj Europi, prije svega na Apeninskom i Iberijskom poluotoku. Nešto značajniji postotak (do 4%) ova grana bilježi na Levantu, među Libancima, Druzima i Židovima, a najveće frekvencije dostiže među pojedinim narodima severne Afrike, sudanskim Koptima (15%), Berberima iz granične regije Egipta i Libije (23%), Hausa narodom iz Sudana (40%), Fulani narodima Nigera i Kameruna (54%), dok kod nekih čadskih plemena sjevernog Kameruna i Nigerije dostiže i nevjerovatnih 95%. Gotovo svi pripadnici grane V88 u Africi i Bliskom Istoku pripadaju podgrani Y7771, i visoki postotak među navedenim afrčkim narodima posljedica su naglog demografskog širenja ove podgrane u poslednjih 5000 godina. Grana V88 je među drevnim uzorcima do sada pronađena kod jednog mezolitskog lovca-sakupljača iz Ukrajine, i kod jednog neolitskog zemljoradnika iz Španije.



Sinovi su Hamovi: Kuš i Misrajim, Put i Kanaan.

Kuševi su: Seba, Havila, Sabta, Rama i Sabteka. Ramini su: Šeba i Dedan. Od Kuša se rodio Nimrod, koji je postao prvi velmoža na zemlji. Voljom Jahve bio je silan lovac. Zato se veli: "Kao Nimrod, silan lovac voljom Jahve." Glavno uporište njegova kraljevstva bili su: Babilon, Erek, Akad i Kalne, svi u zemlji Šinearu. Iz ove je zemlje došao Ašur. On je podigao Ninivu, Rehobot Ir, Kalah i Resen između Ninive i Kalaha (to je glavni grad).

Od Misrajima potekli su Ludijci, Anamijci, Lehabijci, Naftuhijci, pa Patrušani, Kasluhijci i Kaftorci, od kojih su potekli Filistejci.

Od Kanaana potječe Sidon, njegov prvenac, i Het. Dalje: Jebusejci, Amorejci, Girgašani, Hivijci, Arkijci, Sinijci, Arvađani, Semarjani i Hamaćani. Poslije se kanaanska plemena razgranaše, tako da se granica Kanaanaca protezala od Sidona prema Geraru sve do Gaze pa prema Sodomi, Gomori, Admi i Sebojimu sve do Leše. To su sinovi Hamovi prema svojim plemenima i jezicima, po svojim zemljama i narodima.


Influence on Egypt

Egypt's culture is a product of its geography, its people, and at least to some degree by its links with its neighbors. Egyptian traveled to and traded with Palestine, where pottery and Egyptian-style buildings have been found, with Afghanistan and beyond to modern Pakistan, the source for lapis lazuli, documented to have been imported into Egypt from Predynastic time. They also traded with Elam and Sumer, from whence came elements shown on palettes and cylinder seals, and indicates contact between Egypt and other regions of the Near East. However, with all the similarities that can be noted, there are also significant differences between Near Eastern cultures and that which is undeniably Egyptian. The Egyptian cosmology, cosmogony, governmental hierarchy and administration, writing, dress, its concept of kingship - these were all things most definitely Egyptian, even if perhaps influenced by outside contacts.

- Marie Parsons Egypt Tour

In Sumer 'the crucial transition from village to city took place inthe Early and Middle Uruk periods which, according to radio carbondating, probably lasted between 700 and 1,000 years (about 4300-3450 BC).'

The ancient site of Uruk was occupied for 5,000 years from early in the Ubaid period until the 3rd century AD. In the fourth millennium BC Uruk was the most important city in Mesopotamia and included two major religious centers: Kullaba, where there was a temple of An, the god of the sky, and Eanna, where the Goddess Inanna (later known as Ishtar) was worshipped.

The earliest known examples of writing are found on clay tablets from Uruk dating to about 3300 BC. Already it was a complete system with more than 700 different signs. The first tablets recorded the transfer of commodities such as grain, beer and livestock or were lists used by scribes learning how to write."

The influence of Uruk even reached as far west as Egypt in the Naqada II (or Gerzean) period contemporary with the Late Uruk and Jemdet Nasr periods [about 3100-2900 BC]. Lugged and spouted jars were characteristic of Late Uruk pottery. Cylinder seals also first appeared in Egypt at that time. Some were imports from the east, but others had been made locally and used Mesopotamian or Iranian motifs. Late Pre-dynastic (before about 2920 BC) art from Egypt also showed some influence from Mesopotamia. In particular, carved ivory knife handles and slate palettes contained Mesopotamian motifs, even though the objects themselves were typically Egyptian.

- Michael Roaf  Cultural Atlas of Mesopotamia

During the fourth millennium there were major developments in metallurgy. Objects at Nahal Mishmar were an alloy of copper and arsenic, which was easier to cast and harder than pure copper and was often used before tin bronze in the second millennium BC.

The first use of the plow in the Near East also dates from the Urik period. Plows, wheels, boats and donkeys were almost certainly in use before the Uruk period" in Northern Europe.

At a period approximately 3,400 years before Christ, a great change took place in Egypt, and the country passed rapidly from a tate of Neolithic culture with a complex tribal character to [one of] will-organized monarchy.

At the same time the art of writing appears, monumental architecture and the arts and crafts develop to an astonishing degree, and all the evidence points to the existence of a luxurious civilization. All this was achieved within a comparatively short period of time, for there appears to be little or no background to these fundamental developments in writing and architecture.

The civilization of the Jemdet Nasr period of Mesopotamia and the archaic period of Egypt are apparently roughly contemporary, but the interesting point is that in Mesopotamia many of the features of civilization appear to have a background, whereas in Egypt they do not. It is on this basis that many authorities consider that Egypt owes her civilization to the people of the Euphrates. There is no doubt that there is a connection, but whether direct or indirect we do not know.

- Walter B. Emery Archaic Egypt

The inhabitants of Upper Egypt were on the whole a smaller, gracile type with long narrow skulls, compared with the taller and more heavily built mesocephalic Lower Egyptians. On monuments, all men have dark curly hair and their bodies are dark red to indicate the heavily sun burnt light-brown skin (brown was absent from the palette of the Egyptian artist). The conventional depiction of the lighter complexion of women was yellow. A similar picture of population stability of obtained from an analysis of the Egyptian language, even through the variety of current opinions is as great as in the case of physical anthropology. Connections exist with ancient and modern Semitic languages of western Asia, as well as Cushitic, Berber and Chado-Hamitic languages of Ethiopia, Libya and the western Sudan. These, however, suggest a common origin rather than a superimposition of one language upon another. The prehistoric inhabitants of Egypt and the historic Egyptians therefore spoke the same language in different stages of its development.

- Jaromir Malek  In the Shadow of the Pyramids

More than two thousand years later, in 2,308 BCE, the Sumerians developed their equivalent of the 11:57pm July 3rd 14,000 BCE sky chart and Narmer Plate combined. It comes in the form of a royal cylinder-seal depicting "The Sun is Risen". The purpose of the seal is to celebrate the Dawn of the Age of Aries. Perhaps not surprisingly it comes complete with Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs. In linking the seal with the Ancient Egyptian 11:57 pm July 3rd 14000BCE sky chart the following need to be accounted for: the Celestial Sphinx and the Rising Sun, together with the Constellations of Orion, Gemini, Phoenix, and Grus. There are two other constellations on the sky chart, those of Taurus and Piscis Austrinus.

Upper & Lower Egypt

Upper & Lower Egypt

  • Lower Egypt (Wadjet) = Misrajim
  • Upper Egypt (Nekhbet) = Kuš


Two Ladies

Two Ladies

Two Ladies - Uraeus


Wadjet "green one" known to the Greek world as Uto or Buto among other names including Wedjat, Uadjet, and Udjo was originally the ancient local goddess of the city of Dep (Buto). It became part of the city that the Egyptians named Per-Wadjet (House of Wadjet) and the Greeks called Buto (Desouk now), which was an important site in the Predynastic era of ancient Egypt and the cultural developments of the Paleolithic. She was said to be the patron and protector of Lower Egypt and upon unification with Upper Egypt, the joint protector and patron of all of Egypt "goddess" of Upper Egypt. The image of Wadjet with the sun disk is called the uraeus, and it was the emblem on the crown of the rulers of Lower Egypt. She was also the protector of kings and of women in childbirth. Wadjet was said to be the nurse of the infant god Horus. With the help of his mother Isis, they protected Horus from his treacherous uncle, Seth, when they took refuge in the Delta swamps.

The Going Forth of Wadjet was celebrated on December 25 with chants and songs. An annual festival held in the city celebrated Wadjet on April 21. Other important dates for special worship of her were June 21, the Summer Solstice, and March 14. She also was assigned the fifth hour of the fifth day of the moon.

Wadjet was closely associated in the Egyptian pantheon with the Eye of Ra, a powerful protective deity. The hieroglyph for her eye is shown below; sometimes two are shown in the sky of religious images. Per-Wadjet also contained a sanctuary of Horus, the child of the sun deity who would be interpreted to represent the pharaoh. Much later, Wadjet became associated with Isis as well as with many other deities.

Blue-glazed Wadjet amulet

As the patron goddess, she was associated with the land and depicted as a snake-headed woman or a snake - usually an Egyptian cobra, a venomous snake common to the region; sometimes she was depicted as a woman with two snake heads and, at other times, a snake with a woman's head. Her oracle was in the renowned temple in Per-Wadjet that was dedicated to her worship and gave the city its name. This oracle may have been the source for the oracular tradition that spread to Greece from Egypt.


The Ancient Egyptian word Wadj signifies blue and green. It is also the name for the well-known Eye of the Moon. Indeed, in later times, she was often depicted simply as a woman with a snake's head, or as a woman wearing the uraeus. The uraeus originally had been her body alone, which wrapped around or was coiled upon the head of the pharaoh or another deity.

Wadjet was depicted as a cobra. As patron and protector, later Wadjet often was shown coiled upon the head of Ra; in order to act as his protection, this image of her became the uraeus symbol used on the royal crowns as well.

Another early depiction of Wadjet is as a cobra entwined around a papyrus stem, beginning in the Predynastic era (prior to 3100 B.C.) and it is thought to be the first image that shows a snake entwined around a staff symbol. This is a sacred image that appeared repeatedly in the later images and myths of cultures surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, called the caduceus, which may have had separate origins.

Her name means "papyrus-colored one", as wadj is the Ancient Egyptian word for the color green (in reference to the color of the papyrus plant) and the et is an indication of her gender. Its hieroglyphs differ from those of the Green Crown (Red Crown) of Lower Egypt only by the determinative, which in the case of the crown was a picture of the Green Crown and, in the case of the goddess, a rearing cobra.


"The goddess Wadjet appears in the form of the living Uraeus to anoint your head with her flames. She rises up on the left side of your head and she shines from the right side of your temples without speech; she rises up on your head during each and every hour of the day, even as she does for her father Ra, and through her the terror which you inspire in the spirits is increased … she will never leave you, are of you strikes into the souls which are made perfect." - The Book of the Dead

Eventually, Wadjet was claimed as the patron goddess and protector of the whole of Lower Egypt and became associated with Nekhbet, depicted as a white vulture, who held unified Egypt. After the unification the image of Nekhbet joined Wadjet on the crown, thereafter shown as part of the uraeus.

An interpretation of the Milky Way was that it was the primal snake, Wadjet, the protector of Egypt. In this interpretation she was closely associated with Hathor. The association with Hathor brought her son Horus into association also. The cult of Ra absorbed most of Horus's traits and included the protective eye of Wadjet that had shown her association with Hathor.

Wadjet's position as patron led to her being identified as the more powerful goddess Mut, whose cult had come to the fore in conjunction with rise of the cult of Amun, and eventually being absorbed into her as the Mut-Wadjet-Bast triad.

When the pairing of deities occurred in later Egyptian myths, since she was linked to the land, after the unification of Lower and Upper Egypt she came to be thought of as the wife of Hapy, a deity of the Nile, which flowed through the land.

Wadjet, as the goddess of Lower Egypt, had a big temple at the ancient Imet (now Tell Nebesha) in the Nile Delta. She was worshipped in the area as the 'Lady of Imet'. Later she was joined by Min and Horus to form a triad of deities. This was based on an Osiriac model identified elsewhere in Egypt.


Nekhbet was an early predynastic local goddess in Egyptian mythology, who was the patron of the city of Nekheb (her name meaning of Nekheb). Ultimately, she became the patron of Upper Egypt and one of the two patron deities for all of Ancient Egypt when it was unified.


Egypt’s oldest oracle was the shrine of Nekhbet at Nekheb, the original necropolis or city of the dead. It was the companion city to Nekhen, the religious and political capital of Upper Egypt at the end of the Predynastic period (c. 3200–3100 BC) and probably, also during the Early Dynastic Period (c. 3100–2686 BC). The original settlement on the Nekhen site dates from Naqada I or the late Badarian cultures. At its height, from about 3400 BC, Nekhen had at least 5,000 and possibly as many as 10,000 inhabitants.


Nekhbet was the tutelary deity of Upper Egypt. Nekhbet and her Lower Egyptian counterpart Wadjet often appeared together as the "Two Ladies". One of the titles of each ruler was the Nebty name, which began with the hieroglyphs for [s/he] of the Two Ladies....

Two Ladies

In art, Nekhbet was depicted as a vulture. Alan Gardiner identified the species that was used in divine iconography as a griffon vulture. Arielle P. Kozloff, however, argues that the vultures in New Kingdom art, with their blue-tipped beaks and loose skin, better resemble the lappet-faced vulture.


In New Kingdom times, the vulture appeared alongside the uraeus on the headdresses with which kings were buried. The uraeus and vulture are traditionally interpreted as Wadjet and Nekhbet, but Edna R. Russmann has suggested that in this context they represent Isis and Nephthys, two major funerary goddesses, instead.


Nekhbet usually was depicted hovering, with her wings spread above the royal image, clutching a shen symbol (representing eternal encircling protection), frequently in her claws. As patron of the pharaoh, she was sometimes seen to be the mother of the divine aspect of the pharaoh, and it was in this capacity that she was Mother of Mothers, and the Great White Cow of Nekheb.

In some late texts of the Book of the Dead, Nekhbet is referred to as Father of Fathers, Mother of Mothers, who hath existed from the Beginning, and is Creatrix of this World.


An interpretation of the Milky Way was that it was the primal snake, Wadjet, the protector of Egypt. In this interpretation she was closely associated with Hathor.

Upper Egypt

White Crown


Badari culture, c. 4400 - 4000 BC



Naqada culture, c. 4400 - 3000 BC

Naqada culture

Pre-dynastic Naqada cooking pot.

Incised hippopotamus ivory tusk, upper canine.

Female figure with bird traits. Naqada II period, 3500-3400 BE.


Eye Idol

Kish civilization

Lapis Lazuli - G2a2 - Kish civilization

Lapis lazuli imported from Badakshan and / or Mesopotamia (see Silk Road)

Kuševi su: Seba, Havila, Sabta, Rama i Sabteka. Ramini su: Šeba i Dedan.

Havila = Havale (Avala), Seba = Sava



Sinovi su Hamovi: Kuš i Misrajim, Put i Kanaan.

Kuševi su: Seba, Havila, Sabta, Rama i Sabteka. Ramini su: Šeba i Dedan. Od Kuša se rodio Nimrod, koji je postao prvi velmoža na zemlji. Voljom Jahve bio je silan lovac. Zato se veli: "Kao Nimrod, silan lovac voljom Jahve." Glavno uporište njegova kraljevstva bili su: Babilon, Erek, Akad i Kalne, svi u zemlji Šinearu. Iz ove je zemlje došao Ašur. On je podigao Ninivu, Rehobot Ir, Kalah i Resen između Ninive i Kalaha (to je glavni grad).


Knjiga Brojeva - A Mirjam i Aron uzeše rogoboriti protiv Mojsija zbog žene Kušanke kojom se oženio; jer bijaše uzeo za ženu jednu Kušanku.

Izaija - Jao zemlji krilatih kukaca s one strane rijeka kuških, tebi koja šalješ morem glasnike i vodom u čamcima rogoznim. Idite, brze skoroteče, k narodu stasitu, tamnoputu, k narodu kog se boje odvajkada, narodu žilavu, zavojevaču, čija je zemlja rijekama izbrazdana.

Starogrčki i rimski izvori često poistovjećuju Kuš sa Etiopijom. Drevni Kušiti su ostavili veliko civilizacijsko nasljeđe o čemu svjedoče brojna arheološka istraživanja, a najvažnije su svakako kušitske (nubijske) piramide.


Kish civilization - Tell Brak, c. 3800 BC

East Semitic languages

The Eye Idols of Tell Brak

The eye is a recurrent and symbolic motif in the art forms from the pre-dynastic to neo-assyrian periods. Eye symbols are found in nearly all ancient cultures, from the far flung corners of the globe. The emphasis of the all seeing eye, seems to portray in nearly all cultures, a sign of divinity and holiness.

The image of an eye has always been a powerful amulet in Mesopotamia and thousands of these eye idols, schematised humanoid figures have been found in and around the now called 'Eye Temple' at Tell Brak, dating to the late Uruk period.

These anthropomorphic lithic sculptures are fashioned from various materials, such as lime stone, soap stone, alabaster and baked clay. The simplest form of these graven images, is a flat trapezoid body, with a thin elongated neck, supporting an oversized pair of eyes. Other examples have multiple sets of eyes, some three eyes in a row, two pairs of eyes one above the other, and on occasions a smaller eye figure of a similar style is engraved within the trapezoid body. Family groups have also come to light  There are There are also more three dimensional versions which display a set of pierced eye forms on top of a conical body. This type are composed of natural stone and baked clay, and their broad bases enable them to stand upright unsupported.


Other eye talismans have been found depicting models of eyes cut into semi precious stones, these are known to date from Sumerian down to Neo-Assyrian periods. These artefacts are known as the 'Eyes of Ningal'. The goddess Ningal was the wife of the god Nanna, also known as Sin and she was the mother of the sun god Shammash, who was worshiped at Ur. Her cult developed independently in Syria as early as the second millennium BC, where her name was changed to Nikkal. This form of her name was also used in Babylonia.

Other statuettes and figurines have been found, which depict worshipers, rather than Gods, looking into the heavens with wide staring eyes, at various other temple sites scattered across the Mesopotamian planes, throughout most periods. Although there is no evidence from any excavated materials that eye idols were made of perishable materials such as tamarisk wood, dough, bitumen or wax, this may have been done if the eye idols were votive offerings. However this practice is documented in cylinder seals and ritual inscriptions for other votive objects at other temple sites.

Note that eye idols of the form shown in figure 4 (below), would appear to display the horned cap denoting divinity . This form of head gear is seen on god figures from the early third millennium BC onwards. Originally it was a general indication of a divine status, its use as a symbol of a particular major deity was never consistent. The Kassite kudurrus contains an inscription that names this symbol as that of the supreme God Anu (An). However in Neo-Assyrian art it was transferred to the new national God Assur. The style of the devine cap has changed from time to time according to fashion, it could be domed or flat topped as in the below examples, or may be depicted trimmed with feathers, surmounted by a knob or a fleur-de-lys. Caps today still seem to represent holiness and divinity, still worn by the pope and the cardinals of Rome, the Jewish scull cap and the turban, which are all modern day examples. It is hard to argue that they are not connected in some way to antiquity and mythology.

Horned cap of divinity

A more three dimensional variant also exists, but not fond at Tell Brak itself,  and "families" of types have been found.


The basic iconography of the horned cap of divinity may be  linked to the Bull of heaven the destroyer of worlds (a mythological Titan, given to ishtar/inanna by her father the great god Anu/An). Read "the epic of gilgamesh" for more details. Or linked to Bos primigenius (a wild species of beast) that roamed the planes of Mesopotamia, standing six feet at the shoulder, with enormous horns, hunted by the Assyrian Kings is probably where the mythology of the heavenly Bull first originated, also 'the zodiac sign Torus' ? the Apis Bull of Egyptian mythology.


Hindu Eye Goddess Temple in Syria?

Naina Devi, Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh

In Himachal Pradesh and Uttarkhand States in India and Tell Birak in Syria.

Thousands of small stone eye idols are found in Tell Brak in Syria. It is called Eye Temple. It existed from 3000 BCE. Naram Sin built (2254 BCE) a palace here. The Eye Goddesses are mysterious and found nowhere else except India. Syrian site is located in Nahar al Khabur basin.

Tell Birak, Syria, Eye Idols

Krishna, Bala Bhadra and Subhadra at Puri Rath Yatra

Like in India, ‘Chandra’ can be a pre fix or a suffix to a name. We have Hari Chandra or Chandra Deva in the king list. Sin and Sena also sound similar. Another name for moon is Nanna which is found in the king list in Sangam Tamil literature and Sanskrit literature (Nanna Deva). Nanna is one of the popular names in Sumer.

Nayana Devi Temple in Bilaspur and Nainital

The most famous Eye Goddess temple is in Himachal Pradesh. Sikh Guru Guru Gobind Sing did a Chandi Yajna here to defeat the Moghuls.

It is one of the 51 Shakti Kendras (Goddess centres) in India. When Goddess Parvati committed self sacrifice (Sati) in the Daksha Yajna , Lord Shiva carried her body and the body parts fell in 51 places in India. They all became famous Shakti centres attracting a huge crowd. It is believed that Goddess’ eyes fell at Bilaspur in Himachal Pradesh. Nainital in Uttarkhand also has a similar eye goddess temple. Nainital’s name is also derived from the Nayana Devi Tal.

Nayana, Akshi, Lochana, Netra are popular Sanskrit words for eye. These names are found in women’s names throughout India.

Meenakshi of Madurai, Kamakshi of Kancheepuram, Neelayathakshi of Nagapattna, Visalakshi of Kasi/Varanasi are very famous temples and all are named after the beautiful eyes of the goddesses.

Above all Shiva’s Third Eye stands for wisdom and mysterious powers in Hinduism. In all the village temples of Tamil Nadu  and Kerala people offer body parts made up of silver to the goddesses. Eye is an important body part they offer. Eye worship is very common in Hinduism.

The statues of the famous Puri Jagannath  Rath Yatra (Chariot Festival) Krishna, Balarama and Subadra have prominent eyes like the Syrian temple idols.

Probably the Mitannians worshipped Nayana Devi around 1500 BCE. But the temple in Syria was built well before the known Mitannain kings. Naram sin and his forefathers may also have worshipped Nayanadevi. Scarcity of materials leaves lot of things to guess work. But the material similar to eye idols of Syria is available only in Hindu temples of India.

Maa Naina


Abydos (Abjou) - The Osireion

Lockyer called Abydos 'One of the holiest places in Egypt from the very earliest of times'

Plano Osireion

The Osirion was originally built at a considerably lower level than the foundations of the temple of Seti, who ruled from 1294 - 1279 BC.

Abydos has revealed itself to be one of the most important archaeological sites in Egypt. It is the site of the pre-dynastic royal graveyard, which has revealed some interesting links with Sumeria; and of the Osireion, an enigmatic underground chamber connected to the Nile, fashioned from enormous blocks the style of which is comparable only with that seen at the Valley temple, Giza. The temple of the Sixth Dynasty Seti I was later built over this site, which assuredly dates from an earlier time.

The Temple of Seti I, 1307-1291 BC (The 'House of a Million Years')

(The house of millions of years) – Considered to have been built towards the end of Seti’s reign.

The entrance to the Temple of Seti I

The temple of Seti I contains the famous Abydos 'King-List'.

The list of 120 Gods of Ancient Egypt and the ‘king list’, on the walls.

The list of 120 Gods of Ancient Egypt and the ‘king list’, on the walls.

The Temple of Seti I is said to be aligned in the same way as ‘The way of the dead’ at Teotihuacán, east of due north.

The Temple of Seti I was built long after the Osireion:

It is said that Seti I was directed to build at this location and that he turned the temple when he found the Osireion, but the alignment between the two temples makes it is more likely that he was aware of the presence of the Osireion when he began to build his temple.

The Osireion (Strabo's Well, The Fountain of Abydos)

The water in the temple is an indication of the level of the Nile approx' 6.5 miles away. It measures approximately 20 x 30m, is 50ft lower and is made of a clearly different construction style to that of the temple of Seti I (Sixth Dynasty) above. The water level insde the temple is attached to the water table.

As Seti-I began the search for a location for his Temple, he  was lead to a location north of Luxor in the bend of the River Nile. There he began to dig the foundation for his Temple. What he discovered was the Osireion, or the ancient temple of Osiris. Whether he actually knew that the Osireion was there, perhaps we will never know, but upon finding this ancient temple in the path of his new temple, he turned his new temple to the left. It is the only temple in Egypt that makes an 'L' turn.

The Osireion is aligned with the temple of Seti I, above...

The area is constructed of blocks up to 25 ft long. Almost flush with the water table and therefore the Nile, it is likely it was always part filled with water, leaving a central plinth protruding like an island in the centre. The walls surrounding the building are 20 ft thick, red sandstone. The chamber is surrounded by a ‘moat’ with ‘cells’ coming off it, six to the east, six to the west, two to the south and three to the north. The whole structure was enclosed within an outer wall of limestone.

The stairs can be used as an indication of scale.

The roof has collapsed, but compare the upper masonry with the lower.

17 Cubicles surround the central area.

The perfect pillar... (note the water-line)

Made of 'rose-coloured Aswan granite', the ten central columns each measure 2.096m² (5)  and 4.19²m high (5).
Note: states that they are 2.6m², while says 2.4m² x just over 3.5m high)
The dimensions of each stone can therefore be estimated at between (2.096 x 2.096 x 4.16 = 18.4m³), and (2.5 x 2.5 x 3.5 = 21.87m³)

Using the average density of granite at 2.7g/cm: we arrive at an estimated weight of between 49.68 tons and 59 tons.

Some examples of the Various 'Mortice and Tennon' joins used in the construction.

The entrance to the rear ante-chamber with its spectacular lintel...

This structure shows significant architectural differences to the temple above and is believed to be far older. It shows several similarities to the ‘Valley Temple’ at Ghiza (21), which is also recognised as an early-dynasty structure. In relation to this issue, it is perhaps significant that the temple Osireion is dedicated to Osiris, while the 'Valley temple' at Giza is associated to Isis.


and behind which, is an even more spectacular stone tunnel/arch...

Annual Report from the Smithsonian Institute, 1914, pp. 579-585.

Excavations at Abydoss: Naville, Edouard. (Extract)

'There is no longer any doubt, then, that we have discovered what Strabo calls  the well or the fountain of Abydos. He spoke of it as being near the temple, at a great depth, and remarkable for some corridors whose ceilings were formed of enormous monolithic blocks. That is exactly what we have found.

These cells were 17 in number, 6 on each of the long side. There was one in the middle of the wall at the back; in passing through it one came in the rear to the large hall which was the tomb of Osiris. A careful study of the sculptures confirmed the opinion that this was a funeral hall where the remains of the god were expected to be found. but this hall did not form part of the original edifice. It must have been constructed underground when Seti I built the temple of the god. The tomb of Osiris was very near the great reservoir. Nothing revealed its presence; the entrance to it was exactly like that to all the other cells, the back of it being walled up after they had dug through it...

...We have as yet no certain indications of the date of the construction; but the style, the size of the materials, the complete absence of all ornamentation, all indicate very great antiquity. Up to present time what is called the temple of the Sphinx at Gizeh has always been considered one of the most ancient edifices of Egypt. It is contemporaneous with the pyramid of Chefren...

'The reservoir of Abydos being of a similar composition, but of much larger materials, is of a still more archaic character, and i would not be surprised if this were the most ancient structure in Egypt'

Myth and Legend

It is said that a catfish swallowed the phallus of Osiris when he was cut into pieces by Seth. The Osireion is traditionally known as it's final resting place. In reverence of this myth, catfish are left in the water to this day, as the photo on the right demonstrates, taken at the Osireion in 2003.

The layer of water in the Osireion is reminiscent of the 'Holy wells' or 'Well shrines' of pagan Britain which were noted for their healing properties, and in many cases were popular places of pilgrimage. The picture (left), is an old print of St. Triduana's reliquary chapel (well-shrine) in Edinburgh.


Sir N. Lockyer says this on the subject: 'The orientations given by different authors are so conflicting that no certainty can be claimed, but it is possible that at Abydoss one of the mounds is not far from the amplitude shown in the tables for the sun in the Nile valley at sunset at eh summer-solstice'.

Old Images of the Osireion.

The Osireion and the Valley Temple

It has been suggested that the Osireion and the Valley temple at Giza are contemporary structures. There are several factors which indicate that this may be the case, which would make the Osireion a 4th dynasty structure. We know that the temple of Seti I was built in the 6th Dynasty (4th Dynasty (2,613–2,498 BC),  6th Dynasty (2345–2181 BC) (7)). only a matter of a hundred years later, and in a completely different style of architecture. It is worth exploring the idea that the Osireion and the Valley temple might at least share a common theme in construction.

  • The two buildings (Osireion and Valley Temple) are clearly similar in design and appearance.


Both structures were made from large, unadorned and lintelled pillars. Two rows running along the length with five pillars in each, creating a central chamber. Both structures were covered over, and both were associated with the Nile. The Osireion has 17 chambers running along the walls while the Valley Temple has 17 sockets in the floor for statues. Naville, who excavated the site in 1913-14, immediately recognised the similarities between Khafre's Valley Temple at Giza and the Osireion, and concluded that they were of the same Old Kingdom era.

  • Both Giza and the Osireion show the same specific masonry technique.

The same 'manoeuvring protuberances' were left on the otherwise finished blocks. These are the only two known examples of this technique in early dynastic structures.


The Temple of Man

R.A. Schwaller De Lubicz


Back to Africa

Y-DNA J1 & R-V88

Y-DNA J1 - Y-DNA R-V88

Some lineages derived from Haplogroup F-M89 appear to have back-migrated into Africa from Southwest Asia, during prehistory. Subclades of F-M89 associated with this hypothetical "Back to Africa" migration include J, T & R1b.


Nubians, Kushite (Hamites)

Red & black Nubians

Red & black Nubians

Tijekom antike Nubia je bio poznat kao Kush, u klasičnoj grčkoj uporabi uključena pod imenom Etiopija (Aithiopia).

Red & black Nubians - Ramesses II


The Myths and History of Red Hair

The Egyptians

It is thought that Cleopatra herself was a redhead. This is partly based on an image found on a wall in Herculaneum which shows a woman with red hair surrounded by Egyptian motifs. In her book, "Cleopatra the Great," Joann Fletcher writes:

"Cleopatra may well have been a redhead, judging from the portrait of a flame-haired woman wearing the royal diadem surrounded by Egyptian motifs which has been identified as Cleopatra."

She also states that red hair became something of a fashion statement in Cleopatra's Alexandria, writing:

"The red hair of the Germanic tribes conquered by Caesar was particularly prized for this purpose. It was a shade favoured by fashionable Alexandrian women, including some in the royal household. Presumably Cleopatra's own auburn hair had set the trend, maybe enhanced with a vegetable colorant such as henna."

She also mentions that during a feast put on by Cleopatra there were staff in attendance with hair so fair "that Caesar said he had never seen hair so red in the Rhine country."

Another book that mentions red hair in conjunction with ancient Egypt is James Frazer's "The Golden Bough." In it he states that red-haired men were burnt and sacrificed by the Egyptians:

"With regard to the ancient Egyptians we have it on the authority of Manetho that they used to burn red-haired men and scatter their ashes with winnowing fans, and it is highly significant that this barbarous sacrifice was offered by the kings at the grave of Osiris. We may conjecture that the victims represented Osiris himself, who was annually slain, dismembered, and buried in their persons that he might quicken the seed in the earth."

Later in the book he elaborates on this:

"Again the theory that the pig, originally Osiris himself, afterwards came to be regarded as an embodiment of his enemy Typhon, is supported by the similar relation of red-haired men and red oxen to Typhon. For in regards to the red-haired men who were burned and whose ashes were scattered with winnowing-fans, we have seen fair grounds for believing that originally, like the red-haired puppies killed at Rome in the spring, they were representatives of the corn-spirit himself, that is, of Osiris, and were slain for the express purpose of making the corn turn red or golden."

Given this information it's interesting to note that we now know that many pharaohs of ancient Egypt were red-haired, including Ramesses II, also known as Ramesses the Great. In fact the number of red-haired mummies unearthed seems strikingly disproportionate, especially given the climate in Egypt.

The Phoenicians

Apparently, the name "Phoenicians" loosely translates as "red people." Most scholars believe this refers to the purple-red dye they used to dye their clothes, others have argued that it refers to the colour of their land. However, I have also read that it may refer to their hair colour. I'm not really qualified to say whether or not this theory holds water, but I include it here simply because it piqued my interest. I've read a few eccentric theories that suggest the Phoenicians shared a common ancestry with the British - maybe they had red hair in common as well. It all seems a bit fanciful, but the Phoenicians did travel up the Atlantic coast and to the British Isles in ancient times so you never know.

African Albinos

I read an article in Fortean Times that talked about the fact that Albinos are sometimes ritualistically sacrificed in Africa. The article quoted Credo Mutwa, who said:

"Not all Africans have got black hair. There are Africans who are regarded as very holy, as very sacred. These are Africans who are born with natural red hair. These Africans are believed to be very spiritually powerful. Now, in Africa, such people, albeamers or red-headed Africans, were the most victims of sacrifice, especially when they were just entering maturity - whether they were males or females."

Red & black Nubians


A-Group culture, c. 3800 - 3100 BC

Red Nubians

Nubian Terracotta Female Figurine, c. 3500-3100 BC

Around 3500 BC, the second "Nubian" culture, termed the A-Group, arose. It was a contemporary of, and ethnically and culturally very similar to, the polities in predynastic Naqada of Upper Egypt. The A-Group people were engaged in trade with the Egyptians. This trade is testified archaeologically by large amounts of Egyptian commodities deposited in the graves of the A-Group people. The imports consisted of gold objects, copper tools, faience amulets and beads, seals, slate palettes, stone vessels, and a variety of pots. Around 3300 BC, there is evidence of a unified kingdom, as shown by the finds at Qustul, that maintained substantial interactions (both cultural and genetic) with the culture of Naqadan Upper Egypt. The Nubian culture may have even contributed to the unification of the Nile Valley. - A-Group culture

Master of Animals

Gebel el-Arak Knife

Mace - Slavery - Warfare

[...] an archaic flint knife with an ivory handle of the greatest beauty. This is the masterpiece of predynastic sculpture [...] executed with remarkable finesse and elegance. This is a work of great detail [...] and the interest of what is represented extends even beyond the artistic value of the artefact. On one side is a hunting scene; on the other a scene of war or a raid. At the top of the hunting scene [...] the hunter wears a large Chaldean garment: he head is covered by a hat like that of our Gudea [...] and he grasps two lions standing against him.

Gudea - Gutian people - Master of Animals, Sumer

R-M269 was brought from the Pontic–Caspian steppe in Eurasia, a region hypothesised to be the Proto-Indo-European homeland, which went south over the Caucasus mountains via Anatolia and into Mesopotamia at around 6,000 B.P.


Master of Animals

"Gudea" - Master of Animals

Mesopotamian king as Master of Animals on the Gebel el-Arak Knife, dated circa 3300-3200 BC, Abydos, Egypt. This work of art both shows the influence of Mesopotamia on Egypt at an early date, and the state of Mesopotamian royal iconography during the Uruk period.


Dynastic Period Egypt - Master of Animals

Narmer - Master of Animals


Mycenae - Master of Animals

Warrior aristocracies

Mycenae  lion gate

Lion, Unicorn and Cross

Iz potomstva junak mu izlazi, nad mnogim on vlada narodima. Kralj će njegov nadvisit' Agaga, uzdiže se kraljevstvo njegovo. (8) Iz Egipta Bog ga izveo, on je njemu k'o rozi bivola. On proždire narode dušmanske, on njihove kosti drobi. (9) Skupio se, polegao poput lava, poput lavice: tko ga podići smije? - Brojevi


Master of Animals today..

The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom - Coat of Arms of the Rothschild family


Kerma Culture, c. 2500 - 1500 BC

Painting of an ancient Libyan or Kushite woman and infant being led by an Egyptian superintendent; from the east wall of the tomb BH14 of nomarch Khnumhotep I at Beni Hasan. Reign of Pharaoh Amenemhat I, early 12th Dynasty, Middle Kingdom. - Kerma Culture

From the pre-Kerma culture, the first kingdom to unify much of the region arose. The Kingdom of Kerma, named for its presumed capital at Kerma, was one of the earliest urban centers in the Nile region.

By 1750 BC, the kings of Kerma were powerful enough to organize the labor for monumental walls and structures of mud brick. They also had rich tombs with possessions for the afterlife and large human sacrifices. George Reisner excavated sites at Kerma and found large tombs and a palace-like structures. The structures, named (Deffufa), alluded to the early stability in the region.

At one point, Kerma came very close to conquering Egypt. Egypt suffered a serious defeat at the hands of the Kushites. According to Davies, head of the joint British Museum and Egyptian archaeological team, the attack was so devastating that if the Kerma forces chose to stay and occupy Egypt, they might have eliminated it for good and brought the great nation to extinction. When Egyptian power revived under the New Kingdom (c. 1532-1070 BC) they began to expand further southwards.

The Egyptians destroyed Kerma's kingdom and capitol and expanded the Egyptian empire to the Fourth Cataract. By the end of the reign of Thutmose I (1520 BC), all of northern Nubia had been annexed. The Egyptians built a new administrative center at Napata, and used the area to produce gold. The Nubian gold production made Egypt a prime source of the precious metal in the Middle East. The primitive working conditions for the slaves are recorded by Diodorus Siculus who saw some of the mines at a later time. One of the oldest maps known is of a gold mine in Nubia, the Turin Papyrus Map dating to about 1160 BC.


Nubia and Ancient Egypt

Medja Temple Relief

The history of the Nubians is closely linked with that of ancient Egypt. Ancient Egypt conquered Nubian territory incorporating them into its provinces. The Nubians in turn were to conquer Egypt in its 25th Dynasty. However, relations between the two peoples also show peaceful cultural interchange and cooperation, including mixed marriages.

The Medjay represents the name Ancient Egyptians gave to a region in northern Sudan where an ancient people of Nubia inhabited. They became part of the Ancient Egyptian military as scouts and minor workers. During the Middle Kingdom "Medjay" no longer referred to the district of Medja, but to a tribe or clan of people. It is not known what happened to the district, but, after the First Intermediate Period, it and other districts in Nubia were no longer mentioned in the written record.

Written accounts detail the Medjay as nomadic desert people. Over time they were incorporated into the Egyptian army where that served as garrison troops in Egyptian fortifications in Nubia and patrolled the deserts. This was done in the hopes of preventing their fellow Medjay tribespeople from further attacking Egyptian assets in the region. They were later used during KamoseŐs campaign against the Hyksos and became instrumental in making the Egyptian state into a military power.

By the 18th Dynasty of the New Kingdom the Medjay were an elite paramilitary police force. No longer did the term refer to an ethnic group and over time the new meaning became synonymous with the policing occupation in general. Being an elite police force, the Medjay were often used to protect valuable areas, especially royal and religious complexes. Though they are most notable for their protection of the royal palaces and tombs in Thebes and the surrounding areas, the Medjay were known to have been used throughout Upper and Lower Egypt.

Various pharaohs of Nubian origin are held by some Egyptologists to have played an important part towards the area in different eras of Egyptian history, particularly the 12th Dynasty. These rulers handled matters in typical Egyptian fashion, reflecting the close cultural influences between the two regions.

The XII Dynasty (1991-1786 B.C.E.) originated from the Aswan region. As expected, strong Nubian features and dark coloring are seen in their sculpture and relief work. This dynasty ranks as among the greatest, whose fame far outlived its actual tenure on the throne. Especially interesting, it was a member of this dynasty that decreed that no Nehsy (riverine Nubian of the principality of Kush), except such as came for trade or diplomatic reasons, should pass by the Egyptian fortress and cops at the southern end of the Second Nile Cataract.

In the New Kingdom, Nubians and Egyptians were often closely related that some scholars consider them virtually indistinguishable, as the two cultures combined. The result has been described as a wholesale Nubian assimilation into Egyptian society. This assimilation was so complete that it masked all Nubian ethnic identities insofar as archaeological remains are concerned beneath the impenetrable veneer of Egypt's material culture.


In the Kushite Period, when Nubians ruled as Pharaohs in their own right, the material culture of Dynasty XXV (about 750-655 B.C.E.) was decidedly Egyptian in character. Nubia's entire landscape up to the region of the Third Cataract was dotted with temples indistinguishable in style and decoration from contemporary temples erected in Egypt. The same observation obtains for the smaller number of typically Egyptian tombs in which these elite Nubian princes were interred.

The Nubian Pharaohs



Thebes was inhabited from around 3200 BC. It was the eponymous capital of Waset, the fourth Upper Egyptian nome. At this time it was still a small trading post while Memphis served as the royal residence of Old Kingdom pharaohs. - Thebes


Egyptian Cosmology

We can reconstitute the general outline of Egyptian cosmogony which was probably already very ancient by the time of the Pyramid Texts.

The oldest known [Egyptian] religious texts, the so-called Pyramid-Texts, are found in the burial chambers of the royal pyramids of the Fifth and Sixth Dynasties. Consisting of long vertical columns of hieroglyphs engraved into the stone walls, these inscriptions have the central purpose of facilitating the king's ascension into the heavens and his return to the side of his father, the Supreme God, where he will live eternally in the form of a pure and luminous spirit (akh).

The One, the Eternal, can be defined only through his countless qualities, which alone are amenable. These names then represent the active functional principles or vital powers which find expression as the genesis of the world unfolds. Thus, through the invocations addressed to these powers - not gods but 'divine entities' or divine attributes.

There are four great Egyptian religions, and doubtless many more minor ones, which shared (as in the Hindu family of religions) overlapping mythologies, theologies, and iconographies.  All adopt a more or less Henotheistic approach.  It is wrong to consider them as strict polytheism as in the Homeric pantheon.

The different creation accounts were each associated with the cult of a particular god in one of the major cities of Egypt: Hermopolis, Heliopolis, Memphis, and Thebes. To some degree these myths represent competing theologies, but they also represent different aspects of the process of creation.


The Theban Theology


Theban theology claimed that Amun was not merely a member of the Ogdoad, but the hidden force behind all things. There is a conflation of all notions of creation into the personality of Amun, a synthesis which emphasizes how Amun transcends all other deities in his being "beyond the sky and deeper than the underworld". One Theban myth likened Amun's act of creation to the call of a goose, which broke the stillness of the primeval waters and caused the Ogdoad and Ennead to form. Amun was separate from the world, his true nature was concealed even from the other gods. At the same time, however, because he was the ultimate source of creation, all the gods, including the other creators, were in fact merely aspects of Amun. Amun eventually became the supreme god of the Egyptian pantheon because of this belief. Amun is synonymous with the growth of Thebes as a major religious capital.

The Theban theology, like the Memphite theology, is based on a primordial triad.  In this case it is the triad of Amun, Mut and Khonsu. The Theban myth of creation is somewhat complicated and wrapped in obscure symbolism.  As Lucy Lamy explains:

At the origin of time, there existed a serpent, Kam-at-f, 'he who has accomplished his time'. As his name indicates, this serpent ceased to exist when his time was past. He had, however, a son, Ir-ta, 'Creator of the Earth'. Ir-ta continued the work of his father and created the Eight Primordials of Hermopolis, among whom of course we find Amun, who declares himself to be the initial serpent, and Amonet. The genealogy is presented as follows, in terms of four generations:

  1. The serpent Kam-at-f, assimilated to Amun-Re of Karnak.
  2. The serpent Ir-ta, assimilated to Min-Amun of Luxor.
  3. The Eight Primordials, one of whom is Amun, who thus re-generates himself.
  4. The solar child who comes forth from the lotus at Hermopolis, in other words Re, product of the Fight Primordials, and also assimilated to Amun.

Old Europe

Gumelnița-Karanovo culture, c. 4700 - 3950 BC


Gumelnița–Karanovo culture




Followed by; Cernavodă culture, Levant & Lower Egypt

The Cernavodă culture, ca. 4000—3200 BC, was a late Copper Age archaeological culture. It was along the lower Eastern Bug River and Danube and along the coast of the Black Sea and somewhat inland, generally in present-day Romania and Bulgaria.

It is a successor to and occupies much the same area as the earlier neolithic Karanovo culture, for which a destruction horizon seems to be evident. It is part of the "Balkan-Danubian complex" that stretches up the entire length of the river and into northern Germany via the Elbe and the Baden culture; its northeastern portion is thought to be ancestral to the Usatovo culture.

It is characterized by defensive hilltop settlements. The pottery shares traits with that found further east on the south-west Eurasian steppe; burials similarly bear a resemblance to those further east.


Boian culture, c. 4300 - 3500 BC

Boian culture

At the end of the fifth millennium B.C, under the influence of some Pontic-Caspian tribes and cultures, the Gumelniţa culture appeared in the region. In the Eneolithic, White populations migrating from North Asia, of the Kurgan culture, mixed with the previous population, creating the Cernavodă I culture. Under Kurgan II influence, the Cernavodă II culture emerged, and then, through the combination of the Cernavodă I and Ezero cultures, developed the Cernavodă III culture. The region had commercial contacts with the Mediterranean world since the 14th century B.C.



Ghassulian, c. 4400 - 3500 BC


Teleilat Ghassul (Teleilat el-Ghassul, Tulaylat al-Ghassul), is located in the eastern Jordan Valley near the northern edge of the Dead Sea, in modern Jordan. 55


Lower Egypt, c. 3600 - 3000 BC

Red Crown

Lower Egypt

In ancient Egypt, Heliopolis was a regional center from predynastic times.


The Heliopolis Cosmology


In Heliopolis, the creation was attributed to Atum, a deity closely associated with Ra, who was said to have existed in the waters of Nu as an inert potential being. Atum was a self-engendered god, the source of all the elements and forces in the world, and the Heliopolitan myth described the process by which he "evolved" from a single being into this multiplicity of elements. The process began when Atum appeared on the mound and gave rise to the air god Shu and his sister Tefnut, whose existence represented the emergence of an empty space amid the waters. To explain how Atum did this, the myth uses the metaphor of masturbation, with the hand he used in this act representing the female principle inherent within him. He is also said to have "sneezed" and"spat" to produce Shu and Tefnut, a metaphor that arose from puns on their names. Next, Shu and Tefnut coupled to produce the earth god Geb and the sky goddess Nut, who defined the limits of the world. Geb and Nut in turn gave rise to four children, who represented the forces of life: Osiris, god of fertility and regeneration; Isis, goddess of motherhood; Set, the god of chaos; and Nephthys, the female complement of Set. The myth thus represented the process by which life was made possible. These nine gods were grouped together theologically as the Ennead, but the eight lesser gods, and all other things in the world, were ultimately seen as extensions of Atum.


At Heliopolis the name Atum is given to the First Principle, the Creator or Demiurge. The word Atum means both "All" and "Nothing", (c.f. the words attributed to Christ, "I am the alpha and the omega").  He represents the potential totality of the Universe which is as yet unformed and intangible.  There are three basic variants by which Atum gives rise to creation

The Primordial Hill

In this version Atum is in the midst of the Nun, the primordial chaos or nothingness (equivalent to the tohu or "the deep" of the Hebraic book of Genesis). Atum begins by "becoming", by projecting himself into existence', by distinguishing himself from the Nun, and thereby annihilating the Nun in its original inert state. This is represented by the primordial hill, like the first mounds of dirt and mud that can be seen when the floodwaters of the Nile recede. The image of the scarab god Khepri, representative of being and becoming, are also used here.

Hail Atum! Hail Khepri, he who becomes from himself!
You culminate in this your name of 'hill', you become in this your name of Scarab Khepri. (Pyramid Texts, 1587)

Atum-Khepri, you culminate as hill, you raise yourself up as Benu Bird from the ben-ben stone in the abode of the phoenix at Heliopolis. (Pyramid Texts, 1652.)

Atum emerges from the cosmic waters in the form of the primordial hill. He then 'spits out' (ishish) the first of the divine qualities or powers: Shu, the Principle of air and of space, symbolized by the feather he wears on his head. Atum then 'expectorates' (tfnt) the second Principle, the lion-headed Tefnut, who probably represents the element of Fire, or perhaps the solar principle (in Western astrology the lion is associated with the sun).


In another version, "Atum gives birth to himself through masturbation at Heliopolis', causing 'the seed from the kidneys to come" (Pyramid Texts, 1248). He then brings the twins Shu and Tefnut into the world. This strange (to us) image is an attempt to explain the eternal question, "if God created the universe, who created God?"  Answer, why, God of course)  Masturbation here is a metaphor of self-creation (autopeoisis). Atum's power is so great that he can give birth to his own parents.  The theme of the "Self-Begotten" is a recurring one in Sethian Gnosticism, and is also found in later Neoplatonism.

Projection of the heart

In a third version, Atum creates himself by the projection of his own heart - or in other word divine soul. Atum then brings forth the other eight elementary principles: Shu (air) and Tefnut (fire), then Geb (Earth), Nut (Sky), and finally Osiris and Isis, Seth and Nepthys. Together with himself, make up the Nine, the Great Ennead of Heliopolis.


It is written that 'none of these entities is separate from him, Atum' (Pyramid Texts, 1655). Again, in Judaic Kabbalah the ten sefirot or attributes are not separate from the En Sof or Godhead or Absolute (interpreted theistically as the Creator)

The Nine principles form a series from the more subtle to the more manifest, like the tattwas of Samkhya or the sefirot of Kabbalah  First there is the abstract Source, Atum. Then the initial polar pair of Shu and Tefnut. Then the manifest polarity, the cosmos, of Earth and Sky. And finally, incarnate in that, the last four gods who are directly tied up with the drama of existence, duality, birth, death, sacrifice and resurrection.


Heliopolis: ('Sun City', 'Anu', 'Lunu', 'On')

Shows evidence of occupation since pre-dynastic times

Heliopolis was once one of the largest cities in ancient Egypt, It was the capital of the cult of Amon-Ra, second only in size by Thebes (Karnak). The chief deity of Heliopolis was the god Atum, who was worshipped in the primary temple, which was known by the names Per-Aat (pr-at; "Great House") and Per-Atum (pr-ỉtmw; "Temple [lit. "House"] of Atum")

Several of the obelisks in Rome originated from Heliopolis, as did both the Cleopatra's needles in London, and New York.


The ancient city of Heliopolis, the city of 'On' in the Bible, was the chief town of the 13th nome of Egypt (These nomes were ancient administrative borders with roots tracing right back to the unification by Menes (c. 3,100 BC). In Egyptian mythology its name was lunu, meaning 'pillar' and it was thought to be the location of the 'mound of creation' from which the world arose from the waters.

The position of the great temple is marked by a single obelisk, being one of a pair set up by Senusret I, the second king of the Twelfth Dynasty) and a few granite blocks bearing the name of Ramesses II.  Now buried almost directly under the sprawling city of Cairo, the archaeological context of this city remains are going to remain difficult to interpret.

We know that there was a religious centre dedicated to Djoser Netjerikhet of the 3rd Dynasty. Several fragments of very fine limestone relief were found in the temple area at Heliopolis excavated in 1903 by Schiaperelli. Now exhibited in the Turin Egyptian museum, the fragments show lines of text naming Netjerikhet, and stress the importance of the solar cult at that time.

Pyramid Alignment Towards Heliopolis

It can be seen that many of the pyramids of the 4th and 5th dynasty were positioned so that their corners aligned towards Heliopolis.

Pyramid sight lines at Abusir, Saqqara and Giza

It was Hans Goedicke who made the first suggestions over this theory, but they were not published first in a scientific journal, but in a newspaper in 1983. And what does the theory say? Well, Goedicke noticed that there seems to be a common constructional element at several necropolises: one corner of each structure is often on a straight line with the same corner of other structures in the necropolis. These alignments are found at Giza (south-east corners of Khufu, Kaphere and Menkaure), Abusir (north-west-corner of the pyramids of Sahure, Neferirkare und Neferefre), Saqquara (south-east-corners of Sekhemkhet, Djoser, Userkaf und Teti) - and even between necropolises as Goedicke thinks that the east face of Userkaf's Pyramid is aligned with the same face of Khufu's Pyramid several kilometres to the north.

Goedicke later concluded that these sight lines were aimed at the solar temple at Heliopolis.


It appears that there are more alignments to be found at each site ...

Verner notes also that at Abusir, the 'Unfinished pyramid' was finally determined to have belonged to Neferefre, a suggestion which finds support in its placement at the southwest of the Abusir complex, suggesting a chronological placement. He says:

'As a precise geodetic measurement has confirmed, its northwest corner is on a line that already connected Sahure's and Neferirkare's pyramids and represented the basic axis of the pyramid necropolis at Abusir'.

As we can see, Giza has two sets of corner-alignments, not one.

The Chronology of Heliopolis

The exact origins of Heliopolis are sadly lost to us at present, but the fact that it is included in the  creation myth gives it an obvious importance that extends back to pre-dynastic times.

Excavations in the area revealed that the depths beneath the city of Heliopolis go back to prehistoric times. An old cemetery dating back to the second Naqada period was uncovered there.

In the Old-Kingdom Heliopolis was a centre of astronomy, as reflected in the title of the high priest who was called the 'chief of observers'.

By the time of the Middle-Kingdom, it had become the centre of the cult of Amun-Ra (following the association pf Atum and Ra/Re). Donation lists from the time of Ramases II indicate that the temple at Heliopolis were second only to that of Amun at Thebes.

Herodotus stated that the priests of Heliopolis were the best informed in matters of history of all the Egyptians. Heliopolis flourished as a seat of learning during the Greek period; the schools of philosophy and astronomy are claimed to have been frequented by Orpheus, Homer, Pythagoras, Plato, Solon, and other Greek philosophers

The city was largely destroyed in the Persian invasion of 525 BC.

The significance of the city was lost following the founding of Alexandra in 332 BC. The old monuments were plundered and the remains were used as a quarry for building much of medieval Cairo, and other civil projects since.

When Strabo visited the city (1st cent BC), he found it almost deserted.

Diodorus Siculus wrote in 60BC that Heliopolis was built by Actis, one of the sons of Helios and Rhode.

Though only fragments of Heliopolis’ city walls remain, they were easily discernable at the time of the French Expedition in 1798, portions of these walls stood ten to twelve meters high.

Today, all that remains of this once great city is the single (20.4m high, 121 ton), obelisk, originally one of a pair erected at the entrance of a huge temple to mark the 12th dynasty king Senusret I's 30th anniversary at around 1940 BC. (and a few granite blocks bearing the name of Ramesses II).

Mythology of Heliopolis

According to Heliopean tradition, the first act of creation occurred when the sun god Atum, "Lord of Heliopolis", rose out of the chaos of Nun from a lotus flower and stood on a raised mound he created, the  ben-ben. This first act of creation brought light into the world. At the site of his emergence, the temple of Heliopolis was built.

Heliopolis is where the cosmic creation of Egyptian myth began. Ancient Egyptian mythology states that in the beginning of time everything began with Nu. Nu is the description of what the planet was before land appeared. Nu was a vast area of swirling watery chaos and as the floods receded  the land appeared. The first god to appear out of this watery mess was Atum.

Atum emerged from Nu as the sun god at the beginning of time and is the creator of the world. Since Atum was all alone he chose to mate with his shadow. Atum gave birth to two children by spitting out his son (Shu) and vomiting up is daughter (Tefnut). (Or by masturbating them, depending on version), Shu represented the air and the principles of life and Tefnut represented rain and principles of order. The three remained in the watery chaos of Nu and after some time Atum was separated from his children.  When they were finally reunited, Atum wept with tears of joy. When his tears hit the ground men grew and he then began to create the world. Shu and Tefnut later gave birth to Geb, the god of the earth in which the throne of the Pharaoh would be decided.  Nut was also born from Tefnut and Shu as the Goddess of the sky, the separator between earth and Nu. Geb and Nut then gave birth to Osiris, Isis, Seth, and Nephthys.

Atum is known also as Khepri, the great scarab beetle, Ra-Harakhte, the winged-solar disk, Ra, the midday sun, Aten, the solar-disk, or Horus on the Horizon. By whatever name you call him Atum, is the one and only creator in the universe. The sun god Atum travels along Nut during the day and then is swallowed by Nut at night. At dawn it is seen as Nut giving birth to Atum as the sky opens up to the light.

References to Heliopolis in the Bible

Genesis (41:45) - And Pharaoh called Joseph's name Zaphnathpaaneah; and he gave him to wife Asenath the daughter of Potipherah priest of On. And Joseph went out over all the land of Egypt. (King James Bible)

Ezekiel (30:17) - "The young men of On and of Pi-beseth Will fall by the sword, And the women will go into captivity.

On was the name for Heliopolis in the Bible.

Jeremiah 43:13 - He shall break also the images of Bethshemesh, that is in the land of Egypt; and the houses of the gods of the Egyptians shall he burn with fire. (King James Bible)

Beth-shemesh is, "the house of the sun," in Hebrew; called by the Greeks "Heliopolis".

On (grč. όν), particip glagola biti, tj. biće, bivajuće..  (od kojeg je nastala riječ ontologija)



Sinovi su Hamovi: Kuš i Misrajim, Put i Kanaan.

Od Misrajima potekli su Ludijci, Anamijci, Lehabijci, Naftuhijci, pa Patrušani, Kasluhijci i Kaftorci, od kojih su potekli Filistejci.


Mizraim (Hebrew: מִצְרַיִם / מִצְרָיִם, Modern Mitzráyim Tiberian Miṣrāyim / Miṣráyim ; cf. Arabic مصر, Miṣr) (/mɪt͡srai:m/) is the Hebrew and Aramaic name for the land of Egypt, with the dual suffix -āyim, perhaps referring to the "two Egypts": Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt.


Ludim, Ludijci, prema Josipu, njihova zemlja je bila u Libiji koja je bila zapadno od Egipta u blizini plemena Phut u zemlji Maura prema krajnjem zapadu Afrike i Atlantskog oceana. Plinije u svojoj prirodnoj povijesti spominje se rijeka slavili zajedno jugu od Atlas planinama u blizini rijeke Fut (Phut).


Lehabijci je Libijci,  Libija (arap. ليبيا, Lībiyā), država je u sjevernoj Africi.


Kaftorci su stanovnici sa otoka Krete, (grčki: Κρήτη - Kriti; latinski: Candia; turski: Girit) Kreta je najveći Grčki otok.


Filistejci (hebr. פלשטים) bili su narod nastanjen u Filisteji (dio današnje Palestine i Izraela).

Amos - "Ne izvedoh li ja Izraela iz zemlje egipatske, kao Filistejce iz Kaftora i Aramejce iz Kira?"


Per Atum

Obelisk SesostrisI-Heliopolis

It was principally notable as the cult center of the sun god Atum, who came to be identified with Ra and then Horus. The primary temple of the city was known as the Great House (Egyptian: Per Aat, *Par ʻĀʼat) or House of Atum (Pr I͗tmw or Per Atum, *Par-ʼAtāma; Hebrew: פתם‎‎, Pithom). - Heliopolis (ancient Egypt)



Dyḗus Pḥatḗr - Sky Father


Sky Father

In the Heliopolitan creation myth, Atum was considered to be the first God, having created himself, sitting on a mound (benben) (or identified with the mound itself), from the primordial waters (Nu).

Atum is usually depicted as a man wearing either the royal head-cloth or the dual white and red crown of Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt, reinforcing his connection with kingship. Sometimes he also is shown as a serpent, the form he returns to at the end of the creative cycle, and also occasionally as a mongoose, lion, bull, lizard, or ape.

Dyḗus Pḥatḗr - Per Atum

The supreme ruler of the Proto-Indo-European pantheon was the god *Dyḗus Pḥatḗr, whose name literally means "Sky Father". He is believed to have been worshipped as the god of the daylit skies. He is, by far, the most well-attested of all the Proto-Indo-European deities. The Greek god Zeus, the Roman god Jupiter, and the Illyrian god Dei-Pátrous all appear as the head gods of their respective pantheons. The Norse god Týr, however, seems to have been demoted to the role of a minor war-deity during the time prior to the earliest Germanic texts. *Dyḗus Pḥatḗr is also attested in the Rigveda as Dyáus Pitā, a minor ancestor figure mentioned in only a few hymns. The names of the Latvian god Dievs and the Hittite god Attas Isanus do not preserve the exact literal translation of the name *Dyḗus Pḥatḗr, but do preserve the general meaning of it.

*Dyḗus Pḥatḗr may have had a consort who was an earth goddess. This possibility is attested in the Vedic pairing of Dyáus Pitā and Prithvi Mater, the Roman pairing of Jupiter and Tellus Mater from Macrobius's Saturnalia, and the Norse pairing of Odin and Jörð. Odin is not a reflex of *Dyḗus Pḥatḗr, but his cult may have subsumed aspects of an earlier chief deity who was. This pairing may also be further attested in an Old English ploughing prayer and in the Greek pairings of Ouranos and Gaia and Zeus and Demeter.

Per Atum = Pḥatḗr

  • Atum / On = Anu
  • Per Aat, PT (Dyḗus Pḥatḗr)
    • Ptah
      • YHWH
      • Jupiter (Jove)


Obeliks (On/Anu) - Shiva linga

Shiva - Atum (On/Anu)

Anu's 8-pointed star symbol, Venus, the 8th planet travelling in from outer space, symbol later given to Inanna, the goddess of love

Shiva linga - Vatican

On/Anu - Yoni

Znak kršćanstva je vesica pisces ili riba, ta riba je Yoni i predstavlja maternicu (ženski princip). U Yoni ulazi linga Šivin falus (muški princip) i to tvori Lingam, u Egiptu imamo slično sa Isis (Yoni) i Ozirisovim falusom koji je predstavljen obeliskom. Yin i Yang u taoizmu je iskrivljena verzija riječi Linga i Yoni.

Jonin kit u Bibliji je opisan kao "riba" zato što pisci toga razdoblja (i mnogo stoljeća kasnije) nisu bili svjesni činjenice da su kitovi sisavci. Kit iz izvorne priče o Joni bio je babilonska morska božica Derceto, "Kit Dera", koja je progutala i zatim ponovno rodila boga Oannesa... Gutanje od strane kita ukazuje na obred inicijacije koji vodi do ponovnog rođenja. Finskog junaka Ilmarinena također je progutala gigantska riba, poslije čega je ponovno rođen. Inačica priče pokazuje da je riba ustvari bila maternica ... Biblijski pisci učinili su muškarcem Jonin lik, čije ime znači "golubica". Riječ ionah ili ione možda potječe od yoni, jer je golubica bila primarni simbol ženske seksualnosti. - Walker

Postoji hinduska priča koja je veoma slična [priči o Joni], koja se može naći u Somodevi Bhatti, a govori o osobi zvanoj Saktideva koju je progutala ogromna riba, a koja je iz ribe izašla neozlijeđena.... U grčkoj priči, Herakla je progutao kit, u mjestu zvanom Jopa, a tri dana je ležao u kitovoj utrobi. - Doane

U Novom zavjetu Isus se poistovjećuje sa junakom Jonom: "Doista, kao što Jona bijaše u utrobi kitovoj tri dana i tri noći, tako će i Sin Čovječji biti u srcu zemlje tri dana i tri noći." - Matej 12:40

Kada farizeji i saduceji pitaju Isusa o „znaku s neba", on odgovara: "Naraštaj opak i preljubnički znak traži, ali mu se znak neće dati doli znak Jonin." - Matej 16:4


Obeliks Today - Corruption

New World Order

New World Order

Kura-Araxes culture Index Cucuteni-Trypillian culture