Amarna Period


Aten

Amarna Period

Ime Amarna dolazi iz Beni Amran plemena koji su živjeli u regiji. - Amarna Period, Amarna letters

 

 
Akhenaton - Nefertiti

 

Amenhotep III - Tiye, 1386 - 1349 BC

 
Amenhotep III - Tiye (red hair)

Amenhotep III bio je otac dva sina sa svojom suprugom Tiye, njihov prvi sin je Thutmose i drugi Amenhotep IV, kasnije poznat kao Akhenaton. Također su imali  i četiri kćeri: Sitamun, Henuttaneb, Isis ili Iset i Nebetah. Imali su najmanje šest, a možda i više djece.

 

Sfinga u Splitu


Prema natpisu u kojem se nalaze oba imena Amenhotep III., Men-neb-Re i Imen-hotep-heka-was, da se zaključiti da je sfinga njemu pripadala.

Natpis na grudima sfinge:

Savršeni bog Neb-Maat-Re, obdaren životom, izabranik Amona-Ra, gospodar prijestolja, gospodar neba.

Natpis na pročelju postolja:

Neb-Maat-Re, Imen-hotep-heka-was, kojeg obožavaju svi rekhyt i sva živa bića

Natpis na desnoj strani postolja:

Potpuni bog koji ukazuje svoje lice, kao Ptah profinjena srca, Kao gospodar Hermopolisa, velik po spomenicima

Natpis na lijevoj strani postolja:

Potpuni bog, zlatno brdo, kada ga ljudi vide, srca su im radosna; prvotni, živuća slika što svojim zrakama grije Dvije zemlje, sin Ra, Imen-hotep-heka, gospodar svih zemalja, koji poput Ra dariva život, zdravlje, snagu.

 

Great Royal Wife Tiye

Tiye (c 1398 - 1338 pne) je kći Yuya i Tjuyu, postala je "Velika kraljeva žena" Amenhotepa III.


Tiye

Tiye-in otac Yuya je bio ne-kraljevski, bogati zemljoposjednik iz Gornjeg egipatskog grada Akhmin, gdje je služio kao svećenik Min, inspektor stoke, kraljev poručnik i zapovjednik bojnih kola. Tiye-na majka Thuya, je bila uključena u mnoge vjerskie kultove, kao (pjevač Hathor, načelnik zabavljača Amona i Min ...), što ukazuje da je član kraljevske obitelji.

"Regnal Year 11 under the Majesty of...Amenhotep (III), ruler of Thebes, given life, and the Great Royal Wife Tiye; may she live; her father's name was Yuya, her mother's name Tuya.."

Tiye je postala svom mužu Amenhotep III. pouzdan državni savjetnik, bila je u mogućnosti steći poštovanje stranih dostojanstvenika, koji su se obraćali izravno njoj. Tiye je igratla aktivnu ulogu u međunarodnim odnosima i bila je prva egipatska kraljica čije je ime zabilježeno na službenim aktima.

 

Queen Mutemwiya


Queen Mutemwiya

Artatama I was a king of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni in the late fifteenth century BC. His reign coincided with the reigns of Egyptian pharaohs Amenhotep II and Thutmose IV.

Little is known of this king who has not left any inscriptions. Artatama is referred to in the Amarna letters as an ancestor who established an alliance with Thutmose IV of Egypt. According to modern interpretation of scarce available sources, Artatama came to power when the Mitanni kingdom was severely weakened by the Hittite invasion. Facing the perils of fighting a war on two fronts, the Hittites in the north and Egypt in the south, Artatama approached Amenhotep II with an offer of peaceful division of contested lands in Syria. A peaceful resolution of an old conflict could grow into a political and military alliance, but the Egyptians suspected foul play and denied definite answer for years. At one point during the reign of Thutmose IV they proposed a marriage between Thutmose and Artatama's daughter, but for unknown reasons Artatama rejected the offer. The Egyptians had to make seven consecutive marriage proposals before Artatama finally agreed. Thus, Artatama may have been the father of Queen Mutemwiya and the maternal grandfather of Amenhotep III. Artatama was succeeded by his son Shuttarna II.

Mutemwiya is not attested during the reign of her husband Thutmose IV. She would have been overshadowed at court by first queen Nefertari, and later by queen Iaret. Mutemwiya is only shown on the monuments of her son Amenhotep III.

Cyril Aldred has suggested that Mutemwiya be a sister of Yuya. He argues that since Mutemwiya was present during the early years of her son's reign, she might have engineered the marriage between Tiye and the young king to connect her family with royalty.

A partial granite statue representing Mutemwiya was found in Karnak and it now is in the collection of the British Museum. The statue takes the form of a rebus showing the goddess Mut seated in a barque, thereby forming her name. Mutemwiya is named in the inscription on the side of the barque.

Egyptian goddesses


Seshat

Hathor

Mut

Isis

Mut, which meant mother in the ancient Egyptian language, was an ancient Egyptian mother goddess. She was considered a primal deity, associated with the waters from which everything was born through parthenogenesis.

Some of Mut's many titles included World-Mother, Eye of Ra, Queen of the Goddesses, Lady of Heaven, Mother of the Gods, and She Who Gives Birth, But Was Herself Not Born of Any as well as "That who birthed a nation".

Mut was the consort of Amun, the patron deity of pharaohs during the Middle Kingdom (c. 2055–1650 BC) and New Kingdom (c. 1550–1070 BC). Amaunet and Wosret may have been Amun's consorts early in Egyptian history, but Mut, who did not appear in texts or art until the late Middle Kingdom, displaced them. In the New Kingdom, Amun and Mut were the patron deities of Thebes, a major city in Upper Egypt, and formed a cultic triad with their son, Khonsu. Her other major role was as a lioness deity, an Upper Egyptian counterpart to the fearsome Lower Egyptian goddess Sekhmet.


Amun and Mut

In art, Mut was pictured as a woman with the wings of a vulture, holding an ankh, wearing the united crown of Upper and Lower Egypt and a dress of bright red or blue, with the feather of the goddess Ma'at at her feet.

Alternatively, as a result of her assimilations, Mut is sometimes depicted as a cobra, a cat, a cow, or as a lioness as well as the vulture.

There are temples dedicated to Mut still standing in modern-day Egypt and Sudan, reflecting the widespread worship of her. The center of her cult in Sudan became the Mut Temple of Jebel Barkal and in Egypt the temple in Karnak. That temple had the statue that was regarded as an embodiment of her real ka. Her devotions included daily rituals by the pharaoh and her priestesses. Interior reliefs depict scenes of the priestesses, currently the only known remaining example of worship in ancient Egypt that was exclusively administered by women.

  • Mut, Maut and Mout (mati, mater, majka.. Mate, Matko)

 

Akhenaton - Nefertiti, 1350 - 1334 BC

 
Ekhnaton - Nefertiti

 
Nefertiti / Meritaten - Meryetaten

Ekhnaton je posebno istaknuo za napuštanje tradicionalnog egipatskog mnogoboštvo i uvođenje štovanje usmjeren na Aton, koji je ponekad opisan kao monoteistička ili henotheistic.

Ekhnaton pokušala dovesti do odlaska iz tradicionalne religije, ali na kraju ne bi se prihvatio. Nakon njegove smrti, tradicionalna religijska praksa postupno je obnovljena, a kad desetak godina kasnije vladari bez jasnih prava nasljeđivanja od osamnaeste dinastije osnovali su novu dinastiju, oni diskreditiran Akhenaten i njegovih neposrednih sljedbenika, koji se odnosi na sebe Akhenaten kao "neprijatelja" ili "da je kriminalac" u arhivskim zapisima.

Ekhnaton revidirana imena u Aten i druge vjerske jeziku, kako bi sve više isključuju reference na drugim bogovima; u nekom trenutku, također, krenuo je na široki razmjera brisanja tradicionalnih bogova 'imena, a posebno onima Amona.

Velik dio umjetnosti i izgradnje infrastrukture stvorio u Akhenaten vladavine bio izbrisan ili uništen u razdoblju nakon njegove smrti, osobito tijekom vladavine Horemheb i početkom devetnaestog dinastije kraljeva. Kamena zgrada blokovi od Akhenaten građevinskih projekata kasnije su poslužile kao temelj kamenja za naknadne vladare hramovima i grobnicama.

- majka: Tiye
- glavni grad El Amarna

Nefertiti (oko 1370 - oko 1330 pne) egipatska kraljica i Velika Royal Supruga (glavni pratilac) Akhenaten-a. Nefertiti i njezin muž bili su poznati po vjerskim reformama, u kojoj su obožavali jednog Boga ATEN. Njihova vladavina je nedvojbeno najbogatije razdoblje staroegipatske povijesti.

 
Nefertiti

 

Scientists have decoded the genome of ancient Egyptians for the first time, with unexpected results

Published findings in Nature Communications, the study concluded that preserved remains found in Abusir-el Meleq, Middle Egypt, were closest genetic relatives of Neolithic and Bronze Age populations from the Near East, Anatolia and Eastern Mediterranean Europeans.

Modern Egyptians, by comparison, share much more DNA with sub-Saharan populations.

Scientists took 166 bone samples from 151 mummies, dating from approximately 1400 B.C. to A.D. 400, extracting DNA from 90 individuals and mapping the full genome in three cases.

Previous DNA analysis of mummies has been treated with a necessary dose of skepticism, explains professor Johannes Krause of the Max Planck Institute.

"When you touch a bone, you probably leave more DNA on the bone than is inside (it)," he argued. "Contamination is a big issue. ... Only in the last five or six years has it become possible to actually study DNA from ancient humans, because we can now show whether DNA is ancient or not by (its) chemical properties."

Heat and high humidity in tombs, paired with some of the chemicals involved in mummification, all contribute to DNA degradation, the paper adds, but it describes its findings as "the first reliable data set obtained from ancient Egyptians."

Analyzing samples spanning over a millennium, researchers looked for genetic differences compared with Egyptians today. They found that the sample set showed a strong connection with a cluster of ancient non-African populations based east of the Mediterranean Sea.

Krause describes the far-reaching data set gained from looking at mitochondrial genomes: "This is not just the DNA of one person. It's the DNA of the parents, grandparents, grandparents' parents, grand-grand-grandparents' parents and so forth.

“So if we don't find sub-Saharan African ancestry in those people, that is pretty representative, at least for Middle Egypt."

Krause hypothesizes that ancient Northern Egypt would be much the same, if not more, linked to the Near East. Ancient Southern Egypt might be a different matter, however, where populations lived closer to Nubia, home of the "Black Pharaohs" in what is now Sudan.

 

Akhetaten

'On this day was the king in Akhetaten, in a tent of byssus. And the king - life, prosperity and health to him! - changed Akhetaten, which was its name, into Pa-aten-haru ('the city of the delight of the Sun's disk'). And the king appeared riding in the golden court-chariot, like the disk of the Sun, when it rises and sheds over the land its pleasant gifts, and he took the road that ends in Akhetaten, from the first time when the king had discovered it, to found it (the city) as a memorial to the disk of the Sun, according as the Sun-god king, who dispenses life eternally and for ever, had signified to him to found a memorial within it. A proper and complete sacrifice was offered on that day in the [temple of the sun] at Akhentaten, to the Sun's disk of the living god, who received the thanks of the love of the royal counterpart, the Pharaoh Akhenaten. Thereupon the king went up the river, and went up in his chariot before his father, the Sun-god king, towards the mountain to the south-east of the city of Akhetaten. The beams of the Sun's disk shone over him in a pure life, so as to make his body young every day. Thereupon king Akhenaten swore an oath by his father thus: 'Sweet love fills my heart for the queen, for her young children. Grant a great age to the Queen Nefertiti in long years; may she keep the hand of Pharaoh! Grant a great age to the royal daughter Meriaten, and to the royal daughter Makaten, and to their children; may they keep the hand of the queen, their mother, eternally and for ever!' 'What I swear is a true avowal of that which my heart says to me. Never is there falsehood in what I say'. With regard to the southern memorial tablet, [of the] four [memorial tablets] on the east of the city of Akhetaten, let this be the memorial tablet which I will have set up in the place which I have chosen for it in the south, for ever and eternally. This memorial tablet shall be set up in the south-west towards the middle, on the mountain of Akhetaten, in the midst of it. With regard to the memorial tablet in the middle, on the mountain to the east of the city of Akhetaten, let this be the memorial tablet for Akhetaten. This I will have set up in its place [which I have appointed for it in sight of] the city of Akhetaten, at the place which I have appointed for it in the east, for ever and eternally. This memorial tablet in the middle, on the mountain to the east of the city of Akhetaten, let it be in the midst of it. With regard to the memorial tablet to the north-east of Akhetaten, I will have it set up in its place. Let this be the place which I have appointed for it'. (In such wise shall the memorial tablets be set up, according to their direction towards Akhetaten. From the memorial tablet in the south to the memorial tablet in the north the distance amounts to 1,000 (. . . . . . )

Roughly two years after this Boundary Stela was carved a short text was added:

'This memorial tablet, which was placed in the middle, had fallen down. I will have it set up afresh, and placed again at the place at which it was [before]: this I swear. In the 8th Year, in the month Tybi, on the 9th day, the king was in Akhetaten, and Pharaoh mounted his court-chariot of polished copper, to behold the memorial tablets of the Sun's disk, which are on the hills in the territory to the south-east of Akhetaten.

I am a family man. I love my wife the beautiful Nefeneferuaten mery Waenre Nefertiti. I love my children, the blessed little children of the sun, Meritaten, Meketaten, Ankhesenpaaten, Neferneferuaten ta-Sherit, Neferneferure, and Setepenre.

I was born and raised at the Palace of the Dazzling Aten, Aten Tjehen (what you now call Malkata), my mother was the Great Lady Chief Wife She of the Double Plumes Tiye, may she live, and my father was the Great Per A'a Nebmaatre, may he live.

My early childhood is so much of a blur to me. I existed in the shadow of my older brother Thutmose and my sister Sitamun. That is until my older brother died mysteriously. Some say it was murder. None the less I was then declared the Hawk-in-the-Nest and next in line to succeed my father as the Lord of the Two Lands.

When my father suffered a stroke I was made his co-regent and with the help of my mother I ruled the Two Lands! But all was not well. The greedy priests of the false gods did not want me to honor my true father, the glorious shining one, the Aten. That was very unwise of them.

When my father went home to the Aten the priests tried to elevate another in my place. For their treachery I took steps to eliminate them. But they were too powerful and my mother stopped me. So I removed myself and my court to the one place where the Aten had showed me that I would be safe and happy. I moved my family and the faithful to Akhetaten.

There I built a beautiful new shining city without the corruption that was Waset. My city was dazzling! My city was modern! My city had everything I could ever want or need.

I drew all of my faithful friends and family about me. I left those that could and would not support me in Waset to die.

'Beautiful is thine appearing in the horizon of heaven, thou living sun, the first who lived! Thou risest in the eastern horizon, an fillest every land with thy beauty. Thou art beautiful and great, and glistenest, and art high above every land. Thy rays, they encompass the lands, so far as all that thou hast created. When thou goest down in the western horizon, the earth is in darkness, as if it were dead. When it is dawn and thou risest in the horizon and shinest as the sun in the day, thou dispellest the darkness and sheddest thy beams. The Two Lands keep festival and awake. All beasts are content with their pasture, the trees and the bushes are verdant. The birds fly out of their nests and their wings praise thy ka. All wild beasts dance on their feet, all that fly and flutter -- they live when thou risest for them. Thou hast fashioned the earth according to thy desire, thou alone, with men, cattle, and all wild beasts, all that is upon the earth and goeth upon feet, and all that soareth above and flieth with its wings. Thou puttest every man in his place and thou suppliest their needs.

Thou arisest in thy forms as living sun. Thou makest millions of forms of thyself alone. Thou thyself art lifetime and men live in thee. The eyes look on thy beauty until thou settest. Thou art in mine heart, and there is none other that knoweth thee save thy son, whom thou makest to comprehend thy designs and thy might, the king of Upper and Lower Kemet, who liveth on Truth, lord of the Two Lands, the sole on of Ra, son of Ra, who liveth on Truth, lord of diadems, Akhenaten, great in his duration.'

 

Aten

Atenism ili Amarna herezu utvrđuje Amenhotep IV, kasnije se nazvao Eknaton, u štovanju i priznanju Aton-a. U svojoj pjesmi "Veliki himan Aton", Eknaton hvali ATEN-a kao kreatora, darovatelja života, i njeguje duh svijeta. Aton nema izrađen mit ili obitelj. Štovanje ATEN-a je iskorijenio Horemheb, vratio je tradicionalne bogove, a faraoni povezani s Atenismom izbrisani su iz egipatskih zapisa.

Eknaton provodi radikalnu vjersku reformu koja, u razdoblju od dvadesetak godina, u velikoj mjeri zamijenjuje stara vjerovanja i prakse egipatske državne religije. Smijenjuje vjersku hijerarhiju na čelu s moćnim svećenstvom Amona u Tebi. Za petnaest stoljeća Egipćani se pokloniše proširenoj obitelj bogova i božica, od kojih je svaki imao svoj razrađeni sustav svećenika, hramova, svetišta i obreda. Ključno obilježje tih kultova je štovanje slika i kipova bogova, kojima su se klanjali u mračnim hramskim odajama.

U početku, Eknaton je dopuštao štovanje tradicionalnih bogova, međutim ubrzo podiže ATEN-a na status ne samo vrhovnog Boga, nego kao "univerzalno božanstvo", te zabranjuje štovanje svih ostalih bogova, kao i štovanje idola.

Idoli su zabranjeni i u domovima, obično su zamijenjeni prikazima Eknatona i njegove obitelji koja štuje Aton-a i prima od njega Ankh (dah života - dušu). Sva stvorenja proizlaze iz Boga i postoje u Bogu. Konkretno, Bog nije prikazan u ljudskom obliku, već kao zrake svjetla koje se protežu iz Sunčevog diska. Viđen je kao nevidljiv izvor energije Boga sunca, od kojeg je vidljiva manifestacija Aton - Sunčev disk. Kasije se koristi fonetski ATEN, umjesto prikaza obasjanog Sunčevog diska. Aton se prikazuje kao univerzalna prisutnost, a ne kao fizička bića ili stvari.

Načela ATEN religije zabilježena su na zidovima Eknatonove grobnice. U Atenismu, noć je vrijeme straha, a rad se obavlja kad je prisutano sunce. Tamjan se palio nekoliko puta dnevno, a u pratnji harfe pjevale se himne ATEN-u. Aton se brine za sva stvorenja, i stvorio je sve zemlje i ljude. Kad dobra osoba umre, on/ona nastavljaju živjeti u "Gradu Svjetlosti".

Značajna razlika od drugih egipatskih hramova, Aton-ovi hramovi su s otvorenim krovom dopuštajući ulazak zrakama sunca. Kipovi ATEN-a nisu bili dopušteni; to su vidjeli kao idolopoklonstvo. Svećenici su imali malu ulogu, kao poslužitelji (voća, cvijeća, kolača), a hramovi Aton-a nisu naplaćivali porez.

Eknaton je reformama odsjekao gospodarsku i filozofsku osnovu svećeničke snage, ukidanjem kultova svih drugih božanstava, velika i unosana industrija svedena je pod kontrolu.

Nakon Eknatonove smrti, kult Aten-a je gotovo odmah pao u nemilost zbog pritisaka Amonovog svećeništva. Eknatonovi hramovi uključujući i hram u Tebi, rastavljeni su i ponovno se koriste kao građevinski materijal za nove hramove, a natpisi ATEN-a izbrisani su. Eknaton, Smenkhkare, Tutankhamon i Ay uklonjeni su iz službene liste faraona, umjesto navedenih Horemheb je upisan odmah iza Amenhotepa III.


Eknaton & Nefertiti

 

Great Hymn to the Aten

You appear beautifully on the horizon of heaven,
You living Aten, the beginning of life!
When you have risen on the eastern horizon,
You have filled every land with your beauty.
you are gracious, great, glistening, and high over every land;
Your rays encompass the lands to the limit of all that you have made:
As you are Re, you reach to the end of them;
(you) subdue them (for) your beloved son.
though you are far away, your rays are on earth;
though you are in their faces, no one knows your going.

When you set in the western horizon,
The land is in darkness, in the manner of death.
They sleep in a room, with heads wrapped up,
Nor sees one eye the other.
All their goods which are under their heads might be stolen,
(But) they would not perceive (it).
Every lion has come forth from his den;
All creeping things, they sting.
Darkness is a shroud, and the earth is in stillness,
For he who made them rests in his horizon.

At daybreak, when you arise on the horizon,
When you shine as the Aten by day,
you drive away the darkness and give your rays.
The Two Lands are in festivity every day,
Awake and standing upon (their) feet,
For you have raised them up.
Washing their bodies, taking (their) clothing,
Their arms are (raised) in praise at your appearance.
All the world, they do their work.

All beasts are content with their pasturage;
Trees and plants are flourishing.
The birds which fly from their nests,
Their wings are (stretched out) in praise to your ka.
All beasts spring upon (their) feet.
Whatever flies and alights,
They live when you have risen (for) them.
The ships are sailing north and south as well,
For every way is open at your appearance.
The fish in the river dart before your face;
Thy rays are in the midst of the great green sea.

Creator of seed in women,
you who make fluid into man,
Who maintain the son in the womb of his mother,
Who sooth him with that which stills his weeping,
you nurse (even) in the womb,
Who give breath to sustain all that he has made!
When he descends from the womb to breathe
On the day when he is born,
you open his mouth completely,
you supply his necessities.
When the chicken in the egg speaks within the shell,
you give him breath within it to maintain him.
When you have made him his fulfillment within the egg, to break it,
He comes forth from the egg to speak at his completed (time);
He walks upon his legs when he comes forth from it.

How manifold it is, what you have made!
They are hidden from the face (of man).
O sole god, like whom there is no other!
you did create the world according to your desire,
Whilst you were alone: All men, cattle, and wild beasts,
Whatever is on earth, going upon (its) feet,
And what is on high, flying with its wings.

The countries of Syria and Nubia, the land of Egypt,
you set every man in his place,
you supply their necessities:
Everyone has his food, and his time of life is reckoned.
Their tongues are separate in speech,
And their natures as well;
Their skins are distinguished,
As you distinguish the foreign peoples.
you make a Nile in the underworld,
you bring forth as you desire
To maintain the people (of Egypt)
According as you made them for yourself,
The lord of all of them, wearying (himself) with them,
The lord of every land, rising for them,
The Aten of the day, great of majesty.

All distant foreign countries, you make their life (also),
For you have set a Nile in heaven,
That it may descend for them and make waves upon the mountains,
Like the great green sea,
To water their fields in their towns.
How effective they are, your plans, O lord of eternity!
The Nile in heaven, it is for the foreign peoples
And for the beasts of every desert that go upon (their) feet;
(While the true) Nile comes from the underworld for Egypt.

Your rays suckle every meadow.
When you rise, they live, they grow for you.
you make the seasons in order to rear all that you have made,
The winter to cool them,
And the heat that they may taste you.
you have made the distant sky in order to rise therein,
In order to see all that you make.
While you were alone,
Rising in your form as the living Aten,
Appearing, shining, withdrawing or approaching,
you made millions of forms of yourself alone.
Cities, towns, fields, road, and river --
Every eye beholds you over against them,
For you are the Aten of the day over the earth....

You are in my heart,
And there is no other that knows youy
Save your son Nefer-kheperu-Re Wa-en-Re,
For you have made him well-versed in your plans and in your strength.

The world came into being by your hand,
According as you have made them.
When you have risen they live,
When you set they die.
you are lifetime your own self,
For one lives (only) through you.
Eyes are (fixed) on beauty until you set.
All work is laid aside when you set in the west.
(But) when (you) rise (again),
[Everything is] made to flourish for the king,...
Since you found the earth
And raise them up for your son,
Who came forth from your body: the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, ... Akhenaten, ... and the Chief Wife of the King ... Nefertiti, living and youthful forever and ever.

 

Monoteizam

Monoteizam nije nepoznata ni od početka čovječanstva. To je norma. Ova tableta glasi:
"Gospodaru neba i zemlje: zemlja nije, što ga je stvorio, svjetlo dana nije bilo, što ga je stvorio, jutarnja svjetlost koju nije [još] napravili postoji"

 

Sumerski mitovi u Tell el Amarni

Dva mezopotamska mita okrivena su za vrijeme iskapanja egipatskog grada Tell el Amarne.

U jednome je riječ o junaku Adapa kojem se pružila mogučnost da zadobije besmrtnost, ali ju je izgubio upravo u trenutku kad mu je bila nadomak ruke.
Adapa je živio u gradu Eridu u južnoj Mezopotamiji. Bog Ea, "mudrac iz Erida", stvorio ga je na primjer ljudima kako bi trebali izgledati. Svakoga dana Adapa je čamcem odlazio na božije svetište, ali ga jednom prilikom vjetar izbaci na more. Čamac mu se prevrnuo i Adapa "sidje do kuće riba". Razljućen, on zaprijeti da će južnome vjetru isčupati krilo i čim je to izustio, vjetru se krilo slomilo.
Nakon sedam dana, Anu, kralj bogova, čuo je što se dogodilo i naredio da Adapa dovedu pred njega. Ea, koji je stvorio Adapa, ga upozori:

"Kad ti ponude kruh smrti, ne jedi ga.
Kad ti ponude vodu smrti, ne pij.
kat ti ponude halju, odjeni je.
kad ti ponude ulje, pomasti se."

Pa ipak, kad je Adapa došao pred Anua, bog ga nije osudio, kao što se moglo očekivati već je ukorio Ea.

"Zasto je Ea razotkrio plan neba i zemlje
Bezvrijednu ljudskom biću?
Koliko je do nas, što da učinimo sa Adapom?
Daj mu kruha života da jede!"
Kad su mu donijeli kruh života, nije jeo.
Kad su mu odnijeli vodu života, nije pio.
Kad su mu donijeli halju, odjenuo se.
Kad su mu donijeli ulje, pomastio se.

Adapovo odbijanje da jede kruh i pije vodu života iznenadi Anua. Naredi da ga odvedu i vrate na zemlju. Adapa je propustio priliku da postane besmrtan.
Završetak mita do danas nije poznat jer su pločice slomljene, ali čini se da je grad Eridu u očima bogova uživao izuzetan i povlašteni položaj zbog toga što je Adapa "išao na nebo". Ako je tome tako, mit objašnjava poseban položaj što ga je grad uživao u vezi sa pitanjima gradske uprave.

Drugi mitoloski tekst nađen u Tell el Armarni opisuje teškoće saobračanja izmedju neba, na kojem borave glavni bogovi, i podzemnog svijeta kojega nadzire gospodarica Ereshikigal.
Kad su bogovi pripremali svečni objed. Poslali su glasnika svojoj sestri Ereshkigal;

"Mi ne možemo sići do tebe, a ti ne možeš doć k nama.
Stoga pošalji nekoga da uzme tvoj dio hrane"

Ereshkigal pošalje svog glasonošu Namtara da obavi taj zadatak, ali ga jedan od bogova, Nergla, uvrijedi. kad je o tome izvijestio gospodaricu, ona ga posalje natrag sa riječima:

"Boga koji nije ustao pred mojim glasnikom -
Dovedi preda me da ga ubijem!"

Namtar nije mogao iznova pronaći Nergala jer je on otišao zatražiti pomoć u Ea, "svoga oca". Ea mu je obečao da će poslati demone da zaštite Nergala prilikom njegova susreta sa bijesnom Ereshkigal. Nergal siđe do vrata podezmenog svijeta i Ereshkigal mu naprasno priprijeti da će ga ubiti. Na tom je mjestu pločica veoma oštećena, ali nekoliko redaka pri dnu pokazuju da je Nergal uspio savladati Ereshkigal.

Unutar kuće on uhvati Ereshkigal,
Vukući je za kosu spusti je s prijestolja
Na zemlju da joj odsijeće glavu.
dok je molila da joj spasi život, plakala je i kazala:
"Budi mojim mužem i ja ću ti biti ženom.
Osiguraću ti ugled u tom prostranom podzemlju.
Položiću u tvoje ruke pločicu mudrosti.
Ti ćeš biti gospodar, a ja gospodarica."

Nergal je poljubi i utješi kratkom, ali dirljivom rečenicom:

"Što si od mene tražila tokom prošlih mjesci, sada će biti tvoje."

 

Utu-Shamash


Utu-Shamash

Utu (Akkadian rendition of Sumerian UD "Sun", Assyro-Babylonian Shamash "Sun") is the Sun god in Sumerian mythology.

Marduk is spelled DAMAR.UTU in Sumerian, literally, "the calf of Utu" or "the young bull of the Sun". The origin of Marduk's name may reflect an earlier genealogy, or have had cultural ties to the ancient city of Sippar (whose god was Utu), dating to the third millennium BC. - AMAR (Amarna) & UTU (Atum)

Bel became especially used for the Babylonian god Marduk and when found in Assyrian and neo-Babylonian personal names or mentioned in inscriptions in a Mesopotamian context it can usually be taken as referring to Marduk and no other god.

Bel is represented in Greek as Belos and in Latin as Belus.

 

Sippara

Sepharvaim - taken by a king of Assyria, probably Sargon II, (cited in the Old Testament in 2 Kings 17:24, 31; 18:34; 19:13; Isa. 37:13). It was a double city, and received the common name Sepharvaim, i.e., "the two Sipparas," or "the two booktowns." The Sippara on the east bank of the Euphrates is now called Abu-Habba; that on the other bank was Akkad, the old capital of Sargon I, where he established a great library. The recent discovery of cuneiform inscriptions at Tel el-Amarna in Egypt, consisting of official despatches to Pharaoh Amenophis IV. and his predecessor from their agents in Canaan.

Sepharvaim was the center of the worship of the god Adrammelech. They also worshipped the god Anammelech. After the deportation of the Israelite tribes, at least some of the residents of this city were brought to Samaria to repopulate it with other Gentile settlers.

The name (Heb. ספרוים) appears to be the dual form, indicating a twin-city, and in fact Sippar consisted of Si-ip-ar ša Šamaš and Si-ip-ar ša A-nu-ni-tum ("Sippar of the god Shamash" and "Sippar of the goddess Anunitum").

 

Ja Svjetlost u Bibliji

Psalam 36 - U tebi je izvor životni, tvojom svjetlošću mi svjetlost vidimo.
37 Pravda će tvoja zasjati k`o svjetlost i tvoje pravo k`o sunce podnevno.
43 Pošlji svjetlost svoju i vjernost: nek` me vode, nek` me dovedu na tvoju svetu goru, u šatore tvoje!

Job - Ima onih koji mrze svjetlost: ne priznaju njezinih putova niti se staza drže njezinih.
Za vidjela oni se skrivaju, oni neće da za svjetlost znaju.

Izaija - K tvojoj svjetlosti koračaju narodi, i kraljevi k istoku tvoga sjaja.

Habakuk - Sjaj mu je k`o svjetlost, zrake sijevaju iz njegovih ruku, ondje mu se krije sila.

Malahija - A vama koji se Imena moga bojite sunce pravde će ogranuti sa zdravljem u zrakama, i vi ćete izlaziti poskakujući kao telad na pašu.

Ivan - Uistinu, tko god čini zlo, mrzi svjetlost i ne dolazi k svjetlosti da se ne razotkriju djela njegova;
Isus im zatim ponovno progovori: "Ja sam svjetlost svijeta; tko ide za mnom, neće hoditi u tami, nego će imati svjetlost života.
Dok sam na svijetu, svjetlost sam svijeta.
Dok imate svjetlost, vjerujte u svjetlost da budete sinovi svjetlosti!" To Isus doreče, a onda ode i sakri se od njih.
Ja - Svjetlost - dođoh na svijet da nijedan koji u mene vjeruje u tami ne ostane.

Great Hymn to the Aten (Psalam 104)

Great Hymn to the Aten (Psalam 104)

 

Rodanim


Helios

The best known story involving Helios is that of his son Phaethon, who attempted to drive his father's chariot but lost control and set the earth on fire. If Zeus had not interfered by throwing a thunderbolt at Phaethon, killing him instantly, all mortals would have died.

 

Theia - Tiye


Amenhotep III & Queen Tiye

 
Queen Tiye - The mummy of Queen Tiye

Theia (Ancient Greek: Θεία, translit. Theía, also rendered Thea or Thia), also called Euryphaessa "wide-shining", is a Titaness. Her brother/consort is Hyperion, a Titan and god of the sun, and together they are the parents of Helios (the Sun), Selene (the Moon), and Eos (the Dawn).

For Herodorus of Heraclea she was the daughter of Aphrodite and Poseidon.

Theia = Tiye Taia, Tiy or Tiyi

 

Aphrodite - Sea-foam


Tjuyu

Pjesma nad pjesmama

Aphrodite


Aphrodite


Virgin Mary

Crna sam ali lijepa, kćeri jeruzalemske, kao šatori kedarski, kao zavjese Salomonove. Ne gledajte što sam garava, to me sunce opalilo.

(2) Poljubi me poljupcem usta svojih, ljubav je tvoja slađa od vina. (3) Miris najboljih mirodija, ulje razlito ime je tvoje, zato te ljube djevojke. (4) Povuci me za sobom, bježimo! Kralj me uveo u odaje svoje. ..

(16) Ustani, sjevernjače, duni, južni vjetre, duni nad vrtom mojim, neka poteku njegovi mirisi. Neka dragi moj dođe u vrt svoj, neka jede najbolje plodove u njemu. ..

Ali je samo jedna golubica moja, savršena moja, jedina u majke, izabrana u roditeljke svoje. Vidjele su je djevojke i nazvale je blaženom, a kraljice i inoče hvale su joj izrekle. (10) Tko je ova koja dolazi kao što zora sviće, lijepa kao mjesec, sjajna kao sunce, strašna kao vojska pod zastavama? (11) Siđoh kroz nasade oraha da vidim mladice u dolinama, da pogledam pupaju li vinogradi, cvatu li mogranji. ..


Amphitrite bearing a trident on a pinax from Corinth (575–550 BC)

Crna sam ali lijepa .. Dolazi kao što zora sviće, lijepa kao mjesec, sjajna kao sunce, strašna kao vojska pod zastavama? = Aphrodite

  • Aphrodite / Amphitrite = Tjuyu
  • Salomon = Sunce

 

Helios - Akhenaton


Akhenaton

Helios was the personification of the Sun in Greek mythology. He is the son of the Titan Hyperion and the Titaness Theia (according to Hesiod), also known as Euryphaessa (in Homeric Hymn 31) and brother of the goddesses Selene, the moon, and Eos, the dawn.

Helios = Akhenaton (wide-shining)
Helios ἀέλιος āélios "sun" (Cretan abelios, Laconian bela, Attic hēlios, Pamphylian babelios)

  • Helios (Belios), Beli, (Bijeli) - Vlachs

 

Argive genealogy in Greek mythology

Belus - Danaus & Cadmus

Inachus Melia
Zeus Io Phoroneus
Epaphus Memphis
Libya Poseidon
Belus Achiroë Agenor Telephassa
Danaus Pieria Aegyptus Cadmus Cilix Europa Phoenix
Mantineus Hypermnestra Lynceus Harmonia Zeus
Polydorus
Sparta Lacedaemon Ocalea Abas Agave Sarpedon Rhadamanthus
Autonoë
Eurydice Acrisius Ino Minos
Zeus Danaë Semele Zeus
Perseus Dionysus
Colour key:

     Male
     Female
     Deity

 

Belus was the son of Poseidon by Libya, he is associated with Babylon and Assyria, and his name is an echo of the Canaanite god Baal (Redfield, 1989, pp. 28 & 30-31), which are linguistically synonymous with Enlil and Marduk, and also in ancient Levantine/Canaanite mythology, a fertility god, whose attributes are lightning, rainstorms and the forces of nature.

  • Belus = Helios

 

Rhodes


Colossus od Rodosa

"The island of Rhodes is almost the only place where Helios enjoys an important cult", Burkert asserts (p 174), instancing a spectacular rite in which a quadriga, a chariot drawn by four horses, is driven over a precipice into the sea, with its overtones of the plight of Phaethon noted. Their annual gymnastic tournaments were held in his honor. The Colossus of Rhodes was dedicated to him.

However, the Dorians seem to have revered Helios, offering the central mainland cultus for Helios. The scattering of cults of the sun god in Sicyon, Argos, Ermioni, Epidaurus and Laconia, and his holy livestock flocks at Taenarum, seem to suggest that the deity was considerably important in Dorian religion, compared to other parts of ancient Greece.

Rhodos/Rhodus was the goddess and personification of the island of Rhodes and a wife of the sun god Helios. The poet Pindar tells the story, that when the gods drew lots for the places of the earth, Helios being absent received nothing. So Helios, with Zeus' consent, claimed a new island (Rhodes), which had not yet risen from the sea. And after it rose from the sea he lay with her and produced seven sons.

 
Rhodes = Nefertiti

Rhodes was the daughter (maybe granddaughter) of Aphrodite and Poseidon.

  • Riđ (red), roșu rumunjski, sor kurdski.. rumen (ruddy), Ruđer..
    Riđ koji je boje rđe; riđast, crvenožućkast, Rìđan, Riđánec, Rȉđāne, Riđánović.. riđovka..

 

Danus & Cadmus

Julio-Claudian dynasty


Iolkos - Argo

"Hecataeus, therefore, tells us that the Egyptians, formerly, being troubled by Clamities, in order that the divine wrath might be averted, expelled all the aliens gathered together in Egypt. Of these, some, under their leaders Danus and Cadmus, migrated to Greece" (Fragmenta Historicorum, by Muller; vol. II, pg. 385 - copied from the works of Hecataeus of Abdera, a fourth-century B.C. Greek historian).

Danus & Cadmus = Julio-Claudian dynasty

 

Danaus in Rhodes


Rhodian navy were some of the best

Another account of the travels of Danaus gave him three daughters, Ialysos, Kamiros and Lindos, who were worshipped in the cities that took their names in the island of Rhodes, Ialysos, Kamiros and Lindos. According to Rhodian mythographers who informed Diodorus Siculus, Danaus would have stopped and founded a sanctuary to Athena Lindia on the way from Egypt to Greece. Herodotus heard that the temple at Lindos was founded by Danaus' daughters.

Other feats

Danaus was credited as the inventor of wells and said to have migrated from Egypt into that part of Greece which had been previously known as Argos Dipsion. Notes in Pliny the Elder's, Natural History also added that:

"He [i.e Danaus] may have introduced wells into Greece, but they had, long before his time, been employed in Egypt and in other countries. The term "Dipsion," "thirsting," which it appears had been applied to the district of Argos, may seem to render it probable, that, before the arrival of Danaus, the inhabitants had not adopted any artificial means of supplying themselves with water. But this country, we are told, is naturally well supplied with water."

Rodos, Dodanim (דודנים) ili Rodanim, (רודנים), (Greek: Ρόδιοι).
Od kojih su nastali:  Dodona - Epirus & Dardania - Illyria (Trojans)


The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World - Danites

Tthe father of Helios, Hyperion was regarded as the "first principle" by Emperor Julian.

 

Aeneas


Dardanian Kingdom

Aeneas is referred to in Virgil's Aeneid interchangeably as a Dardan or as a Trojan, but strictly speaking Aeneas was of the Dardanian branch. Many rulers of Rome claimed descent from Aeneas and the Houses of Troy and Dardania.

According to the mythology outlined by Virgil in the Aeneid, Romulus and Remus were both descendants of Aeneas through their mother Rhea Silvia, making Aeneas progenitor of the Roman people. Some early sources call him their father or grandfather, but considering the commonly accepted dates of the fall of Troy (1184 BC) and the founding of Rome (753 BC), this seems unlikely. The Julian family of Rome, most notably Julius Cæsar and Augustus, traced their lineage to Ascanius and Aeneas, thus to the goddess Aphrodite. Through the Julians, the Palemonids also make this claim. The legendary kings of Britain also trace their family through a grandson of Aeneas, Brutus. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aeneas

Like many Germanic peoples, the Franks developed an origin story to connect themselves with peoples of antiquity. In the case of the Franks, these peoples were the Sicambri and the Trojans. An anonymous work of 727 called Liber Historiae Francorum states that following the fall of Troy, 12,000 Trojans led by chiefs Priam and Antenor moved to the Tanais (Don) river, settled in Pannonia near the Sea of Azov and founded a city called "Sicambria". In just two generations (Priam and his son Marcomer) from the fall of Troy (by modern scholars dated in the late Bronze Age) they arrive in the late fourth century at the Rhine. An earlier variation of this story can be read in Fredegar. In Fredegar's version an early king named Francio serves as namegiver for the Franks, just as Romulus has lent his name to Rome. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franks

 

Julio-Claudian dynasty

Emperor Augustus

According to the historian Suetonius in his imperial biographies, Emperor Augustus was quite short and slender, his skin was slightly tanned and "between dark and fair" (Mediterranoid) but he had light eyes - pale grey according to Pliny the Younger - and blond hair.

   
Augustus

While the ancient Romans did have a large population with Alpine traits (a lot of old Roman busts show Alpine broadheads), it's obvious that Emperor Augustus wasn't one of them. I can't see anything Alpine in his face, nor does it make sense that a racially pure Italian in those times would be "Atlanto" anything.

Augustus has a definite Dinaric look to him - and there was a lot of that in the Roman gene-pool, a trait that you still see in Central Italy every now and then. The famous "Roman nose" was a big ol' Dinaric nose. This isn't so obvious in Augustus, but you really see it on the big-nosed statues of his family members.

Emperor Augustus = Mediterranean + Dinaric race

Emperor Tiberius

Emperor Tiberius, the stepson and heir of Augustus, is up next - unlike his stepdad, he was pretty obviously Dinaric.

 
Tiberius

A classic Roman nose, very Dinaric traits - his face would be at home anywhere in Central Italy or the Balkans. Probably some Alpine influence in his head shape, but the Dinaric is dominant here.

The "Roman nose" is obviously of Dinaric origin, a racial type that appears a lot on Roman busts and coin profiles.

Tiberius, who was a descendent of the ancient Claudii family, is a much "purer" example of Roman aristocracy than the plebian Augustus.

Emperor Tiberius = Dinaric + Alpine race

Emperor Caligula

Caligula, or Gaius Julius Caesar Germanicus, was the first really Julio-Claudian emperor, descended from both those families. He clearly inherited facial features from both his forerunners:


Caligula


Caligula


Caligula - Game of Thrones, boy-king

Caligula had an interesting face - we can see the almost Nordic features of Augustus, the pinched inbred face of Tiberius, the sunken temples and broad forehead of Alpinid race. His sharp nose could be slightly Dinaric, but not much. His large broad-browed head, a feature you see in busts of other Roman statesmen. Caligula also had a very pale (expallido) complexion, according to Suetonius.

In the case of Caligula, on the other hand, neither Suetonius nor any of his other critics mentions his eye color, which may have been blue-gray (or caesius in Latin), since this color of the eyes was apparently a dominant Julio-Claudian family trait, as we know specifically in the case of Claudius (Pliny, HN. 11.142) and Nero (Suet. Nero. 51). In his imperial biographies, Suetonius notes only that Caligula's "eyes and temples were deep-set" (oculis et temporibus concavis). Interestingly, in the physiognomic theory of the Greeks, blue-gray eyes were associated with a keen night vision (Pliny, HN 11.142-43). None of the surviving literary sources indicates the color of Caligula's hair, though it may have been a dark blond or light brown, not unlike that of Augustus, whom was said to have hair that was subflavus, which is probably to be understood today as "dirty blond".

Emperor Caligula = Mediterranean + Alpine + Dinaric race

 
Caligula as a baby - Caligula's older brother

 

Claudia (gens)

Mediterranean - Alpine

 
Haplogroup T-L206 - Haplogroup R1b1a2 (R-V88)

The first of the Claudii was a Sabine, by the name of Attius Clausus, who came to Rome with his retainers in 504 BC, the sixth year of the Republic.

In Dionysius's work, a group of Lacedaemonians fled Sparta since they regarded the laws of Lycurgus as too severe. In Italy, they founded the Spartan colony of Foronia (near the Pomentine plains) and some from that colony settled among the Sabines. According to the account, the Sabine habits of belligerence (aggressive or warlike behavior) and frugality (prudence in avoiding waste) were known to have derived from the Spartans. Plutarch also mentions, in the Life of Numa Pompilius, "Sabines, who declare themselves to be a colony of the Lacedaemonians".

 

Julia (gens) - Julii

The Julii were of Alban origin, mentioned as one of the leading Alban houses, which Tullus Hostilius removed to Rome upon the destruction of Alba Longa. The Julii also existed at an early period at Bovillae, evidenced by a very ancient inscription on an altar in the theatre of that town, which speaks of their offering sacrifices according to the lege Albana, or Alban rites. Their connection with Bovillae is also implied by the sacrarium, or chapel, which the emperor Tiberius dedicated to the gens Julia in the town, and in which he placed the statue of Augustus. Some of the Julii may have settled at Bovillae after the fall of Alba Longa.

As it became the fashion in the later times of the Republic to claim a divine origin for the most distinguished of the Roman gentes, it was contended that Iulus, the mythical ancestor of the race, was the same as Ascanius, the son of Aeneas, and founder of Alba Longa. Aeneas was, in turn, the son of Venus and Anchises. In order to prove the identity of Ascanius and Iulus, recourse was had to etymology, some specimens of which the reader curious in such matters will find in Servius.


Julian calendar

Julijanski kalendar uveo je Gaj Julije Cezar 45. pr. Kr. i koristio se u cijeloj Europi do 16. stoljeća, kada se prešlo na gregorijanski kalendar.

Dužina trajanja godine u julijanskom kalendaru iznosi prosječno 365¼ dana, što se postiže ubacivanjem jednog dodatnog dana svake četvrte godine. Julijanska godina nešto je duža od tropske, a ova razlika akumulira se na jedan dan svakih 128 godina. Po julijanskom kalendaru, svaka godina čiji je broj djeljiv sa 4 je prijestupna i sadrži 366 dana, dok ostale sadrže 365 dana. Nakon uvođenja julijanskog kalendara 45. pr. Kr. najprije je, greškom, svaka treća godina bila prijestupna. Prijestupne su bile sljedeće godine: 45. pr. Kr., 42. pr. Kr., 39. pr. Kr., 36. pr. Kr., 33. pr. Kr., 30. pr. Kr., 27. pr. Kr., 24. pr. Kr., 21. pr. Kr., 18. pr. Kr., 15. pr. Kr., 12. pr. Kr., 9. pr. Kr., 8. n. e., 12. n. e. i dalje svaka četvrta. Pošto je greška kasnije uočena, car August je naredio izbacivanje svih prijestupnih godina između 9. pr. Kr. i 8. n. e. čime je zaslužio da se jedan mjesec nazove njegovim imenom.

Julijanski kalendar nije savršen i njegova greška se povećavala svakih 128 godina za jedan dan. To je kasnije primijećeno, pa je na saboru u Niceji 325. godine odlučeno da se iz kalendara izbace 3 dana koja predstavljaju akumuliranu razliku. Pošto je Julijanski kalendar i dalje ostao nepromijenjen, razlika se do 16. stoljeća akumulirala na 10 dana. Kada su ovo uočili, astronomi su odlučili izradit novi kalendar koji će biti precizniji. Osim toga, trebalo je i izbaciti 10 dana viška iz kalendara. To je postignuto uvođenjem gregorijanskog kalendara.

Illyria/Ilija - Julian/Juli; Illy = Juli (Jurjevo, Đurđevdan)

Jurjevo je blagdan svetog Jurja, obilježava se 6. svibnja prema julijanskom kalendaru.

 

Dinaric race

 
Emperor Augustus - Nikola Tesla

 
Goran Ivanišević - Emperor Augustus

 

Julius dynasty

Haplogroups I2a Dinaric

 
Haplogroup I2a - Dinaric race

 

Armenia - Rome

Armenoide-dinaric - Danites - Tribe of Dan


Anu - An


Romans shield


Roman ingot


Tigranes the Great


Ashur, Anu, Nannar, Shala, Marduk, Enlil, & Adad symbols; Inanna riding horse symbol of her father Nannar, & Ninhursag cautions Inanna

 

Vergina Sun - Rome

 
Vergina Sun - Rome

 
Roman Standard - Aes signatum


Vergina Sun - Babylonia

Babylonian calendar

The Babylonian calendar was a lunisolar calendar with years consisting of 12 lunar months, each beginning when a new crescent moon was first sighted low on the western horizon at sunset, plus an intercalary month inserted as needed by decree. The calendar is based on a Sumerian (Third Dynasty of Ur) predecessor preserved in the Umma calendar of Shulgi (c. 21st century BC).

The Ancient Macedonian calendar is a lunisolar calendar that was in use in ancient Macedon in the 1st millennium BC. It consisted of 12 synodic lunar months (i.e. 354 days per year), which needed intercalary months to stay in step with the seasons. By the time the calendar was being used across the Hellenistic world, seven total embolimoi (intercalary months) were being added in each 19-year Metonic cycle. The names of the ancient Macedonian Calendar remained in use in Syria even into the Christian era. The Macedonian calendar was in essence the Babylonian calendar with the substitution of Macedonian names for the Babylonian ones. An example of 6th century AD inscriptions from Decapolis, Jordan, bearing the Solar Macedonian calendar, starts from the month Audynaeus. The solar type was merged later with the Julian calendar. In Roman Macedonia, both calendars were used.

 

Vergina - Αἰγαί

Vergina is a small town in northern Greece, part of Veroia municipality in Imathia, Central Macedonia.

Ἠμαθία Êmathia ex-name of Macedonia, region of Emathia from mythological Emathus (Homeric amathos êmathoessa). Generally the coastal Lower Macedonia in contrast to mountainous Upper Macedonia.

Vergina Sun


Helios with a rayed halo


The Golden Larnax of Philip II of Macedon (Vergina Collection, National Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki).

Vergina is best known as the site of ancient Aigai (Αἰγαί, Aigaí, Latinized: Aegae), the first capital of Macedon. It was there when in 336 BC Philip II was assassinated in the theatre and Alexander the Great was proclaimed king.

  • Pharaoh Ay - Αἰγαί

Tutankhamun & Pharaoh Ay

1334 - 1321 BC

 
Tutankhamun - Ay

Kad je Josip vidio da je njegov otac položio desnicu na Efrajimovu glavu, njegovim se očima to učini krivo; zato posegne za rukom svoga oca da je pomakne s Efrajimove glave na glavu Manašeovu. (18) "Ne tako, oče moj," reče Josip svome ocu, "jer ovo je prvorođenac; zato stavi desnicu na njegovu glavu!" (19) Ali njegov otac to odbije rekavši: "Znam ja, sine moj, znam; i od njega će postati narod i bit će velik. Ali njegov mlađi brat bit će veći od njega, a njegovo će potomstvo biti mnoštvo." - Postanak
  • Pharaoh Ay = Faro-Aj = Efr-Ajim, Efrajim, Ephraim

 


Tutankhamun ring


Tutankhamun

i
Tutankhamun


Tutankhamun

 

Nož faraona Tutankamona dolazi iz svemira

Tim znanstvenika dokazao da je nož egipatskog faraona iz 14. stoljeća pr. Kr napravljen od meteorita.

U grobnici kralja Tutankamona, egipatskog faraona iz 14. stoljeća, pronađen je nož čije je sječivo porijeklom iz svemira, objavili su znanstvenici.

Radi se o tome da je sječivo noža, koji je pronađen u sarkofagu odmah pored njegove mumije, napravljeno od meteorita, objavili su istraživači sa Politehničkog sveučilišta u Milanu, Sveučilišta Pisa i Egipatskog muzeja u Kairu.

Tim ovih znanstvenika napravio je analizu koristeći rendgenske zrake i objavili svoje rezultate u časopisu Meteoritics and Planetary Science.

Arheolog Howard Carter otkrio je grobnicu kralja Tutankamona 1922, faraona iz 18. dinastije. Tri godine nakon toga, dva noža, jedan željezni i jedan zlatni, pronađeni su pored njegove mumije.

Prethodne analize željeznog noža nisu dale jasne rezultate, međutim, napredak tehnologije omogućio je znanstvenicima da dokažu da je željezno sječivo napravljeno od meteorita.

“Na željezo iz meteorita jasno ukazuje prisustvo velike količine nikla”, rekla je Daniela Comelli, znanstvenica koja je predvodila istraživački tim.

Faraonov nož sadrži 11 posto nikla, što je gotovo tri puta više od količine pronađene u drugim artefaktima napravljenim od željeza. Također sadrži i tragove kobalta koji odgovaraju onima sa meteorita.

“Uzeli smo u obzir i sve meteorite pronađene na području od 2.000 kilometara sa centrom u Crvenom moru, i na kraju dobili dvadeset meteorita od željeza”, objasnila je Comelli.

Samo jedan od njih sadržavao je nikal i kobalt u količini koja odgovara faraonovom nožu. Pronađen je 2000. godine u egipatskom gradu Mersa Matruhu.

Znanstvenici tvrde da je ovo istraživanje daje novi uvid u život egipatskih faraona.

U grobnici kralja koji je umro u 19. godini života, pronađena je i ogrlica, a vjeruje se da je amajlija koja je prikačena na nju napravljena od silicijskog stakla koje je nastalo kada je meteorit udario u libijsku pustinju i istopio pijesak.

 

Horemheb

1321 - 1293 BC


Horemheb

Horemheb had no relation to the preceding royal family.

Before he became pharaoh, Horemheb was the commander in chief of the army under the reigns of Tutankhamun and Ay. After his accession to the throne, he reformed the Egyptian state and it was under his reign that official action against the preceding Amarna rulers began.

Horemheb demolished monuments of Akhenaten, reusing their remains in his own building projects, and usurped monuments of Tutankhamun and Ay. Horemheb presumably had no surviving sons, as he appointed his vizier Paramesse as his successor, who would assume the throne as Ramesses I.

Pithom

Secondo il biblico Libro dell'Esodo (Es1,11) la città fu costruita dagli Ebrei ridotti in schiavitù, assieme alla città di Ramses, identificata con Pi-Ramses. Più precisamente, mentre la città di Pi-Ramses fu fatta costruire dal faraone Ramses II, la città di Pitom era già stata costruita durante il regno del faraone Horemheb, predecessore di Ramses I (nonno di Ramses II), non ebbe modifiche sotto Ramses I e Seti I (padre di Ramses II) ed ebbe pochi ampliamenti sotto il regno di Ramses II.

This name comes from Hebrew פיתום Pithom which was taken from the Late Egyptian name *Pi-ʔAtōm (< *Par-ʔAtāma ) 'House of Atum '. Atum, a solar deity, was one of the major gods of ancient Egypt, and a sun-god of Heliopolis.

Uto u Egiptu zavlada novi kralj koji nije poznavao Josipa. - Izlazak

Shasu lutalice

Pharaoh Horemhab campaigned against Shasu (Egyptian = "wanderers") or living in nomadic pastoralist tribes, who had moved across the Jordan to threaten Egyptian trade through Galilee and Jezreel. Seti I (c. 1290 BC) is said to have conquered these Shasu, Semitic-speaking nomads living just south and east of the Dead Sea, from the fortress of Taru (Shtir?) to "Ka-n-'-na".

Yuya Index Ramesside period